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Afghanistan: Land of the Afghans [Arachosia / Khorasan / British South Asia / Southern Turkestan]
Slavery48,000 BC: Farming Communities found by Smithsonian
3120BC: Mahabharata: Indo-Aryan
2000-1000BC: Avesta: Sacred texts of Zoroastrianism. Zarathustra-Zoroaster
1000-330 BC: Persian Empire
330 BC: Alexander the Great
246- 146 BC: Bactrian Empire
146 BC- 400 AD: Kushan: Guishuang / Yueh-Chih Empire
400AD -651 AD: Sassanid Empire
651AD-750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750AD-1001AD: Abbasid Caliphate
1001-1026 AD: Ghaznavid Empire: Emperor Mahmud Ghazni invades & forces half a million people into slavery
1200-1550 AD: Mongol Khanate
1550-1747 AD: Savafids from Persia & Mughals from India struggle for control.
1747-1826 AD: Afghan Tribes Unite: Duranni: Pearl Empire: Ahmad Shah Durrani
1826-1880: Emir (Prince): Dost Muhammed Khan
1839-1842: 1st Anglo-Afghan War: Russia vs England.
1878-1901: 2nd Anglo-Afghan War. Mountstuart Elphinstone vs Kabul Kingdom: Pashtun Barakzai Dynasty & Balkh Kingdom: Qajarid Persia
1880-1901: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan: Anglo-Russian Commission establishes boundary between Afghanistan & Russian Turkestan.
1893: Sir Mortimer Durand: Pashtun territories divided by Durand Line between Afghanistan & British India-Pakistan
1901-1919: Emir Habibullah Khan (assasinated)
1919-1929: 3rd Anglo-Afghan War: King Amanullah Khan (attacks English troops in India): Independance
1929-1933: King Muhammad Nadir Khan (assasinated)
1933-1973: King Muhammad Zahir
1963: Pakistan border disputes
1973-1978: King Muhammad Daoud Khan (assasinated in the Saur: April Revolution)
1979-1989: Nur Muhammad Turaki (assasinated): USSR invades: 100,000+ troops. 2 million+ civilians dead. 5+ million flee to Pakistan & Iran. Fields dotted with landmines.
1990: KHAD: Afghan Secret Service
1996: Taliban seize Kabul & forbid growing opium poppies
2001: US Invasion called OEF: Operation Enduring Freedom
2002-2009: President Hamid Karzai of the Duranni Clan a top adviser to the UNOCAL Corporation, CentGas: Central Asia Gas pipeline from Turkmenistan through W. Afghanistan to Pakistan
The largest ethnic groups are the Pashtuns-Pakhtuns & Tajiks who make up 75% of the population. Most Pashtuns live near the Pakistan border. Pashto-Pakhto, 1 of Afghanistan’s 2 official languages. Tajiks live in central & NE. Tajiks & most other groups speak Dari Persian, the other official language.
Bordered N. by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, & Tajikistan [All formerly Russian Turkestan], NE by Chinese Turkestan, E. & S. by Pakistan, & W. by Iran
11,700 miles of road damaged & made unusable. The country has no railroads. Transportation route into Afghanistan is the Khyber Pass in Pakistan. 1990s: Drought, starvation, 70% unemployment, 400,000+ receiving charity wheat, fields dotted with landmines while 3,400 tons of opium produced. 2 million+ flee to Iran, 1 million to Pakistan, others to Tajikistan.

Black sites are secret prisons in Afghanistan. People buried alive in the desert. (128)

There are 34 provinces: welayats:
Badakhshan [NE bordering Tajikistan]
Balkh: Turkish for Mountain / Bactria / Daxia [Afghan Turkestan] [Southern Turkistan is the Afghan province of Mazar-i-Sharif.]
Faryab: Persian for Irrigated River Water [Afghan Turkestan]
Jowzjan [Afghan Turkestan]
Sar e Pol / Saripul [Afghan Turkestan]
Herat [Afghan Turkestan] [Railway to Iranian city of Mashad]
Baghlan / Bagolango [Ruins of Surkh Kotal Zoroastrian fire temple. Operation Enduring Freedom Germanic forces.]
Bamyan [Statues of Buddha destroyed in the war]
Farah [W. on Iranian border. NATO Provincial Reconstruction Team]
Ghazni [Khorasan: Persian for Where the Sun Arrives From][Lies on Kabul to Kandahar Road. 1839: Battle of Ghazni: 1st Anglo-Afghan War. 2006: Governor Taj Mohammed assasinated.]
Kabul Province [Khorasan: Persian for Where the Sun Arrives From] Kabul City [1996: Capital of Afghanistan seized by the Taliban. 70% unemployment. 2001: Most of Afghanistan’s people 15 years of age or older cannot read & write. The lack of educational facilities is due largely to the upheaval caused by the past 2 decades of war. Afghanistan has 2 universities: Ningrahar University in Jalalabad & Kabul University. 2002: Half a million homeless people & 80,000+ homes reduced to rubble (Wallach). 2006: US counternarcotic forces discover 110 lbs of heroin in a truck. 2008: 60,000+ foreign troops called in. 9,700+ dead in 2 years. Thanksgiving: US. Embassy hit by a car bomb. Police Chief: Mohammed Ayub Salangi. Kabul River]

Kajaki [2007: Chris Brummet of Associated Press reports US warplane dropped a 500 lb bomb on British troops. Kurt Volker Assistant Secretary of State for European & Eurasian Affairs. British Troops 7000]
Helmand Province [2008: October 17: Daoud Ahamadi, a spokesman for the Helmand Governor’s office, said the bodies of 17 civilians, including women & children were recovered from the rubble of a walled compound. Deaths occured in airstrikes by Western Forces. 8000 British Troops in province. On Friday, Villagers from Nad Ali made the ardous 6 mile trek to the capital Lashkar Gah, bringing more than a dozen bodies to the governor’s home in protest. Lakshar Gah is a city of 85,000 occupied by NATO forces. (121: 5)]
Nurestan: Land of the Enlightened [Anglo-Afghan War: Abdul Wakil Khan Nuristani vs British army. 1979-89: Guerilla fighting. Dawlat dissolved under Taliban. 2006: Kala Gush U.S Reconstruction Team]
Paktia [Pashtunistan: Land of the Pashtun] [2006: Home of the Durand line between Afghanistan & Pakistan. Governor Hakim Taniwal assasinated. Coalition forces. Was a unified province with Khost & Paktika]
Khost [Pashtunistan: Land of the Pashtun]
Khost City [1996: Al Qaeda: Base arrives after bin Laden expelled from Sudan. Believed responsible for the bombings of American embassies in Kenya & Tanzania in 1998, USS Cole in 2000 & World Trade Center. 70,000 trained in bombmaking camps. Until late 2001, hundreds of Arabic-speaking visitors lived with their families in upscale neighborhoods of Afghan towns like Jalalabad. They had very little contact with Afghan neighbors. Some retreated to Pakistan (Wallach). 2010: March 27: Provincial Governor Taher Khan Sabali. German Foreign Office reports a gunman attacking a group of German & Afghan aid workers inspecting a high school under renovation.]Patika / Paktika Province [Pashtunistan: Land of the Pashtun] [Bombed]
Panjsher / Panjshir Province: Persian for 5 Lions [Panjshir Valley]
Parwan / Parvan Province

Cham Tala [One of 88 mass grave sites containing 1000s of victims]

Gandhara: Place of Light / Chandahara / Kandahar Province: Kandahar City-Mundigak [600BC: Gandhara Kingdom: includes NW Punjab. 1747: Capital of Duranni Empire. 1979: Gardens & orchards filled with pomegranates, grapes & melons made inaccessible due to land mines. 2001: Airport bombed. 2002: F-16 Pilot dropped a 500 lb bomb on Canadian troops conducting a live fire exercise. 2004: Heroin seized by Afghan security forces under commander Habibullah Jan released by Ahmed Wali Karzai, brother of President Hamid Karzai (NY Times: 257: 4). 2006: Airport reopened. 2008: Ahmed Wali Karzai is governor of the province. Warplanes attack 400 Taliban militants who escaped from the city jail in Arghanadab valley near Kandahar. Lt. Gen. Sher Mohammad Karimi, chief of operations for the Aghan Defense Ministry counted 95 insurgent bodies & 29 suspects. 60,000+ students don’t attend school due to fear of attack]

Zabol / Zabul Province [Zabulistan][Bombed]

Konar / Kunar Province [Bombed / Oct 17 2008: Provincial officials report 18 killed in previous 24 hrs.]

Albania: White Moon [Shqiperia: The Land of the Eagle]
Shfaros Kamp [Extermination Camp]
Waffen SS Josef Fitzhum
Albanian Waffen SS Division 21st Waffen-Gebirgs Division der SS: Skanderbeg
300 BC: Illyria
167 BC: Rome Invades: Byzantine Empire
1468 AD: Albanian Leader Skanderbeg dies fighting the Ottoman Empire
1912: 1st Balkan: Mountain War: Independance from Turkey. Serbia wanted country.
1913: Ruler: German Prince William of Wied: 2nd Balkan Mountain War
King Ahmet Bej Zogu I. Skanderbeg III (1895–1961) & Countess Geraldine Apponyi de Nagy-Apponyi
Chief of the Military: 1920-1922, Albanian Prime Minister 1922-1924, President: 1925-1928. King: 1928-1939, 1943-1946.

Zogist salute is a flat hand over the heart with palm facing forwards. He claimed to be a successor of Skanderbeg. Zog hoarded gold coins & precious stones, which were used to back Albania’s 1st paper currency.
1985-1992: Ramiz Alia: Private ownership of automobiles illegal until 1991
1992-1998: Sali Berisha: Investment collapse, UN relief effort
1998: Rexhep Mejdani

Location: Yugoslavia N, Greece S, Adriatic Sea W, Macedonia E: The historical & political precedent for the creation of a Greater Albania was set during World War II when the Kosovo-Metohija region, along with territory in southwest Montenegro & western Macedonia were annexed to Albania by the Axis powers, fascist Italy & Nazi Germany under a plan by Adolf Hitler & Benito Mussolini to dismember Yugoslavia. The Kosovska Mitrovica region was retained under German occupation because of the Trepca mines. – Carl Savich
1932: Mass Famine: Grain imported from Italy. Italian Kingdom helps Albania’s sugar, telegraph, & electrical monopolies. Mussolini declares Albania a protectorate under Italy’s King Victor Emmanuel III in 1939. While the NAZIs kill, the king sojourns in London. After WWII Stalin places Enver Hoxha in power, the King buys the Knollwood estate in Muttontown: Long Island, New York, for approximately 2,800, but when the INS wouldn’t allow his entire court to come he moves to France
Burreli [Concentration camp. Mussolini administered it from 1939 on]

Klos [September 3, 1943: XXI Mountain Corps: Greek 100th Jaeger, Serbian 297th Infantry, German 1st Mountain Division]

Burresi [Concentration Camp]

Vlora-Vlore [Concentration Camp: Railroad network connects port cities Tirane & Durres with industrial centers Elbasan, Fier, Shkoder,& Vlore], [Jews removed]

Velika Dobranja [Bombed]

Skutari-Shkoder-Scoder [1912 Balkan War: Seized by Montenegro from the Ottoman Army. WWI battleground. Albania’s railroad network], Tirane / Tirana [1600: Albania’s capital city: Ottoman commander Barkinzadeh Suleiman Pasha. 1944: Hoxha. Albanians are divided into 2 major groups – Ghegs & the Tosks – according to which Albanian dialect they speak. Most Ghegs live north of the Shkumbin-Shkumbi River. Most Tosks live south of the river.]

Algeria: Arabic for Islands [Barbary States: Barbarossa / Numidia / Frangistan]
Vichy Camp de Concentration [Concentration Camps]
DeHoMag-CEC: Companie Electro-Comptable de France
Machines used by the French War Ministry in France’s colonies of North Africa & Indochina. Reich Statistical Office in Algiers.
Commander François Cavoche, Grissard, Schneider
200 BC: Kingdom of Numidia: Massinissa
46 BC: Numidian King Juba I vs Julius Caesar. Caesar annexes: Roman Province
1337: Abdalwadid Kingdom
1502: Spain seizes
1518: Turkish Sea Captain Barbarossa drives Spanish from coastal areas
1518-1830: Ottoman Empire
1830: France seizes
Nov 1, 1954: Algerian Revolution: FLN: Front de Liberation Nationale vs Colons: Colonial France. Ambushes, assassinations, bombing raids. In response, the French army destroyed orchards & cropland belonging to native Algerians, forced millions of native Algerians into concentration camps, & tortured rebel leaders. (World Book)
July 3, 1962: Independance: Ahmed Ben Balla (imprisoned)
1965-1978: Houari Boumedienne (dead)
1979-1992: Chadli Bendjedid
1994-1999: Liamine Zeroual
1999: Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Abadla [Aïn el Ourak, Béchar]


Djelfa [700 to 1,000 prisoners. Forced labor for the Trans-Saharan railway. 30+ camps. Administered by former officers of the French Foreign Legion (Victor: 143) El comandante Cavoche, jefe del campo y sus ayudantes: los policías vichystas Grissard, Schneider y Gravela: Commander Cavoche, Chief of the Camp & his helpers: the policies of Vichyites: Grissard, Schneider & Gravela (Villanova: 142)]



Mecheria [1942: 50 km S. of Oran. Collection camp for prisoners of war]



Angola [Portuguese West Africa]
Angola is in South Africa
Loango & Teke Kingdoms. Kongo Kingdom
1483-1975: King Manuel I of Portugal
1933: Portuguese Colonial Act: Supremacy of Portuguese over native people
1951: Provincia de Angola
1961-1975: Portuguese Civil War-Portuguese Colonial War-Angolan War of Independence: Alvor Agreement overthrows Portugal’s Estado Novo: New State
Now a republic under José Eduardo Dos Santos
Rich in gold, diamonds, iron ore, oil, forests, coffee, fisheries
Money is called Kwaanza. Rivers are Cunene & Cuanza
Chinese companies rebuilding Angola in exchange for oil.
Luanda-São Paulo de Loanda [Luanda-Chokwe people. Portuguese-established capital city for slave trade in 1575. Forced labor used into the 20th century. 1961: Civil War. 2000 inflation: 325%. Millions of landmines. 1974-2002 warfare 8 million+ displaced persons. 2004: 85% of the population on subsistence agriculture. Food is imported], Cabinda District (pronounced kuh BEEN duh) [1991: Demands independance from Angola. It is seperated from the rest of the country by the Congo River], 1784: Gustav III, King of Sweden buys Saint-Barthélemy Island in the Carribean from France. Swedish West India company formed on Hallowe’en (oh this hurts). Privilege letter Paragraph 14: The Company is free to operate slave trade on Angola & the African coast, where such is permitted. ...Free import of slaves & trade with black slaves or so called new Negroes from Africa is granted all nations without having to pay any charge at the unload
Argentina: Silver [La Plata: Silver Viceroyalty]
Los desaparecidos [Forced Disappearance]
An organization (usually a ruling government) forces a person to disappear from public view. The way this is achieved is through murder or assassination. The body disposed where it will never be found. The party committing the murder has deniability, as there is no dead body to show the victim is actually dead. ...Their families, who often spend the rest of their lives in fruitless searches for the disappeared persons remains & for emotional closure, also become victims of the disappearance’s effects – Wikipedia
1527-1529: Sebastian Cabot invades Rio de la Plata, Parana & Paraguay rivers in Argentina & Paraguay looking for a white king whose realm rich in silver.
1776: Viceroyalty of La Plata: Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay & part of Bolivia, Brazil, Chile
May 25, 1810: Bogóta Revolts: General José de San Martin. Argentina wins independance & the Imperio Español: Spanish Empire collapses.
1820: English Navy Edward Bransfield, American Nathaniel Brown Palmer & Russian Imperial Navy Fabian von Bellingshausen invade Antarctica: Greek: Opposite the Bear the ice-buried continent that covers & surrounds the South Pole. Countries claim: USA, England-Australia-S.Africa, Russia, Argentina, Chile, Belgium, France [1837: Lieutenant Jules Dumont d’Urville], Norway, Japan,
1823-1841: Argentine-Brazilian War: Juan Manuel de Rosas (overthrown by Duke of Caxias)
1833: Islas Malvinas: Falkland Islands: Viscount Falkland of England’s naval base outside British Antarctic Territory.
1852-1862: General Justo José de Urquiza
1865-1870: War of the Triple Alliance: Argentina, Brazil, & Uruguay defeat Paraguay. 60% Paraguayans killed: 1862-1868: General Bartolome Mitre / 1868-1874: Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
1877: English finance railroads. 1st refrigerator ship loaded with meat from Buenos Aires to Europe
1910: Roque Saenz Peña
1914: WWI: England wins naval victory over Germany near Falklands
1916-1930: Hipolito Irigoyen
1941-1975: Juan Domingo Perón
1976: Constitution suspended. 85% of Argentina’s people are of European ancestry. Mestizos (people of mixed Indian & white ancestry) make up most of the remaining 15%
1982: Falkland War: English Royal Navy uses nuclear-powered submarines in Argentina. Scientists discover ozone layer above Antarctica growing less concentrated.
1983-1989: Raul Alfonsin: inflation
1989-1999: Carlos Saul Menem
1999: Fernando de la Rua
Argentina’s economic collapse more severe than that of the 1930s. Per capita income fell from about ,000 in 1998 to about ,500 in 2000; half the population was by then living on less than a day. Students in formerly middle-class schools grow school gardens & raise rabbits for lunch. In Tucuman doctors report seeing children with kwashiorkor, a disease caused by lack of protein (91)
Barbeía [1965: NAZI’s leave behind the minutes of the meeting La Odessa declara la guerra al estado de Israel: Odessa declares a war against the state of Israel. The paper represents 123 people from 123 countries. (129)], Puerto San Julian [1519: Portuguese navigator Fernao de Magalhaes: Ferdinand Magellan], Buenos Aires [1976-1983: El Proceso: The Process, Guerra Sucia: Dirty War: political dissidents forced to jump out of airplanes far out over the Atlantic Ocean. 30,000+ disappear under Jorge Eduardo El Tigre: The Tiger Acosto Chief of Intelligence. ESMA Torture table. Electric shock machine. Brigadier General Federico Antonio Minicucci even kidnaps a newborn. 500,000 exiled. Argentina the destination for many NAZI officials under Juan Domingo Perón (1941-1975), These NAZIs train the police force. 1990s: Government investigation claims 180 NAZI war criminals came to the country. Germany believes the total is higher as many documents burnt by Perón. Documents they have: Eichmann, Kutschmann, Schwamberger, Roschmann, Mengele, Bandrimer, Pavelic (129) 1999: Michael Smith Argentina CEO of HSBC: Hongkong & Shanghai Bank shot in thigh. 2001: 1000 HSBC employees trapped in offices by a mob that tried to burn down the building during another of the country’s economic crises. This bank now owns Marine Midland Bank (USA), Grupo Financiero Bital (Mexico), Republic New York Corp & Household International. Competitors listed as CitiBank, Standard Chartered & General Electric (126 Ref 2)], La Boca District, Buenos Aires [Lieut Alfredo Astiz infiltrates Mothers of Plaza de Mayo as Gustavo Niño. Founder Azucena Villaflor de Vicenti abducted with 6 women. Indicted in 1990 by French court in absence to life in prison for the execution of French Nuns Leonie Duquet & Alice Domon & 17-year-old Swedish girl Dagmar Hagelin. Wanted by Interpol.], Tucuman [500+ disappeared. Antonio Domingo Bussi governor of area.], Martínez, Pozo de Quilmes, Pozo de Bánfield, Puesto Vasco, Arana, La Cacha & La Plata [Detention Centers. General J. Ramón Camps testifies to James Neilson La Semana Feb 11, 1983 that ‘no disappeared persons were still alive’ Night of the Pencils: High school children kidnapped], Cordoba [Luciano Benjamín The Hyena Menéndez. 100s killed], Corrientes [Jorge Zorreguieta, Minister of Agriculture during Videla regime, daughter Maxima the fiancée of the Royal Dutch Prince. He was banned from the February 2, 2002 wedding.], Olimpo [Carlos Guillermo Suárez Masón, El Cacique: the Butcher of Olimpo indicted in 2000 by Italian Court in absence to life in prison for the execution of 8 Italians & German student Elisabeth Kaesemann in 1977]
Armenia [Hayq / Media: Honey Place / Transcaucasian Republic]
Haikakan Hanrapetoutioun: Republic of Armenia
Red Cresent Concentration Camps
800BC: Urartu Kingdom
500 BC: Media
95 BC: King Tigran II
55BC: Rome invades
60 AD: Roman Nero’s vassal kingdom. Parthian king Vologases I invades & installs his brother as king of Armenia. Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo invades.
113 AD: Trajan’s Eastern Roman Empire
161-193 AD: Vologases IV reconquers Armenia.
301 AD: Eastern Roman Empire
500 - 651 AD: Sassanid Empire
1051-1375 AD: Seljuk Turks invade Armenia: Cilicia Kingdom falls
1514: Turkish Ottoman Empire rules western Armenia.
1639-1828: Persia rules eastern Armenia.
1719 AD: Russia invades & shares Trans-Causacus area with the Turks
1828: Russia annexes Erivan Khanate & Eastern Armenia
1894-1917 Armenian Genocide
  1. 1894: Sultan (Strength / Authority) Abdul-Hamid II & Sultana
  2. Governor Djevdet ordered crimes
  3. Commander Sükrü Kaya
  4. Grand Visier: Mehmet Talat Pasha

1915: Western Armenia becomes Eastern Turkey
1918: Eastern Armenia to Russia.
1922: Armenia joins Georgia & Azerbaijan to form the Transcaucasian Republic.
1936: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independance: Levon Ter-Petrosyan.
1998: Prime Minister Vazgen Sarkisyan (assasinated)
2007: The Livingston Group: According to Radar Magazine ‘ Bob Livingston keeps an ear cocked for whispers about the Armenian Genocide (why not just let bygones be bygones)’, his firm ‘recently forced a state department under-secretary to issue an apology for even mentioning the event.’ (266)
Armenia’s highest court is the Court of Cassation
Mass Graves: Yerevan / Erevan / Erivan Khanate [1400-1820: Erivan Khanate: Stands on border of rival Persian & Ottoman powers & frequently destroyed. The Capital of Armenia: Holocaust memorial for those slain during WWI: Armenian Genocide]
Aras River separates Armenia from Turkey on the W. & Iran on the S.
In 1915, the Ottoman government deported the Armenians who were living in western Armenia into the deserts of what is now Syria. About 1 million Armenians died from lack of water & starvation or were killed by Ottoman soldiers or Arabs & Kurds. A large number of survivors fled to Russian Armenia, – World Book Encyclopedia

Deir-Zor [Inmates killed by morphine injection. Bodies thrown into the Black Sea], Ras Ul-Ain, Bonzanti

Mamoura [1894-1896: 200,000+ dead. What had the Armenians done to deserve all this? Not much – their main offense was to be a Christian minority in a crumbling Islamic empire. ..The starving Armenians became a cause celebre among European & U.S. humanitarians. ...To no avail – the British government found the Ottomans a useful ally against the Russians & refused to impose sanctions.’ – Cecil Adams: Straight Dope] Intili, Islahiye, Radjo [Camp & Mass grave], Katma [Camp & Mass Grave], Karlik, Azaz [Camp & Mass Grave] Akhterim, Mounboudji, Bab, Tefridje, Lale, Meskene, Sebil, Dipsi. Abouharar, Hamam, Sebka, Marat, Souvar, Hama, Kahdem

Azerbaijan: Protected by Fire [Arran: Snowdrop Land / Caucasian Albania / Transcaucasian Republic]
Russo-Persian War
2nd Century BC: Atropatian Media a.k.a Adarbaijan in Persian overthrown by Sassanach King Shapur I of the Sassanid Empire
1719 AD: Russo-Persian War: Russia shares Trans-Causacus area with the Turks
1827: Kurdish Jews settle in Azerbaijan
1919: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic: Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (1899-1953: executed) in the security service assigned by the Hummet Party
1920: Collectivized agriculture & religious school closures
1922: Transcaucasian Republic incorperated into Soviet Union
1936: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
1951: All Kurdish Jews deported from the Caucasus
1991: Independance
Nagorno-Karabakh War – Wikipedia: Azerbaijan Jews
(Pron. ah zuhr by JAHN) Government controls economy: machine building, mining: aluminum, copper, iron, salt, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles.
Baku [World’s leader in refined petroleum. Largest producing oil fields on the Caspian Sea. Oil pipeline links Baku with the port town of Supsa, Georgia, on the Black Sea. Caspian-Black Sea Company established by Rothschild family. 1891: Hovevei Zion. 1920: In the early 1920s a few 100 Mountain Jewish families from Azerbaijan & Dagestan left for Palestine & settled in Tel-Aviv. The next aliyah did not take place until the 1970s, after the ban on Jewish immigration to Israel was lifted], Nagorno-Karabakh [1988: Real estate dispute with Armenia. 250,000 Armenians flee Azerbaijan for Armenia. 200,000 Azerbaijanis, almost all those who lived in Armenia, flee to Azerbaijan. 1994: Cease fire], Sumqayit [1988: Sumgait Pogrom], Jalilabad-Astrakhan-Bazar [1830: Subbotniks & Gers: Russians who converted to Judaism], Quba Khanate [1730: Ruler Huseyn Ali decrees Jews can own property], Oguz [Middle Ages: Jews from Gilan settlement], Shamakhi [1920: Jewish community gone], Krasnaya Sloboda [2002: Azerbaijan has 8,900 Jewish residents: Mountain, Ashkenazi, Georgian, Krymchaks, Kurdish, Bukharian Jews]
Georgia [Iberia: Winter Yew / Transcaucasian Republic]
Jews flee Byzantine Jerusalem to Persian Eastern Georgia. The existence of the Jews in these regions during this period is supported by the archaeological evidence which shows that Jews lived in Mtskheta, the ancient capital of the Eastern Georgian state of Iberia-Kartl
400AD-651 AD: Sassanid Empire
1212 AD: Queen Thamar dies. Mongols invade
1801: Russian Empire annexes Eastern Georgia
1871: Russian authorities abolish serfdom.
1919: Democratic Republic of Georgia
1921: Bolshevik Revolt: Red Army invades Menshevik area.
1922: Transcaucasian Republic incorperated into the Soviet Union.
Joseph Stalin was from Georgia.
1924: Georgian Nationalist Uprising: Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (1899-1953: executed) represses. 10,000 executed. Beria appointed head of Transcaucasian OGPU Secret Police & awarded the Order of the Red Banner
1934: Great Purge: Working people arrested & executed without trial. Beria ran the purges in Transcaucasia
1936: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
1950: Mingrelian Affair: Beria’s protégés in Georgia purged
1991: Independance
2004: 13,000 Georgian Jews remain.
Caucasus Mountains cover the northern part of Georgia / Little Caucasus Mountains extend over much of the south.
For 500 years, beginning in the end of the 14th century, the Jews of Georgia belonged to the kamani, or serf class, under the Georgian elite. Large forced migrations of Jews to Crimea & Persia.

Tifilsi / Tblisi / Tbilisi: Warm Springs [1924: 5000+ executed by Russian Police Chief Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria under Stalin. Beria became head of the NKVD & was executed by Kruschev], South Ossetia [1990-1992: North-central Georgia: Declares itself independent. Ossetians vs Georgian Army. Cease-fire in 1992], Abkhazia [Northwestern Georgia. Abkhazians drive Georgian forces out late 1993].

Australia: Latin for Southern
Wirntupinya-nyja-rru [They Killed]
Juma-ngku [Child] Mass Graves

Sisters of the Good Shepherd Magdalene AsylumsBefore the welfare net existed, religious orders used to catch orphans & unmarried mothers abandoned by their families. They were called laundry slaves – women & teenage girls employed in commercial laundries run by Catholic religious orders, the idea being to combine rehabilitation of supposed delinquents with the chance to earn a modest profit. In Ireland, where welfare of juveniles was generally in church hands, such laundries were commonplace, the girls often housed in so-called magdalenes.Wal Campbell claimed the Good Shepherd Sisters were involved in a major racket. His paper hinted at babies born in convents & girls in the laundries being killed off or dying from exhaustion & being buried in strange places – Alan Gill The last of the convent laundries closed in the 1970s. (145)

To waltz matilda means to tramp the roads. A matilda is a blanket roll.
1568: Alvaro de Mendana
1606: Luis Valle de Torrez & Willem Janz
1609: British East India Company seizes Cocos Islands
1642: Abel Janszoon Tasman: Aotearoa = Niew Zeeland
1770: James Cook = New South Wales. Aborigines: Latin ab origine: from the beginning.
1788: Penal Laws: England establishes Australia as prison colony.
1789: Lady Julianne: The Floating Brothel: 225 convict women of solid breeding stock forced into sexual slavery. Ship journeys through Carribean May 1789 to Sydney. 1 Scotswomen dies, 7 babies born on arrival (134)
1829: Charles Fremantle claims New Holland for England.
1836: Charles Sturt: South Australia Colony
1840: Treaty of Waitangi: English seize New Zealand from native Maori
1842-1872: New Zealand Wars: 1/2 Maori dead
1862: New Zealand Company: Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Blackbirding refers to the recruitment of people through alleged trickery & kidnappings to work on plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland – Wikipedia
1861:Master & Servants Act: 1861 62,000+ South Sea Islanders taken to Australia to work as indentured servants in the sugar cane fields of Queensland. More are taken to the plantations of Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoan Islands.
1876: Last surviving full-blooded Tasmanian Aborigine dies.
Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901: An Act to provide for the Regulation, Restriction & Prohibition of the Introduction of Labourers from the Pacific Islands & for other purposes. It is an offence to employ a Pacific Islander in any other way than an indentured labour agreement, punishable by a fine of GBP 100. The Act prohibited any Pacific Islanders from entering Australia after March 31, 1904, & required all those entering before then to have a license. Immigration Restriction Act enacted 6 days later prohibited people from Africa, Asia, or any island in the Indian or Pacific Oceans from entering Australia. White & black indentured servitude continued until 1964.
1914: Anzacs: Australian & New Zealand Army Corps
1930: Government Integration Program: Aborigines removed to cities from tribal settlements.
1966: Immigration Minister Hubert Opperman announced applications for migration would ’be accepted from well-qualified people on the basis of their suitability as settlers, their ability to integrate readily & their possession of qualifications positively useful to Australia’
1967: Australian Constitution removes clause prohibiting aide to Aborigines.
Broken Rites Australia, non-profit organization of survivors of church-related sexual abuse who advocate for those who need help, is familiar with adult callers abused as children & women abused in a vulnerable situation, a single, or seperated, or unhappily married woman who consulted a church pastor & was then sexually abused in the course of counselling. They’ve also seen sick & medicated women abused by hospital chaplains. Within the Catholic Church, victims keep silent. Parents do not go to the police. Reporting is only to a church official, which is great for the church because they can then move the offender to a new area with new targets or an overseas study trip. Arrival or leaving details are of course not discussed with parishoners. The Black Collar Crime Cases consist of a survivor who consulted with police & found police had aggregate data of their abuser already.

New South Wales State: 1770 Sydney [May 1787-January 18, 1788: Captain Arthur Phillip sailed from England with 570 male & 160 female convicts, 200 soldiers, 30 wives, & a few children in 11 ships to Botany Bay. The 1st white settlement in Australia & the beginning of the city of Sydney (134), Sydney Town Hall: Mass Grave], Pitcairn Island: Major Pitcairn [1767: Philip Carteret’s HMS Swallow. 1789: Mutiny on the Bounty: Captain William Bligh. Survivors on Pitcairn Island], Norfolk Island Territory [1825-1856: New South Wales Penal Colony. 194 Bounty descendants moved from Pitcairn to Norfolk Island], Sutton Forest, Central Railway Station,
Queensland State: 1859 Moreton Bay [1824: Penal Colony. After 1840, free settlers entered the region. Queensland part of New South Wales until 1859], Queensland-Sisters of Mercy Holy Cross Retreat & Girls Home-Industrial School for Girls [1904-1973: Co-located with the Magdalene Asylum for Unmarried Mothers at Woolowin, Queensland. Based on the Magdalene Asylums of Ireland. Mothers worked without pay in the laundries. Their children adopted out. Sent by the Children’s Court of Brisbane. Karalla the maximum security home with rotten food. (Lily Arthur: 146)], Brisbane-Mitchelton [Slave Laundry: Hotel sheets & tablecloths], Rockhampton-Mercy Sisters Orphanage [Neerkol], Fantome Island Aboriginal Leprosarium [Prison near Ingham for Aborigines, Maori & Pacific Islanders. A 7 year old child was jailed for 10 years]
South Australia State: 1836 Goodwood Childrens’ Home [Goodwood & other orphanages run by the Sisters of Mercy Glenis KenwardAt Goodwood you were belted every night. (Alan Gill)], Adelaide-Plympton The Pines [5 meter high fence. Some sent by the courts, others transferred from the Goodwood Children’s Home run by the Sisters of Mercy. The Pines was the Colditz of church-run institutions, whose inmates were the runaways &incorrigibles from other children’s homes & institutions. Girls adopt saints’ names on arrival. This was to avoid a situation where if someone got hold of a newspaper they would know what you were in there for Raelene Houlihan (then Heather Mullen): “You really were nothing but a slave.” Discipline largely in the hands of older girls, regarded as trustees. “If the nuns said Jump, they’d say, How high?”. (Alan Gill)]. Heard & McDonald Islands Territory: 2700 miles SW in Indian Ocean. Antarctica an Australian Territory
Coral Sea Islands Territory
Victoria State: Queen Victoria: 1853 Melbourne-Convent of the Good Shepherd Laundry & Collingwood Children’s Farm [1863-2003: St Helliers St, Abbotsford. Inmates segregated into penitents & preservites: orphans waiting for the arrival of a custody relative], Ashfield–Glentworth Home [1913-1978: Good Shepherd Laundry on Victoria St. Infirmary wing, sewing room. Police Courts sent girls there], Bendigo-Convent of the Good Shepherd Laundry [St Aidans Rd], Melbourne’s Victoria Market [1830: Founded by sheep farmers. Child mass grave]
Western Australia State: 1642 [New Holland] Perth-Good Shepherd Laundry Leederville [1829], Cocos Islands: Coconut Islands [Keeling Islands]: 27 islands 1720 miles NE of Perth: 1609: British East India Company: Captain William Keeling, West Island, South Island, Direction Island, Horsburgh Island, Monte Bello Islands: North West, South East, Hermite, & Trimouille [2 October 1952: Operation Hurricane: Blue Danube nuclear warhead detonated below frigate HMS Plym. Blue Danube free-fall implosion bomb similar to the American Mark 4 weapon.]
Tasmania State: Abel Janszoon Tasman: 1642 [Van Diemen’s Land] Hobart [Each of Australia’s state capitals laid out near the mouth of a river], Macquarie Island, Maria Island, Flinders Island: 1799 [Matthew Flinders: Aborigines removed for protection], Bruny Island, & King Island.
Northern Territory Darwin-Palmerston.
Peel Island [white prison]
Bowral-Hopewood Childrens’ Home [’The home was run by a Sydney businessman, & accused pedophile, L.O. Daddy Bailey. Though claiming friendship with prime ministers, his modus operandi was decidedly odd. He had a Nazi-style interest in eugenics. And he openly spoke of his goal – which he mercifully failed to achieve – to raise & ultimately mate 40 perfect males with 40 perfect females.’ (Alan Gill)] , Ashfield Laundry [Aug 1954: 2 escaped women age 25 & 29 found at midnight near Central Police Station taken to St Vincent’s Hospital. ’This angered The Rock, which feared a papist hospital would simply spirit the unhappy pair back into the nuns. Monsignor Tom Wallace, said the women were free to come & go as they wished. Critics were unconvinced, referring to the women’s callused hands & the fact that each had worked in the laundry for about 12 years. The 2 women told a welfare officer neither had received any payment. Campbell accused the child welfare department of complicity in their neglect & claimed they were owed a minimum of 4000 each in back pay. The Herald sent a staff reporter to the Ashfield laundry who reported conditions were excellent & that when the girls left to take up other employment, the nuns gave them a trousseau, a sum of money & references’ (Alan Gill)], Christian Brothers’ Bindoon Orphanage [Possibly the most appalling children’s home ever to exist in Australia – Alan Gill, Orphans of the Empire Not visited by premier Bert Hawke & Richard Henry Hicks, head of the NSW Department of Child Welfare in 1953 in the only investigation of convent laundries ever undertaken]

Aotearoa: White Cloud Land [Nieuw Zeeland] Christchurch [Anglican Canterbury Association], Dunedin [Free Church of Scotland], Otago [1862: New Zealand Gold Rush]
Chatham Islands: English Prime Minister William Pitt (1708-1778) 1st Earl of Chatham [His son Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger], Cook Islands: Captain Cook [NE: 15 Self-governing islands: Rarotonga, Mangaia, Atiu, Aitutaki, Mauke], Niue Island, Stewart Island, Tokulow, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Kermadec Islands, Snares Islands, Solander Island, 3 Kings Islands

Solomon Islands [Melanesia]1870-1911: 30,000+ islanders slavery on plantations in Fiji & in Queensland. 1978: Commonwealth Nation: Islands: Choiseul, Guadalcanal [1942-1943: Allied vs Japanese Forces], Malaita, New Georgia, San Cristobal, Santa Isabel, Bellona, Rennell, Santa Cruz Islands, Bougainville, Buka, & a few smaller islands in the northern part of the chain part of Papua New Guinea

Vanuatu: Our Land [New Hebrides: New White Cow] (Pron. vah noo AH too) 1774: James Cook names islands after Scottish Hebrides 1906-1980: Condominium Agreement: England & France jointly govern, 1980: Independance. SW Pacific: 80 islands. Largest: Espiritu Santo [Language Bislama], Malakula, Efate [Port-Vila the capital], Erromango, Tanna

New Caledonia: New Sea Holly [Melanesia] 1774: James Cook names South Pacific Islands 1,200 miles NE of Australia after Latin word for Scotland, 1853-Present: Overseas French Territory

Fiji [Melanesia: Black Islands] 1970: Independant from England. University of the South Pacific located on Fiji to the S. of Kiribati

Kiribati [Gilbert Islands / Micronesia] (Pron. KIHR uh bas) Central Pacific NE of Australia. Independant & uses Australian $. Contains Gilbert Islands (16), Banaba Island, Line Islands: 11: Caroline, Flint, Kiritimati-Christmas Island [1952: Operation Grapple: RAF detonate 10–12-kiloton Blue Danube nuclear weapons similar to Nagasaki bomb. 1957: Thermonuclear prototype bomb detonated. 2002: Curtin Wackenhut Correction’s Immigrant detention center. 3 year olds have been placed with their parents in punishment cells, teenagers sew lips together while on hunger strikes Jails asylum seekers], Malden, Starbuck, Tabuaeran-Fanning, Teraina-Washington, Vostok // Jarvis, Kingman Reef, Palmyra [US possessions] & Phoenix Islands

Tuvalu: 8 Standing Together [Ellice Islands: Edward Ellice / Micronesia]

Tonga: South [Polynesia] 1865: Death of the last Tu’i Tonga, 1970: Independance: King Tauf’ahau Toupou IV (pronounced TAHNG guh) 150 Islands in the South Pacific Ocean 3,140 E of Australia. Tongatapu the largest island

Austria: Growing Sun [Österreich: Eastern Kingdom]
Marienberger Komturia [Marian Order Camps] / Konzentrationslage [Concentration Camps]
Steyr-Daimler-Puch Guns / Messerschmitt / DEST SS: Biggest stone-crusher in Europe

9 Burgesländer: Provinces: Burgenland: Castleland [Pannonia] [E.]; Niederösterreich: Lower Austria [Noricum: Lower Austria derives it name from where it is situated on the Danube River]; Oberösterreich: Upper Austria [Noricum] [N.]; Salzburg: Salt Castle [Carantania]; Steiermark: Styria [Carantania]; Tyrol [Carantania]; Kärnten: Carinthia [Carantania: Celtic: Red Place] [S.]; Duchy of Wien: Vienna [Vindobona: Celtic: White Milk], & Vorarlberg [Swabia: Bregenz: Celtic: High Place, Bodensee: Lake Constance. Montafon: Celtic: River].
Land der Berge, Land am Strome: Land of Mountains, Land at the River
Austria shares boundaries with Switzerland & Liechtenstein to the west, Germany & the Czech Republic to the north, Hungary & Slovakia to the east, & Slovenia & Italy to the south.
1156: Duchy of Austria
1186: Duchy of Styria under Babenberg rule
1246: King Ottokar of Bohemia gained control of Austria & Styria. Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf I Habsburg defeated Ottokar in battle in 1278 & acquired for his family the lands the king had taken. Rules under salic: salt law
1493: Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I Habsburg & Empress Bianca of Milan arrange a number of marriages between Habsburgs & members of other royal houses. (Mary of Burgundy had died).
1522: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Habsburg a.k.a Carlos I of Spain gives Austria to his younger brother Ferdinand
1619: 30 Years War: Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II Habsburg
1745: Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa Habsburg & Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, Duke of Lorraine: Descendants of Francis I & Maria Theresa are emperors of Austria from 1804 to 1918.
1814: Congress of Vienna: Determines rulers & boundaries of Europe after defeat of Emperor Napoléon I.
1848-1916: Österreich-Ungarn: Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Josef Habsburg & Empress Elizabeth Sisi Habsburg (she is assasinated)
1916-1919: Emperor Charles I Habsburg (exiled to Switzerland)
WWI: 1919: Treaty of St.-Germain: Forbids union with Germany. Establishes Austria’s present boundaries
1934: IBM-DeHoMag conducts the Austrian census. Chancelor Engelbert Dolfuß executed by the NAZI’s & Kurt von Schuschnigg succeeds.
1936: DeHoMag printing center set up in Austria
1938: Anschluß: Annexation of Austria by Germany
Zentralstelle für Jüdische Auswanderung: Central Office for Jewish Emigration Set up in Vienna on August 26, 1938 under Adolf Eichmann. Wilhelm Hotti Eichmann’s assistant. Adolf Eichmann: Adolf Oakman escaped to Argentina, was abducted by the Israeli Secret Service & put on trial in Jerusalem. He was sentenced to death
1939: Matthausen Inmates: Roma, German, Austrian, Czech, Sectarians: Jehovah’s Witnesses, Bible Students
1940: AB Action: Poles, Boy Scouts, Teachers, University Professors
1941: Spaniards, French & Soviet POWs

Alois Klaubauf, a boy from Langenstein, shot by Chief of Staatspolizeileitstelle Linz: Linz State Police during a SS hunting party. Because the SS rules with absolute power in the area, inside & outside the camps, local civilians are endangered; investigations of local police forbidden by GeStaPo-Linz. Geheimnis StaatPolizei: Secret State Police Linz

Linz Hitler’s birthplace.

SS exchange uniforms with Luftwaffe & German Army POWs, escaping into the mountains of Austria & Bavaria in 1945. Otto Skorzeny’s comrades get passport stamps from the American Linz Discharge office. (129)

President: Wilhelm Miklas
Chancellor: Arthur Seyß-Inquart
WWI Tyrolean Kaiserjäger, Vaterländische Front: Caesar: Emperor’s Hunters, Fatherland Front. Nuremberg Trials: Guilty of planning, initiating & waging wars of aggression; war-crimes; & crimes against humanity. Gustav Steinbauer Defense. He was hanged on October 16, 1946.
Matthausen Arbeiteinsatz Commander: Franz Ziereis
1955: After World War II, Austria divided into American, British, French, & Soviet zones of occupation. To obtain its independence, Austria agreed to be permanently neutral in international military affairs.
1969: Vienna site of SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks between Soviet Union & United States. Vienna the home of a number of UN agencies.
1986-1992: NAZI President Kurt Waldheim
2000: President Jörgorg Haider’s pro-Nazi statements cause political sanctions by European Union. Haider resigns. Sanctions lifted.

Die Grabeln [Mass Graves] Elbigenalp-St. Peter’s Cemetery, Metnitz-St-Michel Chapel [Plague: Harvest comes as long before Michaelmas as dog roses bloom before Midsummer. 813: St. Michael known as the Angel of Death: many cemetery chapels are named for him. Michael’s name means in Hebrew, Who is like God? Guardian of the souls of the dead, weighing their good & bad deeds in his scales], Breitenwang Chapel [plague], Elmen Chapel, Scattwald Church [Plague], Hallstatt Salzkammergut : Imperial Salt Chamber [Prehistoric saltmine in Oberösterreich: Upper Austria by the Hallstättersee. Banned to visiters until the 19th century by the Salzkammergut: Imperial Salt Chamber under Franz Joseph I Hapsburg. 3000+ graves dating 1100 B.C. & more disturbingly, bodies of miners with implements buried near the old graves. Grave artifacts robbed & stored at the Besuch des Prähistorischen Museums], Bad Ischl Ebensee: Bath Ischl PlaneSea [Franz Joseph I Hapsburg’s WWI concentration camp. Mitter Weissenbach. Gunskirchen inhabitants death marched to Matthausen]

Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 006: Hollerith Workdeath 006: KZ Mauthausen-Gusen: Ship Toll Houses- [In Mauthausen, 20K E of Linz. Population 1,800. Vernichtung durch Arbeit: Extermination through Work: WWI: POW Camp: Russian, Serbian & Italians: 9000+ dead. WWII: The Stairway of Death: 186 steps lead from the stone quarry to the surface. Sides of the Wiener Graben: Viennese Graves Quarry called Fallschirmspringerwand: Parachutists’ Wall: Prisoners killed by throwing them down the quarry wall: Parachutists without a parachute. Karl Chmilewski: SS Grünewald: Green Forest Division: Adam Gruenewald. Becomes the only category III camps in 3rd Reich history, meaning camp of no return. Todebadeaktionen: Bathing to Death: 3000. 4000+ gassed, starvation, crematorium, meat-hook hangings, skin/lamp shades/furniture firing squad execution 119,000+, thrown at 380 volt electric barbed-wire fence. Labor: Farms, road, Danube river & excavating archaeological sites in Spielberg. 1942-1944: Dr. Karl Groß infects with cholera & typhus to test experimental vaccines, kills 1,500+ this way, 2000: Simon Rattle leads Vienna Philharmonic’s Beethoven’s 9th Symphony & Friedrich Schiller’s Ode to Joy to a crowd of 20,000 with President of Austria Jörg Haider & his Freedom Party in attendance. Haider is accused by Boston University of supporting Waffen-SS veterans & the NAZI überfremdung: surplus of foreigners. Satellite broadcast throughout Europe, musicologist Thomas Dombroski notes The Vienna Philharmonic was the symbol of the National Socialist State & had enthusiastic NAZIs until well into the ’70s Composed in 1824, it was conducted by Richard Wagner in 1872 in Bayreuth, Richard Strauß in 1933, Hans Pfizner in 1934, The National Socialist Orchestra at the 1936 Olympics, Wilhelm Furtwängler’s Berlin Philharmonic in 1942 for Hitler’s Birthday & at the dismantling of the Berlin Wall.]

KL Gusen I: Kellerbau: Celler Buildings: Langenstein: Longstone [1939: Forced labor. 2000+ die 2.8 miles from Matthausen: Prisoners ordered to build tunnels under the hills surrounding the camp: Kellerbau: Cellar Buildings. January 1944, similar tunnels built beneath the village of Sankt Georgen by the inmates of Gusen II sub-camp (code-named Bergkristall) with 11,000 prisoners working underground.KZ Hartheim: Hartheim Castle [Gas chamber inside the castle. Aktion T 4: Tiergartenstraße: Animal Garden Street: SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer Karl Chmielewski has the Marienberger Order under Mathilde Weber murder handicapped German & Austrian civilians with carbon-monoxyde. 32,000+ killed between 1942-1943 1946: Simon Wiesenthal’s KZ Mauthausen claims Mauthausen Commandant Franz Ziereis gassed 4 million to death with carbon monoxide at Hartheim satellite camp with 10 million more in Poland, Lithuania & Latvia.]

KL Gusen II: Bergkristall-Bau: Mountain Crystal-Building: St. Georgen [At Sankt Georgen an der Gusen, Perg District, Upper Austria between Luftenberg: Air City & Langenstein: Long Stone. 40.000 m of tunnels & caverns dug beneath St. Georgen for the Messerschmitt Me 262 fuselages. Gas chambers, crushed priests, lynching, starvation, cannibalism, shot, 600 beaten to death, 420 children between 4 & 7 / 1300+ adults exterminated with heart-injections by Josef Mengele. organs harvested by Dr. Helmut Vetter of IG-Farben & Leverkusen with the SS Medical Academy at the University of Graz, 1945: Red Cross Delegate Louis Haefliger, asks Albert Kosiek to prevent the murder of 25,000 Gusen inmates. The SS planned to blast all of them up with high-explosives in the KZ Gusen I & II tunnels along with the local population of St. Georgen & Gusen, to kill any potential witnesses at later trials. In some trials of the Nuremberg Military Tribunal the term St. Georgen granite works used to prevent the use of locations like Mauthausen or Gusen.]

KL Gusen III: Lungitz [At Lungitz, Katzdorf: Cat Town, Perg District, Upper Austria. 1942: SS find a grave yard from the Bronze Age. Local population forced by US-troops to bury 100s of corpses SS guards leave behind]

KL Gusen IV: St. Aegyd am Neuwalde: Saint Aegynd at New Forest

Außenlager: Subcamps: At the end of the war the list included 101 camps (including 49 major sub-camps) which covered all of Austria. Sub-camps categories: Produktionslager: Factory Camps, Baulager: Construction Camps, Aufräumlager for cleaning the rubble in Allied-bombed towns, Kleinlager: Small camps where inmates worked for SS.
Upper Austria: Linz I, Linz II: Nebenlager Schörgenhub: Work Camp Close to Schörgenhub
Linz III: Kleinmünchen: Little Men-Ebelsberg: Ebels Mountain [Hermann Goering. Little Men are the supernatural kobolds: goblins who live in the mountains & guard the salt mines]
Wels I: Ebensee Wels[Wels, Traun River near Linz, Upper Austria], Wells II
Ebensee Lambach KL Enns[Linz-Land District: Enns River], KL Steyr-Munichholz [Steyr City, Steyr-Land District, S. of Linz: Puch-Daimler plant. The Erzberg: Ore Mountain has a lot of iron ore] KL St. Valentin [SE. of Linz. Mauthhausen subcamp Nibelungenwerk tank factory]
Lower Austria: KL Amstetten [E. of Linz on the way to Vienna. 2 camps: 1 for male: Männenerlager & 1 for female: Frauenlager. Bezirk Amstetten: Amstetten District], KL Hollenstein: Light Rock [Hollenstein an der Ybbs Town: Amstetten District], KL Melk: Milk [Melk District: Crematorium], KL Mistelbach am der Zaya[Lower Austria, Near Slovakia]
Wien-Afa- Werke, Wien-Schwechat I: Wien-Florisdorf I: Heidfeld: Heatherfield [E. Vienna: Henkel Factory] Wien-Schwechat II: Wien-Florisdorf II: Vienna-Flowertown II: Wien-Schwechat III: Wien-Florisdorf III: Santa: SaintWien-Kaiserebersdorf: Emperor’s Vine Town, Wien-Jedlesee [Vienna is the capital & largest city of Austria. It lies on the Danube River in the northeastern part of the country. Soviet & Allied troops occupied Vienna 1945-1955. The city was rebuilt, including the opera-house], Wien-Hinterbrühl: Beyond the Brühl [Hinterbrühl Town, Mödling District. Camp at Seegrotte: Underground Sea Caverns producing parts for the Me 262 jet fighter. Europe’s largest underground lake], Wien-Mödling Wien-Maria-Lanzendorf, Wien-Schönbrunn / Kraftfahrtechnische Lehranstalt [Schönbrunn Palace Imperial home of Hapsburgs. Marie Louise was not permitted to go with Napoleon when he was exiled. She & her son lived at Schönbrunn. She received the Italian duchies of Parma, Piacenza, & Guastalla in 1816 & governed them until her death in 1847], Wien-West / Saurer-Werke, Wiener Hirtenberg [Womens’ camp staffed by female guards], Wiener Neudorf: New Town [Mödling District]Wiener Neustadt: Viennese New State / Raxwerke GmbH[R.A.X Enterprises: S. of Vienna: Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I born here],
Aflenz [Steyer]
Attnang-Puccheim: Pucc Home
BretsteinFrankenburg am Hausruck: French Castle on Househitch, Graz: Grace[Puch Factories: 2nd largest city in Austria. Castle Schloßberg. Capital of Styria Province on Mur River close to Hungary & Slovenia]
Grein / Donau: Black Abyss
Groß-Raming: Bachmanning
Groß-Raming: Dipoldsau
Groß-Raming: Weyer [Nebenlager]
Waldwerke I: Gunskirchen: Forest Work I: Guns Churches [Sammellager: Assembly Camp]
KL Lenzing [Womens’ Camp]
Schloß Lind: Castle Lind / St. Lambrecht [Mens’ Camp & Womens’ Camp staffed by female guards]
KL Loibl-Pass Nord [In Klagenfurt, the Capital of Carinthia. Loibl-Pass Süd in Slovenia-ex Yugoslavia: Universale Hoch und Tiefbau in charge of tunnels]
KL Schloß Mittersill / Zell am See [S. of Salzburg]
Passau I: Oberilzmühle [Pre-War Austro-German Border. Latin: Castra Batava]
Passau II: Lindau / Waldwerke Passau-Ilzstadt: Forest Work Passau-Ilz City
Passau III: Jandelsbrunn
Peggau I: Eisenertz: Iron Ore [Center of country], Peggau II: Leibnitz [Stonebreaking]
KL Ried / Inn [Inn River]
Vöcklabrück I: , Vöcklabrück II: Vöcklabrück-Wagrain
Vöcklamarkt: Alpang-Schlier-Redl-Zipf
Zistersdorf [Petrol Gas]
Marienberger Komturia: KZ Innsbrück-Reichnau [Capital of Tyrol Province. Brenner Pass between Innsbrück & Bolzano Italy in the Alps. Habsburg Tyrolese rulers in 1300s & 1400s.]
Marienberger Komturia: KZ Admont-Frauenberg: Admont-Womens’ Mountain [Under the jurisdiction of the Higher SS & Police Leader Alpenland. 5 wooden barracks. The Alpine Forelands lie south of the Granite Plateau. The region is made up of hills & low mountains]
KZ Lackenbach: Salmon Bach [Zigeunerlager: Gypsy camp in Burgenland S of Vienna near Hungary.]
KZ Zwätzen [Burgenland bordering Slovakia & Hungary. After Anschluß NAZIs forced the population to build the Ostwall a.k.a Zhelezniy zanaves: Iron Curtain containing barbed wire & landmines. It was finally taken down with the Berlin Wall in 1989]
KZ Salzburg-Maxglan: Salt Mountain [Zigeunerlager: Gypsy Camp. Salzbourg’s 13th century plague graves. Capital of Salzburg Province in the Alps]
Marianberger Komturia: KZ Moschendorf [Arbeitserziehungslager: Arbeit: Labor Erziehung: Education]
Marianberger Komturia: KZ Sterzig[Arbeitserziehungslager: Labor Education Camp]
Marianberger Komturia: KZ Oberlanzendorf Wien: Overland Town Vienna

Bahamas: Spanish Baja Mar: Low Sea [Yucayas]
[British West Indies]
Buaynara [Plague]
Islands: Abaco, Acklins, Andros, Bimini, Bahami, Berry, Caicos, Yumaí: Cat, Concepción, Crooked, Eleuthera, Grand Turk, Inaqua, Xaomatí: Long Island, Mayaguana, Xaübey: Mona, New Providence, Ojuná: Rum Kay, Ragged Island, San Salvador
3,000 coral islands & reefs extending 50 miles off the eastern coast of Florida to the northeastern tip of Cuba, a distance of over 500 miles. English controlled since 1717. Queen Elizabeth II head of state.

Yucayos, a tribe of the Taíno, the 1st people Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus encountered in 1492. He massacred, raped, enslaved them. Yuca tree.

Bahrain [Ar-Ruad: Red Sea Place]
2000 BC-1800 BC: Dilmun Civilization
1500: Portugal
1782: Al Khalifah Clan from Saudi Arabia
1861: British Protectorate
1971: Independance
1981: GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
1995: Unemployment. Anti-government protests
Made up of 30+ islands: Al Muharraq, Tylos [451 AD: Christian community after the schism], Sitrah, Umm Nasan. Bahrain island [Largest 1991: Bahrain allowed the United States & Britain to use its territory for air force & naval bases to attack Iraqi forces. As part of the GCC, Bahrain took part in the bombing of Iraqi military targets & in ground offensive to liberate Kuwait (133)], Manama [Capital city]
Bangladesh: Land of the Bengals [British India / East Bengal / East Pakistan]
Genocidal Famine
550 BC -330 BC: Persia
330 BC: Mauryan Empire
1398: Mongol Khan Timu
1502: Portuguese Manuel I-Vasco de Gama
1526: Battle of Panipat: Khan Babur establishs Mughal Empire
1530: Porgual seizes.
1600: Queen Elizabeth’s East India Company got permission from Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade.
1662: Passed to England as part of Catherine of Braganza’s dowry to Charles II
1757: Battle of Plassey / Maratha War: British East India CompanyAgent Robert Clive defeats the army of the Nawab: Mughal Governor of Bengal
1770: Bengal Famine claims millions
1781: Opium produced under British Government monopoly & sold to China.
1857: Sepoy Mutiny: Indian Army vs England
1858: Direct rule from England
1905: Bengal State partitioned by Marquess of Kedleston George Nathanial Curzon, Viceroy of India. Millions of Indians die in a famine, Curzon does nothing. 1902-1909: Earl of Broome Horatio Herbert Kitchener organizes the Bengal, Madras & Bombay Armies
1943: Great Bengal Famine has 3+ million dead
1971: Biharis forced into squalid camps where they live to this day
1985: SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, & Sri Lanka.
Bengal split in 1947. The western part going to India, while the eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal, later renamed East Pakistan, with its capital at Dhaka. The eastern half of Pakistan seceded to form Bangladesh in 1971’s Indo-Pakistani War with 3 million+ dead & 10 million+ refugees fleeing to India. Kolkata-Calcutta lies on one of the Ganges’ distributaries, the Dhaka: Dacca, Bangladesh’s capital, on another. 146 million+ people in 55,000 square miles. Textile Workers make 14¢ an hour.
Barbados [British West Indies]
1629-1652: Several English families fight over Barbados
1958: Barbados joins the West India Federation.
1966: Independance
2001: Constitutional monarchy. A governor general represents the British Crown as head of state.
The growing of sugar cane has been an important industry in Barbados for more than 300 years.
Belgium: Sacred Tree [Netherlands: Low Countries]
Camp de Concentration [Concentration Camp]
Belge Watson: Emile Genon
7th century: Old Low Franconian called Old Dutch in the Low Countries replaced by Old French further south.
1354: Joyeuse Entree: Joyous Entry: Duke of Brabant taxes people
1477: Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I Habsburg of Austria & Mary of Burgundy rule the Low Countries.
1519: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V born in Ghent
1795: Brabant Revolution: France seizes
1830: Belgian Revolution: King William VI of Orange sends troops to repress riots. New independant state of Belgium proclaimed.
1831: Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. His niece Queen Victoria of Britain.
1861-1909: Leopold II
1909-1914: Albert I (flees to France)
1940: Leopold III remains in German occupied Belgium

Militärverwaltung: Military Governors: 1940: Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt & Fedor von Bock
1940-1944: Reichskommissar Alexander Freiherr von Falkenhausen: Netherlands, Belgien-Nordfrankreich: Belgium & Northern France
1944-1945: Joseph Grohé
SD Security Officer for Paris, Northern France & Belgium: Helmut Knochen President Charles de Gaulle grants a pardon in 1962. Retired in Baden-Baden.

Waffen SS Legion Wallonie: Alfred Graf

Waffen SS ‘Langemarck’ Legion Flandern: René Lagrou

Vlammsch Nationaal Vervond: Flemish National Alliance: Staf de Clercq
Die Wacht am Rhein: Watch on the Rhine: Ardennes Offensive: Battle of the Bulge SS’s attempt to seperate the US-British Army. Otto Skorzeny’s English-speaking German soldiers wearing allied uniforms & dog-tags taken from POW corpses change sign-posts, misdirect traffic, seize bridges on the Meuse River a.k.a the Maas River. Hitler agrees to pull back forces after a snowstorm kills off the troops, freezes weapons. Videogame. Battlefield 1942
After the war Skorzeny (now dead), escaped the deNazification camp & lived in Mt Warzmann, Bavaria as Rolf US Stennbauer. Escaped through the Zillertau to Italy & then to Spain. (129)
1948: Benelux: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg tariff elimination on trade among themselves.

Region: Ardennes: SE
Lüttich [Marian Order concentration camp. SS open Ardennen Lebensborn: Spring of Life: Source de Vie: home in March 1943 at Wegimont bei Lüttich. Pregnant mothers with Germanic blood accepted as well as children fathered by Fremdlaendi members. After the Liberation women & girls who had a love relationship with German soldiers were maltreated. Their heads were shaven & the swastika was painted on their foreheads.]

Die Wacht am Rhein Cities: Baugnez [Operation Stösser: Colonel Friedrich August von der Heydte’s Fallschirmjäger Kampfgruppe machine-gun Allied Troops], La Gleize [SS under Peiper abandon vehicles & escape], Stavelot [SS Fuel stations blown up], Stoumont [American engineers blow up the bridge as SS invade], St. Vith & Bastogne [SS Bomb], Trois-Ponts: 3-Bridges [Destroyed]

Region: Flanders / Flandern: N
Reichsgau Flandern a.k.a Devlag: Landsleider van het Vlaamsche Volk-Hoofd van het Vlaamsche Bevrijdingscomité: Jef Van de Wiel. (Reichsgau is a regional commander)
Cities: Bruges / Brugge: City of Bridges
KZ Mecheln / CC Malines L’antichambre de la mort: Antichamber of Death [Antwerp / Anvers, Flanders. Sea-port town. Reich Security Sammellager: Assembly camp. 28 convoys of 25,257 prisoners shipped from Malines to Auschwitz. Malines-Terneuzen Railway. 1,207 survived (148) V: Vergeltungswaffe: Supersonic Rocket Jet Engine Flyer carrying 2,000 lb bomb designed by Wehrner von Braun, later director of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center’s Saturn V. Dr Kenneth Hartman recalls 3,709 VI & V2s dropped on Antwerp. 4,239+ dead, 6,362+ wounded Oct 7, 1944-Mar 30,1945 (125). Pictorial works executed in the Maler Stube: Painter’s Room. Artists made to tattoo prison numbers on inmates & paint portraits of NAZI leaders & signs. Artists: Spicker-Awret, Félix Nußbaum of Ostende, Léon Landau of Antwerp, Irène Spicker & husband Azriel Awret of Brussels, Jacques Ochs of Liège]

Ieper / Ypres [WWI: Kindermörd: Child Murder demolished by artillery bombs. poison gas]

Region: Duchy of Brabant: Central
KZ Breendonck / CC Breendonk
[Military fort on the Brussels to Antwerp highway. Brussels is in Brabant Duchy. Jewish people’s cards stamped Juif-Jood. Auffangslager: Waiting Camp received Jews & political prisoners before their transfer to Germany. Starvation, grass eating, tortures, hangings, shootings. People herded into wooden sheds. SS guards: Wijss, De Bodt & Pellemans. Before the Allies came the last prisoners were death-marched to Vught.]

KZ Saint-Gilles / CC Saint-Gilles[Brussels. SS Volksgrenadier & SS Hasso von Manteufel Panzer Divison]

Region Wallonia / Wallonie [Love]: S:
Reichsgau Wallonien a. k.a Rex: Léon Degrelle

KZ Huy [Fortress]

KZ Louvain / CC Louvain [Prison]

Prostitution is legal in Belgium
Antwerp [Franky De Conink’s Villa Tinto House of Pleasure designer Arne Quinze created furniture for the Rem Koolhaas Library in Seattle & Brad Pitt’s home in Los Angeles. Arne’s blueprints: input from local police, politicians & prostitute focus groups. Wired Magazine: They wanted something trendy & unique but also hygienic, ergonomic, & safe. 50 women’s biometric data in building security database. Amenities activated by a fingerprint reader. (138)]
Holland: Old Mother / Netherlands: Low Countries [Batavian Republic / Gallia Belgica]
Teutonic Order Komturia / Krijgsgevangenkamp [Work Camp]
Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (Netherlands)

Watson Bedrijfsmachine Maatschappell N.V: Amsterdam: J.W Schotte
ASA: Allgemeines Statistisches Archive: General State Archives

Iijkenweg Limburg [Corpse Road Limburg]: Corpse Road runs from St Anna Chapel, De Laak, Ohé en Laak, Limburg to the Echt Church. 1632: Josine Walburgis, Countess von Löwenstein Rochefort Wertheim, princess-abbess of Thorn-Limburg
Hofjes [Almshouse / Poorhouse / Workhouse]: Information greatly appreciated.
1568: 80 Years’ War: William of Orange (assasinated) fails to drive The Duke of Alba from the Netherlands. Ends with independence of the United Provinces.
1890: Princess Wilhemina of Holland a Grand Guignoler.
1916: Central Statistical Bureau of Holland tracks import & export data on Hollerith machines.
1923: Amsterdam City Electricity Works becomes the 1st public utility in the world to use an actual punchcard as a regular customer bill.
1930: Hollerith machines sort the 1930 census. Friedrich Zahn president
1932: Amsterdam’s Zuider Zee (pronounced ZY duhr ZAY), an inlet of the North Sea, cut off by a dike. New freshwater lake: IJsselmeer (pronounced EYE suhl mehr).
1936: DeHoMag printing center set up in the Netherlands
1941: Hitler orders Decree V06/41 the Dutch census under Lentz

Commissioner for the Occupied Netherlands: Artur Seyß-Inquart
Secretary General for Internal Affairs: Mussert, K. J. Frederiks LL.M
Höhere SS und Polizeiführer: Police Chief Rauter

Volunteer Legion Niederlande / 34th Dutch SS ‘ landstorm Nederland’: 2600 man regiment under General De Ruyter. The general shot himself on the battle field rather than fall into enemy hands in Ozoli Hill. Untersturmführer Schluifelder, Obersturmführer Behler. Sturmann Gerardus Mooyman 1st West European volunteer to receive the Knight’s Cross decoration after singlehandedly destroying 14 Soviet tanks in 1 day in February 1943.
1944: Winter Famine
Gilze-Rijen’s, Gravenhage: means The Count’s Hedge: Hague Graves [(skrah vun HAH kuh): Germans launched V-2 rockets. Allies bombed The Hague 50 times before freeing it in 1945
1948: Benelux: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg tariff elimination.

Kasteel De Schaffelaar-Castle de Schaffelaar [Barneveld: Castle & transitory concentration camp where Eline Hoekstra Dresden was taken in 1939. She is now 83 & still has nightmares. (G)Een Gelukkige Tijd documentary: 700 internees]
KZ Rheden [Frauenkonzrationslager: Womens’ Concentration Camp]
KZ Utrecht [Frauenkonzrationslager: Womens’ Concentration Camp]
Rotterdam [Part of the 2/5 land area once covered by sea, lakes, swamps. Drained areas called polders for farming. 1944-1945: Die Wacht am Rhein: Ardennes Offensive: Battle of the Bulge: In flames, bombed by SS Men (130). 250,000+ Nederlanders killed or starved to death by 1945].
Fryslân: Friesland-Waddeneilanden [West Frisia]: Frisian Islands in the North Sea: Present-day West Frisia is the Dutch provinces of Friesland, Groningen & part of North Holland Tessel [Europe’s last battlefield. Soviet Georgian POWs captured on Eastern front rise up on April 5, 1945, Not until May 20, 1945 were Canadian troops able to pacify. Their bodies are at the community cemetary called Den Berg], Flylân, Skylge / Terschelling in Low German, Ameland, Wieringen [Refuge for German crown prince Wilhelm with father Kaiser Wilhelm II from 1918-1923. Returned to Germany], Skiermûntseach / Schiermonnikoog in Low German, Rottumeroog [Access to island prohibited], Rottumerplaat [Access to island prohibited], Simonszand, Zuiderduintjes [Access to island prohibited]
KZ Maastricht [Womens’ Concentration Camp]
KZ Eindhoven
Arbeitseinsatz und Durchgangslager Erika: Penal & Transit Camp Ommen [Referat Internationale Organisationen: Werner Scher liquidates property of organizations considered hostile to or unwanted by the Reich]
Haaren par Tilburg
Hellevoetsluis [Captain Jacques Schol of the demobilized Dutch Army Reserves] (Cympm 194),

Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 005: Hollerith Workdeath 005: KZ Herzogen-Busch / CC Vught-Hertogenbosch / Den Bosch: The Woods[Karl Chmilewski. SS Grünewald: Green forest division: Adam Gruenewald. Judendurchgangslager: Jewish Processing, Schutzhaftlage: Belgian & Dutch political prisoners, Women’s Camp]

KZ Westerbork[Durchgangslager: Transportation Camp. D.A. Syswarda, former psychiatric hospital administrator appointed Director. 1939 103.000 Jews transported in 1942 alone. Orphan School, hair-dresser, orchestra, restaurant. (Virtual 144) Boulevard of a 1,000 Sighs: Transport to the extermination camps every Tuesday. Now a museum where you can see the window where Anne Frank was interred.]
Hooghalen [Koninklijke Marechaussee: Royal Constabulary under Master Sergeant Albert de Jong. Accompany columns of Jews, men, women, & children, to & from the railroad station in Hooghalen to or from camp Westerbork], Leeuwarden
Prins Bernhard (Tweede 195), Rozendaal
KZ Sint Michielsgestel: Saint Michael’s Stand
Valkenburg par Leiden [Luftwaffe airfield] (CC List 160)
KZ Schoorl [SS-Untersturmführer: Johann Cornelis Stöver. SS-Hauptscharführer: Karl Peter Berg. British, French & Belgium citizens from age 16 & up. Closed in 1941 & inmates & administration moved to Amersfoort.]

PDA: Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Amersfoort / KZ Amersfort[SS-Obersturmführer: 1st Lieutenant: Walter Heinrich.
SS Shutzhaftlagerführer II: 2nd SS-Protective Custody Camp Commander: Karl Peter Berg (sentenced to death in 1948)
SS-Unterschutzhaftlagerführer Joseph Johann Kotälla: Before the war, in 1938, he was diagnosed as mentally disturbed
SS-Hauptsturmführer: SS-Captain Dr. Alphons Brendel & Paul Anton Helle.
Durchgangslager: Exit Camp in Amsterdam. 1939: Dutch Army Command built barracks on the moor of Leusden on the outskirts of Amersfoort, along a sandy road leading into the direction of Maarn/Doorn. 18, August 1941: NAZI police & High SS Staff Company take over to liquidate the 820 Jewish citizens living in the area & 9,000 prisoners. 17 wooden barracks, electric barbed wire fence with an apple tree outside called the Appelweg: Apple Way. 27 September 1941: 101 Russian POWs, transfers from Camp Schoorl 1st internees. 22 Russians died of starvation. 2 Russians ordered killed by Doctor van Nieuwenhuysen. The skulls placed as trophies on his desk. Remainder liquidated with shots to the neck. De Stenen Man: the Stone Man: ditch digging for 63 mass graves, het lijkenhuis: mortuary, pre-mature burials, dysentery, typhus, pneumonia, lice, firing squads. Kotälla’s Rose Garden concrete posts with rolls of barbed wire. de Bunker : 22 death cells. (Cympm 194) 1942: Camp enlarged. Prisoners: Roma, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, butchers, black market traffickers, Protestant & Roman Catholic clergy, resisters, hostages. Hollerith ID number sewn on tunic & trousers.1943: 28,000+ processed & transfered to KZ Vught & then Poland for extermination. 1945: Joop Swaanswijk, a radio operator & Council of Resistance: R.V.V: Raad Van Verze buried alive. 475 survivors at liberation. Records held at the ITS: International Tracing Service archives in Bad Arolsen, Germany. After the war an additional 59 mass graves were discovered by Mr. Gerrit Kleinveld, the only escapee from De Bunker.]

Luxembourg: Lwcsembwrg: Raven Place [Netherlands: Low Countries]
963 AD: State under Count Siegfried
1521-1643: Siglo de Oro: Age of Gold Spanish Empire comprised the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Italy, parts of Germany, parts of France, territories in Africa, Asia, Oceania, the Americas.
1815: Willem Frederik I, Prince of Orange, King of Holland & Arch-Duke of Luxembourg.
1912: Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide
Fall Gelb: German invasion of Luxembourg.
1948: Benelux: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg no tariff.
Current Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker
2 land regions: Ardennes & Bon Pays: Good Land. 23% of Jewish residents murdered. Hamm [1944-1945: Die Wacht am Rhein: Ardennes Offensive: Battle of the Bulge: Bodies buried here], Bofferding bei Luxemburg [Site of Lebensborn], KL Hinzert [Sonderlager. Prisoners from Luxembourg & Mayence-Mainz on the Rhineland]
Belize [British Honduras]
2600 BC: Maya civilization at Cuello, Belize cultivating chocolate, chilis, vanilla, papayas, & pineapples
730 BC: Lamanai: Submerged Mayan Crocodile city with step pyramids
114 BC- 900AD: Altun Ha: Stone Water City. Temple of the Green Tomb with jade figurines, mounds, dam & aqueduct.
1520 AD: Spain seizes for Captaincy General of Guatemala. Maps show Belize as Guatemala’s most eastern province.
1638 AD: England seizes & forms European settlement.
1797-1803: Garifuna-Carribs imported. English offer a reward of for each Charaib man or woman killed or brought in prisoner.
1846: Caste War: Yucatán Secession
1862-1964: Colony of British Honduras
1964-1984: British Honduras Territory. Prime Minister: George C. Price
1984: Belize: Prime Minister: Manuel Esquivel
1991: Guatemala cedes claim to Belize. (World Book)
1992 - present: Commonwealth country under Queen Elizabeth II. Governor-General: Sir Colville Young, Prime Minister: Said Musa
(Pron. beh LEEZ). Mexico: N, Carribean Sea: E. Guatemala: S. & W. Belize City [1638: Colonial slavery. Official language English & the sole language of instruction in its school systems. Languages noted on 2000 census: Kriol, Spanish, Garifuna, Kekchi, Mopan, Yucatan Maya. Census: 49% Mestizo: Mayan-European, 10%: Maya, 6%: Garifuna, 25% Creole: Black-European, 5% Plattdüütsch-Mennonite, with the rest counted as Chinese, East Indian, Jews, Muslims, North Americans], Belmopan [1970: Capital], Altun Ha: Stone Water City [113 BC]
’Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for nearly half of exports, while the banana industry is the country’s largest employer. Citrus production has become a major industry along the Hummingbird Highway. Growth decelerated in 2001 to 3% due to the global slowdown & severe hurricane damage to agriculture, fishing, tourism. Major concerns continue to be the rapidly expanding trade deficit & foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international donors’. – Wikipedia
Honduras: Spanish for Depths [Spanish Honduras]
400-822 AD: Copán’s 16 kings. All belong to a single dynasty. Copán trades with Teotihuacan, Mexico & Maya cities of Tikal & Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala.
1502: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus: Slavery in gold & silver mines
1638: British privateers invade Mosquito coast & massacre people.
1714: Honduras Company: Ministry of the Navy & the Indies
1797: English rulers of St. Vincent transport Garifuna to Honduras
Sept. 15 1821: José Cecilio Del Valle (1780-1834): Born in Honduras, He writes the Central American Declaration of Independance: Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, & Costa Rica declare independence from Spain.
1823: República Federal de Centroamérica: United Provinces of Central America: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua & Costa Rica. Federation frees slaves.
Oct-Nov 1852: Federación de Centro América: El Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua
1860: William Walker (1824-1860), ruler of Nicaragua 1856-1867, executed in Honduras
1890: Banana Republic: United States fruit companies clear forests & drain swamps for banana plantations. Export taxes paid by U.S. fruit companies
1933-1948: General Tiburcio Carias Andino
1957-1960: Nicaraguan Border Dispute: President Ramon Villeda Morales
1963: Colonel Osvaldo Lopez Arellano
1969-1992: Honduran Land Reform: Salvadoran families forced to give up land. Salvadoran troops enter.
1975-1978: Colonel Juan Alberto Melgar Castro.
1980-1990: Honduran Civil War: Clashes between Sandinista government troops of Nicaragua & Contra bases in Honduras.
Central American Nations supply 10% of the world’s coffee Mosquito Coast [NE: Miskito people. 200 miles from San Juan River, Nicaragua to Aguan River, Honduras. Border with Nicaragua disputed until 1960. The International Court of Justice in the Netherlands decided in favor of the Honduran claim, & border established at Coco, or Wanks, River], Puerto Cortês [Gulf of Honduras: Northern Coast has the only railways & they extend only 65 miles inland: carry bananas from plantations, operated by fruit companies], Tela [Banana region Port], La Ceiba [North Carribean Port City], Bay Islands [Off N. coast: Descendants of Garifuna, English planters, & freed black slaves from Cayman Islands during 1800s], Tegucigalpa [S: 1578: Spanish invade. 1880: Capital city. No railroad. Pan American Agricultural School founded by United Fruit Company], Comayagua [W: Capital city until 1880], San Pedro Sula [Manufacturing City: Steel, plastics, sugar milling, brewing, margarine, soap, textiles & shoes, candles, cigarettes], Copán [Western Honduras: Mayan stone palaces, pyramids, temple ruins], San Lorenzo-Choluteca River [S: Gulf of Fonesca Port City. Roads in Honduras are scarce. People travel by bus, mule, or horse.]
Republica de Costa Rica: Spanish for Rich Coast [Mexican Empire]
1502: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus: Slavery & minerals
1564: Governor Juan Vasquéz de Coronado: At Cartago
1750: Spanish Conquistadores found San José
1821: Break from Spain
1822: Joins Mexican Empire.
1823: República Federal de Centroamérica: United Provinces of Central America: El Salvador [leaves Feb 1841], Guatemala [leaves 1839], Honduras [leaves Nov 5, 1838], Nicaragua & Costa Rica [leaves 1838]
1838-1842: President Braulio Carrillo (overthown): Independence
1842: Francisco Morazan (assasinated)
1849-1859: President Juan Rafael Mora (executed)
1870-1882: General Tomás Guardia: Coffee exports
Late 1800s: Jamaican Blacks build railroads & work banana plantations
1917-1919: President Federico Tinoco (resigns)
1949: President Otilio Ulate
1953-1974: Colonel José Figueres
1980s: Nicaraguan & Salvadorean refugees
1986-1990: President Oscar Arias Sanchez
N. Nicaragua, W. Pacific Ocean, E Carribean Sea, S. PanamaSan José [Capital City: Hillsides covered with coffee trees. Center for trade in coffee, bananas & sugar produced in Costa Rica. Factories produce chemicals, textiles & furniture], Desamparados [City], Limón [Provincial capital: Railroad to San José], Puntarenas [Execution site of Costa Rican President Juan Rafael Mora], Heredia [Oscar Arias Sanchez born into family of wealthy coffee growers. Arias Peace Initiative called for an end to fighting in Central America. Arias won 1987 Nobel Peace Prize for developing the plan.]
El Salvador [Cuscatlán: Land of Jewels]
The jewel name is from the Pipil people
3000 BC: Nahua people
1525: Pedro de Alvarado: San Salvador del Mundo: Holy Savior of the World: July 24-Aug 6
1811: José Matias Delgado (1767-1832) vs Spain
1822: Father Delgado heads resistance movement when Mexico tried to include El Salvador in its empire
1823: República Federal de Centroamérica: United Provinces of Central America: El Salvador [leaves Feb 1841], Guatemala [leaves 1839], Honduras [leaves Nov 5, 1838], Nicaragua & Costa Rica [leaves Feb 1838].
1841: Independance
1800s: 5 presidents overthrown, & 2 executed. Guatemalan President Rafael Carrera controls several weak Salvadoran presidents.
Oct-Nov 1852: Federación de Centro América: El Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua
1900: Coffee, Cotton & Sugar Cane fincas: plantations
1931-1944: General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez
1932: Labor Killings
1969: Honduran War: Farmland
1972-1977: Salvadorian War: Colonal Arturo Armando Molina. Death squads with machetes & AK47’s kill women, children, students & men who disagree.
1977-1979: General Carlos Humberto Romero (removed by army)
1979-1992: Government (José Napoléon Duarte / Alfredo Cristiani) vs FMLN: Farabundo Marti Liberation National Front: 1/5 population seek refuge in neighboring countries. US aids government 1981-1989 (World Book)
1992: United Nations negotiates cease-fire.
1999: Francisco Flores Perez
2001: Less than 2% of all Salvadorans own an automobile. Most people travel by bus.
The Great Depression caused tremendous economic hardship & accelerated the growth of the labor movement -& labor unrest -in the region. The powerful landowners saw the labor movement as a threat. They supported civilian dictators who used the military to repress efforts to organize workers. Following an uprising by poor mestizos & Indians in El Salvador in 1932, the government killed about 10,000 people. – Steve C. Ropp, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science, University of Wyoming.
San Salvador [Roman Catholic Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdamez slain with a single bullet on March 27, 1980. During El Salvador’s 12 year civil war, the military was blamed for forming death squads that killed thousands. The day before he was killed, Romero publically criticized the army. A U.N. truth commission concluded that Maj. Roberto D’Aubuisson (d. 1992), a death squad leader who went on to found the current ruling party, the Nationalist Republican Alliance, had ordered Romero’s killing. Buried at the Metropolitan Cathedral, The Vatican is currently considering him for sainthood (Associated Press 99 #3)], El Monzote [1981: Massacre 1000+ civilians dead], University of Central America [1980: Death threats & 2 bombs], Sonsonate [Aprovecho a Cottage Grove, Oregon stove manufacturer created the Ecocina: Ecological Kitchen wood-burning stove. It emits 70% less smoke & uses 50% less wood than traditional Central American stoves. They deliver to women of Guatemala & El Salvador. El Salvador Factory in Sonsonate. Inefficient stoves & open fires were contributing to injuries & lung problems. (Eugene Weekly 131)]
War: Increased poverty, displacement, slums. Country faces problem of caring for war victims, including many orphans. Many wage earners left their families behind to search for jobs. (World Book)
Guatemala [Cuauhtêmallân: Place of Many Trees]
Nahuatl name
1520 AD: Spain’s Captaincy General of Guatemala.
1570: Audiencia de Guatemala High court of Spanish judges & administrators ruled most of Central America.
1695: José de Baños y Sotomayor, comisario of Guatemala’s Inquisition writes the Mexican Office of the Inquisition of mujersillas de mal vivir: worthless women who live evil lives
Sept. 15 1821: José Cecilio Del Valle’s (1780-1834) Declaration of Independence, proclaiming freedom from Spain.
1822: Mexico annexes Guatemala & imprisons Valle
1823: República Federal de Centroamérica: United Provinces of Central America: El Salvador [leaves Feb 1841], Guatemala [leaves 1839], Honduras [leaves Nov 5, 1838], Nicaragua & Costa Rica [leaves Feb 1838].
1839-1865: General Rafael Carrera
1873-1885: President Justo Rufino Barrios (assasinated) settles boundary dispute with Mexico
1906: United Fruit Company-Chiquita develops banana plantations.
1944: Jorgé Ubico (resigns)
1945-1951: President Juan José Arevalo
1951: Colonal Jacobo Arbenz Guzman takes over private land & distributes to landless peasants
1954: Minister Ernesto Che Guevara flees to Mexico when Guatemalan goverment overthrown.
1966: President Julio Cesar Mendez Montenegro
1967-1996: Guatemalan Civil War: Terror Raids
1982: General Angel Anibel Guevara (overthrown)
1983: General Efrain Rios Montt (overthown)
1984: Military leaders
1985-1991: President Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo
1991-1993: Jorgé Serrano Elias (overthrown)
1993-1996: Ramiro de León Carpio
1996-1999: Alvaro Arzu Irigoyan
1999: President Alfonso Portillo Cabrera
2010: Efrain Rios Montt denies in a press interview Worse than War : PBS: Public Broadcasting System targeting Mayan villages for genocide 25 years ago & has no idea where those missing 250,000 people are.
Mexico is to the North: Income: Exported farm products, especially coffee. The United States is Guatemala’s chief trading partner & imports much Guatemalan coffee Antigua [Former capital of Central American Republic], Guatemala City [Nation’s capital. 1/8 of the population. Located in the Highlands: cardamom area], Quezaltenango [Birthplace of President Barrios. The great dream of Barrios’ life was to form all the countries of Central America into a union. When he could not accomplish this by peaceful methods, he decided to use force. He was killed while leading his troops against those of El Salvador (World Book)], K’umarcaaj Utatlán, [Ancient capital of the Maya Quiché, burnt to the ground by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524], Tegucigalpa: Silver Hill [The Capital: Historical, religious, & scientific writing burned by the Inquisition], Tikal National Park [Mayan ruins in this tropical rainforest area of hardwood trees], Kaminaljuyu [Ancient City], Guatemala Volcan Tajumulco [13,845 ft volcano], Puerto Barrios [Carribean port where bananas are grown. Railroads join both coasts. People travel by bus. United Fruit Company is the largest landowner in Guatemala]. Chimel [1992: Nobel Peace Peace Prize Winner Rigoberta Menchu’s autobiography I, Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala. Her father, Vicente, mother, & brother murdered by the Guatemalan army in 1981 after organizing agricultural workers. She fled the country. Warfare: Guatemalans fled into the mountains, to Mexico, or to the United States. 1996: Alvaro Arzu Irigoyen’s government & opposition groups sign a peace agreement]
1502: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus
1524: Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba founds Granada & León.
1552: Named after Nicarao a chief defeated by Spanish Conquistador Gil Gonzalez de Avila.
1570: Audiencia de Guatemala High court of Spanish judges & administrators that ruled most of Central America. Nicaragua was part of the colony of New Spain, but the court had great power because it was so far from Mexico City, the colonial capital.
1638: British privateers invade Mosquito coast & massacre people. Slavery not abolished until 1824’s Emancipation Edict
1821: República Federal de Centroamérica: United Provinces of Central America: Nicaragua [leaves 1838], Guatemala, El Salvador [leaves Feb 1841], Honduras [leaves Nov 5, 1838] & Costa Rica [leaves Feb 1838].
Oct-Nov 1852: Federación de Centro América : El Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua.
1855: Soldier of fortune William Walker invades.
1856: Walker burns Granada in 1856 & becomes president through 1857. He writes The War in Nicaragua, is overthrown by Cornelius Vanderbilt with US forces; handed over to the British & executed in Honduras in 1860
1893: Venezuela Incident: US invades.
1901: President José Santos Zelaya (deposed) limits USA rights in proposed Nicaragua Canal zone. USA shifts attention to Panama as canal site. Zelaya threatens to sell rights to canal to a rival country of the United States & cancels contracts
1908-1933: Pacific War: USA marines invade. Government vs rebels. U.S. trained Nicaraguan Army: National Guard murder Augusto Cesar Sandino & supervise elections.
1937-1956: Anastacio Somoza Garcia (assasinated), Sandino’s murderer, rules Nicaragua.
1956-1967: Luis Somoza Garcia (brother)
1967-1979: Anastasio Somoza Debayle (brother: assasinated in Paraguay)
1979-1990: Nicaraguan War: Sandinista Government: Daniel José Ortega Saavedra
1990-1997: Violeta Barrios de Chamorro
1997: José Arnoldo Aleman Lacayo
2008: Daniel José Ortega Saavedra
Nicaragua major USA trade route between New York City & San Francisco through San Juan River. Pan American Highway: System of highways that extends from the United States-Mexican border to southern Chile Part of the Central American Common Market, an economic union of 5 nations
Granada [1522: People enslaved], León [1522: People enslaved], Managua [1850: Capital: 2008: Associated Press announces USA Anti-Poverty Development Program Millenium Challenge Corporation freezing aid for Nicaragua under Sandanista President Daniel Ortega. Coffee & cotton are Nicaragua’s leading sources of income], Rama Road [1968-1980: Built with U.S. aid. Connects Pacific & Caribbean coasts. Many populated areas cannot be reached by automobile, & people use mules or oxcarts. Nicaragua has an average of only about 1 automobile for every 100 people. There are some railways, all in the Pacific Region.]
1979-1990: Nicaraguan War: Sandanista Government vs National Guard: Contras. National Guard attacks from bases in Honduras. Mines placed in port harbors. Nicaraguan government declares state of emergency. United States trade embargo. Iran-Contra Affair: USA sells military equipment to Iran & provides military aid to Contras in Nicaragua, which Congress banned in 1983. Marine Lieutenant Colonel Oliver L. North, a NSC: National Security Council aide, charged with altering & destroying evidence & granted immunity from prosecution by testifiying. Former CIA agent Thomas G. Clines sentenced to 16 months for evading taxes on income from operations. In 1986, the International Court of Justice concluded the United States acted illegally in helping mine the Nicaraguan harbors & providing aid to the contras. Government aided by Soviet Union, Cuba, Western European nations, & other countries. UN Peacekeeping force sent in to oversea cease-fire. (World Book).
Bénin [Dahomey / Amazons / French West Africa]
700 BC-1728 AD / 1892: 3rd Kingdom: Fetishism Priests.1000s of women served in the army of the Dahomean kings & they were called the Amazon Corps. Dahomey Kingdom: Fon People: Vodun Priests
14th-19th cen: Bénin Kingdom: Edo People-Bini
1502: Portuguese King Manuel I
1524-5s: William Hawkins: Corporation of Plymouth Treasurer: Guinea / Sierra Leone / Brazilian slave trade
1624: French King Louis XII
1895-1960: Afrique Occidentale Française: French West Africa: 1/7 continent with Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), French Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire: Ivory Coast, Niger, French Sudan (Mali & Sénégal) & Mauritania
1903: Egbert Austin Williams & George Walker: In Dahomey : 1st All-Black Musical on Broadway in America
1959: Council of the Entente: Upper Volta [Maurice Yameogo], Dahomey [Mathieu Kerekou], Cote d’Ivoire [Felix Houphouet-Boigny], Niger [Hamani Diori]
1960: Independance
1971: Frank Garvin Yerby, The Dahomean / Man from Dahomey ©1971
1975: Name changed to Benin.
2001: Mathieu Kerekou still in power
Official Language: French
Bight of Bénin [Gulf of Guinea. Epicenter of the transatlantic slave trade. 15, 000 slaves per year or 5% of the population exported as part of the triangular trade],

Bénin City [Capital of the Bénin Empire. Bénin sculpture recounts the arrival of the Portuguese, in brass plaques & statuary. Bénin resisted signing a protectorate treaty with Great Britain through most of the 1880s-1890s. After 8 British representatives killed, a Punitive Expedition of 1897, under Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, conquered & burned the city, looted the sacred busts, displaying them in museums. Vicariate Apostolic of Benin says the 1902 population less than half a million], Porto-Novo: Newport [1600: Portuguese trading post. 1770: Center of the slave trade. 1960: Capital of Benin on an inlet of the Gulf of Guinea. Railroad & Oueme River connect the city with the interior country]

Brong Ahafo [Slaves for West African gold mines, ivory, kola nuts, sorghum & wheat plantations, shea butter, ostritch feathers, cloth]

Dahomey [1660: Kingdom invaded by French Franciscan missionaries. 1674: Dominican Father Gonsalvez & companions poisoned; 1699: An Augustinian escapes death by flight. No further attempt to plant the Faith in Dahomey is recorded until 1860, when Fathers Borg Fernandez, of the then newly founded Lyons Society of African Missions, arrived. Vicariate Apostolic of Dahomey established. 1880: France invades, women raped by French soldiers. Palm oil plantations. Ga people starved to death. 1892: French military expedition captures & exiles King Behanzim.]

Ketu [Home of the Ewe people. Fon a subdivision of the Ewe. Yam Festival September 19th. Slavery in the Ghana goldmines & saltmines]

Burkina Faso: Land of Honest People [Upper Volta / French West Africa]
Governmental Instability
Fulani Empire
1300 AD: Mossi Kingdom: Yatenga Region
1895-1960: Afrique Occidentale Française: French West Africa: 1/7 of continent: Dahomey (Bénin), French Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire: Ivory Coast, Niger, French Sudan (Mali & Sénégal) & Mauritania
1908-1958: Goumier: Moroccan, Algerian, French Sudan, Upper Volta soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Armee d’Afrique
1919-1932: Upper Volta
1932-1947: Dismantled & divided between Cote d’Ivoire, French Sudan & Niger
1947: Upper Volta recreated.
1959: Council of the Entente: Upper Volta [Maurice Yameogo], Dahomey [Mathieu Kerekou], Cote d’Ivoire [Felix Houphouet-Boigny], Niger [Hamani Diori]
1960: Independance
1966-1980: Labor Strike: General Sangoule Lamizana
1980: Colonel Saye Zerbo
1984: Burkina Faso
1987: President Captain Blaise Compaore
2 main cultural groups, Voltaic [Mossi, Bobo, Gurunsi, Lobi] & Mande [Boussance, Marka, Samo, Senufo]
The average wage in Burkina Faso is the cost of a TI: Texas Instruments 83 Calculator, so mathematics professors have their students do calculus by hand. Only 1/3 of children attend school.
The Black Volta, Red Volta, & White Volta rivers flow S. to Ghana’s Lake Volta. Small rivers in the east flow into the Niger River
Ouagadougou (WAH-GAH-doo-goo) [For over 800 years, the Mossi have had a kingdom with a central government headed by the Moro Naba: Mossi chief A Moro Naba still holds court in Ouagadougou, the principal Mossi city. Governmental instability during the 1970s & 1980s. University of Ouagadougou the nation’s only university], Bobo Dioulasso [Bobo people. Airport], Koudougou [Gurunsi people], Gaoua Region [Lobi work as migrant laborers in & around the cities. Several hundred, thousand farm workers migrate S. every year to Côte d’Ivoire: Ivory Coast & Ghana. Children from Burkina Faso & Mali migrate to the Ivory Coast, where they hope to find work, particularly in cocoa plantations. There are many stories of these youngsters winding up as virtual slaves on the plantations, yet the flow continues, because conditions back home are so bad. (Prof. Brett Wallach)]
Bhutan: Sanskrit for Highlands [Druk Yul: Dragon Land]
Between India & Tibet, China
800 AD: Tibetans settle among the Bhutia Tephoo.
1600 -1700: Tibetan Lama ruler of religious & state affairs from Sikkim. England seizes
1865: 2nd Opium War (Arrow War) / Bhutanese Massacre: English kill.
1907: 1st King: Ugyen Wangchuk
1910-1959: British India takes control
1959: China claims. Bhutan recieves communications & power.
1985: SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, & Sri Lanka.
2001: Hereditary monarchy. Official language: Dzongkha, a Tibetan dialect.
Paro Tsechu: 6 day festival where dried yak meat is eaten. Deer Dance tells of Guru Padma Sambhava who taught Buddhism by traveling through the country on the back of a deer.
E. Himalayas: E. Abode of Snow. Thimphu / Thimbu capital city on the Wong Chu River. Tashichhodzong monastery government offices & Buddhist monks. The king lives in Dechenchholing Palace. – World Book Encyclopedia ©1998
1980s Bhutanese political dissidents, civilians, Nepalese expelled or fled to Nepal, where they were admitted into United Nations-run camps
Bolivia: General Simon Bolivar [Upper Peru]
Avanguardia Nazionale [National Socialist Guard]
1776: Viceroyalty of La Plata: Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay & part of Bolivia, Brazil, Chile
1824: Peru wins independance from Spain. Upper half named after Venezuelan General Simon Bolivar. He is president of Gran Colombia: Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Ecuador, Peru & Bolivia
1879-1893: War of the Pacific: Spain formally recognizes Bolivia’s independance. Chile seizes coastline.
1932-1938: Chaco War: Bolivia cedes Grand Chaco to Paraguay
1946: Augusto Cespedes, mining. Natural gas.
1952-1964: President Victor Paz Estenssoro. Government breaks up large estates.
1967: Ernesto Che Guevarra, Fidel Castro’s main executioner, killed trying to seize Bolivia. Hugo Banzer in power
1980: Luis García Meza Tejada in power with help of Fascist Stefano Delle Chiaie who founded the Avanguardia Nazionale & Nazi War Criminal Klaus Barbie
Falange Socialista Boliviana is a political party
2008: President Evo Morales.
Professor Bret Wallach: More than half the people of all the Andean countries, with the exception of Chile, live below the poverty line. Coca harvest in Bolivia from 270 million tons in 1996 to 300 million in 2003. Languages: Spanish, Quecha, Aymara
La Paz [Nazi War Criminal Klaus Barbie (129), Sept 2008: USA places nation on anti-narcotics blacklist. according to Tony Shannon, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs. Bolivia is the world’s 3rd largest producer of coca after Colombia & Peru. (99: 7)], Sucre [1828-1829: Bolivar General Antonio José de Sucre. Supreme Court meets here], Santa Cruz [1829-1839: Bolivar General Andres de Santa Cruz. He was overthrown.]
1541: Spanish soldiers kill Incan rulers Manco & Sayri Tupac; kill each other for gold & kill Pizarro. Titu Cusí & son Tupac Amaru: Shining Serpent in Quecha go to war.
1550 AD: Peruvian Inquisition: Inca Empire that extends from Panama to Chile demolished under Spanish King Philip II Habsburg & Queen Mary I Bloody Mary of England. 30+ million killed, only 1.3 million remain.
Moche people: pyramids
1595: Marques de Mendoza, Spanish viceroy of Peru: Spanish South America
1700: Bogotá becomes the capital city of The Viceroyalty of New Granada which contained the areas that are now: Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Panama.
18th Century: Great Rebellion in the Andes: Under Tupac Amaru II
1718: War of the Quadruple Alliance: Philip V Habsburg-Bourbon grants the English exclusive right to slave trading in Spanish America for 30 years, the so-called asiento (Brudel 1984 p 418)
1811-1814: Bernardo O’Higgins Spanish viceroy of Peru (flees to Argentina).
1826: Venezuelan General Simon Bolivar & Argentian General José de San Martin with an army of Argentines & Chileans establish independance.
1827: 1st President: General José de la Mar
1845: General Ramon Castilla ends tribute Indian workers had to pay employers
1879-1883: War of the Pacific: Spain formally recognizes Peru’s independance. Chilean troops seizes Peru’s southern provinces of Tacna, Arica, & Tarapaca. Treaty of Ancon: Chile keeps captured Peruvian provinces.
1895: President Nicholas de Peirola: U.S. firm W. R. Grace & Co textile mill, sugar plantations & refineries.
1901: Cerro de Pasco Corporation: US Businessmen develop copper deposits.
1921: President Augusto B. Leguia borrows money from U.S. Banks. International Petroleum Company-Standard Oil (New Jersey), now Exxon Mobil seizes oil deposits.
1931: Presidential candidate Victor Raul Haya de la Torres’ APRA: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana demands equal rights, loses to Colonel Luis Sánchez Cerro, whose government kills hundreds of APRA supporters
WWII: President Manuel Prado
1992: President Alberto Fujimori suspends constitution.
2001: President Valentin Paniagua. Languages: Spanish, Quecha
Lima [1541: Spanish establish their capital here. 1556: Inquisition Museum contains punishment cells. Sacred books burnt under Diego de LLanda. Ratline home of SS Friedrich Schenk, Operation Bernhard: Forger of British Currency for the Reich Effort, Odessa: an organization of NAZI war criminals (129)], Vilcabamba [1572: Francisco de Toledo sends an envoy. Inca soldiers murder him & desert the city. The citadel according to missonaries have secret rites by the Virgins of the Sun, who worship a fabulous golden disc], Machu Picchu [Inca fortress. Amautas responsible for communicating history. Family divinities are the huacas, sacred boulders. Ocarina flute], Ayacucho [1823: General Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated a large Spanish force. Remaining Spanish troops held only the city of Callao. They finally surrendered in 1826 (121)]
Brazil: Portuguese for Glowing Ember Tree [Brasil]
Quilombo [Slave Refugee Camp] / Bandeirantes [Brazilian Slavers]
1500: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus’ Commander Vicente Yanez Pinzon (bee THEHN teh YAH nyehth peen THAHN) of the Nina & Captain Pedro Álvares Cabral invade. Cabral names it Brazil after the rainforest.
1495-1521: King Manuel I of Portugal
1554-1578 : King Sebastião
1527-1598: Philip II of Spain & Queen Mary I of England
1604-1656: Dom João IV
1734-1816: Dona Maria I
1817-1831: Pedro I
1823-1841: Argentine-Brazilian War / War of Independence: Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias (1803-1880) Adjutant of the battalion of the Emperor Pedro I & Minister of War pacifies local disturbances in São Paulo, Minas Gerais, & Rio Grande do Sul States & overthrows Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas
1851-1889: Pedro II & daughter Princess Isabel Orléans-Braganza (1846-1921)
1865-1870: War of the Triple Alliance: Argentina, Brazil, & Uruguay defeat Paraguay. 60% Paraguay's population decimated. Caxias leads operations against Paraguay. Uruguay created by British mediation
1889: Battle of Mona Passage: Pedro II overthrown by United Fruit Company General Manoel Deodoro da Fonseca [Frederick AdamsConquest of the Tropics,1914] with the help of the US Navy
1900: Bubonic Plague
Cândido Mariano da Silva Rondon (1865-1958) 1st Director of the SPI: Servico de Protecao aos Indios: Indian Protection Service
1901: Pacifies the Bororo Indians
1906: Forges telegraphic links from Corumbá & Cuiabá to Paraguay & Bolivia
1907: Pacifies the Nambikuára Indians
1930-1954:Estado Novo: Getulio Vargas
1955: Juscelino Kubitschek
2003: Half the country’s income goes to a tenth of its people. President Lulu da Silva, pledged his top priority was ending hunger. Favelas: slums.
Caboclo, noun, pl. -clos. A person descended wholly or in part from the native American Indians of Brazil.
Salvador da Bahia State [1502: Imperial wealth from sugar cane slave plantations. 1871: Lei do Ventre Livre: Law of Free Birth children born to slaves would be free. 1888: Lei Áurea: Golden Law slavery abolished. 2003: More than half the sugar cane crop is cut mechanically, & more than half the country’s cane cutters have lost their jobs. Debt slavery holds 1000s of Brazilians prisoner on guarded ranches (Wallach 91)]

Gurupi River Valley [1928: Urubu pacified],

Palmares [1697: quilombo destroyed. Zumbi (1655-1695), leader flees & killed]

Minas Gerais [1695: gold plundered & mined financing Europe’s Industrial Revolution], Copacabana [Incan City]

Rio Doce Valley: 12 River Valley[1911: Pacification of the Botocudo Indians] (Vidas Lusófonas: 152),

Rio de Janeiro: River of January [Inhabitants of Rio are called cariocas: white man’s house. 1555: Sir Francis Drake, a slave trader in the Carribean, destroys 2.5 million Brazilian Tupi-Guarani & Tapuya. 1831: Caxias’ police battalions. 1900: bubonic plague.Instituto Soroterápico Federal : Federal Serum-Therapeutic Institute: Baron Pedro Afonso &Instituto de Manguinhos o Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública: Public Health General Board: Oswaldo Cruz]

Pará [yellow fever], Salvador [1530-1767: Capital], Brasilia [1960: Replaced Rio as capital]

Parana [NAZI Dr. Josef Mengele performs abortions without anesthesia]

Santa Catarina: Saint Grain Queen Protector [1914: Rondon pacifies the Xokleng & receives the Livingstone Prize from the American Geographical Society],

São Paulo: Saint Paul [‘Jesuit priests such as Manoel da Nóbrega & José de Anchieta founded several towns in Brazil in the 16th century, including São Paulo & Rio de Janeiro, & were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion & education of Indian nations’ 1847: Santos to São Paulo: Coffee exports from fazendas: plantations through English railroads. 1912: Rodon pacifies Kaingáng Indians. Nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize. 1920: 350,000 to 10 million bags. 2004: Brazil supplies half the world’s coffee. Coffee is the 2nd most valuable commodity in world trade next to oil (Wallach 91)], Mato Grosso [Ferronorte railroad connects to Santos Port], Itacoatiara [Private barges float a million tons of Brazilian beans down the Madeira River to the Amazon where the crop is removed by giant vacuums & dumped in freighters (Wallach 91); Madeira River: Wood River: Parintintim pacified. Rondon demands that each pacified tribe is protected by the Army &, later, by the State. He demarcates each tribal territory & tries to register it as the collective property of the tribe] Sepotuba [1918: Umotina pacified], Rio das Mortes Valley: River of the Dead Valley [1946: Xavante pacified. 1952: Xingu Indigenous Park, 1953: Rondon inaugurates the Museum of the Indian]

Burundi [Deutsch-Ostafrika: German East Africa / Belgian Urundi]
Genocide: IDP: Internal Displaced Person Camps
E. of Congo
1885-1916: Berlin Kongokonferenz: German East Africa
Governors: 1889-1891 & 1895-6: Hermann von Wissmann, 1891-1893 Julius von Soden, 1893-1895 Friedrich von Schele, 1896-1901 Eduard von Liebert, 1901-1906 Gustav Adolf von Götzen, 1906-1912 Albrecht von Rechenberg, 1912-1918 Heinrich Albert Schnee
1916 -1962: United Nations Trust Territory administered by Belgium. Belgium has the multi-racial party leader assasinated. Military dictatorship.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Charter of the United Nations) in 1948, ‘The Declaration, an international law reinforcement of the Nuermberg Trial Judgements, upholds the rights of one nation to intervene in the affairs of another if said nation is abusing its citizens, & rose out of a 1939-1945 World War II Atlantic environment of extreme social split: at the one extreme, the heaven of many well-paying jobs for the desirable haves; on the other, the hell of homelessness all the way to concentration camps for the undesirable have-notsWikipedia: Homelessness
1965: Prime Minister Pierre Ngendandumwe (assasinated)
1965: Leopold Biha (assasinated)
1966: President Michel Micombero establishes Republic of Burund
The southernmost source of the Nile is the Ruvironza River in Burundi. It is included in an area called the Great Rift Valley that contains the northern part of Lake Tanganyika.

1976: Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza Watutsi-dominated military regime. According to Wikipedia his ‘human rights record deteriorated as he suppressed religious activities & detained political opposition members.’
1987: Major Pierre Buyoya’s CSMN: Military Committee for National Salvation: 150,000+ killed
1993: Burundi Civil War: Wahutu President Melchior Ndadaye kidnapped & assasinated. Government fighting against rebels. Tens of thousands killed

Usumbura [1968: Capital. Police state with barricaded checkpoints, french-speaking military with machine guns, semi-automatic weapons & tanks]

Bujumbura [Capital City. NE corner of Lake Tanganyika. Boats carry goods to Kigoma in Tanzania, & Kalemi in Congo. 1884: Germany seizes. 1899: Burundian king Mwezi Gisabo against German armed forces. 1905-1914: half of the population is starved to death.]

Mpamarugama Camp [N. Area of Giteranyi, close to Rwanda border]

Muyinga [16 camps in this province alone]

Cambodia [Kampuchea / Union Indochinoise: French Indochina]
Prolai puch sah [People Murder]
DeHoMag-CEC: Companie Electro-Comptable de France
Machines used by the French War Ministry in France’s colonies of North Africa & Indochina
1880: Union Chinoise: French Indochina
1954: Cease-fire agreement establishes independence of Cambodia, Laos, & South Vietnam. North Vietnam under communist government.
1969: President Richard M. Nixon authorizes bombing of North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia; over the next 4 years dropping more than a half million tons of bombs on Cambodia. Estimated dead 600,000+. War Powers Resolution: USA Congress refused to provide money for bombing beyond Aug. 15, 1973. Power to halt use of any U.S. armed forces the President has ordered into combat abroad.

Angkar: Khmer Rouge
King Norodom Sihanouk
chosen by the Vichy Government in 1941
President: Khieu Samphan (alive)
Prime Minister: Nuon Chea (alive)
Pol Pot’s brother-in-law
General Secretary: Saloth Sar Pol Pot (dead)
Deputy Prime Minister: Ieng Sary (alive)
SW Regional Secretary: Ta Mok ‘Chhit Chhoeun’ (alive)
Defense Minister: Son Sen (executed )
Defense Minister: Yun Yat (dead)
North Zone Regional Secretaries: Ke Pauk (dead) & Ieng Thirith (alive)

Angkor [100 AD: Funan Kingdom, 600 AD: Chenla. 800-1431: Angkor Empire seized by Siam then in 1880 by France as part of Union Chinoise: French Indochina. Khmer Rouge base], Battambang & Siemreab Provinces [French-Indochina rubber plantations connected by railroads to Phnom Penh. 1929: Great Depression: rice cultivators victims of moneylenders], Ek [Killing Fields: Khmer Rouge closed schools, hospitals, factories, confiscating all private property & relocating people from urban areas to collective forced labor farms. Abolished banking, finance, currency, outlawing all religions. 3.3 million+ estimated dead. Buddhist stupa with 5,000 skulls. Mass grave with 8,000 bodies], Tuol Sleng: Hill of Poisonous Trees [S-21 torture prison in Phnom Penh. Museum records state that of the 20,000 prisoners there only 7 have survived. Skull map of 300 bones dismantled in 2002. Leg irons. Executions by sharpened bamboo sticks, buried in mass graves. January 7, 1979 Vietnamese troops capture Phnom Penh, deposing the Khmer Rouge. Khmer Rouge retreat to the west, controlling an area near the Thai border for the next decade, setting off landmines & smuggling diamonds until 1999. Most of the remaining Khmer Rouge leaders live in the Pailin area or are hidden in Phnom Penh.], Svay Pak [2010: 5000 person slum 6 miles north of Phnomh Penh where child prostitutes are sold nightly for . Called the Pedophile Capital of Cambodia according to Stephen Maganini. Nearly every family in town has sold their girls. Sex traffickers bring more girls bought or stolen from families in rural Vietnam.]
Laos [Lan Xhang: Hundred Elephants / Union Indochinoise: French Indochina]
DeHoMag-CEC: Companie Electro-Comptable de France
Machines used by the French War Ministry in France’s colonies of North Africa & Indochina
500 BC: Plain of Jars Culture
800 AD-1353AD: Khmer Empire
1353: Lan Xhang Kingdom: Prince Fa Ngum
1828: Lan Xhang seized by Siam
1885: Union Indochinoise: French Indochina
1954: Geneva Accords: Cease-fire establishes independence of Cambodia, Laos, & South Vietnam. 2 NE provinces under Souphanouvong,’s Pathet Lao. Rest is Royal Lao Government with Prime Minister Souvanna Phouma
1957: Reunited under Royal Lao Government
1959-1963: Laotian Civil War
World Book: Vietnam War: From mid-1960s until 1973, U.S. warplanes heavily bombed sections of Laos
1975: Pathet Lao abolishes monarchy, seizes farms & factories & persecutes Buddhists: 1000s of Hmong & other Laotians flee Laos.
Mid-1980s: Government returns farms & some industries to private ownership.
Lao is a Tai language that is the official language.
Lao Lum: Lao of the lowlands: Tai Languages: Lao, Lu, Phuan, & Tai tribes. Wat: Buddhist temple social center of village.
Lao Thoeng: Lao of the mountain slopes: Mon-Khmer languages: Khmu, Lamet, Alak, Laven, Oy: Animists.
Lao Sung: Lao of the mountaintops: Tibeto-Burman or Hmong-Mien languages: Hmong / Meo / Miaw & Yao / Iu Mien: Animism.
Mekong River [(pronounced MAY-kawng): In Laos, canoes traditionally opened a path through the water of the Mekong so that mythical serpents could come forth & bring rain to the rice fields], French Vientiane-Viangchan [Capital Kingdom of the Lan Xhang destroyed by Thailand & re-built. 1563: Patron Saint is the young woman Sao-Si to whose memory Simouang Wat: Temple is dedicated. 2001: Capital of the nation], Ho Chi Minh Trail [supply line for N. Vietnam bombed by US].
The Hmong raise most of Laos’s opium poppies; used to make heroin.
Globetrekker: There are land mines all over the country. Visitors are advised by the BBC’s Globetrekker program not to buy shrapnel from area sellers as it can still explode.
Vietnam: Southern Yue Kingdom [Annam / Union Indochinoise: French Indochina]
McDonald’s: Keyhinge Toy factory / M-B Sales Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City [1997: 220 workers making Happy Meals toys exposed to acetone & made ill. Paid 6 U.S.¢ an hour. McDonalds denies that Keyhinge workers were ever poisoned.]
Mass Graves
DeHoMag-CEC: Companie Electro-Comptable de France
Machines used by the French War Ministry in France’s colonies of N. Africa & Indochina
200 BC: General Zhao Tuo / Trieu Da: Nam Viet.
111 BC: China names Jiao Zhi / Giao Chi
190 AD: Funan (Mekong Delta) & Champa Kingdoms (Central Vietnam)
500 AD: Khmer conquer Funan
679 AD: Chinese change name to Annam: Pacified South
939 AD: Independance
1009-1225: Ly Dynasty
1225-1400: Tran Dynasty
1427-1787: Ly Dynasty: Named Dai Viet: Great South
1500-1673: Civil War: Northern Trinh family vs Southern Nguyen family. Roman Catholic missionaries arrive.
1787: Tay Son brothers remove Le rulers
1802 AD: Ruler Nguyen Anh names Vietnam
1858: France seizes
1876-1879: French Indochina War / Treaty of Huê: 13 million+ Chinese die in famine. Francis Garnier, Indochina administrator.
1883: France divides country into 3 areas: Cochin China (southern Vietnam), Annam (central Vietnam), & Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
1894: Sino-French / Franco-Chinese War: French 3rd Republic vs Qing Empire for control of the Red River, that links Hanoi to the resource-wealthy Yunnan province in China. France re-seizes Vietnam & adds it to French-Indochina.
1940-1945: Japan seizes
1946-1975: Vietnam War: France vs Vietminh. Vietnamese defeat French at Dien Bien Phu after years of fighting. Cease-fire agreement establishes independence of Cambodia, Laos, & South Vietnam. North Vietnam under communist government. USA sends in military advisors in 1955, begins large-scale bombing of North Vietnam in 1965. Viet Cong receive war materials from Soviet Union & China.
1976: Country unified
1979: The Vet Center program was established by Congress in 1979 in recognition that a significant number of Vietnam veterans were still experiencing adjustment problems (OEF Review 58)
Hanoi [Capital of Vietnam: The images of body bags sent home from Vietnam, of Buddhist Monks immolating (to kill as a sacrifice) themselves, of 4 student protesters killed by the national guard at Kent State (268)], Hue [City], Ho Chi Minh City / Cholon / Saigon [The Largest City in Vietnam. 1859: French seize Saigon. Many Vietnamese worked on French-developed rubber plantations. A new class of wealthy landowners emerged under French rule. Vietnamese Famine 1945: Ho Chi Minh says 2 million+ starved to death due to witholding food crops. Governor Jean Decoux in À la barre de l’Indochine says 1 million. 1975: President Nguyen Van Thieu resigns & accuses the United States of having led the South Vietnamese people to death. U.S. helicopters evacuate Americans & South Vietnamese from the rooftop of the U.S. Embassy. Gen. Duong Van Minh, announces on radio the nation has surrendered. Nguyen Trung Kien, a 20-year-old female guerrilla, raises the flag of the Viet Cong’s provisional revolutionary government over the presidential palace in Saigon. Afterwards, many forests cleared to grow coffee to make them the world’s 2nd largest coffee producer, after Brazil. Kraft, Sara Lee, Procter & Gamble & Nestlé buy between themselves half the world crop], Another program sent many southerners to reeducation camps, which were essentially concentration camps for political prisoners. Over a million people, including people both of Vietnamese & Chinese ancestry, left the country as refugees. In addition, thousands of Chinese were expelled. Many refugees left Vietnam in small boats, risking drowning & pirate attacks in the South China Sea. These refugees became known as boat people. They went to countries in Southeast Asia, where they stayed in refugee camps until they could be relocated. Many later moved to the United States. In the mid-1990s, the United Nations & countries that housed or helped pay for the camps closed nearly all of them. Most of the remaining refugees were sent back to Vietnam (133), Haiphong [3rd largest city. 2001: Vietnam’s people include about 11/4 million Tay, 1 million Thai, 1 million Chinese, & 900,000 Khmer], Gulf of Tonkin [Red River Delta], My Lai [1968: Lt. William L. Calley, convicted of murder, & U.S. Charlie Company soldiers murder civilians], Buon Ma Thuot [N Vietnam sends 100,000 soldiers], Hue & Danang [largest military base N. of Saigon]
Cameroun: Shrimp in Portuguese [Fulani Empire]
Zone de PacificationW. Africa: Nigeria NW, Chad NE, Congo S.
1st inhabitants the Baka / Bakola people. Fulani Empire stretched from Burkina Faso on the Upper Volta to Cameroun
800-1846 AD: Kanem Empire
1502: Invaded by Portugal. Portuguese cameroes meaning Shrimp
1884 Berlin Kongokonferenz: Triple Alliance: Invaded by Germany, called the Kameruns
1918: Handed to England & France after WWI
1922: Split into the British Cameroons & French Cameroun
1960: Independance from France
1961: N. British Cameroons part of Nigeria. S. British Cameroons part of Cameroun.
Gulf of Guinea [1970s: Petroleum], Douala [Douala People. Ruled by Germany 1884-1916], Yaounde [1888: Capital city founded by Germans. Another disturbing one is ZAPI: Zones d’Action Prioritaires Integrees], Maka-Njem [Maka & Ndjemé people. Languages Maka & Koozime. From Chad. Ivory trade before being used as forced plantation labor by the Germans], Mt Cameroon-Victoria [1858: English missionary city]
Canada: Iroquois for Villages [New France / French North America]
Slave Ships
Messrs Lambert & Co [1779-1874: Photos of iron maiden, black hole, leg irons, thumbscrew, rack, punishment ball & gaols related to the British East India Company’s Lancashire convict ship, Success finally set on fire by vandals in 1946], Nanaimo, Vancouver [London’s Hudson’s Bay Company used indentured servants into the late 1800s]
Land Theft
1534: King Francis I of France sends Jacques Cartier to North America for gold & diamonds for the King of France. Là il a planté une croix dans le sol, et il a pris possession de la région au nom du roi de France: There he planted a cross in the soil, & he took possession of the region in the name of the King of France.
1535: Cartier’s 2nd expedition: Il a découvert l’éstuaire d’un grand fleuve qu’il appelé le Saint-Laurent: He discovers the estuary of a grand river which he names the Saint Lawrence.
1542-1543: Jean-François de La Rocque, Sieur de Roberval invades the Saguenay River in search of a fabled kingdom of gold & returns to France with few surviving colonists after famine, disease, & mutiny
1607: English Muscovy Company hires Henry Hudson (?-1611) on ship Hopewell to find a N. sea route to Asia.
Filles de roi: Women of the King are French slaves brought to Québec
1609: Dutch East India Company hires Hudson: Hudson River, Hudson Bay.
1610: Hudson’s ship Discovery to Hudson Strait. Crew mutinies & sets Hudson adrift in a small boat with his son, John, & 7 crewmen. Hudson & his party never seen again.
1633: Etienne Brule murdered by the Huron
1642: Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve seizes the Indian village of Hochelaga & names it Montréal
1651: Pierre Esprit Radisson & brother-in-law, Medard Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers’ Hudson’s Bay Company under English King Charles II explore Lake Superior
1663: King Louis XIV makes Nouvelle France: New France a royal province of France. He sends troops to Canada to fight the Iroquois. Governor Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac. Coureurs de bois develop fur trade Landholders called seigneurs: nobles bring farmers called habitants.
1689-1763: French & Indian Wars: France & England fight 4 wars for control of North America. England wins
1774: Spanish fleet under Juan Perez sights Columbia
1789: Spain claims Nootka Sound area of Columbia
1800s: English Government assign people they call Indians to reserves
1846: US-Mexican War: Part of Columbia ceded to the United States
1867: British North America Act: Dominion of Canada.
1871: British Columbia Province
1876: Indian Act: People who meet the legal definition of an Indian known as status Indians. They do not have to pay taxes on reserve property. They cannot vote & are denied many civil rights held by Canadian citizens. Parliament passes legislation calling for elected tribal governments to replace traditional hereditary leadership. Children sent to boarding schools.
1889: Sir Donald Alexander Smith, Baron of Strathcona & Mount Royal (1820-1914): Railroad builder [Canadian Pacific Railway], financier [Bank of Montréal], statesman [Dominion House of Commons: 1871-1880 & 1887-1896, 1896-1906: Canadian High Commissioner in London], philanthropist [McGill University President & Chancellor]: Governor of Hudson’s Bay Company.
1896-1911: Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier: Conscription to Boer War
1951: Indian Act: Enfranchisement: Voluntary rejection by male status Indians of their tribal identity. In choosing to become enfranchised, Indian men gained the right to vote & other privileges held by non-Indians & lost their legal & treaty rights as well as their right to live on a reserve.
1966: DIAND: Department of Indian Affairs & Northern Development.
1982: Constitution Act : Recognizes the English monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as queen of Canada.
1985: Indian Act: Amended so Indian women would no longer automatically forfeit their Indian status if they married non-Indian men.
1989: Hudson’s Bay Company ends fur-trading business. It ranks as Canada’s largest department store retailer.
2001: Indians & Inuit make up 2% of the nation’s population. (World Book)

British Home Children: My Father was a reserved and solitary man, who quietly stood at the fringe of conversations when others spoke of their past or families. His family was a mystery to him. He did not know who he was. He never had a Birth Certificate, and for the first 33 years of his life, had nothing to verify who he was. From the age of 33-48, he carried a tattered “To Whom it May Concern” letter for identification. It stated his name and identified him as “of British nationality.” For the first half of his life, he had serious doubts if his surname was really “Snow.” He wondered if someone had simply invented it and assigned it to him. When he was 48 years old, he obtained a Baptism Certificate that confirmed his name, and identified his Mother, but not his Father. From the age of 48-64, this was all he had for identification. When he was 64 years old, he received his Canadian Citizenship. All his life, he tried to identify his Parents and Family – and find out who he was. He became a ward of the Church of England Society for Providing Homes for Waifs & Strays when he was 4 years old in 1913. They placed him in a foster home in a small village in England from the age of 4-12. They then transferred him to a Home for Boys from the age of 12-15. When he was 15, they gave him the “choice” of emigrating to Australia or Canada. No one wanted him in England. They shipped him to Canada and sent him to work on farms in Ontario and Quebec. He was part of the little-known British Child Emigration Scheme. 50 childcare organizations emigrated 100,000 children between 1880-1930 to Canada. These children ranged in age from 6-15 years old, and were known as “The Home Children.” The organizations professed a dominant motive of providing children with better lives than what they might have had in England, but they had other ignoble motives. Children worked as indentured farm labourers in harsh conditions until they were 18 years old. They were not allowed to go to school. They were not entitled to medical care. They had little protection under the law. They were not paid for their farm labour of 16 hours per day and 6 days per week. A third to a half of these children were neglected and abused, because the British organizations did not provide adequate inspections of their placements. They operated outside the control of the fledgling colony of Canada. The British Home Children were not voluntary “migrants” who “emigrated” to new lands. They were commodities that were deported because they were unwanted in Britain. The organizations expelled, banished, abandoned, and forgot them. A ‘scheme’ can be defined as a visionary plan, a foolish project, or a selfseeking, and underhanded plot. I prefer to call it the British Child Deportation Scheme. – Professor Snow

WorkhousesNunavut: Our Land in Inukitut: Inuit: 1999 [(Pronounced: NOO-nuh-voot): Arctic: (1) Aleuts live on the Aleutian Islands; (2) Inuit; (3) Yuit live in Alaska & Siberia. Englishman Martin Frobisher arrives at Baffin Island in 1576. Inuit of Alaska kill him. 1670: King Charles II of England grants part of Nunavut to Hudson’s Bay Company. The company owned a vast area called Rupert’s Land], Northwest Territories: The North West Company: 1770 [Inuvialuit Inuit: People live here. Sahtu Gotine: Bear Lake Indians, Chipewyan; Dogrib; Gwich’in, also called the Kutchin; Hare; & Slavey. 1770: North West Company in Montréal competes with Hudson’s Bay Company. 1821: North West Company & Hudson’s Bay Company merge. 1895: Northwest Territories established: 2 geographic areas: the Mackenzie Valley: Alexander MacKenzie 1789 & the High Arctic. 1930: Radium Mine on the shore of Great Bear Lake], Yukon Territory: Youcon: Gwich’in for Greatest River: 1848 [1848: Yukon River: Tlingit & Gwich’in languages: Hudson’s Bay Company Robert Campbell seizes & establishes Fort Selkirk for the company’s fur-trading empire Chilkat Indians loot & burn post. 1898: Klondike Gold Rush has it separate from NW Territories into its own territory.], British Columbia Province: 1774 [Spanish Columbia] [1774: Spanish fleet under Juan Perez sights region. 1789: Spain claims Nootka Sound area because of Perez’s voyage, & Line of Demarcation. England & Spain receive equal trading rights. Athabaskans in the north & Salish in the southern interior the most numerous groups at the time of European arrival. Haida, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Tsimshian peoples. 1846: US-Mexican War: Part ceded to the United States. 1871: British Columbia Province in return for construction of a railway to the Pacific Coast. 1958: Alaska-British Columbia War: U.S. Navy’s 1st nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus sails under the North Pole. 1960: Triton travels underwater around world. Seadragon navigates Northwest Passage.] Alberta Province: Princess Louise Caroline Alberta of England: 1754 [Invaded by Hudson’s Bay Co. Anthony Henday promotes trade with Blackfoot Indians. 1789: Alexander Mackenzie, agent of the North West Company traveled from the western tip of Lake Athabasca in present-day Alberta to the McKenzie River. 1882: Princess marries Canadian Governor General, The Marquess of Lorne. 1885: Canada’s transcontinental railroad] Manitoba Province: Manito waba: Great Spirit’s Strait in Algonquian: 1612 [The manito: great spirit makes the echoing sounds from a strait of Lake Manitoba. Waves dashing against limestone ledges on the shore. 1612: Sir Thomas Button invades Chippewa, Assiniboine & Cree land. 1738: Fur trader Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Verendrye (pron, lah vay RAHN dree) builds Fort Rouge, Winnipeg. 1770: Samuel Hearne explores Manitoba to Coppermine River of the Arctic. 1812: Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk establishes Red River Colony in Manitoba, Minnesota & North Dakota. Red River Rebellion (1869-1870). 2001: The Court of Queen’s Bench hears all major civil & criminal cases. It consists of a chief justice & 33 associate justices. The governor general in council appoints all of Manitoba’s higher-court judges. Manitoba has 185 incorporated cities, towns, villages, & rural municipalities. Each is governed by a council headed by a mayor or a reeve. French language discontinued1890]Saskatchewan Province: Kis-is-ska-tche-wan: Cree for Fast Flowing / River That Turns Around When it Runs: 1612 [1885: Saskatchewan River. NW Rebellion a.k.a Louis Riel Rebellion: Cree Indian Chief Opeteca-hanawaywin a.k.a Poundmaker (1826-1886) ’s people suffering from shortages of food. Band raids Battleford, Saskatchewan. Dies in prison. Riel hung. 2,500 reserves (reservations) – World Book ©2001], Ontario Province: Iroquois: Beautiful Lake [Upper Canada]: 1615 Referring to Niagara Falls. Toronto (previously York) the largest city & home of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Belleville Co. Home [Ontario: 1887: George Francis Train crusaded against Pauper Auctions] Prime Minister of Canada Dec 1894-April 1896: Belleville Intelligencer Newspaper Owner, Orange Order Leader & School Board Chair Sir Mackenzie Bowell (1823-1917) Officer of hardware, insurance, & railroad companies. Chosen by the Marquis of Aberdeen & Temair.Children ’s Friend Society / West Kirk Workhouse [1833 sold 200 children out as slaves in Canada], Québec Province: Kebec: Algonquian for Place Where the River Narrows [Lower Canada]: 1535 [1535: Jacques Cartier names Gulf of St. Lawrence & sails to France with 2 Iroquois chief’s sons & corn. Attacked by Iroquois. St. Lawrence a main transportation route for the huge cargoes of furs, timber, wheat, & Canadian exports shipped to England. 1608: Samuel de Champlain vs Iroquois.1759: Battlefield at Plains of Abraham: France loses Canada to England. 1990: Mohawk clash with Canadian armed forces over expansion of Québec city-owned golf course onto ancestral burial grounds. Disputed land turned over to the Mohawk, 550,000 Canadians registered as Indians by the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs & Northern Development.: World Book Encyclopedia © 1998], New Brunswick Province: British Royal Family of Brunswick-Luneburg: House of Hanover: 1535 [Acadia] 1842: Aroostock War: New Brunswick vs Maine. 1930-1935: Imperial Conference of the British Commonwealth: British House of Lords Viscount Richard Bedford Bennett of Calgary, & Hopewell, Prime Minister of Canada establishes Bank of Canada & broadcasting.
Saint John Co. Almshouse [Founded 1795 in New Brunswick children starved & made to work until dead. 1846: William Craig raped Ann Payton. she bore his child. found not guilty received Irish famine emigrants who died of typhus & cholera from contaminated water. Province in 1784 for United Empire Loyalists among several 1000 Micmac & Maliseet Indians.] Terre-Neuve Province: French for Newfoundland: 1542 [1542: Jean-François de La Rocque, Sieur de Roberval with 200 colonists. 1543: Famine, disease, & mutiny: Newfoundland’s Beothuk Indians were susceptible to the diseases Europeans brought with them. 1763: Treaty of Paris: Innu-Naskapi’s Labrador: Llavrador: Portuguese for farmer given to England. 1771: German Moravian missionaries at Nain. 1892: Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen: Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell finds beriberi & tuberculosis. He establishes hospitals, orphanages, schools, & cooperative stores near the Arctic Circle.] Abegweit: Micmac for Cradled on the Waves: 1535 [Prince Edward Island / Íle Saint Jean] [Invaded by Jacques Cartier. A Micmac legend tells how the god Glooscap finished painting the beauties of the world. Then he dipped his brush into a mixture of all the colors & created Abegweit, his favorite island.] Nova Scotia Province: Latin for New Scotland [Acadia]: 1535 [Micmac Indians 1605: Samuel de Champlain. 1645: Fur trader D’Aulnay de Charnisay of Port Royal attacks Charles de la Tour’s fort at Saint John, New Brunswick Marie de la Tour, the trader’s wife, surrenders. De Charnisay forced her to watch him hang all members of the garrison except 1, who served as executioner. 1713: Treaty of Utrecht: France cedes after Queen Anne’s War. French Acadians enslaved. During & after the Revolutionary War in America (1775-1783), people who remained loyal to England fled from the United States to Nova Scotia].
Chad: 1st [Tchad]
Patriotic Salvation Movement
800-1846 AD: Islamic Kanem-Bornu Empire
1500-1884: Slavery
1884 Berlin Kongokonferenz: Triple Alliance: Mandingo-French War: Belgian King Leopold II seizes Chad. Sara enslaved
1891-1959: Afrique Équatoriale Française: French Equitorial Africa:
1960: Independance.
1962-1981: Frolinat vs Government Troops.
1983-1987: French Military vs Libyan Troops
1990: Patriotic Salvation Movement
President Idriss Déby
December 23, 2005- May 3, 2007: Chad-Sudan War: Chadian President Idriss Déby declares war with Sudan. Sudanese janjawid raiding refugee camps in eastern Chad
Aozou Strip [1973: Libya occupies until 1994. Uranium & other minerals], Kanem [NE of Lake Chad. Sefuwa family Kings ruled for 1,000 years], Baguirmi [Kingdom], Ouaddai [Kingdom], Lake Chad [2nd largest lake in Africa has shrunk down 90% through irrigation. Chad oil pipeline. Limited telephone, telegraph, & postal services. Famines], N’Djamena [Capital & largest city. Organisation of African Unity establish an Inter-African Force to intervene in Chad in 1981], Adré [2005: Battle of Adré: Border town invaded by Sudanese janjawid]
Chile: Where the Land Ends [Peru Viceroyalty]
Riggs Bank
Capitán General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (1915-2006)
1541: Spanish Conquistador Pedro de Valdivia (murdered by Arucanians)
1563: Spanish Conquistador Juan Fernandez: Juan Fernandez Islands: 3 of them: Santa Clara, Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Island.
1599: Battle of Curalaba: Mapuche people destroy Spanish army & kill Governor Martín García ñez de Loyola
1600: War of Arauco: Mapuche vs Real Situado Army. Southern Chile called Flandés Indiano: Indian Flanders.
1500s-1800s: Chile part of a large Spanish colony called Viceroyalty of Peru, which included other parts of Spanish South America. King of Spain appointed a captain-general to govern Chile, under the authority of the viceroy of Peru.
1616: Willem Schouten: Cape Horn Island for Hoorn, Netherlands. Cape Horn used by English slave traders for transportation to South Australia.
1722: The South Sea Bubble: Jacob Roggeveen lands on the Polynesian island te pito ote henua The Navel of the World on Easter Sunday, renames it Easter Island, massacres the inhabitants, & sell others into slavery to sugarcane plantations in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaiian Islands, Mexico & other places.
1814-1818: Argentinian General José de San Martin fights for independence in Spanish South America
1818-1823: President Bernardo O’Higgins (forced out)
1830: Chilean Civil War: President Diego Portales Palazuelos
1836-1839: Chile declares war on Peru & Bolivia.
1862: Slave ships from Peru kidnap 1,400 Easter Islanders for Peruvian plantations. All but 100 die.
1863: Survivors taken back to Easter Island & 85 die on the voyage. The 15 survivors carried home the germs of smallpox & other diseases, spreading to remaining islanders.
1879-1883: War of the Pacific: Chile invades Bolivia & seizes their coastline. Chile seizes Peru’s nitrate deposits.
1890: Chilean Civil War: President José Manuel Balmaceda (assasinated)
1920-1927 / 1932-1938 / 1952-1958: President Arturo Alessandri Palma
1927-1931: General Carlos Ibanez del Campo
1938: President Pedro Aguirre Cerda
1940s: Presidents Juan Antonio Rios & Gabriel Gonzalez Videla.
1958-1964: President Jorgé Alessandri Rodriguez
1964-1970: President Eduardo Frei Montalva.
1970-1973: President Salvador Allende Gossens (assasinated)
General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte: Dictator from 1973- 1990. Pinochet becomes a senator for life until 2002.
1990-1994: President Patricio Aylwin.
1994-2000: President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
2000-2006: President Ricardo Lagos Escobar
2006: President Michelle Bachelet (126)
(pron CHEE-lay) South of the Equator: Andes form Chile’s eastern boundary. In the far south, the Strait of Magellan separates mainland Chile from the group of islands known as Tierra del Fuego, which are divided between Chile & Argentina. Cape Horn, on Chile’s Horn Island, is the southernmost point of Tierra del Fuego. Chile owns : Isla de Pasqua: Easter Island & Juan Fernandez Islands, Santiago [1530: The Capital. Men of Chile, the survivors of Diego de Alamagro’s 1st Spanish expedition that massacres the Incas, Aymara & Mapuche. Pinochet died Dec 10th at a military hospital here according to The Washington Post. Slums with no running water, electricity, sewers called callampas: mushrooms because, like mushrooms, they spring up overnight. The world’s largest underground copper mine, El Teniente. 1964: President Frei persuaded U.S. firms that owned copper mines in Chile to give the Chilean government a greater share of the profits & more control over the pricing, production, & marketing of copper], Concepción [1938: Steel Mill], Operation Condor: Pinochet collaberates with the military dictatorships of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay & Argentina to have security forces for each country target subversives, guerrillas, & guerilla sympathizers. Pinochet remained as commander in chief of the army until March 1998, when he entered the Senate. Arrested October 1998 in Britain on an international warrant for charges of 94 counts of torture of Spanish citizens & 1 count of conspiracy to commit torture & released March 2000 on grounds he was unfit to stand trial. In August, the Supreme Court of Chile announced Pinochet could stand trial for alleged human rights abuses committed during his time as president. 3,197+ Chileans executed, others disappear, 35,000+ imprisoned & tortured by carabineros: uniformed police. NAZI SS Walter Rolf comes to Chile via Syria. The condor is the symbol of South America & the eagle the symbol of North America. (129), Central Chile [Arucana live on government reservations established in the late 1800s. 16% of Chileans live in rural areas. Most are inquilinos: sharecroppers on huge estates called fundos. Almost all the farmland lies in the Central Valley], Atacama Desert [Atacama, Diaguita], S. [Ona, Yahgan fish]
China: Pure [Hwa Kwoh: Flowery Kingdom / Zhongguo: Middle Country]
Beijing / Bejing / Yenjing / Pei-ching / Peking: Northern Capital, Manchuria
Beijing: Northern Capital, on the east to Shanghai: Near the Sea on the south to Hong Kong: Fragrant Harbor & on the west to Tibet. The dominant physical feature of China is the Yangtze-Chang Jiang: Long River coming east from Tibet, flows through the agriculturally rich & densely populated Red Basin [Sichuan] crosses the Tangho Basin then flows east to Nanjing: Southern Capital & the river’s mouth, just north of Shanghai, North China Plain formed by the Huang He: Yellow River.
4800-2000 BC: Yangshao Kingdom
2700 BC: Emperor Huangdi & Empress Xilingshi find white silkworm moths in the mulberry trees. Cocoons dropped in water unravel to silk
2100-1600BC: Xia-Zia-Hsia Dynasty: Black Pottery Phase
1766-1022BC: Shang or Yin Dynasty. Rough woven silk called shantung
1027-221BC: Zhou-Chou Dynasty
531 BC: Laozi-Lao Tzu, Imperial Court Astrologer, writes the Dao De Jing: Classic of the Way of Power
Xiao: lao = old age + zi=son. In practicing xiao, the young honor the old, & the old respect & protect the young.
500BC: Confucius, latin form of Kongfuzi: Great Master Kong born in the Duchy of Lu, Shantung Province. Qiu’s Disciples recorded his conversations & sayings in a book called The Analects. 5 classics: Classic of Poetry, Classic of History, Spring & Autumn Annals, Record of Rites, Classic of Changes, or I Ching.
300 BC: Chuang Tzu-Zhuangzi writes The Zhuangzi (pronounced jwahng dzuh) which teaches the mystical doctrine that all things come together in an indefinable harmony called the Tao: Way
300 BC: Qu Yuan’s Elegies of Chu Many poems describe flights to regions inhabited by creatures, gods, & spirits.
256 BC-202 BC: Ch’in [Pure] Dynasty founder Qin Shih Huang Di builds the Great Wall of China. Building continued during later dynasties, including the Han & the Sui.
202 BC-220AD: Han Dynasty: Confucianism
220-280 AD: Warring States Period / Romance of the 3 Kingdoms: Wei, Shu, & Wu: Buddhism
Chinese is written in characters. There are 7 dialects: Mandarin [Putonghua: Standard: Manchuria], Cantonese [Yue], Xiang [Hunan], Gan [Gan River, Jiangxi], Hakka [Hakka Han: Guangdong-Guangxi], Min [Fujian], Wu [Shanghai]. Chinese is spoken with no tenses.
265-420 AD: Jin-Tsin Dynasty
Next Dynasties. 16 Kingdoms [Wei, Zhou, Song, Chen, Liang], Northern & Southern: Qi
581-618 AD: Sui Dynasty: Emperor Sui Yang-ti (assasinated)
618-907 AD: Tang Dynasty (pronounced tahng): Buddhism: Aristocrat Li Yuan overthrows the Sui Emperor. Xi’an-Chang’an: Long Peace, the capital city, had 2 million people in it before it was destroyed at the end of the dynasty. It remains to be excavated.
907-960 AD: 5 Dynasties: Tang, Liao, Xia, Jin, Han, Zhou: Until the Song dynasty gained control of China in 960, the country was governed by a series of short-lived military dynasties.
960-1279 AD: China: Song-Sung-Tsung Dynasty: Golden Dynasty: Neo-Confucianism: Green celadon porcelain: Hangzhou the Capital. Beijing known as Zhongdu: Central Capital burnt by Yuan
1279-1368 AD: Yuan: Red River Dynasty: China known as Cathay by Venetian trader Marco Polo (1254-1324), his father Niccolo & uncle Maffeo Polo at Kublai Khan’s Summer Palace at Shangdu near Kalgan. Book is Description of the World ©1298: Old-French, the literary language of Italy at the time.
1368-1644 AD: Ming: Brilliant Dynasty: Khanbaliq Palace burnt by the Ming renamed Shuntian, then Peking.
1405-1433: Cheng Ho-Zheng He (pronounced juhng huh) commands 7 expeditions from the East China Sea to the Indian Ocean & East African Coast. The wealth of the countries of Europe could not match the wealth of China, which launched 7 mammoth sea expeditions, reaching as far as eastern Africa.
1406: Ming Emperor Zhu Di builds: Zijin Cheng: Purple Forbidden City in Peking
Great Wall of China: 4,000 miles long, crosses northern China winding through the Mongolian Border Uplands. Tombs along the structure. Eastern end of the surviving Ming Dynasty wall at Shahaiguan on the coast of the Bo Gulf. In the west, the wall ends near Jiayuguan town. The section of wall with watchtowers at Mount Badaling, Peking, rises 35 feet high. (133: 99)
1644-1912: Manchu Qing-Ching Dynasty. Imperial documents written in Manchu & Chinese
1729: Emperor Yongzheng bans opium
1774: British East India Company: Baron George Macartney of Antrim, Northern Ireland & Baroness Jane Stuart of Bute (daughter of the Prime Minister)
1799: White Lotus Rebellion: Sichuan: The White Lotus sect opposed the Manchus, the rulers of China.
1800: Sir Thomas Wade & Herbert A. Gile’s Wade-Giles System for writing Chinese in the Roman alphabet
1838-1842: 1st Opium War: Anglo-Chinese War: Lin Zexu forces British Superintendant of Trade Charles Elliot to hand over 20,000 chests of opium for destruction. English under James John Gordon Bremer on the Royal Saxon attack Canton 1840.
1842: Treaty of Nanjing: England seizes Hong Kong. Hong Kong Colonial Secretary: Sir Frederick Bruce, Knight of the Grand Cross
1843: Bogue Treaty: China pays reparations to English drug traffikers
1851-1864: Taiping Tian Guo: Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace: Scholar Hong Xiuguan of Jintian village in Guiping, Guangxi Province seizes Nanjing: Southern Capital & renames it Tianjiang: Heavenly City. Qing Forces end.
1856-1860: 2nd Opium War: Arrow War: Arrow warship seizes Canton. Baron Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros & Sir James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, loot & burn to the ground the Yuan Min Yuan: Gardens of Perfect Clarity a.k.a Imperial Winter Palace & Qing yt Yuan: Garden of Clear Ripples a.ka Imperial Summer Palace in Peking
1860: Treaty of Peking: Outer Manchuria ceded to Russia
1860-1914: German East Asia Company seizes Eastern Manchuria Shangtung Province.
1880-1910: Bubonic Plague: Hong Kong
1894: Sino-French / Franco-Chinese War: French 3rd Republic vs Qing Empire for control of the Red River, that links Hanoi to the Yunnan province in China. Victors: Qing Empire under Commanding General Feng Zicai
1894: Sino-Japanese War
1899: Open Door Policy: USA Secretary of State John Milton Hay (1838-1905) asks Western Powers to trade equally. Each Western power trying to get all trading rights for itself.
1900-1901: Boxer Rebellion: Japanese Imperial Powers seize Peking. Court flees to Xi’an. Secret Society Yihequan: Righteous & Harmonious Fists, named Boxers as they practice gymnastic & calisthenics, slaughter missionaries, christian converts & foreigners. When foreign diplomats call for troops, Manchu government declares war against foreign powers & besieges the legations: official residences of foreign diplomats in Peking from June 21 to Aug. 14, 1900. China agrees to pay 0 million in damages.
1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War: Russia removes troops from Manchuria, cedes Lushun & Dalian to Japan. Japan builds South Manchurian Railway. Russia keeps control of the Chinese Eastern Railway.
1911-1912: Wuhan Uprising-1911 Revolution: Sun Yat-Sen (pronounced soon yat sen) ’s KMT: Kuomintang Party overthrows the Manchu Dynasty: Republic of China
1913: President Yuan Shikei vs Sun Yet-Sen. Sun flees to Japan
1914: WWI: Anglo-Japanese Alliance: Japan occupies Eastern Manchuria Shangtung Province.
1917: Literary Revolution: Mandarin phonetic sign pronounciation
1921-1925: Sun Yat-Sen’s Kuomintang Party with Soviet assistance establishes an army in Canton
1926: Nationalists vs Northern Warlords: Soviets in Hankou & Shanghai expelled
1927: Peasant Uprising
1928-1937: National Government of China capital at Nanjing besieged by Japan
1931: Japan names Manchuria: Manchukuo
1933: Japan seizes Jehol Province
1934: The Long March (to Shaanxi Province)
1937-1945: WWII: Civilian deaths Soviet Union (19 million) & China (10+ million): Government moved to Chungking
1946: The Last Empress of China, Gobulo Wan Rong: Beautiful Countenance, dies of malnutrition & opium addiction in Yanji Prison.
1948: President: Chiang Kai-shek, Vice President: Li Tsung-jen
1949: People’s Republic of China: Mao Zedong = pinyin. Mao Tse-tung Wade-Giles. Vice Chair: Madame Sun Yat-Sen: Soong Ching-ling. Premier: Zhou Enlai-Chou En-lai. (joh ehn ly). Chaing Kai-Shek in Taiwan
1950: Language Reform Program: Simplifed Chinese: Adult education programs teach Chinese reading & writing.
1954-1966: Minister of Finance: Li Hsien-nien-Li Xiannian (1909-1992)
1958-1962: Great Chinese Famine: Grain exported to towns & cities. 43+ million dead
1959: Ban on foreigners to country
1966-1976: Cultural Revolution: Universities closed until 1970. Top party officials removed. Re-education camps. Under Jiang Qing’s (pronounced jee ahng cheeng) leadership, many Chinese dramas & operas were rewritten so they presented examples of the changes in Chinese government & Chinese society favored by Mao. Jiang was born in Shantung Province. She studied drama & acted in motion pictures in Shanghai.
1969: Sino-Soviet Border Dispute: Manchuria
1976: Premier Hua Guofeng & Sichuan landowner Deng Xiaoping (pron. duhng shyow pihng: 1904-1997), imprison Mao’s widow Chiang Ch’ing-Jiang Qing (1914-1991) & 3 of her followers: Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan, & Zhang Chunqiao called The Gang of Four.
1979: Pinyin System for writing Chinese in the Roman alphabet adopted by government
1981: Premier Zhao Ziyang-Chao Tzuyang (pron. jow zu yahng), Chairman: Hu Yaobang (pron. hoo yow bahng) [1952: Head of Communist Youth League]
1982: Chinese Constitution: Calls for the people to concentrate on modernizing agriculture, industry, the military, science & technology.
In the 1980’s, China developed space technology that included liquid-hydrogen engines, powerful Long March rockets, & recoverable satellites. China has 3 satellite launch sites – Jiuquan, Taiyuan, & Xichang.
1986: Children must attend school.
1987: Premier: Li Peng (pronounced lee puhng), General Secretary: Zhao Ziyang
1988-1992: Chinese People’s Political Consultative Committee: Li Hsien-nien
1989: Tiananmen Square / Goverrnment troops sent to Tibet
1997: Manchuria: Economic reforms. 25 million workers permanently laid off. 40% unemployment
1998: Premier: Zhu Rongji
2001: 1/5 of the world’s people live in China.
2003: Chinese state council begins to take apart hukous, household registrations whose origins can be traced back to distant imperial times. Until now, getting a permit to live in the booming coastal cities has been almost impossible for peasants, who were legally excluded from living in some of their own country’s cities (Wallach 91)
2004: 2.4 million Chinese hold 2/3rds of the country’s liquid assets.

Nestlé Mickey Toys: Beijing, Peking
1987: Their address is the Tiantanghe Labor Camp. Xin’an Female Labor Camp in Nanyuan produces 110,000 Nestlé toy rabbits in 2001. There are 180+ labor camps in China. Companies utilizing prison labor are exempt from income tax. ‘China has a vast forced labor camp system & perhaps the most secretive & widely feared penal system in the world.’ – Wu Hongda, Laogai Research Foundation

Guolaosi: Worked to Death
Bainan Toy Factory, Soonggang

19-year-old Li Chunmei died after working a 16-hour shift at the Bainan Toy Factory in Soonggang. Guolaosi: over- work death applies to young workers who suddenly collapse and die after working exceedingly long hours, day after day. Local journalists say many of them are never documented but estimate that dozens die under such circumstances every year in the Pearl River Delta area alone. Zhu Jiang: Pearl River also known as the Canton River (122: 1)

McDonald’s: Sewco Toy Factory
Zhongshan District, Ghangzhou / Guangzhou (pronounced gwahng joh) / Yangcheng: City of Goats / Canton City

Spray painters supplied only a gauze mask. Workers operating dyeing machines lost half of their right palms & all of their fingers in accidents. 16 hour work day for 9.8 yuan. 45 yuan for temporary resident permit fee, 30 yuan deposit, 5 yuan monthly labour management fee & 60 yuan for food. After all charges & fees are deducted from the monthly wages, workers are left with nothing.
City founded 214 BC by Emporer Shi Huangdi & part of the Silk Trade. Until 1960, 1000s of Cantonese lived on boats anchored in the Zhu Jiang: Peal River. Since then, the government has moved these people into apartments. (World Book: Parris Chang)

Qualidux Toy
Longgang District, Shenzen, Pearl River Delta

Henggang [Toy workers in 10 factories studied by the AMRC paid less than minimum wage & forced to work overtime in excess of hours stipulated by Chinese labor law]

Chicco Toy: Zhili Toy Factory
Shenzhen: Deep Drain Port, Pearl River Delta

More than 60% of the toys sold in Canada are made in China. billion global industry. Kwai Yong, Shenzhen [Heavy mesh covered the windows. Doors at the bottom of the factory’s only stairway were locked to prevent workers making 7¢ an hour from leaving before they had met their daily quotas. When the last flame was doused, 87 workers were dead. Scores of others injured in 1993.]

Hebei / Ho-pei Province [North of the Yellow River]: Named Zhili / Chih-li: Directly Ruled by the Imperial Court before 1928. Surrounds Beijing. 1860: Emperor flees to the Chengde Palace after the burning of the Summer Palace. Province of 70 million on the arable 700 mile long North China Plain formed by the Huang He (pron. hwahng hu): Yellow River. The river gets its name from the yellow silt it picks up from its northward loop to the Ordos desert from Tibet. Huang He then returns south, right-angles near Xi’an & returns to the plain. The Hai He: Sea River previously called Bai He: White River flows through Beijing & Tianjin into the Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea. At Tianjin the Hai He connects with the Yellow & Yangtze rivers

Liaoning / Fengtian / Fengtien Province: Manchuria Shenyang (pron. shuhn yahng) / Mukden [Capital on the bank of the Hun River. Tombs of the Manchu emperors. Province extends to Huang Hai: Yellow Sea. 1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War: Russians occupy, Cathay. 1931: Japanese occupy. Huang Hai: Yellow Sea a 300 ft deep, 480,000 sq mile arm of the Pacific Ocean that extends inland for 400 miles between the east coast of China & Korea. The Huang He: Yellow River carries deposits of yellow earth: huangtu to the Yellow Sea. Qingdao lies on China’s coast on the southern shore of the Shandong Peninsula. At the north, the Yellow Sea forms Laizhou Bay, Bo Gulf, Liaodong Gulf, & Korea Bay]

Heilongjiang / Heilungkiang / Sahaliyan ula Province [Black Dragon River]: Manchuria: Harbin [1895: Capital City on Songhua / Sungari River, a tributary of the Heilongjiang a.k.a Amur, Manchuria established by Russia as a railroad administration center. Manchurian Railways. 1932-1945: Governed by Japan. Exports soybeans & wheat flour.]

Jilin / Chi-lin / Kirin Province [Auspicious Forest]: Manchuria [1896: Chinese Eastern Railway across Manchuria to the Russian port of Vladivostok.]

German Kiautshou a.k.a Shandong / Shantung Province [Rough Woven Silk]: Eastern Manchuria. Jiao’ao-Qingdao-Ch’ing-tao-Tsingtao [1860: Freiherr Ferdinand von Richthofen. 1898-1914: Admiral von Tirpitz’ SeeBattalion III: German East Asia Squadron. Reichsmarineamt: Navy administers area rather than the Reichskolonialamt: Colonial Office. Imperial German government builds city streets & Tsingtao Brewery in 1903. German influence extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of rival breweries. WW I: Admiral Graf von Spee, SMS Cormoran. 1914: Siege of Tsingtao: Japan occupies the city & province under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1922: Republic of China], Lushun (pron. lyoo-shun)-Port Arthur-Ryojun [Liaodong Gulf of the Yellow Sea, Dalian Municipality: 1898: Russia, 1905: Japan builds South Manchurian Railway 1954: Russia returns base to China], Weihai-Port Edward [1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War: Beiyang Naval Fleet annihlated. 1898-1930: England seizes under the War Office in London. Naval China Station.]

Jiangxi / Jiangsu / Chiang-hsi / Kiangsu / Kiangsi Province [West of the Long River]: Eastern China Nanking / Nanjing: Southern Capital [南京大屠殺: Nánjīng Dàtúsh&#257 Japanese: 南京大虐殺: Nankin Daigyakusatsu Japanese Imperial Army invasion on Dec 13, 1937 looting & burning the area. US Navy gunboat Panay destroyed. 10,000 corpse ditch, 80,000+ women tortured, raped & killed. Surviving women forced into military prostitution. Babies speared to death with bayonets. Young men machine-gunned, decapitated, & their bodies dumped into the Yangtze-Chiang Jing: Long River. Chinese soldiers death-marched to Shanghai: Near the Sea. Lieutenant General Tani Hisao’s official deathtoll 300,000 at Nanking War Crimes Tribunal 1947. Seen in 2004’s Kuni ga Moeru: The Country is Burning by Hiroshi Motomiya before being pulled from Weekly Young Jump Wikipedia. Capital of Jiangsu Province. 1st Ming ruler made Nanjing: Southern Capital the seat of the dynasty. In the early 1400’s, the Mings moved the capital to Beijing: Northern Capital. Railroads connect Nanjing to Beijing, the capital of China, in the north & to Shanghai in the east.], Jingdezhen [Porcelain], Shanghai: Near the Sea [Largest city in China. Port city on the Huangpu River. 14 miles north, the Huangpu & Yangtze rivers meet & empty into the East China Sea. East China Sea extends north from Taiwan to Japan & Koreas. Shanghai, China, & Nagasaki, Japan, are the main seaports. Iron mines west of the city. Textile mills make cloth from cotton grown in the nearby Yangtze Valley. 1842: Opium War: England forces China to open Shanghai to foreign trade. French, English, USA traders & bankers. They build homes, churches, & office buildings Most Chinese workers live in slums. Battle of Shanghai Japanese capture city in naval bombardment in 1937 against Chiang-Kai-shek. 1967: January Revolution: Red Guards drive Shanghai government from power. 1979: Shanghai returned to civilian rule], Yuntang [Yujiang County, Jiangsi Province. April, 2001: 600 troops attack unarmed villagers. Farmers refused to pay high taxes. Payment had been demanded even in 1998, when floods destroyed the farmers’ crops. Prime Minister Zhu Rongji promised relief, encouraging production of profitable crops like peanuts, sesame & garlic, instead of the traditional rice & wheat. – Professor Bret Wallach]

Anhui / Anhwei / An-hwey / Ngan-hui / Gan-Hwuy Province [Vice Royalty of Kiang-nan] Wan River: North China Plain. Capital: Hefei.

Zhejiang Province [Crooked River] South Central China: Yangtze-Chiang Jing: Long River Valley Hangzhou-Hangchou (pronounced hahn joh) [Song / Sung Dynasty Capital city where the Crooked River is], Ningbo-Ning-po (pronounced nihng bwah) [Just south of Shanghai. 1842: Treaty Port: English trade until 1943. Iron Mines]

Shanxi / Shan-hsi Jin / Shansi Province [Western Mountains] Brick Kilns [State of Zhao]
Foreman Heng Tinghan: Wanted by the government
Lieu Cheng, Professor of Labor Law: Shanghai Normal University: Forced labor & child labor in China are illegal, but some local governments don’t care too much.
Su Jinduo & Su Jinpeng, brother & sister, kidnapped at a Qingdao, Shanghai bus station during Chinese New Year, loaded onto a minibus with other children to a brick factory in the next province. 100s of children & adults have been kidnapped in Central China to work as slaves being fed only water & steamed buns. Parents have petitioned local authorities to crack down on the kilns, banded together to try to rescue their chldren. Local authorities have sometimes turned parents away from the factories in collusion with the kiln owners. Labor Inspectors have taken children from freshly closed kilns & resold them to other factories. (Philip Pan 122)

Shaanxi / Shan-hsi Qin / Shensi Province [Western Mountains]: Next door to Shanxi Province. Qin Ling Mountains. Xi’An or Sian: Western Peace [(pron. shee ahn) Capital. Eastern point of the Silk Road over the Wushao Ling Pass up Wuwei in Kashgar before linking to ancient Parthia: Shape of a Woman. Mausoleum & Terracotta Army of the 1st Ch’In: Pure Dynasty Emperor: Qin Shih Huang Di. a.k.a Chang’an: Perpetual Peace: 1100BC: Zhou Dynasty], Hanzhong [Han Dynasty City]

Sichuan / Ssuch'uan / Szechwan Province [4 Rivers]: 4 streams that flow into the Yangtze-Chiang Jing: Long River. The Yangtze coming east from Tibet, flows through the agriculturally rich & densely populated Red Basin, Sichuan Province. The river then enters gorges extending to Yichang; emerging from them, it crosses the closely cultivated Tangho Basin around Lake Dongting. It then flows east to Nanjing: Southern Capital & the river’s mouth, just north of Shanghai. The provinces N. & S. of the river as it passes through the Tangho Basin are Hubei: North of the Lake & Hunan: South of the Lake. Chungking-Chongqin-Ch’ung-ch’ing, (pronounced chuhng chihng) [115 square mile industrial city is an inland port 1,600 miles up the Yangtze River in Sichuan Province. 1938- 1946. Nationalist government moved to Chongqing after Japanese forces had overrun Nanjing – the capital – & then the temporary capital of Wuhan. It moved the capital back to Nanjing in 1946, after WW II ended. Chongqing was the most heavily bombed city in China during World War II.]

Hubei / Hupeh Province [North of the Lake]

Hunan Province [South of the Lake]

Henan / Honan Province [South of the Yellow River]: Huang He: Yellow River: Villagers selling blood to get money to live on. Luoyang-Chengzu [11th Century BC Zhou Dynasty Imperial Palace], Anyang [Yin Dynasty Tombs]

Hainan Province [Southern Ocean]:Imperial France seizes Hainan Island. Japanese occupy. Province contains 200 Nanhai: South China Sea Islands. The rest of the islands are claimed by Vietnam, Taiwan, Malaysia & the Philippines. The South China Sea is connected to the East China Sea by the Taiwan Strait. The South China Sea includes the Gulf of Tonkin & Gulf of Thailand on the west & Manila Bay on the east. The Mekong & Xi Jiang rivers empty into the sea, & the seaports of Guangzhou-Canton, Hong Kong; Singapore; & Manila, in the Philippines, lie along its coasts.

Fujian / Fukien / Hokkien: SE China: Fuzhou / Fu-chou (pron. foo joh) [On Min River. 1642: Emperor Qing Kangxi orders coastal evacuation. Remnants of Ming Court flee to Taiwan. Coastal areas re-populated with Han hakka: guest families from Hainan & Shaanxi. 1842: Treaty Port opened to English Trade: Tea & Camphor. 1943: England & the USA give up their special rights. Today, China no longer has treaty ports.], Xiamen / Amoy (pron. shee ah muhn) [1600: Portuguese. 1842: Treaty Port: England. Most of the overseas Chinese in SE Asia speak South Fujian dialect], Gulangyu Island [Wealthy], Dehua [Porcelain factories create Chinese Export Porcelain to Europe]

Yunnan Province [South of Cloud Mountains]:South China

Guizhou / Kuei-chu / Kweichow Province: South China

Qinghai / Ch’ing Hai / Tsinghai Province [Blue Lake]: Mekong (pron. MAY kawng) River flows SE. ward from Qinghai province & forms part of the boundary between Thailand & Laos. Amdo [1960-1989: NE Tibet & incorporated into Qinghai Province. Monasteries destroyed. 1 million+ sent to Laogai-Gulags. Qinghai Railway links to Tibet]

Guangxi Region [Vast West]:South China: 4 river tributaries: Zhu Jiang: Pearl River, North, East & West: Xi Jiang / Hsi Chiang (pron. shee jee ahng) connect Guangxi Region & Guangzhou.
‘The highest good is like water. Water excels in giving benefit to all creatures, but never competes. It abides in places that most men despise, & so comes closest to the Tao. ’ – Laozi, Zhuangzi (pron jwahng dzuh) 300 BC ranks with Lao Tzu in development of Taoism & shaped Chan (Zen) Buddhism. Urging that people live spontaneously, calmly accepting inevitable changes – even death. One passage asks: “How do I know hating death is not like having strayed from home when a child & not knowing the way back?’ (133)

Mattel: Zhong Mei Factory
Guangdong / Kwangtung / Guangzhou / Kuang-chou / Canton Province [Vast East]

Xi Jiang: Southern River flows to the mouth of Guangzhou: Canton. Mattel Inc.: Fisher-Price, Tyco, Pleasant Company, Purple Moon, Learning Company.
2007: Mattel’s worldwide product recall of 19 million lead paint toys. China’s factories now produce nearly 80% of the world’s toys. US Toy imports from China rose to 222 billion last year. Everyone tries to bribe the inspectors; Anita Chan Australian National Unversity (McClatchy Newspapers: Tim Johnson & Kevin Hall: 121: 2)
Guangdong Province [Produces exclusively for Mattel. Workers live in dormitories with up to 29 other workers per room. Slave labor, forced overtime, no sick leave. Robert Eckert CEO previously CEO Phillip Morris-Kraft Foods

Hong Kong [Fragrant Harbor]:
Borders Guangdong / Canton Province. Consists of Hong Kong Island, Stonecutter’s Island, Lamma Island, Tung Lung Island, Ping Chau Island, Po Toi Islands, Soko Islands, Lantau Island & surrounding real estate. Kowloon is on the mainland.
1842: Treaty of Nanjing: Hong Kong Island seized by England. The British treated all Chinese immigrants - whether Cantonese peasants or Shanghai tycoons - as 2nd-class citizens only at the last moment granting full citizenship to a favored few. – Professor Brett Wallach
1839: Kowloon Temple destroyed. 1858: Kowloon Peninsula added to Hong Kong
1880-1910: Bubonic Plague
Dec. 8, 1941: Japanese bombers strike the British colony of Hong Kong on the S. coast of China
1997: Hong Kong is now a Special Administrative Region of China, ending 156 years of British colonial rule. Colonial icons such as flags, coats-of-arms, royal mailboxes, police insignia have been removed & replaced, along with the queen’s head on postage stamps. New coins have bauhinia blossoms

Macao / Macau [Àomén / Portuguese Macau]:(pron muh KOW) Macao City, Islands of Taipa & Coloane at the mouth of the Zhu Jiang: Pearl River, Guangdong: Canton Province. Nam Kwong Group / Bank of China: 1557 AD: Portuguese colony on the south China coast
1840: Portugal stopped paying annual rent, Chinese authorities evicted
1966: Riots
1981: Portugal offered citizenship to any child born in the territory with 1 Portuguese parent
1999: Returned to Chinese rule

Lanzhou Zhenglin Nongken Food Ltd
Gansu / Kansu Province [Long Mountain] North Central China: Lanzhou / Lan-chou (pron. lahn joh): The Gateway to China: Silk Road [1988: The biggest production base in China for roasted seeds & nuts. Founded by Taiwanese businessman Lin Ken. Dashaping, Xiguoyuan & Lanzhou Detention Centers inmates used to peel & crack melon seeds with teeth & bare hands in the frost. Blood & pus falling on the seeds marketed as Hand-picked Melon Seeds & exported to more than 30 countries including: the United States, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, & SE Asian countries. Those who do not meet their quotas are beaten to death]

Chinese Turkestan / Eastern Turkestan [Xinjiang / Sinkiang: New Frontier]
NW China Silk Road Region covers 17% of China’s land & has 1% of its population. Most of Xinjiang’s 15 million people live on or near oases. A majority of the region’s people are non-Chinese in origin: Turkic Uygurs, Kazak, Kyrgyz, Tajik & people from the Middle East. The Silk Road connected the Middle East with China. Islam the chief religion. China 1st ruled Xinjiang during the Han dynasty. After periods of Uygur & Mongol rule, Xinjiang came under Chinese control again during the Manchu Qing dynasty in 1884 when it was made a Chinese province. Several border disputes with the Soviet Union caused tension. Russia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan are the former Soviet republics that border Xinjiang. Xinjiang-Mongolian Uplands (pron. shihn jee ahng). Extends east from W. Turkestan to the Gobi Desert & Tibet, Tian Shan Mountain Range [N.], Kunlun Mountains [S.]. Major cities: Urumqi, Hami, Karamay, Kashi, Yining. Tashorghani [Ancient Capital of the Sarikoli-Tajik Kingdom]

Inner Mongolia: Nei Menggu
North China
1279-1368: Mongol Yuan: Red River Dynasty
1578: Altan Khan Golden King converts to Buddhism. He names Sönam Gyatso: Dalai Lama: Gyatso means Ocean. Dalai means Ocean in Mongolian.
1644: Manchu Qing reorganizes the region
1911: Country Split: Outer Mongolia = Mongolia
1931: Japanese occupy: Mengkukuo
1945: Operation Autumn Storm: Soviets seize, N: Greater Hinggan Range. S: Huang He / Huang Ho: Yellow River (pron. hwahng hu) & its tributaries carved out hills & steep-sided valleys in the huangtu: yellow earth. River runs 2,903 miles. Chinese region 1947.

Ningxia Hui / Ning-hsia: Tranquil Xia Region
North China Borders Inner Mongolia, The Hui are Chinese Muslims. Capital is Yinchuan where the 9 Western Xia Emperors’ Tombs are who ruled from 982-1227.

Bo Fan: Heights / Tibet: Persian for Roof of the World [Xixang: Western Treasure]
SW China
Pamir Mountains [West], Kunlun Mountains [North]: Some of the great rivers of Asia begin in the mountains of Tibet. These include the Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong, Salween, & Yangtze rivers. All government documents are written in Tibetan & Mandarin Chinese.
Mount Kailash [Annals of Lake Manasarowar: Zhang Zhung civilization had 18 kingdoms in Tibet extending west to Sarmatians, Ladakh & Baltistan, SW to Jalandhar, south to the Kingdom of Mustang in Nepal, E to central Tibet, & N across the Chang Tang plateau & Taklamakan Desert to Shanshan. Bon religious texts are written in Zhang Zhung. 645AD: Emperor Songstän Gampo overruns Zhang Zhung Kingdom & introduces Buddhism. 763 AD: Tang armies invade Bactria & Kashmir, defeating Arab Umayyad-Tibetan forces. Tibetan forces invade China & battle the Tang Rulers for 80 years. 1727-1728: Civil War: Emperor Yongzheng vs 80,000 Dzugars. Tibet falls under the control of China. 1908: Zhao Erfang’s Chinese Magistrates. Sichuan peasants. 1914: Simla Partition: England seizes Arunachal Pradesh (Tibet now India) & recognize Chinese suzerainty over Tibet], Ka-erh [In Western Tibet believed to be the highest town in the world], Shigatse-Xigaze [1774: George Bogle of the British East India Company introduces the 1st potatoes. 1788-1791: British Gurkha regiment from Nepal destroys & plunders the Tashilunpo Monastery], Gyangzê [1904: British Army under Colonal Francis Younghusband kill 5000+ with maxim machine guns. Dalai Lama flees to Urga in Mongolia. British Trade Agent remains in area until 1944], Mount Everest [South In the Himalaya: Abode of Snow Mountains. 1938: NAZI Heinrich Himmler organizes a search in Tibet to find a remnant of white Atlanteans in a mystical area called Shangri-La: Sweet Sunny Day. At the Nuremberg Trials it is said that some SS Men were decapitated & their severed heads were used to talk with dead Eastern philosophers. The Legend of Atlantis is contained in K. Plato’s 399 BC Doric Greek Critias. Hellas-Athenian war in 9399 BC against the Atlantians & their mutual destruction from earthquakes & floods, conveyed to Solon by Egyptian priests. Timagenes claims the survivors of the sinking Atlantis migrated to Western Europe, citing the Druids of Gaule as his source], Lhasa [Founded 600 AD. Gold-Roofed Potala Palace, former home of the Dalai Lama, has 1000 rooms. It is against the law to possess a picture of the Dalai Lama. 1578: Altan Khan: Golden King converts to Buddhism. He names Sönam Gyatso: Dalai Lama. Gyatso means Ocean. Dalai means Ocean in Mongolian. Tibetan Buddhism is Lamaism & Dalai Lama named Ruler of Tibet in the 1600s. 1904: British Mission reaches Lhasa. 1920s: Panchen Lama flees to China with his court, remaining there until his death in 1937. New Panchen Lama enthroned in China in 1944. 1933: Dalai Lama dies. The successor, a peasant boy, Dalai Lama in 1940. 1950-1965: China breaks up large estates of the lamas: monks & nobility, distributing them among the serfs: latin word for slave. 2 Grand Lamas, Dalai Lama, Ruler of Tibet & Panchen Lama: leading spiritual authority: believed to be Buddha born again, authority ended. Peasants required to sell a fixed amount of grain to the government & forced to grow wheat to feed Chinese soldiers. Tibetan children had been sent to the destroyed lamaseries by poor parents who could not pay their debts or taxes. Chinese Government takes control of the airwaves, newspapers, banks, food shops, local government. Tibetans riot. 1959: Dalai Lama exiled to India. 1965: Xixang an autonomous region of China. 1989: Panchen Lama dies. When the Dalai or Panchen Lama dies his spirit is thought to enter the body of a newborn baby boy at the time of death. Monks search the country for a boy born about the same time as the death of the lama who becomes the lama’s successor. Some lamaseries reopen. 1995: Dalai Lama selects the Panchen Lama. Chinese government selects their own Panchen Lama. Tibetan art reflects Chinese & Indian influences, & presents Buddhist themes.]

Taiwan: Terraced Bay [Ilha Formosa: Beautiful Island]
Mountainous island in South China Sea. 1590: Portuguese invaders call it Formosa: Beautiful. 1624-1664: Seized by the Dutch. Koxinga, Chinese Ming Dynasty offical drives them out. 1683: Manchu Dynasty. 1895-1945: Sino-Japanese War: Treaty of Shimonoseki: Seized by Japan. WWII: Americans vs Japanese. 1949: Chiang Kai-shek Government. American forces patrol Formosa Strait during Korean War. Martial law in effect from 1949-1987. – The History Channel. Although Taiwan is the seat of the Chinese Nationalist government, it is administered as a province of China. The Nationalist government controls several islands in the Taiwan Strait, which separates Taiwan & China. These islands include the Quemoy, Matsu, & the Pescadores groups.

Commonwealth of Dominica: Latin for Sunday [British West Indies]
Nov 3, 1493: Invaded by Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus & named for his wine-merchant father Domenico Colombo
1600: England & France vs Caribs.
1700: Ruled by England<<BR>1834: Slavery abolished
1978: Independant
2001: >60% people work on farms. Bananas are the country’s chief product & export
(pron. dahm uh NEE kuh or duh MIHN uh kuh). Small volcanic island country in the Carribean Sea. It consists of 1 island that lies 320 miles north of the Venezuelan coast. Dominica has an area of 290 square miles & a population of 71,000. Roseau is the capital city.
Côte d’Ivoire: Ivory Coast [French West Africa]
Mass Graves
Kong, Bouna, Gayman, Kabadugu & Sanwi Kingdoms
1625: French Louis XIII
1895-1960: Afrique Occidentale Française: Part of French West Africa: 1/7 Continent in the Gulf of Guinea
1932-1947: Upper Volta attached to Cote d’Ivoire to ensure a steady supply of low-cost labor
1959: Council of the Entente: Upper Volta [Maurice Yameogo], Dahomey [Mathieu Kerekou], Cote d’Ivoire [Felix Houphouet-Boigny], Niger [Hamani Diori]
1960: Independance
1990: ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States
2008: Rebels under Prime Minister Guillaume Soro hold N. part of the country & President Laurent Gbago’s Government controls the S. Presidential Elections postponed (99: 15)
Abidjan [1890s: France invades against the Mandinka & the Baoulé through 1917. Plantations of coffee (3rd place in total output behind Brazil & Colombia), cocoa (world’s leading producer), pineapples & palm oil crops produced by forced-labor system. Baoulé Félix Houphouët-Boigne’s Cocoa Union in 1944 ends official forced labor & he becomes a member of Parliament], Yamoussoukro [1983: Drought, riot police enter in 2000, Cocoa prices in 2000, 0 a ton; a year later, after civil war had broken out in Ivory Coast, they were at a 17-year high of ,400 a ton. One producer there, contrasting conditions for Ivorian producers with those for the subsidy-protected farmers of Europe & the United States, said, we are forced to live like rats. November 2004: French Army machine gun civilians, United Nations Peacekeeping Forces. International human rights organizations have noted problems with the treatment of captive non-combatants by both sides & the re-emergence of child slavery among workers in cocoa production.], Gbinta [On Liberian border. 1992: Airstriked by ECOMOG: 5 soldiers & 1 customs official wounded. UNICEF convoy with humanitarian supplies crossing border into Liberia, & another convoy by MSF Belgium. Despite Ivorian contentions that they have effectively sealed up the border since the imposition of sanctions in November 1992, the border is known to be very porous. The Ivorian authorities have supported Taylor throughout much of the Liberian conflict. (Human Rights Watch)]
Colombia: Christopher Columbus: Silver Dove [Nueva Granada: New Pomegranate]
Linked to Panama by canal.
1498: Juan de la Cosa & his army of the Santa Maria assasinated by Colombian natives. Genoese Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), son of wine-merchant Domenico Colombo & wool weaver Susanna Fontanarossa: 4 voyages: 1492-1504. He wanted to become a titled aristocrat, to rule the lands he discovered, & to be able to pass these privileges on to his sons Diego (Felipa Perestrello Moniz) & Ferdinand (Beatriz Enriquez de Harana). He also wanted a percentage of the wealth he brought back to Spain.
1514: Spaniards under Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada invade. Chibcha: People of the Earth decimated. Bacatá Sovereign, the Zipa [People of Chía: The Moon Goddess], ruler of the S. Kingdom of Bogotá was Tisquesusa. Hunza Sovereign, the Zaque [Zaque people descendents of Xué: The Sun God], known today as Tunja was Nemequene. Quesada steals their gold & emeralds. Raids funeral kings of Sogamoso: Sacred City of the Sun
1531: Diego de Ordaz’s lieutenant Martinez tells of being rescued from shipwreck, conveyed inland, & entertained at Omoa by El Dorado: the Gilded One. Chibchas tell Quesada the legend of Guatavita Lake & the golden man who worships the sun. Quesada founds Santa Fé de Bogotá & starts desperately searching for the legendary city from Bogotá, never to find it.
1599: Santa Marta Rodrigo de Bastidas Revolt.
1700: Bogotá becomes the capital city of The Viceroyalty of New Granada which contained the areas that are now: Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Panama.
1819: Liberated by Venezuelan General Simon Bolivar. He renames it Gran Colombia: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia & Panama, He is almost assasinated & retires as president in 1830.
1853: Slavery abolished
1863: Rionegro Constitution names it United States of Columbia.
1886: Rafael Núñez: Republic of Columbia
1899-1902: War of 1000 Days
1903: Colombia loses Panama
1922: Salomón-Lozano Treaty: Leticia town ceded from Peru to Colombia
1932: Peruvian rubber & sugar industries takeover Leticia with armed forces
1934: Leticia returned after League of Nations negotiation. Free navigation on Putumayo River
1948-1965: La Violencia: The Violence: Jorgé Eliecer Gaitan assassinated in Bogotá. Riots leave the center of Bogotá in ruins & 200,000+ dead.
1957: National Front
1984: War: Government’s efforts to stop drug trafficking vs drug dealers. Dealers kill public officials, judges, & place bombs in newspaper offices
4th largest country in S. America producing coffee & 90% of the world’s cocaine: 500 tons annually. (Wallach). Colombians closely guard their Spanish to keep it from changing & even passed a law. Colombians consider their Spanish purer than that of other Latin-American countries. (World Book)
Bogotá [Andes Mts, Central Colombia. Monserrate Mt: The capital 13% of population. Barrio La Perseverancia 1948: State forbids chicha, a maize based alcoholic drink, until 1991], Barranquilla, Cartagena, & Santa Marta [Carribean port cities: banana, cotton, sugar cane plantations; cattle ranches. Rural Columbians called campesinos. Most members of Colombia's small upper class are descended from Spanish settlers. They form a tightly knit group & socialize mainly with other members of the upper class. Their wealth has traditionally come from large rural landholdings. ], Medellin [1675: City founded on gold fields with more than 1 million people], Cali [City with more than 1 million people. Middle class: business people, government officials, doctors, lawyers, engineers. Working-class: salesclerks, factory, construction workers live in older neighborhoods. Crowded slumlike squatter settlements called tugurios (pronounced too GOO ree ohz) stand at the edges of Colombia’s large cities. Most have no running water, electricity, or sewers. Many newcomers from rural areas build shacks in the tugurios out of tin, cardboard, & other scrap materials. Homeless children, called gamines (pronounced gah MEE nays) wander streets], Guajiro Peninsula [Coal: Guajiro people], Cauca River [1912: Simply Contractors LTD, an English Company drained Lake Guatavita dry looking for gold], Buritaca River [1525: Taíro: Chibcha for Goldworkers homes invaded by missionaries. Gold stolen, houses burnt & they are forced into the encomienda: work to eatconcentration camp slavery system according to Pedro Marty Angheira’s 1530 account. The Kogi, Wiwa, Ijka & Cancuamo are thought to be their descendants.], Orinoco River [Kera Chikara home of the U’we. Royal Dutch Shell drilling.], Tocancipá Reservation [1810-1940: The new Creole state intended to dissolve the Indigenous Reservations 2001: Mestizos (white & Indian) 57%, Mulattoes (black & white) 15%, Zambos (black & Indian) 3%, European: 20%., Black 4%, Indian 1% ], Sesquilé Reservation [1940: Reduced to 10% of original size], Tenjo Reservation [1934: Reduced to 54]. Cota Reservation [1916: Re-established, recognized in 1991, withdrawn in 1998 by the state & restored back 2006], Sierra Oriental [300,000 acres of coco plants, 100,000 harvesters. FARC, ELN, AUC collect kilo taxes & organize kidnappings in areas they control. 15 mayors negotiated a cease-fire with the ELN. 1 mayor said our people are being shot, our roads are being blocked, we are being kidnapped. Paramilitaries promptly kidnapped 6 of the mayors. 58 Colombian mayors assassinated in a 4 year period beginning in 1999], Florencia [State Capital. Refuge of 14 mayors in 2003. The daughter of 1 elderly victim caught in crossfire between Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia: FARC & the army in 2003 said, I don’t believe this war will ever end. Every day it causes the death of more innocent people . Her mother had moved to remote La Montanita 50 years earlier to find a peaceful place to live. No luck. She fled the violence, a neighbor said, but the violence found her. (Wallach 91)]
Cuba [Bayatikeri]
Due to its depiction of apparent torture, the Motion Picture Association of America rejected the original poster for The Road to Guantánamo, Michael Winterbottom’s docudrama based on 3 real-life Guantánamo detainees. It showed a prisoner hanging by his bound hands with a burlap sack over his head. A new MPAA-approved version crops out the prisoner’s head. – Monitor, Entertainment Weekly, June 2, 2006

1898: Spanish-American War: USS Maine sunk in Havana.
1959: Cuban Revolution: George Washington class Ballistic Missile Submarines
1962: Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union will not remove missiles unless United States promises not to invade Cuba & removes its nuclear missiles from Turkey. Kennedy agrees.
1966-1973: Airlift brings 250,000 Cubans to Miami, Florida, USA
1980: Marielitos: 125,000 put on boats at Mariel Port for Miami.
1994: USA immigration officials send Cuban refugees to USA military bases in Panama & at Guantánamo Bay on Cuba’s coast

October 28. 1492: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus enters the Bay of Bariay off Cuba. 1 million Africans were delivered to Cuba to be sold as slaves. The 1st slaves came from Mozambique & the Congo, & later Nigeria, Ghana [DeWolf Slave trading family: owns Cuban Plantations (LA Times 299)], Togo [DeWolf Slave trading family of Rhode Island], Bénin & Cameroun. 1959: Fidel Castro expelled the Chinese from Cuba. Ernesto Che Guevarra, executioner & President National Bank of Cuba. Until 1986, the United States admitted most Cuban immigrants who claimed to be seeking political asylum. Many of the 1st Cubans to flee in the early 1960’s were from wealthy families & were well educated. The U.S. government granted asylum to these people &offered federal help to qualified applicants in finding homes & in making job contacts. Most later Cuban immigrants were relatives of the 1st group or were poor people looking for work. The Marielitos were a group the Cuban government wanted out of Cuba. They included many unskilled workers, criminals, & mentally ill people. (133: 111)
Kongeriget Danmark: Kingdom of Denmark [Danuna: Water from Heaven] [Kingdom of the Danaans]

C. Lorenz Company: Textophone: Karl Bauer: 1930: 0.008 inch carbon steel wire 7 ft. per sec. reel to reel dictating machine & telephone recorder. The GeStaPo bought huge numbers of Textophones for the German government & they were sold all over Europe, several hundred installations having been made in Switzerland alone.
Folkedrab [People Murder]
National Socialist Workers’ Party of Denmark: Freikorps Danemark / 24th SS Totenkopf Verbande ‘Danemark’:
Denmark’s Jutland penninsula borders Germany The Danish language is called Dansk: Water from Heaven in Denmark. 1164 man reinforced battalion that served in the Demyansk Pocket. Led by Christian Frederick von Schalburg, a Ukrainian-Danish count who died in the frontlines. After the war members prosecuted with the Danish government evading responsibility by saying that the volunteers should have known that the government was merely acting under duress when it set up the Freikorps & signed the Anti-Comintern pact Final Solution Some Danish Jews escape to Sweden
  • 1912-1947: King Christian X of Denmark (b 1870- d 1947)
  • Denmark’s SS. Ministerialdirektor: Werner Best Returned to Germany as legal adviser to the Stinnes group of firms. 1969: arrested on charges of mass murder in Poland, but released

    Institut for Racehygiejne & Eugenik
    SS Sturmbannführer Dr.Carl Vaernet: SS-Runen - SS 1792 & SS 1809
    Human experiments on concentration camp prisoners. Pink Triangle Prisoners cured by synthetic hormone injections, lobotomies & castration. Tortured Roma Gypsies. Injections of Fleck-typhoid. No Trial. Went by Rat-Line North-Route to Sweden & in 1946 escaped to Argentina, continuing his torture at the Buenos Aires Health Department under Perón until his death in 1965. His son Dr. Kjeld Per Vaernet, also a lobotomizer with gruesome records, escaped under Carlos Pineyro’s Danish Ratline: Der Spider to Argentina in 1947. He has been awarded the Dannebrogorder. Icelandic Falkeorder. UN Service Medal. – The Search for Danish KZ

Gravens [Mass Graves]
Church of Nørre Alslev [Plague]
From October 5 to 14, 1943, the Terezin camp in Prague was the destination of 3 transports delivering 456 Danish Jews who had not succeeded in escaping or hiding before the German raid. The Danish Red Cross & Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs asked to be allowed to visit the interned Danes in Terezin. The German authorities would only set a date in the spring of the coming year. Terezin was still not beautified enough & in addition the Terezin countryside would look better with green foliage on the trees. As soon as the 1st of the May transports had left, the chief of the Security Police & the Security Service informed the German Red Cross: "The SS Reich Coander consents to the inspection of the Terezin ghetto & of 1 Jewish labor camp by you & by a representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Representatives of Denmark & Sweden will also take part in the inspection of the Terezin ghetto. The expected date of the inspection will be at the beginning of June, 1944. I shall inform you about the exact date." The deputy of the head of the foreign section of the German Red Cross, Heinrich Niehaus, put his initials on it on 18 May & also a note to the effect that on 19 May at 18 o’clock he passed this information via telephone to Dr. Roland Marti, head of the delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Berlin. (Porges)

Arhus, Odense: Odin’s Vé: Shrine, Alborg. Ko [Pornography industry]

N. Fryslân [N. Frisian Islands / Jylland: Jutland] Fanø, Esbjerg, Mandø, Rømø, Langli [Denmark’s peninsula, called Jutland, shares a 42-mile border with Germany. It is covered by moraine: earth & stone deposited by melting glaciers 1000s of years ago.]
Skåneland [Scandinavia: Sand Land] Bornholm / Borgundarholm: Burgundians’ Island [Baltic Sea E. Denmark, S. Sweden, & N. Poland. WWII: Captured by Germany: Eastern Front lookout post & listening station. Nazi concrete coastal installations. Danish Naval Officer-in-Charge Lieutenant Commander Hasager Christiansen’s V-1 flying bomb test. May 1945: German Superior Officer Gerhard von Kamptz’s island garrison of 12,000 refuse surrender to the Soviets. Soviet aircraft bomb 800+ civilian houses in Rønne & Nexø Connected to Swedish electricity grid by submarine cable. (Bornholm Museum)]

Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa [Republic of the Maldives]
1500: Portugal seizes
1656-1796: Dutch rule from Sri Lanka.
1887: British protectorate
1965: Independance from Britain
1982: Commonwealth of Nations
1985: SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan & Sri Lanka.
2001: Law in the Maldives is based on the Sunni Muslims’ code of law.
Smallest independent country in Asia. 1,200 small coral islands that form a chain 475 miles long & 80 miles wide in the Indian Ocean S. of India. Male , pron. MAH-lay, is the capital. Economy heavily based on the government-controlled fishing industry. Gan Island has 2 large clothing factories & an air base occupied by the British until 1976.
Ecuador: Spanish for Equator [Peru Viceroyalty]
The equator crosses Ecuador.
1534: Spaniards overthrow the Inca Empire & rule the country for almost 300 years. Inca means Emperor.
1822: Independance from Spain under Venezuelan General Simon Bolivar. Joins Gran Columbia with Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Peru & Bolivia. Own country by 1830.
Cotopaxi [N in the Andes. One of the highest active volcanoes in the world] Rural areas have few hospitals or medical clinics. Many of the rural poor suffer from malnutrition & from an intestinal disease called dysentery.
Egypt: Below the Aegean [Kemet: Black Soil Land / British Egypt]
3200 BC: Upper & Lower Egypt unified
2686-2181 BC: Old Kingdom: Egypt imports the famed cedars of Lebanon
2052-1786 BC: Middle Kingdom
Strabo records Egypt meaning Below the Aegean
260 AD: Palmyrene Empire: Syria, Palestine & Aegyptus
391 AD: Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria has god images molten into pots, utensils for the use of the Alexandrian church
634-750 AD: Umayadd Caliphate
750 AD-972 AD: Abbasid Caliphate
972-1171 AD: Fatimid Caliphate capital at al-Qahira (Cairo): the Triumphant
1792 AD: Napolean invades British Egypt for gold, ivory
1830 AD: Viceroy of Egypt Mohammed Ali Pasha moves Ramses II’s 3300-year-old Obelisk of Luxor to la Place de la Concorde. Cholera kills 19,000
1855-1869: Suez Canal Company opens to shorten the route between England & India, concession to operate the canal until 1968
1883: Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Earl of Khartoum & Broome commander of the Egyptian Army. He is a Sirdar from 1892-1899
Colonial Secretary: Lord Carnarvon
1911-1916: Secretary of War Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Earl of Khartoum & of Broome blocks ships of Enemy Nations
1917: British High Commissioner for Egypt: Henry McMahon
1919-1925: British High Commissioner for Egypt: Viscount Edmund Henry Hyndman Allenby: The Bull
1928: King Farouk
1928: Muslim Brotherhood established by Egyptian schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna (shot dead by govt agent)
1940: Mussolini invades. Hitler sends Afrika Korps tank units under General Ernst Rommel: The Desert Fox.
1944: Lord Moyne, British Minister of State for the Middle East assasinated in Cairo
1948-1950: Arab-Israeli War: Suez bans Israeli ships. Prime Minister shot dead.
1952: Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk.
1956: Suez Crisis: Nasser seizes canal & announces canal tolls will build the Aswan Dam. England, Israel & France attack. 25,000 Mizrahi Jews expelled from Egypt. UN calls a cease-fire
1958: Egypt & Syria form U.A.R: United Arab Republic
1961: Syria withdraws from U.A.R.
1967-1975: 6 Day War: Israel controls Gaza Strip & West Bank. Egypt closes Straits of Tiran to shipping.
1972: Waffen SS Kurt Waldheim, UN Secretary exports UNDOF: United Nations Disengagement Observer Forces to Syria, Israel & Egypt. Suez canal closed
1980: Anwar Sadat assassinated, current President Hosni Mubarak.
al-Qahira: Cairo [Lord Kitchener’s Egyptian Army], Tel-el-Kabir: Alexandria [381 BC: Alexander drives Pharoah Cingris from Egypt into Ethiopia, founds Alexandria. British Army called the EEF: Egyptian Expeditionary Force], Nubia [1st cataract of the Nile River. Colonized by Egypt in the 4th millenium BC. Kushite kingdom pyramids], Saqqarah: Memphis [King Zoser’s Step-Pyramid], Al Jizah: Giza [2600 to 2500 B.C. 5th Dynasty: 10 pyramids & Sphinx: Later Egyptian kings built secret tombs in cliffs], Medinet-Habu: Valley of the Kings [20th & 21st Dynasties. Ramses III Funerary Tomb]. Adulis, Axum, Pa-Kes-Fakus-Gósen: Land of Goshen: Gesan, Kessan [S of Avaris: Hatwaret, where later city of Pi-Ramesses was built. Joseph vizier for 1 or more pharoahs whose identity is not established with certainty, but some have cited evidence that these were Kakaure Senuseret III & his later co-regent Nimaatre Amenemhat III, who ruled from Avaris in the 19th dynasty, on the Bubastite or Pelusiac branch of the Nile River], Matara [Roman sources indicate an Axumite kingdom was thriving in the 1st century AD. Converted to Christianity under the tutelage of a bishop named Frumentius & sheltered Muhammed’s 1st followers]
Eesti Vabarik: Estonian Republic [Arran: Snowdrop Land / Baltic States]
Omakaitse [Work Camp]
20th Estonian SS Division

Friedrich Jeckeln appointed HSSPF in Ostland Eastern Front which encompassed the Baltic countries Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia & parts of Belorussia. Danish Major-General Kryssing imprisoned for 5 years after the war.
1219: Teutonic Knights take control of S. Estonia, & Danish forces conquer N. Estonia. Danes sell their holdings to the Knights in 1346. Serfdom until 1816
1721-1918: Russia. German nobles estates intact.
1941: WWII: Siberia & Germany
1944: Estonian SSR: Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independance

Sõjakuriteod [Mass Graves] KZ Reval / CC Tallinn [Capital of Estonia. St. Nicolas of Reval Church, Tallin: Plague grave. Occupied WWII. Forced labor. Liberated by Red Army] KZ Dorpat / CC Tartu [Murdered by NAZIs. Others exiled to Siberia]
KL Kabarneeme [Killing site of Kalevi - Liiva (Wiesenthal)], KL Kluga [Forced labor. slaughtered in forests], KL Raasika [Sept 1942: Terezin SS Headquarters succeeded in pushing through 2 other transports, 1 to Riga & the other to Raasika in Estonia (Porges)] KL Vaivara [Near Narva. Railway station. Lagerkommandant for all Estonia, SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Hans Aumeier. Directed by Hauptscharfuhrers Max Dahlmann & Kurt Panike. The entire administrative staff was made up of SS totenkopfverbande: Death’s - Head Units. Narva Front: Battle of the European SS against Bolsheviks. Orphanage.]
Elláda: Sun [Galogræcia: Greece / Galatia: Milk Giving]
6200 BC: Archeological villages in Macedonia
1799: Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin loots Parthenon as Ambassador to Ottoman Empire: Elgin Marbles
1913: 2nd Balkan War: Macedonia divided: Greece [S.], Bulgaria [E.] & Serbia [N. & Central]. Thrace divided: Bulgaria [W.] & Turkey [E.]
Waffen SS Director: Kurt Waldheim
1972: Kurt Waldheim, former member of the Waffen SS & responsible for the mass genocide of Jews, Slavs, Greeks, & Gypsys in the Balkans, is elected Secretary to the United Nations, exports UNDOF: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force forces to Syria, Israel & Egypt & becomes president of Austria in 1986. When he becomes knighted from the Vatican, the Serbs block a visit from the pope.
Athens [430 BC: 1000 plague tombs. The plague killed 1/3 of the populationn. WWII: Center of NAZI administration & a work camp. The administration starves the civilian population.], Arcadia, Salonika [Work camp], Thrace [80% of Jewish residents murdered], Thessaly, Thessaloniki [WWI 1912: 1st Balkan War.], Crete, Peloponnese & Macedonia [1942-1949: Greek Civil War Bulgarian SS occupy area. ELAS: Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos resistance / SNOF: Slavo-Macedonian liberation army fight against the SS.], Corfu Island [August 31, 1923: Mussolini’s warships shell the island & occupy it after General Enrico Tellini killed while marking out the border between Greece & Albania]
Ethiopia: Greek: Sunburn [Abyssinia / Africa Orientale Italiana: Italian East Africa]
Dhabamsiisu [Extermination]
200AD - 600AD: Aksum Kingdom
1137 AD - 1270 AD: Zagwe Dynasty
1867: Napier Commission / Ethiopian Civil War: British Army imprisons king Theodore II, captures capital city Magdala
1885: Italy seizes
1896: Battle of Adwa: Menelik II vs Italian Army
1889: Treaty of Wuchale: Italian Prime Minister Francesco Crispi signs with Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopeia. This treaty ceded Ethiopian territory around Massawa to Italy to form of the colony of Eritrea & according to the Italian version of the treaty made Ethiopia an Italian protectorate.
Part of East Africa: Horn of Africa with French Somaliland [Djibouti], Italian Somaliland [Eritrea], British Somaliland [Somalia], Anglo-Egyptian Sudan & British East Africa [Kenya]
1916: England, France, & Italy remove Lij Iyasu from power.
1926: Abolishes slavery & enters the League of NationsItalo-Ethiopian War: Italo-Abyssinian War: Abyssinian Campaign: Italy invades in 1935 with mustard gas.
1st MVSN Division “23 Marzo”
2d MVSN Division “28 Ottobre”
3d MVSN Division “21 Aprile”
4th MVSN Division “3 Gennaio”
5th MVSN Division “1 Febbraio”
6th MVSN Division “Tevere”
When during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, the League of Nations accused Benito Mussolini’s soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Mussolini responded that Ethiopians were not fully human, therefore the human rights laws did not apply. (Wikipedia)
1936: King Vittorio Emmanuele II: Victor Emmanuel III adds Emperor of Ethiopia to his title
Italian East Africa ruled by Prince Amedeo of Savoy, 3rd Duke of Aosta.
1963: OAU: Organization of African Unity: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: African leaders believed disunity played into the hands of the superpowers. Designed to promote the unity & solidarity of African states; coordinate & intensify cooperation & efforts to achieve a better life for the peoples of Africa; to defend sovereignty; to eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa & to promote international cooperation.
1977: Somalia seizes Ogaden region
1988: Ethiopia & Somalian Peace Agreement
‘Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile (Abay). The geological rifting filled by upwelling lava, from Mount Kilimanjaro & volcanic flows trenched by rivers such as the Blue Nile form Great canyons which is why the country was known in antiquity as Abyssinia.’ – Professor Bret Wallach ]
Aksum [Ancient Capital], Adulis [Red Sea Port], Addis Ababa [Capital of country. Population: 55,000,000. 1936: Marshal Pietro Badoglio. February 1937: Bomb explodes next to General Rodolfo Graziani. Ethiopians impaled, black shirts of the fascist Militias kill all of the men, women & children they encounter in the streets. Homes in flames, mass executions of groups of 50-100 people], Oromio [Oromo-Galla people massacred by Mililik I with European powers & land seized. Survivors sold as slaves, children & elderly burned alive.] 1935: Mussolini proclaims the Empire of Italian East Africa. Mustard gas grenade bombs dropped from airplanes, phosgene sprayed like an insecticide on villages. Gas, flamethrowers. Forced labor camps, public gallows, mutilated corpses. Italian troops photographed next to cadavers hanging from the gallows or hanging around chests full of decapitated heads. (262, 263) 1974: the Dergue depose Emperor Ras Tafari Makonnen Haile Selassie, who had ruled since 1928. Afterwards are bloody coups, uprisings, taxation, wide-scale drought, people dislocated & herded into socialist villages. Millions starve to death while agricultural products: coffee, pulses, hides, skins, oilseeds are exported to the U.S., Germany, & Japan. Millions flee as refugees. Ethiopia becomes a Communist state in 1984, with Mengistu as secretary-general of the newly established Workers party. Dergue replaced by Tigrayan & Eritrean guerilla armies in 1991. Eritrea declared independent in 1993. The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front have incarcerated tens of thousands in concentration camps. Ex-President Mengistu Haile-Mariam is sheltered by President Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. There is no free press
Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
1975: Independance from France, except for Mayotte
1999: Military Rule
(pronounced KAHM uh rohz) African Islands of: Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mayotte, Moheli & several smaller ones between the mainland of Africa & the island country of Madagascar.
Finland: White Fiery Sun [Suomi / Karelia]
Kansanmurha [National Murder]
Waffen-SS ‘Nordland Wiking’
1809-1917: Russia seizes
1918: White Guard: Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, vs Red Guard: Russian troops. Meanwhile, the Red Guard attempted to take over the Finnish government in Helsinki. White victory
June 1943 government transfers Battalion to the Finnish Army.
Church of Inkoo [plague], Kangasjarvi [Work Camp], Koveri [Work Camp]
Sexual Slavery Immigration law allows the state to deport immigrants suspected of prostitution without a trial; thus in cases of physical abuse by the pimps, the prostitutes cannot even resort to the police. – Wikipedia
France: Saxon for Throwing Axe [Gaule: Mouth]
Génocide [People Killing]
DeHoMag-CEC: Companie Electro-Comptable de France: M. G. Connelly with Crédit Lyonnais
Demographic Service: In Vichy. René Carmille develops the PIN: Personal Identification Number a unique 13 digit passcode identifying people. IBM-CEC receives a 36 million franc deal.

Génocide est un mot savant de création récente (ca. 1946) signifiant littéralement le fait de tuer des gens. Ces massacres sont des crimes contre l’humanité commis pour des raisons pseudo-ethniques, eugéniques, politiques, stratégiques, religieuses, racistes, xénophobes ou morale, sur toute une ethnie – Mecanisme du genocide

Latin gentium = nation
730 BC- 381BC: Celtic La Tène: Frankfort limestone hill-graves
258- 274 AD: Gallic Empire vs Roman Emperor Valerian.
357 AD: Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate vs Alamanni in Strasbourg. Lutetia: Raven Place now Civitas Parisiorum.
366-388 AD: Roman Emperor Magnus Maximus a.k.a Macsen Wledig (assasinated by Byzantine Emperor Theodosius).
451 AD: Emperor Valentinian III vs Suevi
Pope Saint Gregory I of Tours’ Historium Francorium states the Franks (Saxon: franca: throwing axe) originally lived in Pannonia, later settling on the Rhine. They adopted their name circa. 11 BC following their defeat & relocation by Drusus: Oak Priests replacing the earlier tribal name Sicambri-Sugambri an offshoot Cimmerians-Scythians
Because the Frankish kingdom dominated Western Europe for centuries, terms derived from Frank were used by many in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, & beyond as a synonym for Roman Christians (e.g., al-Faranj in Arabic, farangi in Persian, Feringhi in Hindustani, farang in Thai, & Frangos in Greek). During the crusades, which were at 1st led mostly by nobles from northern France who claimed descent from Charlemagne, both Muslims & Christians used these terms as ethnonyms to describe the Crusaders. Compare with Rhomaios, Rûmi (Roman), used for Orthodox Christians

Le Théâtre du Grand Guignol: (pron gron geen-yole) In 1897 during The Reign of Terror an ex-private secretary to the Parisian police commissioner, Oscar Méténier, set up the theatre in the Paris Montmartre red-light district specializing in torture plays. It did not close down until 1962. Guignol is a lyonnaise marionnette from 1808 invented by Laurent Mourguet (1769-1844) – Mel Gordon: Grand Guignol: Theatre of Fear & Terror

The Fall of France: 1940: French government flees the capital. June 22: Germany occupies northern 2-3rds of France. S, France remains in control with a new government at Vichy. In November 1942, German troops occupy all France.

33rd French SS Division Charlemagne: Prefecture de Police: Henri Bunle: Hitler orders a French Labor Census. Census information collected by Prefectures. Hitler orders French civilians 18 to 50 to register for the Reich.
France’s Final Solution:SS officer: Carl Albrecht Oberg. Extradited to France by the Americans after the war, Oberg pardoned in 1965 by President de Gaulle. He died the same year.
SS: Hauptsturmführer: Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyon, Head of the French GeStaPo 1942-1944. Escaped to Bolivia with the passport signature of Father Draganovic & lived as Klaus Altmann until his extraditon to France in 1983. Sentenced to life in prison in 1987. His lawyer: Swiss banker François Genou has dedicated himself to the reconstruction of the National Socialist Banking System in preparation for the Fourth Reich. Documented in Saturday Night Live’s Klaus Barbie Heil Hits of 1982 (129)

Vichy France Cabinet:
Premier Ministre: Chief of State: Henri Philippe Pétain (1856-1951) [dies in prison at 95, Marshall of France in 1918 & Minister of War in 1934: pron. ahn REE fee LEEP pay TAN]
Vice Premier: Camille Chautemps & Pierre Laval [executed]
Ministre d’Interior: Andre Marque, Marcel Peyroutont
Milice française : Military Police: SS Joseph Darnand [executed]
SS Commanders: Paul Touvier [convicted in 1993], Jacques de Bernonville [fled to Québec], René Bousquet [murdered]
Ministre des Finances: Yves Bouthillier
Ministers of Industrial Production: Pierre Pucheu, François Lehideux
Ministers of Labour: André Février, René Belin, Charles Pomaret
Ministre de la Justice: Charles Frémicourt, Raphaël Alibert, Joseph Barthélemy
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Pierre Étienne Flandin
Ministre Merchant Marine: François Darlan
Ministre de la Défense Nationale: Maxime Weygand, Charles Huntziger
Ministre de la Guerre: Louis Colson
Ministre d’Aviation: Bertrand Pujo, Jean Bergeret
Ministers of National Education: Albert Rivaud, Georges Ripert, Jérôme Carcopino
Ministers of Agriculture: Pierre Caziot, Albert Chichery
Ministers of Supply: Jean-Louis Achard, Paul Charbin
Minister of Colonies: Albert Rivière, Henry Lémery, Charles Platon
Ministers of Health: Jacques Chevalier, Serge Huard
Minister of Public Works: Ludovic-Oscar Frossard
Minister of French Family &Veterans: Jean Ybarnegaray
Ministres de (of) Communication: François Piétri, Jean Berthelot
Ministres d’Information: Paul Baudoin, Henri Moysset
Minister of Propaganda: Paul Marion
Ministre d’État: Henri Moysset, Lucien Romier

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (1916-1996) Junior Minister of Vichy & President of France from 1981-1995 who abolished the death penalty. Received the Francisque
 Wrote in December 1942 in the Vichy journal France, revue de l’État nouveau: France, Revue of the New State “If France doesn’t want to die in the mud, the last French people worthy of this name must declare a merciless war against all who, here or abroad, are preparing to open floodgates against it: Jews, Freemasons, Communists... always the same, & all of them Gaulists. ”
”Si la France ne veut pas mourir dans cette boue là, il faut que les derniers français dignes de ce nom déclarent une guerre sans merci à tous ceux qui, à l’intérieur comme à l’extérieur, se préparent à lui ouvrir les écluses : juifs, maçons, communistes...toujours les mêmes et tous gaullistes’’.

La Cagoule: The Hood funded by Eugène Schueller founder of L’Oréal whose associates, André Bettencourt (who married his daughter) & Jacques Corrèze (CEO of US branch until 1991) held meetings, assasinated Italian anti-fascists the Rosellini Brothers, directly assisted the Nazis in taking Jewish private property, bombing synagogues & other Jewish monuments, & in shipping Jews to Nazi death camps. Schueller’s daughter is the richest woman in France with .8 billion & the owner of Helena Rubenstein cosmetics. Her daughter married Jean-Pierre Meyers who lost both his parents at Auschwitz

Des maternités de Consanguinité: The Maternity Wards of Blood [Lebensborn: Spring of Life]
UN War-crimes Forced Maternity & Sexual Violence
Westwald: West Forest [Lamorlaye bei Chantilly. These children are later called Enfants Maudits: Cursed Children & their mothers Les Femmes tondues: The Tonsured (Cut Hair) Women.]

Les Cryptes [Mass Graves]La Crypte: Paris Catacombs [Underneath the Gare Montparnasse TGV station. 6 million body parts. Le Cimetière des Innocents: The Cemetery of the Innocents: Green Man stalks & eats vagrants, Little Devil of the Quarries, has bleeding eyes, wild hair] (Salon 168), Galleria de Paris [Graveyard exhumed in 1789], Père-Lachaise Cimetière [Monuments to the Holocaust], Montfaucon [Hanged & left to rot until their bones fell. grave pit] (Northstar 169), Le Cimitière de Saint Hilaire, Marville [An ossuary stacks 40,000 skulls: horloges de mort, some enclosed in a wooden case], L’église de Kernascleden [Plague], Abbeé de la Chaise-Dieu [Plague], Church of Meslay-le-Grenet [Plague], L’église paroissial de Kermaria [Plague], Church of La Ferté-Loupière,Yonne [Plague, Danse Macabre], L’église de Kietzheim [Plague], Cherbourg Trinity Basilica [Plague], Sisteron [1451-1503: 7 epidemics wipe out 2/3 of the population], Mur de la Peste: Pestilence Wall [1722: Plague wall with guard posts built by Act of Parliament of Aix. Death penalty for any communication between Marseilles & the rest of Provence. Marseilles lifts quarantine, mass-graves, corpses lie scattered around city. 50,000 of Marseille’s 90,000 dead. 50,000+ die as plague spreads north to Aix-en-Provence, Arles-Beaucaire, Apt & Toulon (Beyond France 170)]

Bastilles [Prisons]
Château Dinan [Built by Dukes of Brittany. Prison cells & several dungeons]
Château de Nantes / Naoned / Nannidh: Daisy Castle[Bretagne: Brittany: Prison chambers housed Gilles de Laval, Finance Minister Fouquet, Cardinal de Retz, & Duchess of Berry. For miles round the country was bare, for the enemy had cut down every tree & burnt every blade of corn; inside the gates men were dying of famine. During the 18th century, Nantes was the slave trade capital of France. Reign of Terror: 1000s of summary executions by drowning in the Loire river. Bombed twice in WWII]
Fontainebleau: Blue Fountain [North Central:. Îsle-de -France]
Mazan [Vaucluse. 1525: Nostradamus treats plague victims with cleanliness & blood-letting. Owner: Marquis de Sade-Donatien Alphonse François 1740-1814] (Beyond France 170)
Sangatte [Closed 2003. Red Cross 1,800+ asylum camp 1 mile from the English Channel rail-station. Miles of electrical razor wire surround tunnel entrance, 100 security guards. Red Cross estimates that of the 50,000 who have used the camp, about 42,000 finally did make it to the U.K., either through the tunnel or smuggled on ferries]
La Santé: The Health [Paris]
Suresnes [Paris]
Font Vaucluse: Musée Historique de la Justice et des Châtiments [Genuine guillotine & other torture instruments] (Beyond France 170)

French Polynesia
Tahiti, Tuamotu Islands
Marquesas: 1595: Spanish Viceroy of Peru Marques de Mendoza

Austral Islands [6: Rurutu, Tubuai, Raivavae, Rapa, Marotiri: Ilots de Bass, Maria atoll], Gambier Islands [1842: French territory in South Pacific Ocean made up of 120+ volcanic islands scattered over an area the size of W. Europe], Marquesas Islands [10: Hiva Oa (Gaugin buried here), Nuku Hiva (French troops), Ua Huka, Ua Pou], Society Islands [14: Tahiti, Raiatea, Wallis, Futura], Tuamotu Islands [75: (too uh MOH too): 1606: Pedro Fernandes de Queiros, a Portuguese explorer in the service of Spain, invades the Tuamotu Islands. 1881: Native King of Tuamotu Islands displaced. 1965: France uses Mururoa atoll as a nuclear bomb test area]

La Zone Sud: CC: Camps de Concentration Victiu [Vichy Concentration Camps] / Französischer KL: Konzentrationslager [French Concentration Camps]

Region Burgundy / La Bourgogne [Boar Place]: E Central France: Dijon, Thol [Ain], Montceau-les-Mines [Saône et Loire], Chancelade [Dordogne]

Tours / la Touraine [Door To the Water from Heaven]: CentralFrontstalag Jargeau [Loiret Refugee camp created by Minister Daladier in 1940 as part of his Frontstalags program of concentration camps. Gypsies & prostitutes exterminated]

Poitiers / le Poitou: West Central France CC Galliac: Love [Poitou, Midi-Pyrénées], Brens [Midi-Pyrénées région], CC Poitiers

L’Auvergne [Seed Place]-Limousin: SE Central France: Cantal, Puy-de-Dome, & part of Haute-Loire have covered Auvergne, Camp de Rivesaltes [ le cœur de la politique de Vichy: the heart of Vichy. Considered the Southern Zone equivalent of Drancy. Internees, young children starved to death, exposed to extreme cold. Camp filled with vermin & mice. (Cercle: 173) 1957: 14,000+ Algerians interned in the Algerian War Capital of Auvergne Vichy moved to Clermont-Ferrand], Le Chambon-sur-Lignon [Haute-Loire, Auvergne], Saint-Paul d’Eyjeaux [Near Limoges, Limousin], Brive [Corrèze, Limousin], Oradour-sur-Glane [40 Waffen SS Alsaciens condemned for the massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane, a village in Haute-Vienne where 642 died on June 10, 1944. (177) Marcel Darthout, a survivor, tells of how the town’s women were herded into the church & it was set on fire. The men were shot to death in a barn by Waffen SS Das Reich Division soldiers. Survivor: Robert Hebras (129)], Rieucros [Lozère]

Region Gascony-Aquitaine [Latin: Water Place]-Bordeaux: SW France: Mérignac-Beaudésert [Gironde. Bordeaux transport camp to Sachsenhausen & Auschwitz], Fort du Hâ-Bordeaux, Camp-de-Gurs [Featured in Cannibal Holocaust & Michael Morpurgo’s Anya. (Epstein 171) Barbed-wire fence, 1 paved road, food administered by the le Croix Rouge: The Red Cross. Léon Bérard, sénateur des Basses-Pyrénées: 1942: 2,820 men from Aquitaine, 9,771 women from Paris cycling area Vel d’Hiv tortured, die in the snow. 21,794 interned next year. 1380 death-marched to Mannheim & Baden in Germany. Others transfered to Drancy], Argelès-sur-Mer [Pyrenées Orientales. Deputé Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour declares Spanish Civil War refugees anarchists & international criminals. Called le village Basque: the Basque Village for the 980+ Euskerian Galicians detained there the 1st year alone] (Laharie 172), Prison Saint-Michel [Tolouse], Récébédou [8 km from Tolouse in Haute Garonne. Extermination center set up in Nexon], Noé [Dupont 25 miles S. of Toulouse. 76,000+ shipped to Nazi death camps from Noé-Longages railway station. Under a 1979 law most of France’s wartime archives are sealed for between 60 & 150 years after they were written]

Region Occitania / le Langue D’Oc [The Language of Yes]
Romainville Agde [(pron dogged without the d. Hérault, Languedoc-Roussillon. now a nudist colony], Le Vernet d’ Ariège [Ariège, SW France, Midi-Pyrénées. Concentration camp for undesirables built in 1918 by the Colonial Troops of Sénégal. World War II: French enemies of the state from Alsace-Lorraine, Catalonia, White-Russia, Russia, Italy, Jews & Communists. (Seghers 174)], Septfonds [Tarn-et-Garonne, Midi-Pyrénées],

Region Savoy / la Savoie: SE France:Alpine Line of machine gun & bunker complexes borders Italy, Ruffieux [Savoie], Vénissieux [Suburb of Lyon in Grand Lyon, SE France .WWII Inmates death-marched to Oranienberg, The Oppidum Lugdunum: Celtic sun god Lugh: Raven Gleam + dunum: hill-fort in Gaulish of 58 BC. Lug’s raven totem turned into le coq: rooster. Aduatuci under Vercingitorix, Helvetti: Sun People under Orgetorix: Golden Boar King, Morini: Great Sea People of Armorica: Great Sea Place, Treveri: Triple Ones], Belladonna: Dark Sacred Tree / Gratianopolis-Grenoble [87 BC: Allobroges: White Cow of Everlasting Milk People’s area of Belladonna: Dark Sacred Tree re-named Gratianopolis / Grenoble by Emperor Gratian. WWII: Maquis, French reistance fighters, died in the mountains waging guerilla warfare against the Germans. Site of Saint-Martin-de-Miséré 994 AD & Hercynian forest]

Province Romaine [Roman Province] / la Provence [The Province]: SE France: Les Milles [Now a museum: Aix-en-Provence. Main Vichy Camp of SE France. Artist Max Ernst interned here. 1942: Leonhard Märker’s Operation Les Mille et Une Nuits: Operation 1001 Nights where 3500+ inmates transported in railroad cars for Drancy by GMR: Groupes Mobiles de Réserve troops, earns him the French Red Cross. Laval orders the murder of all Jewish children in 1943. Depicted in the French movie Train de Milles by Sébastien Grall & book Unholdes Frankreich a.k.a Der Teufel im Frankreich: The Devil in Franceby Lion Feuchtwanger. Commissaire divisionnaire Robert Maulavé death marches 400+ prisoners from Marseille, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria], Loriol-sur-Drôme, Saliers [Bouches-du-Rhône], Millau-Larzac [Larzac® is an army assault aircraft jet engine from SNECMA Moteurs et Turbomeca. Le ministre de la Défense, Michel Debré, expands acreage in 1970 with the FDSEA: Fédération Départementale des Syndicats d’Exploitants Agricoles by seizing the town of La Cavalrie in Aveyron & nearby farms. 1978: Festival Wheat Harvest: famine], Saint-Maurice l’Ardoise [Gard], Bompard [Marseille], Le Levant [Marseille], Terminus [Marseille], KZ Marienburg: Saint Mary Town / Camp Sainte-Maire [In Nice, S. France. SS Alois Brüner rid Vienna of Jews & was then transfered to Nice. He rounded up the Jews of Côte d’Azur & Nice. In 1954 he fled to Damascus, where the goverment refused to extradite him. In 1985 he gave an interview to Bunte Magazine saying his only regret was that he did not kill more Jews. 2 mailbombs leftt him blind in 1 eye & missing 3 fingers. If he is still alive he is 94 years old. (129)]

To Sort / Sorter Saint-Cyprien, Saint-Suplice-la-Pointe, Rouille, Alès [labor camp], Manosque [labor camp], Les Mées [labor camp]

La Zone Nord Camps de Concentration: The North Zone Concentration Camps

Region Picardy-Flanders / la Picardie-Flandre: Dunkirk / Dunkerque [Invaded by Germans], Douai, Loos-les-Lille / Loss les Lille, Camp de Royallieu à Compiègne [Picardie The Orthodox Catholic church canonized Fr Alexis Medvedkov, Fr Dimitri Klepinine, Mother Maria Skobtsova, Elie Fondaminskii & her son George Yuri Skobtsov They were arrested by GeStaPo & interned in the Compiègne Camp, before being deported in the Totenzug: Death Train to Germany. Mother Maria was gassed at Ravensbruck. Her poems are in the book Le Sacremant du Frere. (In Communion: 289)]

Champagne-Ardenne: NEArdennes-Maginot Line [1935: pronounced MAZH uh noh. Machine gun posts on the border of Germany built by CORF: Commission d’Organisation des Régions Fortifiées in at a cost of 3 billion francs. Barbed-wire entanglements, Underground chambers]

Paris: KZ Drancy / CC Drancy[La Cité de la Muette. NE suburb of Paris. Public-housing project built in 1932 turned into a Sammellager: Assembly & deportation camp. WWI & WWII Louis Renault Tanks. SS Alois Brunner (d. 1993) Gendarmerie barracks . 70,000+ dead. Destroyed in 1976. Subcamps: Camp d’Aincourt [Seine-et-Oise] (Fourmas 179), Beaune la Rolande [Now the musée de la Résistance et de la Déportation. 100 km S. of Paris. Loiret Region. Annex for the Drancy concentration camp], Lorris [Franz Kafka] (Gerard Bertrand 180), Pithiviers [Loiret. 4000+ Parisian Jews interned in 1942-1942], Orléans [Loiret. Death commandos, stopped running in 1946], Cepoy [Loiret. 1000+ detainees with 300 guards. Convoys of prisoners death-marched to the S. through the Briare Canal (Billiard 181)]
Fontevrault-Fresnes [Fresnes, Val-de-Marne near the city of Paris. The largest prison in France, built by architect Henri Poussin in 1895. Used as a torture chamber during WWII. Dark holes, mass execution by the GeStaPo: Sonderkommando Rotte Kapelle who murdered Belgian Banking Heiress Suzanne Spaak for working with the MNCR: National Movement Against Racism. Automobile industrialist, Louis Renault, arrested for collaborating with the Nazis, died there in 1944. Italian mobster, Antonio Ferrara escaped using rocket launchers to blow holes in prison walls, car-bombs & machine gun fire in 2003]

Normandy-Armorica / la Normandie-Armorique [Great Sea Country]: NW: CC Boulogne-sur-Mer [Cherbourg. Battle of Normandy, Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay sends 4000 landing craft, 130 warships. Air Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory’s 12,000 aircraft with 5,000 tons of bombs], CC Caen [Home of the Museum for Peace: Bass-Normandie. 1066: Château de Caen, home of William the Conquerer. Invasion of Normandy: During saturated bombing the locals hid out at l’Abbaye aux Hommes. After WWII it took 16 years to rebuild the city.], CC Coudrecieux [Sarthe], Camp de Voves [Marianberger Komturia: Eure, Located in Haute-Normandie: Upper Normandy. Prefecture for Jewish Concerns established & issues the yellow stars], Villers-Bocage [WWII: Battle of Villers-Bocage decimates a large section of the village & results in a German victory by SS-Obersturmführer Michael Wittmann against the British Desert Rats in Cromwell tanks]

Brittany [Little Britain: White Cow Goddess] / la Bretagne: NW Brest [Finistère,. Used as a NAZI submarine base in WWII. Bombed by the Allies & re-built in the 1950s], CC Rennes, CC Montreuil-Bellay [Maine-et-Loire, W central France], CC Moisdon-la-Rivière [Loire-Atlantique], CC Étables-sur-Mer [Cótes-d’Amor, Bretagne. On March 9, 1941 The Vichy Direction Départementale de l’Agriculture institutes a policy called remembrement rural: land consolidation where the countryside destroyed. Trees & hedges bulldozed, causing flooding. Sacred stones uprooted & land redistributed. January 1976: Farmers’ Syndicat de Défense et de Promotion paysanne writes the French Minister of Agriculture & engages in civil disobedience. They have nothing left to lose. The letter documents starving farmers deprived of their livelihood comitting suicide]
Châteaubriant: Kastell-Briant: Bright Castle[1538: Count Jean de Laval, Governor of Brittany under Francis I murdered his wife Françoise de Foix, Countess of Châteaubriant by shutting her up in a padded cell, hacked to pieces by 2 surgeons. In Oct 1941, 27 Communist hostages imprisoned by the Vichy police in the Châteaubriant Internment Camp handed over to the Nazis & shot by a firing squad in revenge for the murder of the German lieutenant-colonel Karl Hotz on 20 October 1941 in Nantes. The youngest of the 27 hostages, Guy Môquet, 17 years. Place of execution, known as the Carrière des Fusillés is 1 of the principal memorials to the Nazi occupation in the region.]

KZ Elsa&szlig-Schwaben-Burgund / CC Alsace-Borgogne: NE France
Büttner. Minette GmbH [Hans Riedel, Ferdinand Porsche, Bodo La Fferentz & Anton Piech]

In German Alsace is called Elsaß. & the Lorraine region is called Lothringen. The Trial of Adolf Eichman Session 41: Dr Grueber: ‘France was to hand over Alsace-Lorraine, but in a judenfrei: jew-free condition.’ Baden, Palatinate & Saar people arrested, packed into wagons on which was written Jews from Alsace-Lorraine
Außlager: Subcamps: Elsaß-Alsace KDO Thil-Longwy-Erz / CC Thil-Longwy [Thiel: 4 km outside the city. Mining camp. Project Tiercele of Büttner. Minette GmbH liquidated. Inmates transported to Kochendorf & Natzweiler, May-October 1944: V2 rocket factory. 500 Hungarian machinists brought from Auschwitz-Birkenau (176)], Colmar [Prison], Rothau [Unterelsaß: Bas-Rhin: Lower Rhine District], Sicherunslager Vorbrück-Schirmeck [Mémorial de l’Alsace-Moselle, Bruch Valley, Bas-Rhin. Jewish cemetary, synagogue], Husseren-Wesserling [Oberelsaß: Haut-Rhin: Upper Rhine District], Außlager: Subcamps: Lothringen-Lorraine Metz / Moseille [Fort Quéuleu SS Training School. 175 NE of Paris], Peltre [Near Metz, Moselle District], Vadenay [Marne], Audun-le-Tiche [Moselle District: Deutsche Reichsbahn, transportation center site under the Roka Kommando], Sennheim-Cernay, Oberehnheim-Obernai [Near Strasbourg. SS Training School: French 1st appeared in written form in the Oaths of Strasbourg, a treaty signed in 842 (133)], Saint-Dié-des-Vosges [Vosges District], Schomberg / Schonberg

Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 007: Hollerith Workdeath 007: KZ Natzweiler-Struthof / CC Natzwiller
la route des 10000 crânes
SS. Otto Walther: DEST
Aufseherin Maria Aichele: Made famous by her abuse & sadism. She was never arrested by the US Army, nor the French Army for her crimes (178)
Located in the village of Natzwiller, 31 miles S. of Strasbourg in the Vosges Mountains of North East France, Lorraine region. The mountains border Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg & Switzerland. 45,000+ dead, exécution crématoire: crematorium ashes thrown in garden, gas chambers, electrocution, whipped to death, phénol injection NN: Nacht und Nebel: Night & Fog members of resistance movements in France, Belgium, Russia, the Netherlands & Norway. coded 14 on punch-cards. Human experiments without anaesthetic, vivisection, stérilisation, dissection mustard gas, typhus, epidemic jaundice at l’Institut d’Anatomie de Strasbourg. Professeur Hirth said the 86 corpses he had were only sleeping & used his Swiss passport to return to Germany. Le Docteur Van Haagen, retourné à la Luftwaffe.

Germany: Plough-Man [Prussia]
Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Federal Republic of Clear Land
962-1803 AD: Der Erste Reich: Das Heiliges Römischen Reich: First Reign: The Holy Roman Empire: Regnum Teutonicum: Sacrum Romanum Imperium Nationis Germanic&aelig: Sacred Roman Empire of the German Nation
germ embryo; seed, bud. Celtic-Gaelic-Breton: gràinne: grain
germinate, v.i. to begin to grow or develop; sprout.
16 Länder: Lands, referred to in English as states. Reichkreis: Imperial Circles now known as Kreise: Counties. Gemeinden: Local-municipal districts.
Becoming a Holy Roman Emperor required becoming a Deutscher König: King of the Germans. Until 1508, German kings were not Emperors until the Pope crowned them at Frankfurt. 5 German Duchies: Bayern: Bavaria [Wittelsbach Nobles], Franken: Franconia [Hohenstaufen: Castle at Staufen], Lotharinga: Lorraine [Lothair III: 901-905 AD], Sachsen: Saxony [Welf, 1400s: Wettin], Swaben-Ländle: Swabia-Allemania [Hohenzollern: Castle Zollern at Hechingen. Duke Eberhard crushed].
1415: Sigismund makes Frederick of Hohenzollern ruler: margrave of Brandenburg, throne of Ducal Prussia. Junkers (pron. YUNG-kuhrs): Aristocratic landlords. Serfs: Slaves: Bound from birth to their lord’s estate & obligated to farm the lord’s land. Male serfs forced to serve in the army
1517-1521: Reformation: Oct 31, 1517: Martin Luther (1483-1546), Professor of Biblical theology at Wittenberg University burns Papal bull Exsurge Domine & volumes of canon law. Luther had been granted a Safe Conduct to travel to & from his trial, but remembering how a similar promise had been violated in the case of Jan Hus, Luther’s supporters prevailed upon him to escape from Worms in the dark of night. Luther remained in hiding.
1524-1525: Peasants’ War: Stuhlingen, Black Forest. Leader Thomas Muentzer of the Anabaptists’ revolt against feudal oppression. Their flag, called the Bundschuh: Shoe Flag, a black, white, & red cloth with a picture of a peasant’s shoe. The nobility killed as many as 100,000 peasants before the rebellion ended. The loss of so many people eliminated the peasantry as a political factor for the next 300 years. – William H. Maehl, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Modern History, Auburn University.
1531-1547: Schmalkaldic War: Schmalkaldic League German Lutheran Princes vs Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Habsburg. German Reformed Church founder Huldreich Zwingli assasinated.
1618-1648: 30 Years War: Ferdinand II Habsburg’s Holy League vs Denmark’s King Christian IV & Sweden in Saxony: It took almost 200 years for German territories to recover from the effects of the war.
[Iron Maiden at Nuremberg]

Iron Maiden at Nuremberg / Nürnberg

1681: German Free Town of Strasbourg united with France.
1692: Hanover becomes an electorate, a territory whose ruler – called the elector – could help elect the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1714: Elector George Louis of Hanover becomes King George I of England.

Zweite Reich: Second Reign: 1803-1919: Blut und Eisen: Blood & Iron
1891: Alldeutscher Verband: Pan-German League:
Alfred Wilhelm Franz Maria Hugenberg (1865-1951)
1861: Emperor: Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia
Prime Minister: Iron Chancellor Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schonhausen.
General Helmuth von Moltke
1866: Austro-Prussian War: Austria & German states of Hesse, Saxony, Hanover vs Prussia & Italy: Treaty dissolved the German Confederation, & permitted Prussia to organize its own North German Confederation. Austria had to give Venetia to Italy. Prussia annexed the Danish Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, German Hesse-Kassel, Kingdom of Hanover, Duchy of Nassau, & the free city of Frankfurt.
1870-1871: Franco-Prussian War: After Germany was united in 1871, the Hohenzollerns were both kings of Prussia & German emperors. France cedes Alsace-Lorraine & Strasbourg to Germany (returned after WWI) & pays Germany 1 billion
1888: Emperor Frederick III & Princess Royal Victoria, daughter of Queen Victoria of England reign 3 months
1919: Treaty of Versailles holds Germany responsible for WWI, strips the nation of territory, demands reparations & provides for a 15-year foreign occupation.
1919: The Saarland is put under the League of Nations control & after 15 years may vote if it will become part of Germany in 1934...

  • WWI: German General Staff
  • Kaiser: Emperor: Kaiser Wilhelm II von Hohenzollerin: 1888-1918
  • Reichskanzler: Chancellor: Prince Max of Baden
  • Chancellor of the German Empire: Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1856-1921)
    Historian Fritz Fischer in the 1960s showed Bethmann-Hollweg supported ethnicly cleansing Poles from the Polish Border Strip, as well as germanisation of Polish territories by settlement of German colonists. He presented the Septemberprogramm
  • Foreign Secretary: Gottlieb von Jagow
  • General Erich von Falkenhayn
  • Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen zu Köningen (1969)
  • OHL: Oberste Heeresleitung: Supreme Army Command: Erich Ludendorff
  • Naval Minister: Alfred von Tirpitz
  • Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches: The Flying Troops of the German Empire: Imperial German Army Air Service: Luftstreitkräfte: All German & Austro-Hungarian military aircraft in service used the Iron Cross insignia until early 1918
    World War I aircraft: fighters (Albatros-Flugzeugwerke, Fokker) reconnaissance aircraft (Aviatik, DFW), heavy bombers (Gothaer Waggonfabrik, Zeppelin-Staaken R.VI)
  • Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838-1917)
  • Manfred von Richthofen, der Rote Baron: The Red Baron
  • Ernst Udet
  • Hermann Göring
  • Oswald Boelcke
  • Werner Voss
  • Max Immelmann (1st airman to win the Pour le Mérite, Imperial Germany's highest decoration for gallantry, the Blue Max).
  • Paramilitary: Freikorps: Free Corps
    1. Black Reichswehr: A section of the Freikorps
Die Grabhügeln [Mass Graves]
Totentanz: Dead Can Dance

St. Mary ’s Church, Berlin [Plague], Chapel of Bleibach [Plague], St. Michaels Church, Freiburg Franciscan Convent [Plague], St. Ann’s Chapel, Fässen [Plague], Germelshausen [A vanished village said to be the inspiration for the Broadway musical Brigadoon], Göttigen [Plague], Greifswald, Züssow, Haselbach [Plague], Marburg [Burial ground for plague victims], Chapel of Jurgen, Wolgast [Plague], Lübeck [Plague], Chapel of Straubing [Plague. la danse macabre], Chapel of Schambach [Plague], Chapel of Wolhusen [Plague], Chapel of Wondreb [Plague], Wismar [1376: 10,000 die of the plague. Nosferatu filmed here.]

Flächenland Bayern: Area State Bavaria: King Ludwig III Lower Franconia: Unterfranken a Regierungsbezirk: administrative region of Bavaria that includes: Bad Kissingen, Aschaffenburg, Würzburg, Schweinfurt, Kitzingen, Haßberge, Miltenburg, Main-Spessart. In 1933 regional Nazi Gauleiter: District Leader Otto Hellmuth insisted on renaming the district Mainfranken. After 1945 the name Unterfranken was resurrected.
Middle Franconia: Mittelfranken: Kreise: Districts: Ansbach, Nürnbergerland, Roth, Neustadt-Aisch, Erlangen-Höchstadt, Fürth
Upper Franconia: Oberfranken a Regierungsbezirk: administrative region of Bavaria that includes Bamberg, Coburg, Bayreuth, Hof: Temple, Kronach, Kulmbach, Lichtenfels.

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry a.k.a Kraeplin Institute, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics & Human Heredity & The Central Office for Fighting the Gypsy Nuisance In München / Munich. Alfred Dillmann collects fingerprints

Spandau Citadel [1876: Demolished in 1987. 1920: Spandau City annexed into West Berlin]

Schwäbisch-Hall-Weckrieden [Prison in Bad Würtemburg State near Stuttgart. Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh & Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, granddaughter of Queen Victoria & Prince Albert, died here in 1942. Her parents were Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh & grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia. She married Prince Ernest Hohenlohe-Langenburg & had 4 children: Prince Godfrey, Princess Marie-Melita, Princess Alexandra, Princess Irma]

Konzentrationslagen Moringen-Sollung: Concentration Camp Moringen-Sollung [Between Göttingen & Hanover. WWI concentration camp. Medical experiments, Criminal biology: Children sterilized as a result of genetic or criminal biological reports

Dritte Reich: Third Reich: Third Reign: DAP: Deutsche ArbeiterPartai: German Workers’ Party a.k.a NSDAP: Nationalsozialische Deutsche ArbeiterPartai: National Socialist German Workers’ Party
Nazi (pronounced NAHT see): stands for the 1st word in the German name of the party. Party salute a flat-handed extended arm accompanied by the words Sieg Heil (pronounced SEEG-HIGH-L) which means Victory Hail . Bl&umlaut;tfahne: blood flag with a white circle in the middle with a black clockwise hakenkreuz: hooked cross: swastika. Nazis become Germany’s strongest Reichstag: Parliament party with 38% of the vote. When Hitler is named Chancellor: Prime Minister of Germany in 1933 he outlaws all civil liberties & all political parties except the Nazi Party. The party swastika: Hakenkreuz is called the symbol of the creating, acting life: das Symbol des schaffenden, wirkenden Lebens; Race emblem of Germanism: Rasseabzeichen des Germanentums. Sonnenrad: Sun Wheel called Black Sun after WWII.

Deutscher Frauenorden Rotes Hakenkreuz der NSDAP: Nationalsozialische Deutsche ArbeiterPartai Völkische Frauenorden [German Women’s Order of the Red Hooked Cross of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. Women’s Order of the People]

  1. Founded in 1928 by Elsbeth Zander. Zelle Zelleiter: administrative divisions.
  2. Jungmädel: Young Maidens: 10-14 year old girls
  3. BDM: Bund Deutscher Mädel: League of German Girls: 14-17 year old girls.
  4. Glaude und Schönheit: 17 to 21 years old.
    1936: Gesetz über die Hitlerjugend: Compulsory membership law. Corps organized under adult leaders. Membership at 5 million. They wore uniforms, marched, exercised, & learned Nazi beliefs. The Nazis taught children to spy on their own families & report anti-Nazi criticism they might hear.

GDJB: Großdeutsche Jugendbewegung: Greater German Youth Movement / HJ: Hitler Jugend: Hitler Youth

  1. 1933: Reichsjugendführer: Reich Youth Leader: Baldur von Schirach, Gauleiter of Vienna: Membership: 2,300,000.s
  2. DJ: Deutsches Jungvolk: German Young People: 10-14 year old boys.
  3. BDA: Bund Deutscher Arbeiterjugend: League of German Worker Youth: 14-17 year old boys
  4. HJ: Hitler Jugend: Hitler Youth: 17-21 years old
  5. JAH: Jungsturm Adolf Hitler: Young Storm Adolf Hitler: Kurt Gruber & Gerhard Roßbach Shilljugend: 1922-1926
    Est 1922 to train & recruit future members of the SA: Sturm Abteilung: Storm Troopers
    1937: HJ a stepping stone to the élite SS: Schutz Staffel: Protective Staff & bestowed with the single Sig Rune (victory symbol). The SS utilized 2 Sig Runes as their mark, & this gesture served to symbolically link the 2 groups
    1939: Nuremberg: Annual Nazi Party Rally: Basic unit of the Hitler Youth was the Bann, the equivalent of a military regiment. Of these Banne, there were more than 300 spread throughout Germany, each with 6000 youths. Each unit carried a flag with the Bann number, displayed in black on a yellow scroll above the Imperial State of Prussia eagle’s head grasping a black hammer & sword in its talons.
    1940: Artur Axmann: Hitler Youth in Reich Postal, Reichsbahn: Train, fire, Reich radio, anti-aircraft defense crew

Reich Kabinett: Reigning Cabinet
Reichspräsident: President of Germany: Paul von Hindenburg (-1934: Overthrows Weimar Republic)
Reichskanzler: German Chancellor: Der Führer: The Leader: Adolf Hitler (1919-1945): Mein Kampf: My Fight
Vice-Chancellor: Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen zu Köningen (1969: acquitted at Nuremburg)
Reichskommissar Preußen: Minister of Prussia: Kurt von Schleicher (1934: purged), Hermann Göring
Hindenburg’s Chief of Staff: General Erich F. W. Ludendorff
Papen's Speech Writer: Edgar Julius Jung (1934: purged)
Papen’s Secretary: Herbert von Bose (1934: purged)
Reichskanzler: Reich Chancellor: Hans Lammers (1962)
Party Chancellor: Martin Bormann (1972)
Presidial Chancellor: Otto Meissner
Kabinett: Cabinet:
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Baron Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath, Joachim von Ribbentrop (’46)
Minister of the Interior: Fraktionsführer Wilhelm Frick (1946), Wilhelm Freiherr von Gayl
NAZI World Press Service: Berlin
  1. Völkische Freiheit: National Freedom
  2. NS-Briefe: NS Letters
  3. Das Reich
  4. Der Angriff: The Attack, Paul Joseph Goebbels 1927

Reichskulturkammer: Reich Culture ChamberReichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda: Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment & Propaganda: Propagandaministerium: Minister of Propaganda: Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945)
Location: Ordenspalais in Berlin-Mitte on the Wilhelmplatz. It began in 1933 with 5 departments & 350 employees. By 1939, there were 2000 employees in 17 departments. 3 state secretaries were subordinate to Paul Joseph Goebbels:
  1. State Secretary I: Walther Funk (1933–1937), Otto Dietrich (1937 – 1945)
  2. State Secretary II: Karl Hanke (1937–1940), Leopold Gutterer (1940–1944), Werner Naumann (1944–1945)
  3. State Secretary III: Hermann Esser (1935–1945)
The Party's vast propaganda and publishing empire included 120 daily or weekly newspapers regularly read by about a million people across the country. By the time Hitler became Chancellor, National Socialists had already swept the student council elections in German universities. Germany's radio, film, newspapers, periodical press and book publishing, as well as over the nation's cultural life.
Minister of Finance: Lutz Graf Shwerin von Krosigk
Minister of Justice: Franz Gürtner, Franz Schlegelberger
Minister of Economics: Hermann Warmbold
RAD: Reichsarbeitsdienst: Reich Labor Service: Minister of Labor: Hugo Schäffer, Franz Seldte (1947: Magdeburg Stadtrat: City Council)
Minister of Agriculture: Alfred Wilhelm Franz Maria Hugenberg (1932-1933. d 1951), Richard Walther Darré (1953)

Blut und Boden: Blood & Soil: Concept of ethnicity based on descent (Blood) & homeland (Soil). The Reichserbhofgesetz: Das Bauerntum als Blutquelle des deutschen Volkes erhalten: to preserve the farming community as blood-source of the German people. Darré’s Neuadel aus Blut und Boden ©1930.
Minister of Defense: Wilhelm Keitel & Ernst August Köstr
Minister of Science: Bernhard Rust
Ecclesiastical Affairs: Hanns Kerl (1941)
Official Nazi Runologist: Karl Maria Wiligut
Minister of Posts & Transport: Transportation: Eltz von Rübenach, Julius Dorpmüller
ReichsPost Postal: lhelm Ohnesorge
Reichsministerium für Bewaffnung und Munition: Ministry for Armament &amp: Munitions: Fritz Todt & Albert Speer (1981)
ReichsBank: Horace Greely Hjalmar Schlacht
Hohen Gerichtes der SS: High Court of the SS / Law Academy: Hans Frank (1946)

  1. 1935-1945: OKW: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht: High Command Defense Force [formerly Reichswehr: National Defense]
  2. OKW Wehrwirtschaftsamt: War Economy Office
  3. OKW Waffenämter: Weapons Procurement Offices
  4. Abwehr: Intelligence Service: Wilhelm Franz Canaris
  5. WL: Wehrmacht Luftwaffe: Defense Force Airweapon Herman Göring (1946)
  6. WH: Wehrmacht Heer: Defense Force Army / OKH: Oberkommando des Heeres / High Command of the Army Werner von Fritsch (1938) Walther von Brauchitsch (1941), Ferdinand Schörner (1945)
  7. WM: Wehrmacht Kriegsmarine: Defense Force War Navy Erich Raeder (1928-1943), Karl Dönitz, Hans-Georg von Friedeburg (1945)
    Symbol: The straight-armed Balkenkreuz: Greek Cross. Heeresadler: Army Eagle decal for helmets. Estimated # of soldiers by Rüdiger Overmans: 18.2 million. Others say 22 million
    WWI: Many Prussian Junkers command Hitler’s armies in WW II

Shock Troops: Gleichshaltung: Coordination: Divisions
SA: Sturm Abteiling: Storm Troopers: The Brownshirts
Private army: brown shirt, brown pants, clockwise red hakenkreutz: hooked cross-swastika.
  1. Ernst Röhm (1934: Stabbed to death in Munich): Nacht der langen Messer: Night of the Long Knives / Reichsmordwoche: The Blood Purge:The murders of Hitler’s political rivals in the SA in 1934.
  2. Viktor Lutze (1943)
  3. Heinrich Himmler (’45)
  4. Walter Richard Rudolph Heß (1987)

SA Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten : 1918: Kampffront Schwarz-Weiß-Rot: Black-White-Red Combat Front
SS:Schutz Staffel-Hauptämter: Protective Staff Departments 1924: 12 main departments with 12 leaders.
  1. Die Schwarze Corps Legion: The Black Corps Legion: 1924: Originally brown SA uniform with black beret with the Totenkopfverbände: Death’s Head Skull & 2 crossed bones underneath. Later in 1933 all black with the 2 sig: victory symbol rune,
  2. Reichsführung-SS: Reich leadership SS
  3. LSSA: Liebestandsarte ShutzsStaffel Adolf Hitler : SS-Bodyguard Division: Julius Schreck (1936), Reinhard Tristan Heydrich (’42)
  4. SS-Führerkorps: SS leader corps
  5. SS-TV: Totenkopfverbände: Death’s Head Division: Theodore Eiche
    On the SS Totenkopf Ring, worn by SS members, runes are cast on the band. 2 sig runes (1 each inside a triangle), 1 hagal rune (x with a line through it inside a hexagon), 1 swastika rune (inside a square), & 1 double rune (lightening bolt & arrow inside a circle). In 1938 Himmler ordered the return of all Death's head rings (German: Totenkopfringe) of dead SS-men. They were to be stored in a chest in Wewelsburg castle. The whereabouts of the approximately 11,500 rings after the Second World War is unclear, but it has been suggested that they were entombed in a local mountain by blasting closed the entrance to a cave. [Totenkopfverbaende: Death's Head Ring Runes]
  6. SS Lebensborn: Spring of Life SS-Maternity Homes: Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer-SS: The Empire's Leader of the SS
  7. SS-Eheweihen: Marriage Consecration Protective Staff: Manfred von Knobelsdorff
  8. SS-Allgemeine: General Protective Staff
  9. SS-Waffen: Armed Weapons Protective StaffWaffen SS-Army: Günter d’Alquen.
  10. SS-Oberleitung-Stabswache: Emil Maurice
  11. SS-Stabsgebäude: SS-Staff Building
  12. Security Reserves: Richard Glücks
  13. SS-Sanitätsstaffel: Sanitation Staff Protective Staff : Medical Office: Tiergartenstraße 4: Animal Garden Street 4, Berlin: Josef Mengele
    SS-Gaus / Oberführerbereiche: Regionen
  14. WVHA: Wirtschaft und VervaltungsHauptAmt: Oswald Pohl

Polizei: Police Cabinet
  1. SiPo: Sicherheits Polizei: Security Police: Otto Ohlendorf
  2. SiPo Ausland: Foreign Security Police: Walter Schellenbergs
  3. GeStaPo: Geheimnis Staat Polizei: Neighborhood State Police Prussian Secret State Police: Heinrich Müller (The Wiesenthal center says he has disappeared.)
  4. KriPo: KriminalPolizei: Criminal Police: Reichskriminaldirektor: Arthur Nebe
    Head of the KriminalPolizei: Criminal State Police of all Germany, Austria, Switzerland & the Berliner Sturmabteilung: Storm Troopers. On Hitler’s 50th birthday (April 20, 1939), he was made an SS Oberführer. After the failed attempt on the life of Hitler in July 1944, he was arrested. The People’s Court: Volksgerichtshof sentenced him to death by hanging
  5. OrPo: Ordnung Polizei Order Police: Kurt Daluege (’46)
    Verwaltungspolizei: (record keeping)
    Gesundheitspolizei (health police)
    Gewerbepolizei (trade police)
    Baupolizei (building police)
    Einsatzgruppen: Death Squad
  6. Schutzpolizei: Protection Police
    Reiches (cities)
    Gemeinden (smaller towns)
    Kasernierte Polizei (riot police)
    Gendarmerie: Rural Police
    Verkehrspolizei: Traffic Police
    Wasserschutzpolizei: Waterway Police-Coast Guard
    Bahnschutzpolizei: Railway Police
    Postschutz: Postal Police [4,500]
    Feuerschutzpolizei: Fire Police
    Luftschutzpolizei: Air Defence Police
    TeNo: Technical Emergency Corps
    In charge of breaking strike actions & surpressing civil uprisings. By 1943, the TeNo had over 100,000 members.
    Funkschutz: Radio Guard
    Werkschutzpolizei: Night Watchmen
    Landespolizei: State: Dr. Nockemann

SS Lebensborn [Spring of Life]
UN War-crimes Forced Maternity & Sexual Violence
1933: All abortions outlawed & doctors who violate the law executed. Women are removed from the work force & encouraged to have children, whether they are married or not. Nazis promote Aryan births through marriage loans, child subsidies & official decorations for hero mothers of 4 children or more.
1936: Heinrich Himmler sets up the Lebensborn Maternity Homes for racially pure women & girls to give birth in secret. Children adopted by the NAZI party. Himmler offers promotions to SS Men based on the number of offspring they produce. Kidnappings, Germanisation & subsequent killings of thousands of children from the occupied countries
Lebensborn Homes in Germany: Between 1936 & 1945 9 Lebensborn homes were founded in Germany. The 1st to open in 1936 was ‘Hochland’ in Steinhöring near Munich. It was in active operation until 1945 & functioned as the Lebensborn Central Council during the last years of the war. In 1937 the homes ‘Harz’ in Wenigerode & ‘Kurmark’ in Klosterheide near Neuroppin were founded. In 1938 ‘Friesland’ near Bremen & ‘Pommern’ in Bad Polzin, about a 100 km from Stettin, opened their doors. In the next year ‘Taunus’ in Wiesbaden came into operation. And finally in 1942 ‘Sonnenwiese’in Kohren Sahlis, near Leipzig, & ‘Schwarzwald’ in Nordrach opened their doors. The last home, ‘Franken’ became operational in 1944. In Norway, they had 10 homes. In Austria 2 homes were founded & in Belgium, Luxemburg & France 1 each.
Hochland: Highland [1936-1945: Steinhöring, near Munich. 10000+ children. Himmler’ s SS refurbish hotels, villas, ski chalets, schools & build 10 in Norway] (Hammer 182), Harz: Heart [1937: Wenigerode], Kurmark [1937: Klosterheide near Neuroppin], Friesland [May 1938-Jan 1941: Near Bremen. Also housed recovering SS Men. Babies naming ritual with an SS dagger & an SS Man as godparent. SS Untersturmführer Bachschneider: It was the most luxurious home of the Lebensborn organisation. It had belonged to the Lahusen family, captains of industry in Bremen. They had this mansion built in 1928/1929 in the centre of the region called Bremen’s Switzerland. In 1931 the manufacturers’ imperium went bankrupt. The furniture was put into storage & the property was bought by the Lebensborn organisation in 1937. In 1941 the staff was moved to other Lebensborn homes, & the head nurse & the secretary were sent to Norway to set up a series of Lebensborn homes in that country. At the end of the war most of the documents were burnt by the Lebensborn Council. Midwives are written on the birth certificates & obligated to report to the Office of Health about disabilities. In this way they are also responsible for the killing of the disabled & unhealthy children. It is known that disabled children were born, as well as children with genetic disorders. It is also known that these children were brought to institutions to be killed. Stangely enough, the midwives of home Friesland who Dorothee Smitz-Köster interviewed, could not remember the existence of such children... (Werkgroepherkenning: Spring 2004)], Hohenhorst [Bremen], Pommern [1938: Bad Polzin near Stettin. Ill children sent to euthanasia centres. In this way one saved the expenses of care for years on end as it is stated in the correspondence between home Pommern, the Health Resort of Görden & the Lebensborn Council. Maximum stay in the homes set at 2 years, because, according to the staff, after that period, the child was able to reflect & remember what happened in the homes], Taunus [1938: Wiesbaden: State of Hesse Capital], Sonnenwiese [1942: Kohren Salis near Leipzig, Saxony], Schwarzwald: Black Forest [1942: Nordrach Lebensborn home. Vadomarius chieftain of the Allamanic tribe Brisgavi / Breisgauer murdered in 368 BC by the Romans according to Ammianus Marcellinus], Franken [1944] // Bichl [Bavaria], Eibenstock Convalescent Home for Mothers [Wolfsgruen], Gmünden / Traunsee, Pernitz / Muggendorf, Schaulkausen / Kreis Ansbach
Neo-Nazi: new-Nazi parties founded in Germany at end of World War II. Seek to reestablish Nazi principles & regain lands Germany lost in the war.
1947: Allied Control Council legally abolishes Prussia. Land in Lithuania, Poland, Russia, & eastern Germany.
1948: DDR: Deutsche Democratik Republik: East Germany & BRD: Bundesrepublik Deutschland: West Germany
1950-1971: Communist Leader of East Germany: Walter Ulbricht (1893-1973) orders the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, which separated eastern & western sectors of the city from then until 1989
1953: East Berlin Revolt: Demonstrations against the East German Communist regime put down by Soviet Commander Andrei Antonovich Grechko
1960-1965: Commander of East German Troops: Ivan Ignatievich Yakubovsky (1912-1976): Deputy Defense Minister of the Soviet Union : 1967-1976
1971-1989: Communist Leader of East Germany: Erich Honecker (1912-1994: charged with Berlin Wall manslaughter, exiled to Chile)
1966-1969: Chancellor of West Germany: Kurt Georg Kiesinger (1904-1988: NAZI party member and propagandists 1933): In 1966 Beate Künzel-Klarsfeld was fired from her job at the Deutsch-Französisches Jugendwerk: Franco-German Alliance for Youth for denouncing Kurt Georg Kiesinger. At that time, several leading West German politicians had Nazi backgrounds. She gained international attention when she slapped Kiesinger during a party convention in 1968. In 1971, Serge & Beate tried to abduct Kurt Lischka, a former Gestapo chief from Cologne, West Germany, & hand him over to the French authorities. The Klarsfelds were convicted of felony charges & sentenced to 2 months in prison in 1974. Following international protests, the sentence was suspended.
-1982: Chancellor of West Germany: Helmut Schmidt
1982-1990: Chancellor of West Germany: Helmut Kohl
1990: Reunified Germany
1990-1998: Chancellor of Germany: Helmut Kohl
2002: The NDP: National Democratic Party the political party for NAZI ideology. HIAG organization of war veterans collects money for Stille Hilfe: Still Help or Quiet Help an organization that helps convicted neo-Nazis. ZDF Television shows a paper plan in place for die Vierte Reich: The 4th Reich for Germans only. (129)
The chief grains grown by German farmers include barley, oats, rye, & wheat
Konzentrationslage / Concentration Camps
AGFA / Astra / BMW / Ford / HASAG / Heinkel / Junker / Krupp / Ornier / Olvay / Royal-Dutch Shell / Valentine / Vistra / Volkswagon / Zeiss-Ikon / Daimler-Benz [Stuttgart] / Lech-Elekteizitätswerke [Augsburg] / I. G. Farben [Frankfort] / Mannesman [Düsseldorf] / Opel Automotiv [Rüsselsheim] / Siemens [Berlin] / Schokoladenfabrik [Tangermünde]
Reichsippenant [Race Political Office] Director: Friedrich Burgdörfer, IBM-DeHoMag Contract Operator: Karl Koch

There were 20,000 German slave labor camps. IBM’s German subsidiary DeHoMag: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinenwerk Aktiengesellschaft provided the NAZI regime with punch card machines. It was taken over by the NAZIs in 1939. ‘Aided by the company’s custom-designed & constantly updated Hollerith systems, Hitler was able to automate his persecution of the Jews. Historians have always been amazed at the speed & accuracy with which the Nazis were able to identify & locate European Jewry. Until now, the pieces of this puzzle have never been fully assembled. The fact is, IBM technology was used to organize nearly everything in Germany & then Nazi Europe, from the identification of the Jews in censuses, registrations, & ancestral tracing programs to the running of railroads & organizing of concentration camp slave labor.’ – Edwin Black
1933: Hitler comes to power & orders a census. Storm Troopers & SS: ShutzStaffel collect the census information door to door. Tabulating staffers supplied by the German Labor Front’s Berlin Employment Office at the Karstadthaus Prussian Statistical Office at Alexanderplatz under Dr. Höpker. 450 punching stations; punched forms delivered to 20 key typewriter-like input engines. Cards funneled down Hollerith counting chutes at the rate of 250,000 per hour. The whole census takes 4 months. Proofing machines verify information at 15,000 cards per hour. Jewish counting cards are processed seperately.
1934: The process of sterilizing the unfit is called Hollerith Nachtrichten: Hollerith News Messaging. The welfare office punchcards are sent to the new expanded sorting office in Lichterfeld.
1939: Greater Reich Racial Census. Up unto this point the punch cards can only be sorted by numbers, with certain numbers corresponding to race, profession, or geography. Wasson finally develops what is truly needed for mass-scale destruction, alphabetizers. 405 alphabetizers perfected from the 1935 New York census. Concentration Camp machines are known as the Hollerith Abteilung: Hollerith Bureau administered by the Arbeitseinsatz: Work Exterminators of each camp. Concentration camp Häftlingen: prisoners (Häftling singular) assigned a 5 digit Hollerith number which is tattooed onto their arm. Tattoo: das Trommeln. Inmate files kept at Department DII at Oranienburg. Häftlingskarte: Personal Inmate Cards rubber-stamped Hollerith erfaßt: Hollerith registered when completed. At bottom of the card under Kontrollvermerk: Control Mark is ausgestellt: issued, verschlüßelt: encoded, Lochk geprüft: punch card verified. Punch card operator number hand-stamped at the bottom. Military Tattoo: der Zapfenstreich. SS have a blood group tattoo under the left arm. The scar will be there to this day.
Hollerith Abteilung: Hollerith Worker Codes04: General Execution
06: Gas Chamber Execution
08: Jew
12: Gypsy
14: Nacht und Nebel: Night & Fog Political
Sch/P: Schutzhäftling/Pole
0149: Carpenter
The general populace refers to concentration camps as Kah-Tzets (the initials KZ in German)
German States:

Preußen: Prussia: Ostfriesland: East Frisia [NW]: Flächenland Hanover-Niedersachsen / Neddersassen [Area State Lower Saxony]: Harz Mountains yields timber & minerals. Brunswick-Bussing, Kreise Hannover: KZ Hanover-Ahlem [SS Prison] Brink-Hanover, Kreise Göttingen Göttingen [SS Training School],
Hanover-Niedersachsen [Area State Lower Saxony]: Stadtstaaten Bremen: City-States Bremen: KZ Farge [Nazi subcamp of Oranienberg. Bremen: Plague. seaport], Breme-Blumenthal [Deshimag & Weser Firm], Breme-Farge, Breme Osterport-Reispott, Breme-Schtzenhof, Breme-Vegesach Aumund [Female Camp]Kreis Ammerland 111994 2 Aurich 188363 3 Braunschweig 245516 4 Celle 181962 5 Cloppenburg 150973 6 Cuxhaven 206192 7 Delmenhorst 76284 8 Diepholz 212761Kreis
Elmsland: KZ Papenburg I: Esterwegen-Börgermoor / Boergermor
[In Elmsland. GeStaPo Camp, 1933-1934: Friesoythe-Kloppenburg Commando. WWII SS Sonderlager: Special Camp: 1,600+ male juvenile prisoners aged 12-22 & sometimes younger. Arrested for refusal to serve in the Hitler Youth, sabotage, refusal to work, criminality; membership in the Swing youth movement; homosexuality, prostitution & political resistance], Papenburg II: Aschendorfer Papenburg [Seidestricker, Hoeveler, Dieckhans Firms], Papenburg III: Brual-Rhede, Papenburg IV: Dorpen-Walchum-Wesermunde-Lehe, Papenburg V: Neusustrum-Linden, Papenburg VI: Dorpen-Lathen, Papenburg VII: Esterwegen-Hummling [GeStaPo Camp 1933], Papenburg VIII: Bad Zwischenahn-Osnabrück, Papenburg IX: Veersen, Papenburg X: Fuelen, Papenburg XI: Groß Hesepe, Papenburg XII: DalumKreise Emden, 12 Gifhorn 172880 13 Goslar 155610 15 Grafschaft Bentheim 131086 16 Hameln-Pyrmont 162290 19 Harburg 235110 20 Helmstedt 99527 21 Hildesheim 293091 22 Holzminden 80866 23 Leer 162765 24 Lüchow-Dannenberg 51820Kreise Lüneburg: The region in the northeast is called Lüneburger Heide: Moon City Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs up until about the 1960s. 26 Nienburg (Weser) 126310 27 Northeim 150100Kreise Oldenburg cites. Kreise Osnabrück & 32 Osterholz 111473 33 Osterode am Harz 84750 34 Peine 132998 35 Rotenburg (Wümme) 163058 36 Salzgitter 111696 37 Schaumburg 166548 38 Soltau-Fallingbostel 141192 39 Stade 192973 40 Uelzen 97635 41 Vechta 128189 42 Verden 133289 43 Wesermarsch 94332 44 Wilhelmshaven 84994 45 Wittmund 57421 46 Wolfenbüttel 126842 47 Wolfsburg 121887

Flächenland Sachsen-Anhalt [Area State Electorial Saxony] [E] 1 Altmarkkreis Salzwedel 2 Anhalt-Bitterfeld 3 Börde 4 Burgenland 5 Dessau-Roßlau 6 Halle (Saale) 7 Harz 8 Jerichower Land Kreise Magdeburg: Magdeburg [Brabag Factory] 10 Mansfeld-Südharz Saalekreis: Halle-Sade / Halle-Saale [Dora-Mittelbau Außlager: Siebel Aviation Factory], 12 Salzlandkreis 13 Stendal 138553Kreise Wittenberg: Witten-Annen AGW [On the Ruhr]

Preußen: Prussia: Flächenland Brandenburg [Area State Raven] [NE] Brandenburg is a state in east-central Germany. In 1945, after Germany's defeat in World War II, Allies placed the part of Brandenburg east of the Oder & Neisse rivers under Polish control. The remaining part became part of the Soviet-controlled zone of Germany. The German part of Brandenburg became 1 of East Germany’s 5 states. Reunification 1990: Brandenburg-Havel [1933-1934: GeStaPo Camp. Havel River near Grünewald: Green Forest, Wannsee], Brandenburg-Berlin: High Lake [1200: Village NE of the Spree River. Oder River is to E. 1701: Capital of Prussia. 1791: Brandenburger Tor: Brandenburg Gate completed. 1871: Capital of the German Republic 1919: Capital of the Weimar Republic. The name Weimar Republic was never used officially during its existence. The new republic was known as Deutsches Reich: German Empire in German.] 1 Barnim 171490 2 Brandenburg an der Havel 76351 3 Cottbus 105954 4 Dahme-Spreewald 159568 5 Elbe-Elster 129066 6 Frankfurt (Oder) 70308 7 Havelland 150340 8 Märkisch-Oderland 189634 9 Oberhavel 194022 10 Oberspreewald-Lausitz 141959 11 Oder-Spree 195670 12 Ostprignitz-Ruppin 111878 13 Potsdam 150435 14 Potsdam-Mittelmark 212230 15 Prignitz 94015 16 Spree-Neiße 151100 17 Teltow-Fläming 160414 18 Uckermark 148606
Stadtstaaten Berlin [City State Berlin] Berlin-Alexanderstraße: Alexander Street [GeStaPo Prison], Berlin-Templehof: Temple [1934: GeStaPo Camp], Berlin-Moabit [Detention Center at Tiergarten: Animal Garden], Berlin-Plötzensee [Prison], Berlin-Babelsberg [Sachsenhausen], Berlin-Falkensee [Brandenburg. DEMAG-Panzerwerke. 2,500. Groß Berlin: Greater Berlin west of the city], Berlin-Halensee Demag, Berlin-Henningdorf, Berlin-Lichterfelde, Berlin-Lichtenrade, Berlin-Reinickendorf [Argus], Berlin-Siemens Stadt: Siemen’s City, Berlin-Tegel, Berlin-Wilmersdorf [1920: 1 of the 7 cities annexed into Berlin. Concentration Camp. Now a residential neighborhood of Berlin]

Flächenland Nord Rhein-Westfalen [Area State North Rhine-Westfalia]: Limberg [Western Plain] Flossebeurg: Beverungen,Stuzpunkt Sauerland I [Dora-Mittelbau], Schwerte / Ruhr [Dora Mittelbau Außlager], 1 Aachen 307936 3 Bielefeld 323373 4 Bochum 390087Kreise Bonn: Rheinbach [Bonn: North German Plain] 6 Borken 362834 7 Bottrop 120780 8 Coesfeld 216805Kreise Köln: KZ Köln / CC Cologne: Celtic: Dove Place [7038 Allied POWs: North German Plain], Köln Fordwerk [Ford Factory. Prisoners supplied by Dora-Mittelbau], Köln Hansestadt [Public Works: Dora-Mittelbau], Köln Westwagon [Car Factory. Dora-Mittelbau], Kreise Dortmund: Dora-Mittelbau: Dortmund [Metallurgy]Kreise Duisburg: Flossebeurg Duisen 12 Düren 271074Kreise Düsseldorf: Dora-Mittelbau: Düsseldorf [Zeitz Co: Neander Valley: 500,000 year old fossil] 14 Ennepe-Ruhr 349988Kreise Essen: Essen I: Essen [Krupp] Euskirchen 190581Kreise Gelsenkirchen: Essen II: Gelsenkirchen [SS Todt: Death’s Head] 18 Gütersloh 347954 19 Hagen 202060Kreise Hamm: Flossebeurg Hamm 21 Heinsberg 252275 22 Herford 255393 23 Herne 174018 24 Hochsauerlandkreis 281480 25 Höxter 155518 26 Kleve 301861 27 Krefeld 239559 28 Leverkusen 160829Kreise Lippe: Lippstadt [Female Concentration Camp. Metallurgy in Westfalia], 30 Märkischer Kreis 457079 31 Mettmann 509023 32 Minden-Lübbecke 323055 33 Mönchengladbach 262963 34 Mülheim 172332 35 Münster 267197 36 Oberbergischer Kreis 289518 37 Oberhausen 221619 38 Olpe 141705 39 Paderborn 292961 40 Recklinghausen 656053 41 Remscheid 118753 42 Rhein-Erft-Kreis 458430 43 Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis 276525 44 Rhein-Kreis Neuss 445683 45 Rhein-Sieg 583051 46 Siegen-Wittgenstein 295787 47 Soest 307809 48 Solingen 165032 49 Steinfurt 437545Kreise Unna: Unna [SS 5th Corps] 51 Viersen 302795 52 Warendorf 282286Kreise Wesel: KZ Wesel 54 Wuppertal 364784

Flächenland Hessen [Area State Hesse-Nassau]: Chatti [Grain Place] [Center] , Bingau, Bischofsheim, Heppenheim: Heppen Home, Hessen-Auerbach-Bensheim [1945-1961: State of Hessen’s Fritz Bauer indicts 2024 people for war crimes. 945 convicted. Bauer found dead with overdose of pills in a bathtub in 1968 according to coroner Joachim Gerchow. Although there is suspicion that Odessa, a group of NAZI veterans, has murdered him & the death is unusual the state does not investigate. (129) ], Hessich-Lichtenau [Female Concentration Camp], 1 Bergstraße 264695Kreise Darmstadt: Darmstadt [Capital of Hesse. GeStaPo Camp] 3 Darmstadt-Dieburg 288463Kreise Frankfurt: Frankfurt-am-Main / Francfort-sur-le-Main [Prison. Adler S.A: Adler-Salón de Francfort Peugot Dealership], Frankfurt-Hoest I, Frankfurt-Hoest II, 5 Fulda 218326 6 Gießen 254331 7 Groß-Gerau 250478 8 Hersfeld-Rotenburg 130010 9 Hochtaunuskreis 226683Kreise Kassel: Kassel Mittelbau [Henschel Co] 12 Lahn-Dill 263043 13 Limburg-Weilburg 175679 16 Marburg-Biedenkopf 253500 17 Odenwald 100113 18 Offenbach 336555 20 Rheingau-Taunus 184897 21 Schwalm-Eder 193404 22 Vogelsbergkreis 118475 23 Waldeck-Frankenberg 170430 24 Werra-Meißner 113293 25 Wetterau 296056 26 Wiesbaden 271076<<P>Flächenland Rheinland-Pfalz [Area State Rhineland-Palatinate] [W] 1 Ahrweiler 130141 2 Altenkirchen (Westerwald) 137659 3 Alzey-Worms 125303 4 Bad Dürkheim 134303 5 Bad Kreuznach 157843 6 Bernkastel-Wittlich 113998 7 Birkenfeld 90201Kreise Bitburg-Prüm: Bitburg [USA President Reagan went here], Kreise Cochem-Zell: Cochem 10 Daun 64464 11 Donnersbergkreis 78740 12 Frankenthal 47827 13 Germersheim 124380 14 Kaiserslautern 110207Kreise Koblenz: KZ Koblenz-Rebstock [Flossenbeurg Außlager: Subcamp: Moselle River empties into the Rhine here. Gollnow Firm] 17 Kusel 78530 18 Landau 41089 19 Ludwigshafen 162458Kreise Mainz: Mainz / Mayence-Finthen, 21 Mainz-Bingen 196072 22 Mayen-Koblenz 212344 23 Neustadt 53822 24 Neuwied 185004 25 Pirmasens 44822 26 Rhein-Hunsrück 105591 27 Rhein-Lahn 129608 28 Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis 147396Kreise Speyer: Speyer 30 Südliche Weinstraße 109694 31 Südwestpfalz 105271Kreise Trier: Trier / Trèves: Triple Place [Inquision burning site], 33 Trier-Saarburg 138196 34 Westerwaldkreis 202714 35 Worms 80625 36 Zweibrücken 35799

Flächenland Saarland [W] 1 Merzig-Wadern 106222 2 Neunkirchen 146678Regionalverband Saarbrücken: Saarbrücken [Capital of the State. GeStaPo Prison] 4 Saarlouis 211681 5 Saarpfalz 156732 6 St. Wendel 95209

Flächenland Baden-Württemberg: Swabia: Suevi [SW] Dachau Außlager: Flossenbuerg Außlager: Satellite Camps: Bad-Oppenau [Wolfach Prison], Ludwigsburg, Karlsruhe I: Durlach [Detention Prison], Karlsruhe II, Karlsruhe III, Holzen, KZ Neckarelz I et II-Neckarzimmern, KZ Neckarelz Bad Rappenau, KZ Neckargerach-Guttenbach, KZ Neckargartach-Heilbronn [2 mining prisons], Neunkirchen: Newchurches, Obrigheim: Government Home [nuclear power plant shut down in 1995], Neuegammen Außlager: Bernhausen: Mountain Houses, Daudenzell, Ellwangen [Schwabia], Geislingen [Near French border], Groß-Sachesenheim: Great-Saxon Home, Guttenbach, Haslach [Father Alexis Dechaux arrested by GeStaPo Walter Menzel survived the camp], DJK Mannheim-Sanhofen: Man World-San Temples [Daimler-Benz plant], Mosbach, KDO Neckar: Urbes Wesserling, Neckar: Wasserfling / Wasserralfingen, Plattenwald: Flat Forest, Sandweier [Baden], Tailfingen, Weinheim: Wine Home 1 Alb-Donau 187000Kreise: Baden-Baden: Baden-Baden [Flossenbuerg Au&szligager: Satellite Camp], Balingen Bisingen, Balingen Dortmettingen-Frommern [Oil refinary bombed in strategic air attack. SS Todt: Death’s Head Division], Balingen Ersingen / Erzingen [Baden], Balingen Schomberg, Balingen Schorzingen, KZ-Scörzingen-Rottweil-Zepfenhan: Balingen [1933: Project Wueste: Project Wild the name of the extermination commandos],Balingen Dautmergen [Site of the 1200 BC Urnfield Culture: Hallstatt A & B cairns], 3 Biberach 184548 4 Böblingen 367830 5 Bodensee 200948 6 Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald 243043Kreise Calw: Calw [Female Camp. Flossenbuerg sub-camp], 8 Emmendingen 152953 9 Enz 193873 10 Esslingen 505340Kreise Freiburg: Freiburg: Freetown [Flossenbuerg sub-camp] 12 Freudenstadt 121682 13 Göppingen 257651Kreise Heidelberg: Heidelburg,Kreise Heidenheim: Heidenheim: Heather Home [Police School] 16 Heilbronn 324043 18 Hohenlohe 108920Kreise Karlsruhe: 21 Konstanz 268859 22 Lörrach 219149 23 Ludwigsburg 503229 24 Main-Tauber 137508 25 Mannheim 308385 26 Neckar-Odenwald 150091 27 Ortenaukreis 411491 28 Ostalbkreis 315345 29 Pforzheim 118002 30 Rastatt 224309 31 Ravensburg 270572 32 Rems-Murr 412959 33 Reutlingen 279177 34 Rhein-Neckar 527796 35 Rottweil 141761 36 Schwäbisch Hall 186967 37 Schwarzwald-Baar 211321 38 Sigmaringen 133671Kreise Stuttgart: Stuttgart I: Echterdingen [Zeppelin manufacture], Stuttgart II: Leonberg, Stuttgart: Vaihingen-Enz / Vaihingen-Unterriechinegn, Stuttgart: Zuffenhausen-Heinkel / Zuffenhause,Kreise Tübingen: Rottenburg-Hailfingen / Rottenberg am Neckar: Tübingen [Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630), Imperial Mathemetician to Emperor Rudolph II Hapsburg studied at the University of Tübigen. He was born at the Imperial Free City of Weil der Stadt, now part of Stuttgart in the state of Baden-Württemberg. His father was a mercenary, his mother Katherine was arrested, imprisoned, & tortured for 14 months in Leonberg on charges of witchcraft]. 41 Tuttlingen 133866Kreise Ulm: Kuhberg-Ulm: Cowtown-Elm [GeStaPo Camp 1933-1935: Klockner Societies. Then a sub-camp of Dachau], 43 Waldshut 166114 44 Zollernalbkreis 193196

Flächenland Thüringen: Area State Thuringia [Center]: Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 001: Hollerith Workdeath 001: KZ Buchenwald: Book Forest
Mittelwerk GmBH
Commandant: Karl Otto Koch (1897-1945) executed by SS
Ilse Koch. After the war she committed suicide in her cell
Dr. Ganzweiler: Medical experiments involving typhus, yellow fever, smallpox, chemical agents, poisoned ammunition. bodies dissected & body parts stored in jars on shelves
Lagerführerin Erna Petermann: Dora-Mittelbau-Nordhausen
Rechenmaschinenwerk AUSTRAI Herzstark & Co® Curta Calculator: Curt Herzstark [1902-1988]: 1938
Descendant of Gottfried Leibniz’s Stepped Reckoner, accumulating values on cogs, added or complemented by a stepped drum mechanism. His father’s company ordered to make measuring devices for the German army. In 1943 the Nazis arrested him & sent him to the Buchenwald concentration camp. Treated as an intelligence-slave he worked in the factory linked to the camp, which was named after Wilhelm Gustloff. The Nazis to give the machine to the Führer as a gift after the successful end of the war. Curta is referenced in chapter 4 of William Gibson’s Pattern Recognition. The chapter: Math Grenades, referring to protagonist Cayce Pollard mistaking them for hand grenades at 1st glance. - Cliff Stoll, The Curious History of the 1st Pocket Calculator, Scientific American, 290(1):92–99, January 2004
Kreis Weimar: Thuringia, 5 miles north of Weimar. Museum Tour Guide witnessed the death marches. 250,000 dead starvation. Chlorkalk poured over dead Jews before cremation. Elie Wiesel interned at Auschwitz & Buchenwald said in his 1956 autobiography the Germans executed Jews by fire; by throwing them alive into flaming ditches. In Buchenwald they sent 10,000 persons to their deaths each day.

Kreise Altenburger Land: KZ Altenburg: High Mountain-Thuringe25 miles S. of Dresden. [ Slave labor for HASAG run by Nazi Paul Budin, a highly placed member of the Nazi party. Beginning in the summer of 1944, labor camps were established next to each HASAG plant in Germany, all of which were satelite camps of Buchenwald. More women were employed since HASAG paid the SS less for women than men. & also HASAG’s experience was that women had a higher mortality rate than men. Paul Budin is assumed to have committed suicide with his wife, in April 1945, when he blew up the company’s head office in Leipzig (Victor 143)] 2 Eichsfeld 113427 3 Eisenach 44242 4 Erfurt 200126 5 Gera 109926Kreise Gotha: : KZ Gotha [Marcel Callo detained] (Nizkor 175) 7 Greiz 122459 8 Hildburghausen 73246 9 Ilm-Kreis 121040 10 Jena 101157 11 Kyffhäuserkreis 92983

Kreis Nordhausen: North Houses: KZ Dora-Mittelbau-Boelke Kaserne-Nordhausen Dora-Mittelbau: Administration fused with Buchenwald. Hartz Mountains near Nordhausen, Thuringia. Asphixiation by Von Braun of Apollo Space Project. Dora a death commando for Buchenwald The former crematorium, 1 of 2 buildings still intact, is a museum. ‘The Mission had been told that Nordhausen was a large underground factory, & that they would see extraordinary production methods. The reaction of the Mission to this visit ... was one of the utmost revulsion & disgust. This factory is the epitome of megalomaniac production & robot efficiency & layout. Everything was ruthlessly executed with utter disregard for humanitarian considerations. The record of Nordhausen is a most unenviable one, & we were told that 250 of the slave workers perished every day, due to overwork & malnutrition. Some of the Mission visited a slave workers’ encampment, talked to a Dutch doctor who had been there throughout the war, & saw many of the wretched inmates, who were in an apalling state, although receiving every medical attention now. They also saw stretchers heavily saturated in blood, a room in which there was a slab on which the bodies were drained of blood, & the incinerators in which the bodies were burnt. These are all facts which require to be seen to be fully appreciated. This terrible & devilish place has now passed into Russian hands & it is sincerely hoped that our allies will deal with it in a proper & adequate manner.’ – Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, The Fedden Mission to Germany (pg 75), 1945 13 Saale-Holzland 93404 14 Saale-Orla 97568 15 Saalfeld-Rudolstadt 131015 16 Schmalkalden-Meiningen 142488Kreis Sömmerda: Sömmerda / Soemmerda [Female Concentration Camp. Dora-Mittelbau-Nordhausen Au&szlager], 18 Sonneberg 67175Kreis Suhl: Suhl [Gustoff Factory: Wilhelm Gustloff. Dora-Miittelbau-Nordhaus Außager], 20 Unstrut-Hainich 118446 21 Wartburgkreis 143646 Dora-Mittelbau-Nordhausen Außlager: Artern Mittelbau, Bad Lagensalza: Bath Locality of Salt [Salt Mine], Bad Salsungen [Ludwig Renntier Salt Mine. SS Todt: Death’s Head Division], Blankenburg, Eisenach-Thuer [BMW & Durhof Factories], Gro&szlig-Werther Mittelbau, Harzungen-Metzkater Mittelbau, Hohlstedt Mittelbau, Kleinbodungen-Klein Bodungen Mittelbau, Langenstein Mittelbau-Maifish [Polte Factory, Bode Co, Gruen Co, Bulfinger Co], Niedersachswerfen [Ammunitions Factory], Freiheit-Osterode am Harz Mittelbau [Kurt Heber Firm], Rossla Mittelbau, Rothenberg-Sale [Mansfeld Society], Rottleberode-Heinrich, Saalfeld-Oertelsbuch: Laura Mittelbau, Salza / Thüringen, Sangerhausen Mittelbau, Walkenried-Harz, Weimar-Fischtenhain [IENA Optical. GeStaPo training school], Wieda Mittelbau, Woffleben // Dora-Mittelbau Außlager. To Sort: Aschersleben-Duben [Junkers Motors], Baalberg, Bad Berka [Usine Martyn], Bad Godesburg-Vinzerstube [This one is so notorious people speak of it in hushed whispers], Berlstedt [DEST: Mineral Factory], Bernberg [Solvay Factory], Birkhahn-Motzlich [Siemens Factory], Buttelstedt [Schlossen Firm], Gandersheim-Club [Henkel Factory], Ellrich Mittelbau, Elsnig [Factories producing explosives], Giessen [Sanitary Services. Gerta Construction], Grasleben-Gazelle [Gerhard Constructions] Gunzerode, Hadmersleben-Hans [Construction], Hardehausen-Scherfede, Herzberg: Heart Mountain-Elster [Female Concentration Camp], Ilfeld [SS Training Camp], Kelbra Mittelbau, Lehesten-Laura, Leimbach [Salt Mine], Leopoldshall [Junker Factory], Lohausen [Dynamite], Lutzendorf [Winterthall Factory], Mackenrode [Crematorium], Merseberg [Ammonia Factory], Meuselwitz [Schneider], Niederorchel [Langen & Junker Factories], Nuxei Mittelbau, Ohrdruf Crahwinkel [Mining Tunnels], Osterhagen, Plomnitz, Raguhn [Female Concentration Camp run by Heerbrandt Co.], Regenstein Rhemsdorf-Willy: Rain Rock [Zeitz Factory], Schlieben, Senneglager [Panzer Training School], Tannroda [Paper Factory], Tartun [Junker], Tonndorf: Tonn Town, Trautenstein, Wannsleben

KZ Mühlhausen-Martha, Thuringia / CC Mulhouse, Haut Rhin [1944-1945: Junkers Aviation: Buchenwald administration opened a women’s subcamp directly outside Mühlhausen. Forced labor & starvation. Death-marched to Bergen Belsen in April 1945.]

Sollstedt Mittelbau: Bau Brigade I [Building Brigade )]
Kemma-Wuppertal Baubrigade IV: Barmen Westfalia. GeStaPo Camp 1933
Berge-Elster Mittelbau: Schalbe V

Flächenland Bayern: Area State Bavaria: Upper Palatinate [SE]: Kreis Dachau: Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 002: Hollerith Workdeath 002: KZ Dachau-Leitenberg: Dachau-Direct Mountain
Reich Chief of Civilian Medical Services: Dr. Leonardo Conti, experiments with malaria, typhus, infective hepatitis on 1,200 prisoners, most of them Catholic priests
1933: At Dachau, right outside of Munich-München, Bavaria. Accessible via U-Bahn: Underground Subway Modeled on the camps used in the Boer War. 200,000 dead (Spartacus 187) Seen in the Twilight Zone épisode Death’s Head Revisited. Used to house the SS defendants in the Nuremburg Trials. .Außlager: Satellite Camps: Feldafing, Muhldorf Toging / Inn, Munchen-68

Bayern / Bavaria: Upper Palatinate [SE] Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke (singular Regierungsbezirk): Upper Franconia (German: Oberfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Swabia (Schwaben), Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz), Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern), Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern)
Flossenbuerg Außlager: Satellite Camps: FFW Altenhammer, Bernau-Chiemsee [(pronounced KEY-m-ZAY) Prison], Foerrenbach, Ganacker, Grafenreuth, Gundelsdorf, Happurg, Knellendorf, Münchberg, Neustadt: Newcity, Obertraubling, Plattling, Pocking, Pottenstein, Reuth bei Erbendorf, Saal / Donau, Spaichingen, Spitzingesee, St. Georgenthal [Female concentration camp owned by the Schulze Firm. Site of a monastery], St. Oetzen [Schreyer Company], Schlackenwerth, Wolkenburg: Cloud Castle, Würzburg, KZ Ahrensbock [Closed 1936], KZ Bad Sulza [1933-1937], KZ Bergkamen: Mountain Hearth [Closed March 1938], KZ Braunweiler, KZ Hammerstein: Hammer Rock [1933-1935], Heuberg: Hay Mountain [1933], KZ Bernheim: Amber Home, KZ Meuseltz, KZ Ohrdruf [death marches], KZ Recklinghausen, KZ Rottleberode, KZ Gießen-Allendorf [Anna Fest a guard. Weapons munitions factory. Her book is Frauen: German Women Recall the Third Reich], KZ Siegmar-Schönau [Concentration Camp & Wanderer brand car factory bombed in WWII], KZ Wetzler

Dachau Außlager: Sub Camps: Allach-Moosach [Harlsfeld & Rothwaige Porcelain Factories. SS Todt: Death’s Head Division], Allersdorf-Liebhof: Our Town-Love Temple, Aubing, Aufkirch-Kaufbeuren [Dornier Factory], Augustenfeld-Pollnhof: Polln Temple-Rothschwaige, Bad-Ischl-Saint Wolfgang-Strobl, Bayersoien [NAZI Service Bureau], Bayrischezell [SS Military Hospital], Birgsau-Oberstdorf, Bruningsau, Burgau Messerschmitt [Kuno Firm], Burghausen [UNIC Firm], Burgkirchen: Castle Churches, Durach-Kottern, Eching [SS Death’s Head], Ellwagen, Emmerting-Endorf [UNIC Firm], Fistenau, Fischorn / Bruck, Freising, Freidolfing [Female Concentration Camp], Freidrichshaffen [Zeppelin Factory], Fulpmes [School], Fußen-Plansee-Hôtel Florelle [Female], Gablingen-Esserschmidt, Germening-Neuabing, Gmund [Hanging death], Grimolsried-Mittelneufnach [SS Todt: Death’s Head Division], Heppenheim, Horgau-Pfersee Messerschmidt, Ingolstadt [Crematorium], Château Itter [Female camp inside a castle], Karlsfeld [SS Todt: Death’s Head], Kaufbeuren [BMW Factory in the woods: Men, women & children. 1000s dead of starvation. Child’s mass graveyard], Kaufering [Female camp], Königsee: King’s Sea, Kruckhalm, Lauingen, Lochau, Lochhausen [BMW], Hohof: Ho Temple, Mulldorf Ampfing-Waldlager V & VI: Gauze Town Forest Camp V & VI, Mettenheim, Obertaufkirchen, Neuberg-Donau, Neustift [Training school in the high mountains], Oberdorf: Uppertown, Oberfohring, Ottobrunn, Oetztal, Puchreim, Radolfzell, [SS School], Rohrdorf-Thansau, Rosenheim: Roses’ Home, St. Gilden / Wolgansee, St. Lambrecht, Salzweg: Saltway, Sandhoffen: Sand Temples, Saulgau [L. Bautz Firm], Spitzingsee [Skiing], Stephanskirchen: Stephans’ Churches [BMW], Sutdelfeld [SS Mountain Chalet], Trostberg [BMW], Trutzkirch-Tutzig, Uberlingen [Magnesium], Unterschleissheim [Female], Vulpmess, Weidach [Spoken of in hushed tones], Wieilheim, Weissensee: White Sea, Wolfratshausen Gelting Neufahrn, Wurach bei Wolhof, Zangeberg Kreis Aichach-Friedberg 124501Kreis Altötting 109023Kreis Amberg 44217Kreis Amberg-Sulzbach 109083Kreis Ansbach: KZ Ansbach, Asbach-Baumenheim: Asbach-Treehome,Kreis Aschaffenburg 174577Kreis Augusta Vindelicorum: Augsburg: Augsburg [Plague. Later turned into a concentration camp under Lech-Elekteizitätswerke Messerschmidt], Kreis Bad Kissingen 109498Kreis Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen: Bad Tolz [SS Military Hospital. Sub-Camp of Dachau],Kreis Bamberg [Bamberg Witch Trials]Kreis Bayreuth: Bayreuth [Flossenbuerg Au&szlager: Satellite Camp: Home of the Richard Wagner Festival],Kreis Berchtesgadener Land: Berchtesgaden [Flossenbuerg Au&szlager: Satellite Camp: Ache River. Salt Mine. Adolf Hitler had a home in the mountains near Berchtesgaden. In 1938, Hitler & British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met there resulting in the Munich Conference],Kreis Cham 131416Kreis Coburg 92199Kreis Deggendorf 116558 23 Dillingen 94435 24 Dingolfing-Landau 91218Kreis Donau-Ries: KZ Donauworth [Burgkirchen: Castle Church. Donauworth is the capital of the kreis.] 26 Ebersberg 120416 27 Eichstätt 121031 28 Erding 117949 29 Erlangen 101912 30 Erlangen-Höchstadt 129751 31 Forchheim 112838 32 Freising 155396 33 Freyung-Grafenau 82553 34 Fürstenfeldbruck 195869Kreis Fürth 111257Kreis Garmisch-Partenkirchen: Garmisch-Partenkirche [SS Military Hospital. Spoken of in hushed tones], 38 Günzburg 122114 39 Haßberge 88412 42 Ingolstadt 117311 43 Kaufbeuren 42246 44 Kelheim 110918 45 Kempten 61505 46 Kitzingen 89104 47 Kronach 75458 48 Kulmbach 78674 49 Landsberg 107609 50 Landshut 144504 52 Lichtenfels 70874 53 Lindau 77850 54 Main-Spessart 132206 55 Memmingen 41101 56 Miesbach 92720 57 Miltenberg 131369 58 Mühldorf 109733 59 München 1227958 61 Neuburg-Schrobenhausen 90224 62 Neumarkt 127312 63 Neustadt an der Waldnaab 101043 64 Neustadt-Bad Windsheim 99156Kreis Neu-Ulm 161110Kreis Nürnberg: KZ Flossenbuerg:Oberpfalz, Bavaria near Nüremburg. 40,000+ forced laborers in granite quarry, starved in isolation chambers. 6 extra gallows hooks built in 1945 to hang 15,000+ people. SS stacked the bodies in piles & set them on fire with gasoline. 22,000 death-marched to Dachau. 30,000 inmates killed at liberation. KZ Nürnberg-Siemens

Kreis Nürnberger Land: KZ Hersbruck [Hubmersberg, Nürnbergerland. Außenlager: Subcamp of Flossenbürg. Die Häftlinge trieben eine unterirdische Stollenanlage für die Rüstungsindustrie in den Berg Houbirg bei Happurg, das Doggerwerk. [The prisoners drift – an alien work for the industry in Houbirg mountain near Happurg, Dogger Foundry] Innerhalb dieser kurzen Zeit verloren nahezu 4000 Menschen ihr Leben. [In this short time 4000 people lost their lives] Der Verein Dokumentationsstätte KZ Hersbruck e.V. erinnert an die damaligen Geschehnisse und legt besonderen Wert auf die präventive Arbeit mit Jugendlichen gegen Gewalt im Sinne unserer freiheitlich demokratischen Grundordnung. [The State Documentation of Camp Hersbruck remembers what happened then & has some words about Preventative Work with the young against the force in feeling our Free Democractic Order] Director: Pfarrer Lenz. Barracks for 6000+ prisoners from over 23 nations. Weapons munitions factory for BMW-Flugzeugmotoren, Firmen AEG, Thosti, Tauber, Hoch-Tief AG, Siemens Bau-Union Todesmärche: Death Marches to Dachau in 600 person convoys (KZ Hersbruck: 184)] 68 Oberallgäu 148315 69 Ostallgäu 132389Kreis Passau: KZ Passau [Dachau sub-camp] 72 Pfaffenhofen 113111Kreis Regen 82721Kreis Regensburg 178095 76 Rhön-Grabfeld 86717 77 Rosenheim 240106 79 Roth 124963 80 Rottal-Inn 119107 81 Schwabach 38518 82 Schwandorf 144370 83 Schweinfurt 116874 85 Starnberg 126588 86 Straubing 44316 87 Straubing-Bogen 96035 88 Tirschenreuth 79804 89 Traunstein: KZ Traunstein [The current Pope Benedict is from here] 90 Unterallgäu 134920 91 Weiden in der Oberpfalz 43071 92 Weilheim-Schongau 128543 93 Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen 95176 94 Wunsiedel 85278 95 Würzburg 129915

Flächenland Bayern: Area State Bavaria: Upper Palatinate [SE]: Kreis Hof: Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 100: KZ Helmbrechts
Chief SS Wardresses: Martha Dell’ Antonia & Helga Hegel. Herta Haase, Erna Achtenberg, Ellia Mains, Ingeborg Schimming, Ruth Hildner
Near Hof: Temple, Bavaria, SE. Germany. Considered a sub-camp of Flossenbuerg. 27 men & 27 women guards. 500 women death-marched to the camp from Gruenberg in Poland. Wardresses beat all of them to death. Liberated April 15, 1945. US air raid killed a pregnant SS woman.
Flächenland Sachsen [Area State Saxony] / Lausitz: Lusatia [Raven] [E]: Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 003: Hollerith Workdeath 003: KZ Flossenbuerg-Chemnitz-Regensburg: Flossen Castle-Chemnitz-King’s Castle
1938: Crematorium built in valley
46 staff tried by the American Military; 41 found guilty. Chemnitz is in Saxony. Chemnitz River (pronouced KEHM ihts): Saxony was abolished as a political unit in 1952 & divided into the districts of Leipzig, Dresden, & Chemnitz. After World War II the East German government decided to turn Chemnitz into a socialist model city & built concrete slab buildings in the city center. In 1953 Chemnitz was renamed Karl-Marx-Stadt. It returned to the original name of Chemnitz on 21 June 1990
KZ Elheim / Eltheim: Regensburg [Donau-Danube River. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Raetia was governed by the commander of the Legio III Italica, based in Castra Regina (Regensburg) by 179 AD.

KZ Venusberg: Venus Mountain [Flossenbeurg Außlager]

Kreise Annaberg 87200Kreise Aue-Schwarzenberg: Aue-Schwarzenberg [Hitler Youth Camp],Kreise Bautzen: KZ Bautzen / BudysinKreise Chemnitz: Oederan [Saxony. Borders Chemnitz. Female Camp], Kreise Dresden: Dresden-Universelle [Guard Klara Kunig. Sub-Camp of Uckermark]Kreise Freiberg: KZ Freiberg: Free Town-Sachsen Messerschmidt [Female Camp. Ailderbrand], 8 Görlitz 60264 9 Hoyerswerda 47917 10 Kamenz 154954Kreise Leipzig: Leipzig Lindenthal, Leipzig Markkleeberg, Leipzig Schonau, Leipzig Thekla,Kreise Löbau-Zittau: KZ Neumau / Löbau [Neuengammen Außlager], KZ Löbau-Zittau [Enterprise ZITT. Schoenman Werke aircraft parts slave labor factory on Czech border. Inmates housed in Neisse Lager: Lausitzer Neisse / Nysa Luzyca: Nysa River],Kreise Meißen: Meißen [Saxony capital], 15 Mittelsachsen 332236 16 Mittlerer Erzgebirgskreis 93483Kreise Mittweida: Mittweida [Lorenz Firm. Female Camp], Rochlitz [Mittweide district. Headed by Marianne Essmann] 18 Muldentalkreis 135459 19 Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis 103469 20 Nordsachsen 208661 21 Plauen 71155 22 Riesa-Großenhain 120539
Kreise Sächsische Schweiz: Saxon Switzerland: KZ Porschdorf: Porschtown [Wikipedia: ‘Saxon Switzerland is also a notorious centre of Neo-Nazi activity in Germany. Foreigners, especially dark-skinned persons of Arab, Asian, or African /African American descent should expect harassment, other forms of discrimination & mistreatment.’]
Schloß Sonnenstein: Castle Sunny Rock Located in Pirna, Saxon-Schweiz district of Saxony, Germany near Dresden. 1940-1941: The purpose of the program was to maintain genetic purity of the German population by systematically killing citizens who were physically deformed, disabled, handicapped, or suffering from mental illness. 10s of 1000s of prisoners killed by gas in the extermination centers by Professor Heyde, Professor Nitsche. Suffocation, injection, poisoning, starvation, medication overdose. By the end of 1941, every 3rd inmate of a psychiatric institution in Germany had already died, either by being directly killed or by starvation for a total of 93,000 dead. Extermination was carried out at Grafeneck (since January 20, 1940), Hadamar (since January 1941, Bernburg (since November 21, 1940), Brandenburg (since February 8, 1940)24 Stollberg 93041 25 Torgau-Oschatz 100485 26 Vogt 200388 27 Weißeritz 124763Kreise Zwickau: KZ Zwickau / Cvikov [Chrostau Camp for young] Flossenbuerg Außlager: Château Eisenberg-Jezeri [Concentration Camp in castle], Flöha [Saxony, near municipality of Frankenstein], Gröditz, Heidenau [Elbe Valley], Hainichen [Female Camp. Framo Enterprise], Koenigstein: King’s Stone / Elbe [Weidemann Firm. SS Todt: Death’s Head], Johanngeorgenstadt, Lengenfeld [Leng Enterprises], Mehltheur [Machinery], Mockethal [SS Services], Nossen [Wettin Dynasty], Rathen: Womb Place [SS Todt: Death’s Head Division], Seifhennersdorf [SS], Schonebeck-Elbe-Julius, Schönheide: Beautiful Heather, Neuengammen Außlager: KZ Lichtenburg [Near Torgau, Saxony. Operating in 1933: SS Oberaufseherin Jane Bernigau. Prison guard Juana Bormann],
KZ-Niederhagen-Wewelsburg [1939. Now a museum: Wewelsburg, Established by Heinrich Himmler, architect Hermann Bartels. Execution city for the GeStaPo in Westfalen-Lippe with a crematorium.(Pflock 185) ‘Heinrich Himmler’s ultimate dream was to evolve the SS into a ruling class replacing the old Prussian aristocracy. Himmler drew up plans, to be enacted after Germany won the 2nd World War, for the construction of 28 SS cities in the Lebensraum of the East. The master of all SS cities was to be at Wewelsburg, where Himmler planned to complete & expand the SS Wewelsburg castle into a capital city for the SS. The city was to be completed by 1955’ – Wikipedia]
KZ Rogdau-Dieburg
[Security Camp]
KZ Gundelsheim
KZ Flössenweiler
Hartheim: Hardhome
KZ Sachsenberg-Neumark [Schloß Augustusberg in operation in 1934, Lüzulhöhe in operation in 1934]
Hadamar: In Hadamar feierte die Belegschaft sogar den 10.000 Toten feierlich -solche Einzelheiten blieben den Außenstehenden zwar weitestgehend erspart, dennoch wusste das Gros der Menschen von den Geschehnissen. [In Hadamar the personnel threw a party at the 10.000 dead mark. - such data stayed with the remaining ones spared to the greatest possible extent, yet most of the people knew what happened] Die vorbeifahrenden grauen verhangenen Busse mit den Geisteskranken erfüllten die Bewohner mit Schaudern und auch der Rauch und süßliche Verbrennungsgeruch war gut wahrnehmbar. [The mobile grey administrative busses with sickly wraiths filled with shivering people and also the smoke, the sweet smell of burning was perceptable]. Kinder spielten öffentlich Klappsarg oder jagten sich gegenseitig Angst ein, indem sie sagten ‘Du bist nicht ganz gescheit, du kommst nach Hadamar in den Backofen’. [Children often played Clapping Coffins, or running from a mutual fear, in which they said ‘You are not wholly in your right mind, you come to Hadamar in the furnace.’] – Ruth Neuderg

Stadtsaaten Hamburg: City-States Hamburg: Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 008: Hollerith Workdeath 008: KZ Neuengamme
Wasson sends 4 German engineers to Berlin & thousands of punch-cards to Hamburg until the printing factory is fully set up later in the year. The IBM Fingerprint Selecting Sorter is only used by NAZI Security Forces (Black)
In Hamburg: North Germany Plague. 100,000 dead, 11,000 French dead. 1935: Nuremburg Laws enacted.
KZ Hamburg-Fuhsbuttel [Womens camp. SS man August Langmesser’s fiancé Irma Eckler killed here. Langmesser sent to fight on the Eastern Front (129)], KZ Hamburg-Wittmoor [1933], Hamburg [GeStaPo arrest house. Seaport city], Hamburg-Atona [Prison], Hamburg-Bergedorf: Mountain Town [Prison], Hamburg-Eidelstedt [Female Prison], Hamburg-Fischbeck [Prison], Hamburg-Glashuette [Mining camp], Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg: William’s Town [Prison], Hamburg-Wandsbeck: Wall Beck [Mining camp]
Neuengamme Außlager: Donauese-Kaisheim, Ellingen, Goben, Rheingau-Taunus: Geisenheim [Krupp]

Nordfriesland: North Frisia [N: North Sea]: Flächenland Schleswig-Holstein [Area State Light Rock]: Albingia-Salia [White Moon-Salt]: Kreise Dithmarschen, Kreise Flensburg, Kreise Herzogtum Lauenburg, Kreise Kiel Kreise Lübeck, Kreise Neumünster Kreise Ostholstein Kriese Pinneberg Kreise Plön Kreise Rendsburg-Eckernförde Kreise Schleswig-Flensburg Kreise Segeberg Kreise Steinburg Kreise Stormarn
KZ Fryslân: Friesland [Kreise Nordfriesland: N. Frisian Islands] Borkum Island [Werner von Braun launched on Dec 19th, 1934 & Dec 20th, 1934 Max & Moritz A2-rockets. US v Kurt Goebell et al charged with unlawful execution of 7 US Air Force personnel who had survived the crash of their B-17 on the island April 8, 1944], Söl-Sylt [WWI Military Outpost: Causeway to mainland is named Paul von Hindenburg with a railway on top], Nordstrand [216th Marine-Flak-Abeitlung: Lower Saxony: NW Germany: Feb 6 - Mar 21, 1946: US Military Tribunals at Dachau], Pellworm, Fering-Föhr, Amrum, Juist, Neuwerk, Heligoland, Halligen Nordmarsch-Langeness, Norderoog, Süderoog, Nordstrandischmoor, Oland, Südfall, Gröde-Appelland, Hooge, Habel, Hamburger Hallig

Preußen: Prussia: Flächenland Mecklenberg-Vorpommern: Area State Pomerania [N: Baltic Sea]: Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 009: Hollerith Workdeath 009: KZ Ravensbrück-Uckermark Jugenverwahrlag [Children Camp]
Siemens: la petite Sibérie Mecklembourgeoise

‘Once a price was agreed upon, a business would receive 500 to 1,000 women along with wardwomen equipped with dogs & clubs. Dead or dying workers were replaced with fresh ones at no additional cost to the client’

  1. Johann Schwarzhuber: Deputy camp leader, Death
  2. Gustav Binder: Warden, Death
  3. Heinrich Peters: Warden, released 1955
  4. Ludwig Ramdohr: GeStaPo, Death
  5. Carmen Mory: Kapo, committed suicide
  6. Eugenia von Skene: Kapo, released 1951
  7. Fritz Suhren: Work Leader, shot
  8. Hans Pflaum: Work Leader, shot
  9. Friedrich Opitz: Factory leader, death
  10. Arthur Conrad: SS warden, death
  11. Heinrich Schäfer: SS warden, 2 years
  12. Walter Schenk: SS warden, 20 years
  13. Kurt Lauer: SS warden, 15 years
  14. Kurt Rauxloh: SS warden, released 1954

Falkenhagen-Furstenwalde, Heinkel Flugzeugwerke [Warnemünde, Mecklenberg-Pomerania. 15,000 prisoners. Forced labor producing airplane parts for the German Luftwaffe: Airforce]
In 1945, Mecklenberg became part of the Soviet-controlled zone of Germany. This zone became East Germany in 1949, & Mecklenberg-Vorpommern made up 1 of East Germany’s 5 states. When East Germany & West Germany united in 1990, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania again became 1 of Germany’s states.

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: Near Furstenberg, 56 miles north of Berlin.
92,000 dead. Death-march of 24,500 prisoners under Margarete Mewes [10 years] to Mecklenburg. (Victor) Himmler’s brothel. RM 2. RM 0,50 for prostitute & RM 1,50 to SS-WVHW at Berlin. Greta Bösel & Vera Salvequart: [both hanged] select women to go to the gas chamber. 6 women gas the people to death with Zyklon B: Luise Brunner [3 years], Anna Friederike, Mathilde Klein [acquitted], Emma Zimmer [executed], Christine Holthöwer [acquitted], Ida Schreiter [executed], Ilse Vettermann [12 years]. Dr Benno Orendi [executed], Dr Walter Sonntag [executed], Dr Adolf Winkelmann [d 1947], Nurse Elisabeth Marschall [executed], Dr Rolf Rosenthal [executed], Dr Gerhard Schiedlausk [executed], Dr Percy [suicide at trial], Dr. Martin Hellinger [10 years], Nurse Martha Haake [10 years], Nurse Liesbeth Krzok [4 years], Gerda Ganzer [12 years] participate in nerve-slicing, amputations, gangrene experiments under Dr. Karl Gebhardt
Kreis Uecker-Randow: Uckermark Girls concentration camp aged 16 to 21, 1 mile from KZ Ravensbrück. Overseers Lotta Toberentz [aquitted], Johanna Braach [aquitted], Elfriede Mohneke [10 years], Margarete Rabe [21 years], Ruth Closius Neudeck [executed] poisoned, drowned, suffocated or sent victims to the gas chambers. In January 1945 it was expanded to exterminate the sick & women over 52.
Barth [Dorothea Binz, La Binz, head training overseer at Ravensbrück after 1942, trained her female students, numbering 1000, on the finer points of malicious pleasure. 1 survivor at the camp stated after the war that the Germans brought a group of 50 women to the camp to undergo training. The women were then separated & brought before the inmates. Each woman was then told to beat a prisoner. Of the 50 women, only 3 had asked for a reason & 1 had refused. The latter was subsequently imprisoned. Binz supervised mass shootings, killings in the gas chambers, mass deaths by starvation, neglect, severe abuse & cold. She reportedly carried a whip in hand along with a leashed German Shepherd & at a moment’s notice would kick a woman to death or select her to be killed. She also hacked people to death with an axe. Ruth Closius-Neudeck, Blockführerin: Barrack Leader famous for cutting the throats of inmates with the sharp edge of a shovel, promoted to head of the Barth camp in 1944.]
Außenlager: Subcamps: Malchow [Oberaufseherin Luise Danz, now age 87, is currently being tried for the death of a young girl & sadistic crimes against humanity], Kreis Neubrandenburg: Neubrandenburg [Guard Ilse Goeritz] Bad Doberan 118719 2 Demmin 92935 3 Greifswald 53533 4 Güstrow 111205 5 Ludwigslust 131292 6 Mecklenburg-Strelitz 69544 7 Müritz 87115 9 Nordvorpommern 117722 10 Nordwestmecklenburg 121153 11 Ostvorpommern 113623 12 Parchim 107996 13 Rostock 198964 14 Rügen 74402 15 Schwerin 99978 16 Stralsund 59970 18 Wismar 46544
Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 010: Hollerith Workdeath 010: KZ Oranienberg-Sachsenhausen: Golden Mountain-Saxon Houses / Oranienburg-Bötzow Koncentrák
Dierig Chemical, Shoenman Werke Aircraft & Famo-Werke Motorcraft
SS Economics Office: General Oswald Pohl
SS Totenkopfverbande: Hans Stärk (10 years), Committed his crimes at age 17. From Hesse-Darmstadt. Trained in Zyklon B gassing at Sachsenhausen. Sent to work at Auschwitz in 1943. He mocked those who begged for mercy. Arrested in Köln in 1964. Tried as a juvenile at Frankfort-am-Main. (129)
SS Totenkopfverbande: Artur Liebenherschel: Auschwitz / Sachsenhausen
Inmate files kept at Department DII
20 miles North of Berlin Crematoriums, 100,000 gassed, 1941: 18,000 Soviets liquidated. Gate: Arbeit Macht Frei: Work Liberates. Genetic experiments on gypsies by Professor Werner Fischer of the Koch Institute for Contagious Diseases & Dr. Karl Georg Horneck
Außlager: Subcamps:Auerwerke, Glau-Trebbin, Klinkerwerk [DEST], Lieberose [Lubben, S. of Berlin]
Schwarzhelde [1944: 1,000 men death marched from the Terezin Concentration Camp in Prague & placed at the disposal of the firm Braunkohlen: Benzin, the notorious Brabag, working to death at synthetic petrol produion, clearing debris after air raids, building air raid shelters & hard labor A further 300 died in Bergen-Belsen to which they were transported at the end of February 1945 because they could no longer work and had become idle eaters. At the end of March a group of prisoners was sent from Schwarzheide to Sachsenhausen. They are buried near Neustadt, Saupsdorf, & Varnsdorf (Porges).
KZ Doren / Bergen-BelsenSS Blockleader Arbeitsdienst Building: the Lion’s Den
Hollerith punch-cards processed here & information sent back to the Department of Statistics at the SS Economics Office in Oranienberg under General Oswald Pohl.
Joseph Kramer (executed) tortures & starves thousands
N. Germany between the cities of Bergen & Belsen, seperated by a river.Watchtower, barbed wire, black kiln furnace. Cremated bodies carried out on a stretcher. 60,000+ medical experiments. 23,000 die of typhus after liberation on April 15, 1945. The British forced Herta Bothe to place corpses of dead prisoners into mass graves adjacent to the main camp. She later recalled in an interview some 60 years later that while carrying the corpses they were not allowed to wear gloves & she was terrified of contracting typhus. She said the dead bodies were so rotten that the arms & legs tore away from the rest of the body when they were moved. She also recalled the emaciated bodies were still heavy enough to cause her considerable back pain. Bothe was arrested & taken to a jail at Celle. At the Belsen Trial she was characterized as a ruthless overseer sentenced to 10 years in prison for using a pistol on prisoners. She was released early from prison on December 22, 1951 as an act of leniency by the British government. After the war she married & her name changed to Lange. She is still alive & is 84 years old
Lauerhof-Belsen: Ziegenhain: Female Prison Camp
Ghana [Wagadugu / Gold Coast / Shutzgebeit Togo: German Togo]
On Gulf of Guinea
Soninke Hereditary king called the Ghana. Soninke people call land Wagadugu / Wagadu
1076: Invaded by Al Murabitun monks
1471: Portuguese name it Gold Coast
1641: Dutch seize Portuguese forts
1821: England invades for gold, timber, cocoa production
1875: Gold Coast War: English raid Gold Coast, seize Nigeria, & war with the Ashanti
1884-1919: Shutzgebiet Togo: German Togo Protectorate
1919: Togo divided between Britain & France
1922: British Togoland & Goldcoast called TVT: Trans-Volta Togo
1929: Dame Edith Sitwell’s Goldcoast Customs
1957: Commonwealth Country with regional peacekeeping commitments
1960-1966: Kwame Nkrumah (exiled to Guinea)
1966: Constitution Suspended: General Joseph Ankrah
1969: Brigadier Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa (executed)
1972-1978: Colonel I. K. Acheampong (executed)
1978-1979: General Frederick William Kwasi Akuffo (executed)
1979-2001: Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings
2001: John A. Kufuor
Kumasi [Cultural capital of the Ashanti people & seat of the Asantehene Palace. Producer of Kente cloth weaving, lost wax gold casting], Accra [1500-1800: Slave Trade City. Ga People. 1957: Capital. 1970s: Economic problems: Many people leave Ghana to work in Nigeria. In 1983, Nigeria forced 1 million people to return to Ghana. The return created shortages of food, housing, water, & jobs in Ghana. (World Book)], Lake Volta [Dam], Eastern Ghana [Fon, Ewe & Yoruba: Vodún Priests. An Ewe dance is the Abadza.] DeWolf Slave trading family: owns Cuban Plantations (LA Times 299)
Republique de Guinee: Land of the Blacks [French Guinea]
Kingdom of Gabù part of the Mali Empire
1470: Portuguese seize
1500: Slave Revolt
1800: Coffee & cocoa plantations
1891: French Guinea
1895-1960: French West Africa: Afrique Occidentale Française: 1/7 of continent
1898: Malinke leader Samory Toure, defeated & captured
1958: Independance: Samoury Toure
2001: French official language. 85% Muslim.
Ivory, Gold, & slaves. Conakry [Capital & largest city], 3 main ethnic groups. Fulani, or Peul: Fouta Djallon plateau. Malinke: Northeastern Guinea, especially the towns of Kankan, Kouroussa, & Siguiri. Sosso: Coast of Guinea.
Guinea-Bissau: Land of the Blacks [Portuguese Guinea]
Ghana Empire. Soninke people then the Mali Empire: Malinké people & Fula (Fulani), Spussou
1446: Portuguese seize.
1493: Line of Demarcation: Drawn by Pope Alexander VI to settle land claims. 350 miles W. of the Azores & Cape Verde Islands. Spain claimed land W. of the line, & Portugal claimed land E. of the line.
1500: Slave Revolt
1529: Treaty of Saragossa: Sets line 17° east of the Moluccas. France, England, & Netherlands ignore Line & claim territory for themselves.
1800: Coffee & cocoa plantations
1956: PAIGC: Party African for the Independence of Guinea & Cape Verde.
1963-1972: War of Independance
1973: PAIGC Amilcar Cabrar (assasinated)
1975: Independance: Luis Cabral (brother)
1984: President Brigadier General Joao Bernardo Vieira
1991: Guinea-Bissau Multiparty Elections. Only political party had been African Party for the Independence of Guinea & Cape Verde.
2001: Official language: Portuguese. Country includes offshore Bijagos (or Bissagos) Islands.
October 2004: Military mutiny. One of the 20 poorest countries in the world exporting 90,000 tons of cashew nuts, peanuts, copra, rubber, hardwoods & palm oil. In January 2005 the government announced that a locust swarm was threatening the cashew crop, & that the country did not have the resources to tackle the infestation. (Wallach 91)
Country #2: São Tomé & Principe [1470: Gulf of Guinea. Portugal makes these Convict Islands that cultivate sugarcane. 1975: Independance]
Country #3: Cape Verde Islands [15 of them 475 miles NW of Guinea-Bissau & 400 miles west of Dakar, Sénégal. Seized by Portugal in 1560. 1658: French invaded. Bawol, Kajoor, Serer enslaved. 1975: Independant from Portugal. Cape Verde, São Tiago, Santo Antão, Boa Vista, Fogo, São Nicolau, Maio, São Vicente, Sal, Brava, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso, & 2 islets. Plantations: Coffee, sugar cane, bananas, beans, corn, tomatoes, salt & cement mines. Lobster & tuna. Farming & fishing, provide workers with only a bare income. Famines have occurred frequently through the years, & many people are undernourished. Since the mid-1900s, 100s of thousands have emigrated to Brazil, Portugal, the United States, & other countries].
Azores Islands [Part of Portugal: covers 868 square milesl Seized in 1431.]
Madeira Islands: Wood Islands [Purpuriarae Islands] [pronounced muh DEER uh: Group of volcanic islands in Atlantic Ocean off NW. coast of Africa near Morocco that belong to Portugal who seized them in 1421. Most of the 257,000 residents live on Madeira Island. Porto Santo Island: Christoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus’father-in-law governor of the island. Columbus moved there with his wife Felipa Perestrello Moniz who died in 1484. The Desertas & Selvagens are groups of tiny, uninhabited isles. Chief crops include sugar cane, corn, vegetables, bananas, oranges, mangoes, pomegranates, & Madeira wine grapes. Portuguese cleared the land by burning trees. Exiled Austrian Emperor Charles I Habsburg (1887-1922) was sent with his family to the Madeira Islands after WWI where he died.]
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial: Equatorial Guinea: Land of the Blacks [Spanish Guinea]
National Murder
Riggs Bank
1470: Land seized by Portugal. Fang & Bubi people enslaved
1844: Treaty of El Pardo: Stolen land given to Spain
1886: English Diplomat Sir Richard Francis Burton
1968: Independant from Spain
2001: Spanish official language. Fang widely used. 75% Catholic.
Contains 5 islands in the Gulf of Guinea: Bioko [Formerly Fernando Po], Corisco, Elobey Chico, Elobey Grande, & Annobon.
Now a military dictatorship under Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo who can kill on command. Cocoa & oil production. Radar Magazine reports torture chambers & death by starvation. The magazine claim the President’s public relations agent is Gerald Cassidy of Cassidy & Associates. (266)
Guyana: Land of Waters [British Guyana]
1498: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus
1581: Dutch invade
1595: Sir Walter Raleigh searchs for El Dorado.
1805: British Guiana Slave Revolt: 50 involuntary slave recruits of the 2nd. West India Regiment mutiny killing 2 officers.
1825: British troops massacre slaves. The bullet riddled body of Quamina, bound in chains, put on public show
1838: Indians work on plantations
1953: Constitution suspended.
1966: Independence
About half of Guyana’s people are East Indians whose ancestors were brought from India to work on plantations. About 40% Guyana’s people are black whose ancestors were brought from Africa as slaves. The rest of the people are Amerindians: Arawak, Carrib, Warrau, Europeans, or Chinese. Sugar grinding mills, sugar plantations, cocoa, coffee, diamond, bauxite, manganese, gold mines. The University of Guyana is the only university in the country. – World Book Encyclopedia ©1998
French Guyana: Land of Waters
Penal Colonies
1643: France seizes
1790: Penal colonies
1852-1945: Formal prison system. 70,000+ imprisoned
1945: Prisons closed
1946: Outbreaks of malaria, typhus.
1980: ESA: European Space Agency, est.1975 by merging the European Launch Development Association & the ESRO: European Space & Research Organization of 1962, forms a private organization, Arianespace, which launches satellites from French Guiana on the rocket Ariane (133: 121)
1986: Arianespace’s space probe Giotto passes within 370 miles of Halley's Comet
2001: ESA Members: UK, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
90% of people are blacks or Creoles. Rest: American Indians, Chinese, Europeans, Indochinese, Lebanese.
Cayenne [1643: Capital], Devils Island [1852: Napoleon III. political prisoners], Kourou [Prison camp, turned into a space research center in the 1960s], Saint-Laurent [Prison camp, finally closed in 1945. Prisoners sent back to France. – World Book Encyclopedia © 1998], Ile de Ré/Saint-Martin de Ré [Penal colony], 1998: Gold & diamond mining, processing of bananas, cattle, corn, pineapples, rice, sugar cane, yams, & rainforest products. The farmers do not raise enough food to feed the people, food must be imported.
Surinam / Suriname [Dutch Guyana: Land of Waters]
1498: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus
1651: English establish cotton & sugar cane plantations & bring slaves from Africa.
1667-1975: Dutch take control & give the English the colony of New Amsterdam / New York.
1863: Slavery abolished. Dutch import Hindustani & Indonesian plantation laborers.
1954: Self-governing Dutch territory.
1975: Independance
Most commonly used language is Sranan Tongo, also called Suriname Creole. It combines elements of English, Dutch, & several African languages.
Official language is Dutch. People: 1/3: Hindustani, 1/3: Creole: mixed European & African, Rest: Indonesian, Maroonå, Amerindian, Chinese, & European. 1980, a group of Suriname’s armed forces seize control of the country & abolish the Parliament. Paramaribo [Capital of country. Half of the people live here. It also contains the country’s only university]
Haiti: High Ground / Quisqueya / Bayaguana [Hispaniola]
Yaya [The Plague]
1520: Bristol Company
The Sugar Babies: Documentary film exploring the descendants of African slaves delivered to the island of Hispaniola to help produce sugar who continue to be trafficked to work in sugar production with the complicity of the government of the Dominican Republic. Sugarcane fields known as bateys controlled by Palm Beach-based sugar barons Alfonso & Pepe Fanjul: Fanjul Corp: Domino Sugar, Florida Crystals & the Dominican Vicini family, owners of the Grupo Vicini collection of companies which includes CAEI (3 major sugar mills), Banco del Progreso (1 of the largest banks in the Dominican Republic), METALDOM (largest metallurgic in the Caribbean) & investments in over 20 more companies. The Miami screening of the film was subject of a cease & desist order 1 hour before the time of screening. The film was withdrawn from the Miami International Film Festival & the Women's International Film Festival due to pressure from the sugar industry. It is on tour with Amnesty International in France.
1530: Slaves from Africa for the gold mines. Sugar cane & cotton plantations
1606: Spain orders all Spanish settlers to move to the Santo Domingo area to strengthen defense. French, English, & Dutch settle west.
1666: Louis XIV: Martial law declared in Barbados, Haiti & Santo Domingo.
1788: 500,000 slaves, 8 times as many as colonists: Coffee & spice plantations
1791-1804: Saint Dominque Slave Rebellion: Toussaint L’Ouverture, then Jean Jaques Dessalines proclaims colony the independant country of Haiti.
1821: Santo Domingo declares independence from Spain & negotiates for inclusion in Bolivar’s Republic of Gran Colombia, but is occupied by Haiti, which rules it until an 1844 revolution.
1915: WWI: USA President Thomas Woodrow Wilson sends troops to occupy Haiti.
1916: Dominican Republic placed under American military government.
1934: USA troops withdraw.
1950-1956: Haitian President Army Officer Paul Magloire
1957-1971: Haitian Dictator Francois Duvalier declares himself president for life.
1965: Operation Power Pack: US President Lyndon B. Johnson lands 22,000 troops in the Dominican Republic.
1971-1986: Haitian Dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier declares himself president for life (overthrown): Secret police called the Tontons Macoutes (bogeymen)
1986-1988: Haitian Lieutenant General Henri Namphy
1988-1990: Haitian Lieutenant General Prosper Avril
1990-1991: Jean-Bertrand Aristide (overthrown): UN Boycott. Military government vs USA troops.
1996: Rene Preval
2000: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

2010: Haitian government says Jan 12, 7.0 earthquake killed 230,000. Temporary settlement camps: 600,000

Invaded by Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus on the Santa María in 1492 . Bartholomé de las Casas estimates 3+ million killed at 1st contact. Chief Caonabo destroys Spanish Fort Nativity in 1492. Colonists ill from tropical fevers; subsisting on a diet of cassava, corn, fish & yams. 1494: Provincial Governor Bartholomew Colombo (brother): Columbus forced all male Taínos to pan rivers for gold. Those who failed to make their quotas of gold punished, & their hands cut off. Queen Anacaona, Golden Flower, imprisoned & hung by Governor Ovando. 1504: Spanish Nobleman Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon of Spain serves as a judge for the Spanish government on the island of Hispaniola. Ayllon became wealthy by trading in Indian slaves. He dies in Georgia, USA from malarial fever. Taíno, Good People, under cacique Guacanagari killed, raped, enslaved to work in the mines. His son Guarionex fights in the Toa Battle with Chiefs Gueybana, Urayoan & Orocobix, against the Spanish in 1511. Chief Cotubanamú killed in the Higuey Battle against Juan Ponce de Leon. (92)
Port-au-Prince [2010: Temporary physical rehabilitation center run by Handicap International & Healing Hands for Haiti. ‘Those who lost limbs need elaborate followup treatment because the surgeons, rushing to save as many lives as possible, often made guillotine amputations – a straight cut through flesh & bone that did not leave enough skin for proper healing or cushion for an artificial limb, said Bob Horton, a nurse with Merlin, a British nonprofit medical aid group. ...A physical handicap is a huge disadvange in Haiti, where more than half the population was unemployed before the quake. With no way to compete, many have been cast off & left to beg on the streets, feeding a stigma against the disabled. In Haiti, when you are disabled, you are forgotten, said Michel Pean, the secretary of state for the integration of the disabled. Pean said his agency has been pushing for employment quotas & integrated schools to end the isolation of handicapped students. As the capital rebuilds, he said the government should consider ramps & acessibility for this generation of quake amputees. (99:20)]
Hungary [Pannonia / Trans-Danuba / Österreich-Ungarn: Austria-Hungary]
Magyarorzag: Turkish for 10 Tribes
Népirtás [Folk Extermination]
A Magyar Nemzeti Szocialista Partja: Hungarian National Socialist Party [Marienberger Order Komturia]

Magyar: Hungarian related to Estonian & Finnish.
1000 AD: Stephen I
1241 AD: Mongols invade
1458-1490: Matthias Hunyadi
1526: Battle of Mohacs: Ottoman Empire
1600: Esterhazy: Music Box
1867: Österreich-Ungarn: Austria-Hungary: Dual Monarchy
1918: Bela Kun: Republic of Hungary
1919-1944: Reign of Terror: Admiral Nicholas Horthy rules as regent.
1920: The White Terror of Hungary tortures & murders Jews, Liberals, & Peasants. Food relief from the USA & Holland denied to the starving people. Concentration camps are built & peasants are thrown alive into the furnaces.
1944: SS Viking Division sent to Hungary. Germany occupies Hungary.
Ferenc Szálasi: 1944: Head of state. Leader of the A Nemzet Akaratanak Partja: Arrow Cross Party & Hungarian Life League: Magyar Elet Szovetseg. Found guilty by a People’s Tribunal, executed on March 12, 1946

26th SS Division, ‘Hungaria,’ Oberführer: Zoltan von Pisky killed in action at Jarotschin.
1948: Republic of Hungary: As part of the Soviet domination of the Eastern Bloc, the NKVD, led by Lavrentiy Beria (executed), supervised secret police systems in the Bloc. When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc, Stalin’s strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power, put on trial, imprisoned, & in several instances, executed
1956: Hungarian Revolution: Khrushchev removes Mátyás Rákosi. 1000s of Hungarians imprisoned & deported to Soviet Union: Rebel government led by Imre Nagy demands withdrawal of Soviets. Soviet tanks roll into Budapest & revolt smashed in 2 weeks

Bacska, Banate, Budapest [Made up of 2 cities: Buda & Pest. Reign of Terror until liberation in February 1945. 564,500 Jewish dead. starvation, disease, death march to Austria, 1000s killed by the banks of the Danube by Arrow Crossmen. Peter von der Osten-Sachen says Waffen SS sent in 1944 to break the siege. Of the 22,000 Waffen SS 19,000 died. (130)], Debrecen [1939: Munkaszogalat: Forced labor battalions sent to the Ukraine. 1944: German soldiers order a Zsido Tanacs: Jewish Council, under Rabbi Pal Weisz to administer the Jewish Badge, close stores, burn books. Serly brickyards 13,084 from neighboring Balmazujvaros, Hajduboszormeny, Hajdudorog, Hajduhadhaz, Hajdunanas, Hajdusamson, Hajduszoboszlo, Teglas & Vamospercs robbed. Red Army liberates it.], KZ Faulknau-Bruß / Brusy-Eger-Cheb / Eger [50% of Jewish citizens murdered Inmates death-marched to Flossenwieler], Hajduszentgyorgy [1944: 2 trains with 6,841 passengers sent to Strasshof: Street Temple, Austria. Others deported to Auschwitz], Tisza [Near Tisza River], Olt, Zenta [8,000 Hungarians murdered & their dead bodies thrown into the swamps after WWII], Gyongyos [N Hungary. 1800 dead], Leva, Nagykanizsa, Ricze Tabor, Toeroekszentmiklos [Transit camp to Auschwitz], Zalaszentgrot Ustashe Border Camp [1933: Ustashe Camp: Commander: Ivo Percic [assasinated by Ante Pavelic] & wife Jelka [throat slit by special police squad] (Diacritica)]
Iceland [Lydveldid Island]
1944: 97% of Iceland’s people voted to cut all political ties with Denmark. Iceland officially gained independence on June 17, 1944.
In World War II, German troops occupied Denmark. Unable to defend Iceland the Danes had British troops land in Iceland in 1940 to keep Germany from seizing the country. Later, United States troops replaced the British forces. Under a NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization agreement, a small United States military force is stationed at an air base near Keflavik.
India / Sind: Flood [Bharat Ganarajya: Republic of India / Hindustan / British India]
2500 BC: Indus Valley Civilization
2500-1700 BC: Dravidian
1500 BC: Aryan: Hindu
500 BC: Jainism
330 BC-185 BC: Mauryan Empire: Emperor Asoka, a Buddhist with its doctrine of ahimsa: nonviolence adopted by Mahatma Ghandi, expands it to cover almost all of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan
300 BC-1585 AD: S India Dynasties: Kalinga [300 BC-100BC], Chera [200 BC-400 AD]. Andhras-Satavahanas [50 BC], Chola [100-1118AD], Kesari [600-1076AD], Pallava [630 AD], Ganga [1076-1435AD], Vijaynagar [1376-1585AD]
146 BC- 1600 AD: N. India Dynasties: Kushan: Guishuang / Yueh-Chih Empire [146 BC-400AD], Gupta [320-520 AD], Afghan Mahmud of Ghazni [1000 AD], Sultanate of Delhi [1206: Sultan Qutb ub-din Ayba], Manikya Mongolian [1300-1600 AD]
650 AD: Zoroastrians-Parsis flee Persia to India
Varna: Color / Caste: Portuguese: Race Breed:
A rigid form of social discrimination based on birth where movement between is morally unacceptable. Ranked from top to bottom, are categories of jatis births: Brahmin (priests), Kshatriya (warriors, political rulers), Vaishya (commoners, traders, cultivators), & Sudras (servant, artisans). A further addition were the Untouchables, people whose touch-even whose shadow-was & is considered ritually polluting. Caste reflects the Hindu preoccupation of purity & pollution. Higher castes depend on lower castes to remove their pollution while lower castes need the higher to trickle purity down to them. During the middle ages members of lower castes were barred from acting as witnesses in any cases brought against higher castes. (Bret Wallach)
1502: Vasco de Gama invades under Portuguese King Manuel I
1526: Battle of Panipat: Khan Babur establishs Mughal Empire: Porgual seizes by 1530.
1600: Queen Elizabeth’s East India Company got permission from Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade.
1628-1658 AD: Shah Jahan builds Taj Mahal.
1662: Passed to England in 1662 as part of Catherine of Braganza’s dowry to Charles II
1757: Battle of Plassey: East India Company Agent Robert Clive defeats the army of the Nawab: Mughal Governor of Bengal
1774: Governor General Warren Hastings. Opium produced in India under British government monopoly & sold to China.
1857: Sepoy Mutiny
1893: Sir Mortimer Durand: Ethnic Pashtun territories divided by Durand Line. Strained relations between Afghanistan & British India
1901: Richard Walmesley Blair & Ida Mabel Limouzin parents of novelist George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair work for the Opium Department of the Civil Service.
1905: Viceroy of India Lord George Nathanial Curzon, Marquess of Kedleston partitions Bengal State. Millions of Indians die in a famine, Curzon does nothing
1902-1909: Commander in Chief Earl Horatio Herbert Kitchener of Broom organizes the Bengal, Madras & Bombay Armies.
1908: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi returns to India after 21 years in S. Africa. Called Mahatma: Great Soul.
1928: Nehru Report: Wealthy Kashmir lawyer Motilal Nehru (pronounced MOH tih lahl NAY roo) outlines India’s Constitution.
1947: The Last Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten: Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Battenberg divides British India in 2: Hindu India & Muslim Pakistan at Punjab. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Motilal’s son.
1948: After India became independent in 1948 legislation passed abolishing untouchability. Untouchables call themselves dalits: the oppressed.
1948-1949: Indo-Pakistani War: Pakistan claims Independant Kashmir & invades. The region’s Hindu ruler makes it part of India. Gandhi fasts until leaders pledge to stop fighting. 12 days later, in New Delhi, Gandhi assassinated by Nathuram Godse of RSS: Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
1953-1954: Vijaya Lakshmi Nehru, Motilal’s daughter, President of the United Nations General Assembly.
1956: 1/2 million untouchables become Buddhists.
1961: Indian troops force Portugal to give up its last colonial holdings in India.
1962: Chinese forces attack Indian border
1965: Kashmir Dispute: India & Pakistan. United Nations arranges cease-fire.
1966-1984: Jawaharlal Nehru’s daughter, Prime Minister Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi
1967: Mass starvation. Rice-rationing. Wheat harvest fails. Prime Minister photographed in a wheat field.
1971: Bangladesh War: Indira Gandhi opens border to allow panic-stricken Bengalis.
1984: Indira Gandhi assasinated. Her son Rajiv prime minister until assasination in 1991.
1985: SAARC:
1991: P. V. Narasimha Rao
1997: President K.R. Narayanan rises from Untouchable caste
2002: Deputy Prime Minister L.K. Advani
The higher & wealthier castes frequently use physical force to keep their privileges. The clearest marker is commensalism: a person who refuses to eat with another, or allow his food to be prepared by another, considers the other to be of an inferior caste. Come lunch, everyone will sit down except perhaps for 1 or 2 people who will slip away. They’re Brahmin will be the explanation. 80% of India’s judges &aamp; 60% of its senior administrators are Brahmins, although Brahmins constitute only 5% of India’s population. ...Caste provides an incomparable excuse to disregard human suffering. See a double amputee crawling along the street with a begging bowl? No problem: ‘it’s his karma.’ See a child with a begging bowl, a plastic bag of urine tied to his side & hoses penetrating his abdomen? No need for concern: he deserves it. See the destitute widow, cast off by her family since her husband’s death? Feel no pity. Caste provides an air-tight rationale for ignoring pain. That’s why it often strikes Westerners as appallingly callous: they’ve been taught to believe, at least, that people should help each other. That’s why beggars in India invariably zero in on Westerners as easy marks. (Wallach)
Population: India: 1 billion, Pakistan: 140 million, Bangladesh: 120 million, Burma-Myanmar: 80 million, China: 1.24 billion, + Nepal, & Sri Lanka. 1/3 of India’s people are starving because they cannot afford to buy grain & the government will not feed them.
Bankimchandra Chatterjee, Confession of a Young Bengal University of Calcutta: 1872: “.English civilization has pulled down the 300 & 30 million deities of Hinduism, & set up, in the total space once occupied by them, its own tutelary deities, Comfort & his brother, Respectability.”
North: Jammu & Kashmir / Cashmere [Kingdom of Kashmir] [Language: Kashmiri. 1947: The Maharajah of Jammu & Kashmir avoids joining India or Pakistan when they are split this year. 1948-1949: Indo-Pakistani War: Pakistan claims Independant Kashmir & invades. The region’s Hindu ruler makes it part of India. Gandhi fasts until leaders pledge to stop. Gandhi assassinated by Nathuram Godse of RSS. 1949: UN splits province & abolishes monarchy. Line leaves northwestern 3rd of Kashmir under Pakistani control. Pakistan call this land Azad: Free Kashmir. Rest of the area controlled by pro-Indian Kashmiri assembly. 1957: Kashmir part of India. 1959: China seizes parts of Ladakh. 1965-1972: Kashmir Dispute: Civil War: India & Pakistan. United Nations arranges cease-fire. New truce line established between Indian & Pakistani sections of Kashmir. 1989: Protests 1998: Bus, train connections to Pakistan minimal. 1999: Clash at the borderline. 2002: RSS: Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Volunteers Association’s (est 1925): Rumors say some RSS members wish to cleanse India of Muslims & believe that India will one day retake Pakistan], Punjab: 5 Rivers 1966 [Sikh Kingdom] [Language: Punjabi-Gurmukhi. 1490: Sikhism founded in India by Guru Nanak. Sikhs do not believe in caste. As a mark of equality, many Sikh men use the same last name, Singh, which means lion. 1800: Sikh Kingdom under Ranjit Singh. 1849: England. 1947: Partioned into India [E. Punjab] & Pakistan [W. Punjab: Muslim]. Thousands die. 1966: 3 states made: Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh. 1980s: Sikhs seek independent state of Khalistan], Amritsar City: Tank of Immortal Nectar [(pron. uhm RIHT suhr) Holy city of Sikhism with the Golden Temple. April 13, 1919: English kill 400 unarmed civilians. 1920: Amritsar Massacre. 1984: Sikh rebels occupy the Golden Temple & surrounding sacred buildings in Amritsar. Indian army to remove Sikhs causes many deaths. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi assasinated by Sikh bodyguards],Haryana 1966 [Punjab] [Language: Hindi. Mahabharata Hindu Epic. Panipat District: Battles of Panipat: 1526: The Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, killed by forces of the Mughal emperor Babur.1556: Babur's grandson Akbar defeats army of the general Hemu. 1761: Afghan armies under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani defeat Maratha forces that had threatened the Mughals]Union Territory of Chandigarh: Hindu Goddess Chandi 1966 [Punjab] Chandigarh City [Joint capital of Punjab & Haryana], Himachal Pradesh: Province In the Lap of Snow 1966 [East Punjab] [Languages: Pahari Hindi & Tibetan. Himalayas. 1966: Dharamsala home of the Dalai Lama. There are > 150,000 Tibetans who live in India. They carry an Identity Card issued by the Indian government in lieu of a passport. This document states the nationality of the holder as Tibetan. It is a document that is frequently rejected as a valid travel document by many customs & immigrations departments],Union Territory of Delhi [Delhi Sultanate] [1205-1526: Muslim military state that extended across much of what is now Bangladesh, India, & Pakistan: centered in the Ganges Valley & Punjab. Babur, a descendant of Timur, defeated the last sultan in 1526 & established the Mughal Empire. 1857-1859: Sepoy Mutiny: Meerut army base, near Delhi. Indian soldiers called sepoys revolt after British officers instruct them to bite open rifle cartridges believed to have been greased with cow & hog fat. Religious beliefs of the Hindu sepoys forbade them to eat beef, & the Muslim sepoys could not eat pork. 1912: Capital of British India], Uttar Pradesh: Northern Provinces 1947 [United Provinces of Agra & Oudh] [Language: Hindi. N: Tibet, China & Nepal. NW: Himachal Pradesh, W: Rajasthan, Delhi, S: Madhya Pradesh, E: Bihar. The Ganges River. Varanasi-Varanas-Benares: Holiest city in India, where every devout Hindu hopes to die & be cremated. Mathura: Birthplace of the Hindu god Krishna. Buddhist shrine at Sarnath. Agra: Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan. 1836: East India Company Northwestern Province. 1837: Lack of transportation prevents grain shipment. Famine kills 800,000+1857: Revolt. 1869: Kanpur Cotton Mills], Uttaranchal 2000 [Uttar Pradesh] [2000: New state from northern Uttar Pradesh], Rajasthan: Land of the Kings [Language: Rajasthani. Punjab & Delhi are N. State Capital is Jaipur. Landowners the Rajput. Home of the Rom-Roma-Romi-Romany Gypsies, Zigeuners: Untouchables. They left India, made their way to North-west China; following the Silk Road into ancient Persia. Gandhi called untouchables harijanz; people of God & the Indian constitution, written after Ghandi’s death, declared untouchability illegal]
Aruanchal Pradesh [Kingdom of Tibet / South Tibet] [NE India: Eastern Himalaya to foothills bordering Brahmaputra River. It is not open to foreign visitors because of its strategic location bordering Bhutan, Burma, & China. Capital is Itanagar], Nagaland: Cobra Snake [Language: Naga-Nagamese. Mahogany & woods. Angamis, Aos, Chakhesang, Chang, Konyaks, Kukis, Lothas, Phom, Pochuri, & Semas], Manipur [Language: Manipuri. Government against the Naxalites. 1993-1994: Violence between Nagas wanting independence & Kukis. 100s of people dead & many villages destroyed], Mizoram [Language: Mizo. Far NE India: Collective name for people who settled there in the 1700s. Coffee, Rubber, Tea plantations], Tripura / Hill Tippera [Manyika Mongol Dynasty][1300: Manyika Mongol Dynasty. 1971: Refugee camps along the border of Bangladesh], Sikkim [(pron. SIHK-ihm) NE India in the Sikkim Himalayas. Nepalese Gurkhali, Bhutia & Lepcha Sikkimese. 1640: Penchu Namgyal crowned chogyal: king & controlled lands that are now part of Bhutan, China, India, & Nepal. Mount Kanchenjunga, the 3rd highest mountain in the world, lies on Sikkim’s western border with Nepal. China lies to the north. An arc of mountain peaks in the east separates Sikkim from China & Bhutan. S. is West Bengal. 1861: England seizes. Protectorate. Darjeeling. 1973: Antigovernment demonstrations. 1975: Indian state], West Bengal [Nawab of Bengal][Language: Bengali. 1698: Kalikata-Calcutta purchased by British East India Company in 1698. One of the largest cities in the world on the Hooghly River 125 km north of the Bay of Bengal. Capital of British India from 1773-1911. Calico = Calicut, Chintz = Hindi name for a printed calico, khaki = dust. 1905: Bengal partitioned by Lord George Nathanial Curzon, Marquess of Kedelston, British viceroy of India. Indians protested with a boycott of British goods & a series of bombings. 1909: Morley-Minto Reforms: Enlarges British viceroy's executive council to include an Indian & allow Indians to elect representatives to provincial legislative councils. 1911: Britain reunites Bengal. 1947: Bengal partitioned into East Bengal, Pakistan (later Bangladesh), West Bengal, Assam, Bihar & Orissa. 1971: Refugee camps along the border of Bangladesh], Assam [Language: Assamese (identical to Bengali except for 2 characters). Brahmaputra Valley: Assam Tea & Oil refineries. United Liberation Forces of Assam. 1971: Refugee camps along the border of Bangladesh],Meghalaya: Abode of the Clouds 1969 [Meghalaya] [1835: English incorporate area into Assam. Khasis, Jaintias, Garos. 1971: Refugee camps along the border of Bangladesh], Bihar [Ho, Kharia, Munda, Oraons. 1971: Refugee camps along the border of Bangladesh: Bangladeshi army officers & Indian military started using these camps for recruitment & training members of Mukti Bahini], Jharkhand 2000 [Bihar] [2000: New state formed from the southern part of the state of Bihar], Orissa: 1936 [Language: Oriya. 1 of the major Hindu states. 60 groups called adivasi: ancient inhabitants living in forest & remote hill regions of the state. Language of the Santhals 1 of the oldest in India. Most rivers flow southeast through the state from the peninsular plateau to the Bay of Bengal. 300BC: Kalinga Kingdom: Trade with Java, Sumatra, Borneo, & Bali. Mauryan Empire, 100 BC: Kalinga King Kharavela: Jain. 600-1076 A.D: Kesari Dynasty: Kesaris: Bhubaneswar Temples, 1076-1435: Ganga Dynasty: Gangas: Hindu Jagannath Temple at Puri. Sun Temple at Konarak. Surya dynasty took control in 1435 & ruled Orissa until 1542. With the decline of the Mughals in the 1700’s, the Marathas occupied Orissa for a time until the English took it over], Madhya Pradesh: Middle Province [Sanchi, Ellora, Amaravati: 1880: Buddhist relics excavated & carted off to the British Museum], Malwa [The Princely States: English Government monopoly produces opium for sale to China], Chhattisgarh 2000 [Madhya Pradesh] [2000: Lok Sabha created Chhattisgarh, from Madhya Pradesh], Maharashtra 1960 [Maratha Kingdom][Language: Marathi. Shivaji Bhonsle (1630-1680), a Hindu prince, founded the Maratha kingdom, in western India. Bombay-Bom Bahia: Portuguese Beautiful Bay / Mumbai: Headquarters of the British East India Company 1672-1858. 1962-1964: Governor Vijaya Lakshmi Nehru. 2/3 of India’s 1 billion people live here. Nuclear power plant, Hindi film, Black Cotton Soils textile industry, silk, chemicals, glassware, printing, railway, Victoria Terminus, Taj Mahal Hotel, Rajabai Clock Tower, High Court. Salsette Island industrial districts, suburbs & slums.],Dadra & Nagar Haveli [Portuguese Territory until 1961 surrounding Maharashtra province]
West: Gujarat 1960 [Sultanate of Gujarat][Language: Gujarati. 700-900 AD: Gujara Empire: Gurjarat / Rajasthan. Gurjara was a member of a powerful confederacy of land-owning & military clans called Rajput], Sabarmati Ashram [1930: Dandi March: Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pron. moh huhn DAHs kur uhm CHUHND GAHN dee) & 78 followers’ 24-day march from Sabarmati Ashram, near Ahmadabad, through Gujarat villages to the sea at Dandi, 236 miles away. There Gandhi committed a deliberate act of civil disobedience against British rule by ceremonially breaking the law & making salt. At that time, it was against the law to possess salt not made & taxed by the government. The British authorities imprisoned Gandhi on May 5. More than 60,000 people followed Gandhi’s example during 1930 by making salt & going to prison (133: 45)], Daman & Diu [Portuguese Territory until 1961 surrounding Gujarat Province]
South: Andhra Pradesh 1956 [Kingdom of the Andhras] [Language: Telugu. 1586: Capital Hyderabad. 1911-1956: Sir Usman Ali, Nizam of Hyderabad ruled the region of Hyderabad. He was 1 of the world’s wealthiest people. He retired in 1956 when Hyderabad was dissolved as a state], Goa [Sultanate of Bahmani / Portuguese Goa] [Language: Konkani. 1347: Bahmani sultanate on Vijayanagar N. border: boundary between the 2 states at Krishna River. 1961: Indian forces seize Goa & other Portuguese territories in India. 1967: Indian troops defeat Portugal], Karnataka [Sultanate of Mysore] [Language: Kannada-Kanarese. Sandlewood forests. Capital: Bangalore. 1327-1640: Hindu Vijayanagar Empire: Vijayanagar: City of Victory Empire (Hampi). 1343: King Bukka annexes neighboring kingdom of Hoysala Ballala. 1378: Siege of Vijayanagae: Sultan of Bahmani assasinated. Harihara captures Goa. Bahmani siege Vijayanagar. Harihara made alliances with the sultans of Malawa & Gujarat. 1420: Kingdom of Kondavidu lost. 1500: Krishna Deva Raya negotiates with Portuguese. 1st Mysore War: 1780: England seizes.Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore opposes British rule. 1790: Tipu invades neighboring British protectorate Travancore state. 1799: Colonel Arthur Wellesley with 16,000 men, General Harris with 21,000 men, & 6,000 men from Bombay, march to Tipu's capital Srirangapatnam, break through the city wall & shoot Tipu dead.] Kerala 1956 [Travancore & Cochin] [Language: Malayalam. 200BC-400 AD: Chera Dynasty. 600 AD: Islamic descendants known as Moplahs. 825 AD: Kulasekhara Dynasty.1500: Portuguese Pedro Alvares Cabral seizes Malabar coast. 1600-1741: Dutch crushed by King Martanda Varma of Travancore. 1792: British East India Company annexes Malabar. A series of treaties brought the states of Travancore & Cochin under their control. 1800-1805: Pazhassi Raja of Malabar’s 5-year revolt against British rule ended with his death in 1805. Moplahs rose in rebellion from 1849 to 1855, & again in 1921. 1949: Travancore & Cochin united], Tamil Nadu 1956 [Madras Presidency][Language: Tamil. SE. India: 3000 BC: Dravidian State. 300BC-1600AD: Hindu Cardamom Hills. 100-1173 AD: Chola Dynasty. Cheras control southern Tamil Nadu. Pandyas rule central area. Tamil Nadu came under the influence of the Vijayanagarar Empire, the last Hindu empire in India, which superseded the Pandyas. Chennai-Madras the capital: British cotton spinning industry in the 1800s. Through wars, annexations, & treaties with Indian rulers such as the nawab of Carnatic, the nizam of Hyderabad, & the sultan of Mysore, the East India Company acquired the territory covering present-day Tamil Nadu], Pondicherry [Vedapuri: Local Name of Hindu God Shiva] [100AD-1173 AD: Vedic Culture: Chola Kings. 1673: French territory until 1954 containing following districts: Poindicherry, Yanam, Mahe, Kariakal]
Indonesia [Netherlands East Indies]
[Java, Sumatra, Bali, Borneo, Thousand Islands, Irian Jaya: Papua New Guinea]
Cultuurstelsel [Cultivation System]

Country in SE Asia that consists entirely of volcanic islands, 13,500+ stretch across 3,200+ miles of tropical ocean along the equator.
4th largest population in the world after China, India & United States. Its people belong to 300 different ethnic groups & speak more than 250 languages. People live on more than 6,000 of the islands, the rest are uninhabited (133: 48)
600 AD-1300AD: Srivijaya: Buddhist Kingdom of Sumatra
700 AD-1293AD: Mataram Hindu Kingdom of Java
1293-1400: Madjapahit Hindu Kingdom of Java: Prince Widjaya
1400: Melaka-Malacca Islamic Kingdom on SW coast of Malay Peninsula controls trade route through Strait of Malacca.
1500: Mataram Islamic Kingdom of Java
1511-1521: Portuguese Lieutenant Juan Sebastian del Cano’s Victoria captures Melaka.
1602-1613: Dutch East India Company seizes Java. Plantations & forced cultivation on Java, creates profit for the Netherlands.
1641-1677: Dutch seize Melaka from Portuguese. Other Indonesian islands passed into Dutch hands.
1685: England’s East India Company’s settlement on west Sumatra at Bengkulu. Dutch East India Company controls rest of the island
1711: Sultans of Western Borneo import Chinese laborers in 18th century to work in kongsi: gold & tin mines
1770: Country renamed Netherlands East Indies
1825-1930: Diponegoro’s War: Javanese Prince Diponegoro vs the Dutch. English withdraw from Sumatra
1830: Dutch force Javanese, Sumatra & Sulawesi peasants to grow indigo & coffee.
1883: Krakatoa erupts
1901: Dutch Ethical Policy includes limited political reform, increased investment in colony.
1908: Budi Utomo Nationalist Organization
1912: Islamic Association
1927: Indonesian Nationalists introduce Bahasa Indonesia: Language of Indonesia, a modified form of the Malay language.
1942: Battle of the Java Sea: Japan seizes petroleum rich area
1945-1949: Indonesia declares independance. When Indonesia declared independence in 1945, nearly all areas of Sumatra supported the Indonesian nationalists. The sultans were removed, & many of them were killed. Indonesia fights the Dutch until 1949, when they gave up their control.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia’s struggle against colonialism. 4 novels: This Earth of Mankind, Child of All Nations, Steps Forward, House of Glass: 1980s
1949-1966: President for Life Sukarno establishes Pancasila: 5 principles: (1) belief in 1 God, (2) humanitarianism, (3) unity of Indonesia, (4) democracy based on deliberation & consensus among representatives (5) social justice for all people.
1962: Indonesian Government Resettlement Program to encourage Java & Bali residents to move to Irian Jaya & other islands.
1964-1965: Sukarno sends forces to Malaysia as British North Borneo & Sarawak forced to join Malaysia. Foreign banks cease lending money to Indonesia: inflation rate 1,000%.
1966-1998: Lieutenant General Suharto takes power in a military coup. Indonesia rejoins UN. Government receives foreign loans & investment. Many people criticize Suharto family’s immense wealth, control of key government agencies & economic enterprises
1997-1998: Economic Crisis: Indonesia’s stock market plunges, currency falls, banks & businesses fail, millions of people unemployed while food prices soar. Violent protests in Jakarta & other cities.
1999: President Abdurrahman Wahid & Vice-President Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of Sukarno.
Jamaah Islamiah: Seeks to create a Southeast Asian caliphate embracing Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, & the southern Philippines.
Indonesia belongs the UN, World Bank, IMF: International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, International Finance Corporation & Association of SE. Asian Nations
Volcanic soil supports rice, & Indonesia ranks among the world’s leading rice producers. Major farm products include coffee, cocoa, palm oil, rubber, spices, & tea. Tropical rain forests cover 2/3 of Indonesia: Teak &anol other hardwood trees. Indonesia has 29 provinces. District courts, high courts, military courts, & special religious courts handle personal matters among Muslims, such as divorces & inheritances. The highest court is the Supreme Court. It reviews cases appealed from the high courts & settles disputes between courts in different regions or between the religious courts & other courts. The Supreme Court has no authority to overturn laws it finds unconstitutional. The central government appoints judges. There are no juries.

Greater Sunda Islands: Sunda Strait Java / Jawa [Javanese 45% of Indonesia’s population. Java has 112 volcanoes. Sunda Kulapa/Jakarta/Djarkata the capital with the University of Indonesia & Medan Merdeka: Freedom Square. Wealthy Jakartans once lived in a Dutch-built residential section called Menteng. Today, they live in Pondok Indah & residential areas in the south. Many people in Jakarta live in small wood or bamboo structures in districts called kampongs. These areas lack clean water, sewers, & electricity. In 1970 the city’s governor banned new immigrants from settling in Jakarta unless they already had jobs in the city. Surabaya the 2nd largest city in Indonesia & located at the mouth of Java’s Kali Mas river: naval base, shipbuilding, motor assembly, textile production, & rubber processing. Yogyakarta City: Contains the monastic site of Borobudur: A temple built on a mountain by Buddhist rulers named Sailendras: Kings of the Mountain. 3 spheres: kamadatu: sphere of passions, rupadatu: sphere of the visible world, arupadatu: sphere of the invisible or metaphysical world. Spheres represent stages of human life through which Buddhists must go in pursuing the perfect state. 72 stupas: bell-shaped coverings with openings & volcanic stone sculpture of Buddha inside. Express serenity & harmony in treatment of the human body. Prambanan are 6 Hindu temples near Yogyakarta], Sunda [Sundanese, who live in western Java make up 14% of Indonesia’s population], Madura [Madurese 8% of Indonesia’s population. Railroad. Batik, (pron buh TEEK or BAT ihk): Indonesian method of applying colored designs to fabric. Sections not to be dyed covered with a resistive-substance: liquid wax, paraffin, or rice paste. Wax removed by boiling cloth.], Krakatoa / Krakatau [1883: Volcano that lies off the coast of Java & Sumatra. Eruption destroyed much of the Island & caused a volcano summit to submerge. Parts of volcano above water are Lang Island, & Verlaten Island. Eruptions from 1927 to 1930 created Anak Krakatau Island in the caldera: crater’s center], Sumatra / Sumatera [Sultanate of Sumatra] [Batak build large communal houses where several 100 people may live. Sumatra’s oil, natural gas, bauxite, rubber, palm oil, tobacco, cloves, coconut, tea plantations. Medan is Sumatra’s largest city with towering office buildings. The elderly leader of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), which seeks independence for the province at the northern tip of Sumatra, now lives in asylum in Sweden, but Hasan Tiro’s followers continue to fight both the government & Chevron. The militant Acehnese a century ago were among the last holdouts against Dutch control over the archipelago. (Bret Wallach)], Riau Islands [Malay Penninsula: Malays are 8% of the Indonesian population], Bangka [Tin mines. 1700: Hakka Han Chinese tin miners from Guangdong], Belitung [Tin mines: Hakka Han Chinese miners], Singkep [Tin mines], Borneo [Sultanate of Borneo] [Over on Kalimantan: River of Diamonds, which is the Indonesian part of Borneo, the indigenous Dayaks/Dyaks have been slaughtering migrants from Madura who arrived decades ago, after the Indonesian government tried reducing the population of Java & its near neighbors, including Madura, by shipping residents to the outer islands in what was well-known as the transmigration program. (Bret Wallach). Kalimantan’s capital: Banjarmasin founded by the Dutch in 1711. The other parts consist of the nation of Brunei & 2 Malaysian states: Sarawak & Sabah. Indonesia is the world’s largest exporter of liquefied natural gas. Most of the country’s petroleum comes from East Kalimantan & Sumatra. Pertamina, is a state-owned petroleum company. Copper, gold, iron, manganese, thick forests: teak, mangrove. Benzoin, camphor, rattan, rubber, cinnamon, cloves, coffee, cotton, nutmeg, pepper, rice, sugar, & tobacco.], Sulawesi [formerly Celebes[ [Toraja people build large communal houses. Ujung Pandang the largest city & a major seaport on the Celebes Sea]

Lesser Sunda Islands: Nusa TenggaraBali [Balinese. Bali has thousands of Bali-Hindu temples], Flores, Komodo [Komodo Dragon: a giant endangered Lizard that can grow 10 feet long with a weight of 365 lbs. They overpower deer, wild pigs, & even water buffalo], Lombok [Bali-Hindusm], Sumba , Sumbawa, Timor [Portuguese Timor / Portuguese East Indies] [1520: Portugal. 1613: Dutch seize West Timor. Portugal seizes East Timor. WWII: Japanese invade: 60,000+ dead & others slave labor under the Japanese. Timor Sea the site of an oil field. 1975: Timor political party Fretilin declares Portuguese territory independent. Indonesia invades & annexes it the following year. Hakka population at 25,000. 700 Hakka killed 1st week of invasion in Dili alone. Many evacuate & escape to Australia. 2,400 remaining in East Timor. As no Asian country was willing to accept them as residents, nor to grant political asylum to displaced Hakka & other Timorese, they were forced to live as stateless persons for a time. 1999: UN Referendum: East Timor / Timur Timor votes for independence from Indonesia. Armed pro-Indonesian militias attack & kill East Timorese citizens. 1000s driven from their homes, & much of the capital of Dili burned. UN-sanctioned multinational peacekeeping force arrives. UN votes set up an interim administration.]

Molucca Islands / Maluku Islands [formerly The Spice Islands]: Northeastern section of Indonesia: 100s atolls & other small coral islands that are uninhabited Halmahera [Largest island of the Malukus: 6,870 square miles], Ambon / Ambonia [1605: Dutch East India Company sets up its 1st settlement. Ambon City a port city. On Ambon a half million people are said to be homeless (Bret Wallach)], Banda Islands [Under Dutch monopoly: cultivation of cloves & nutmeg], Ceram [Famous for growing cloves, nutmeg, & mace. Spice traders intermarried with the Moluccans & greatly influenced the way of life], Ternate [1513: Portuguese bring cloves. 1683: Dutch seize island], Tidore [1513: Portuguese bring cloves. 1579 : Sir Francis Drake buys cloves.], Buru, Aru [Flat & swampy], Tanimbar Islands [Flat & swampy]

Papua New Guinea [2nd largest island in the world. Irian Jaya: West Papua is part of Indonesia. East half is part of Papua New Guinea, an independent nation. In an effort to quell the push for autonomy in Irian Jaya (western New Guinea), the Indonesian government has changed the province’s name to Papua & agreed that from now on the province can retain 70% of the royalties from local mines, especially the American-owned Grasberg mine. It’s the world’s biggest copper & gold mine - & the 1 with the lowest production costs. Such concessions have not satisfied the leaders of the Free Papua Movement. In 2002, unknown assailants shot to death 2 American teachers at a school serving mine employees (Bret Wallach). Rich deposits of copper & gold deep in mountains. Coal, nickel, silver. Coastal areas: oil. Jayapura, Irian Jaya’s largest city.]

Other Islands: pulau: Mentawai, Nias, Pasumpahan, Siberut, Simeulue, Talaud, Natuna, Anambas, Batam, Bintan, Karimun, Adonara, Alor, Buaya, Kepa, Pantar, Pura, Tereweng, Palu’e, Rote, Solor, Bacan, Kepulauan, Barat Daya, Damar, Romang, Wetar, Morotai, Haruku, Kai, Leti, Machian, Saparua, Seram, Kepulauan Tanimbar, Larat, Selaru, Wuliaru, Yamdena

Iran: Noble [Farsistan / Persia: Greek]
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran: Islamic Republic of Iran
Gelkujî [Mass Graves]
Arian: Silver Archaic name of Iran [Khorassan, Persia] & Its Great Goddess, sometimes rendered Mariana.
3000 BC: Elamite
15th cen BC: Mitanni State
1000 BC-550 BC: Media
550 BC-341 BC: Persia (Cyrus the Great)
341 BC: Rome
155 BC- 225 AD: Parthian Empire
224 AD - 641AD: Sassanid Empire
641-661 AD: Caliphs Uthman (assasinated) & Ali (assasinated)
661 AD-750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750AD-1031 AD: Abbasid Caliphate: Medieval historian Hamzeh Isfahani (893-961 AD) writes in Al-Tanbih ‘ala Hoduth alTashi that 5 tongues or dialects common in Sassanian Iran: Fahlavi (related to Fahleh: spoken by Kings to assemblies), Dari (Court Speech), Farsi (Persian), Khuzi (Khuzistan) & Soryani.
1050-1220 AD: Seljuk Turk
1220-1501 AD: Mongol
1501-1722 AD: Savafid Dynasty: Caliphate: Shah Ismail I
1730-1747: Nadir Shah of Turkey (assasinated).
1747 AD: NW Iran Sufi vs Ottomans
1750-1779 AD: Karim Khan, a Kurd of the Zand tribe
1794-1921 AD: Qajar Turkoman Dynasty
1828: Treaty of Turkomanchai: Iran cedes Russia land north of the Aras River.
1856-1857: Iran vs England. Iran gives up all territorial claims to Afghanistan.
1900: Shah Mozaffar al-Din Shah: Anglo-Persian Oil Company
1921: Calvary Officer Reza Khan overthrows Qajar government & is Shah Reza Pahlavi
1930: Persia re-named Iran.
1941: Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (son)
1951: Majlis demand end to English control of the oil industry. English boycott Iranian oil.
1960: White Revolution: Suspension of civil rights. SAVAK is Secret Police.
1979: Iranian Revolution: Shah deposed, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
1980-1989: Iran-Iraq War
1989: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
1995: U.S. trade embargo
2007: President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Robin Wright of The Washington Post: Students who set pictures of the president on fire last year have been jailed in Evin prison.
(pron ih-RAHN) Divided into 24 ostans: provinces. Each ostan has a governor & a council. Revolutionary Tribunals hear suits concerning offenses said to be against the Islamic Revolution. Iran’s military forces are: Army, Navy, Air Force, Revolutionary Guards, Basij: Militia & police force. The militia is used mainly to put down violent challenges to the government. (World Book)
A Revolutionary Council appointed by Khomeini carried out the new government’s policies. 100s of officials of the shah’s government were tried in revolutionary courts & put to death by firing squads. The government shut down the press, banned political parties, closed universities, & placed restrictions over the people’s personal freedoms. Balkh[Dari dialect]Baku [WWI: Persian Gulf: Iran became a battleground during World War I, even though it remained neutral. Russian troops, defending the oil fields at Baku on the Caspian Sea, fought the Turks in NW Iran]

Ctesiphon [Dari dialect]Fars / Farsistan [Iranian city. Dialect is Fars. Spoken by Zorastrian clergy]

Hamadan Media [A.k.a Ecbatana the capital of Media. Cyaxares reigned from 625 to 585 B.C & built an empire that included parts of what are now Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, & Turkey. 893-961 AD: Fahlavi Dialect: This name is used to designate 5 cities of Iran, Esfahan, Rey, Hamadan, Man Nahavand, & Azerbaijan]

Khuzistan [WWI: The British army defended Khuzistan oil fields against attack by Iran’s Qashqai people led by German agents. Khuzi the royal dialect for cities in the province. Borders Turkey & Azerbaijan.]

Iranian Kurdistan / Trans-Iranian Railway [Iran declared its neutrality after World War II began in 1939. The Allies wanted to use the Trans-Iranian Railway to ship war supplies from England to the Soviet Union & British & Soviet troops invaded Iran in 1941. The new shah signed a treaty that allowed them to use the railway & keep troops in Iran until the end of the war.], Seersucker: Persian for milk & sugar; taffeta: Persian for spun, damask: Damascus. World Book Encyclopedia claims only 1/4 of the land farmable because of a severe water shortage. Food must be imported. Crops include: wheat, barley, corn, cotton, dates, lentils, nuts, spices, rice, sugar beets, tea, tobacco. Caspian Sea provides caviar, carp, catfish, whitefish, white salmon. Persian Gulf: sardines, shrimp, sole, tuna.

Sistan / Sakestan: Land of Wanderers Province: Iranian Revolution: The devastating war with Iraq in the 1980s, in which each side lost between a half-million & a million young men.

Iraq [Basra / British Mandate of Iraq / Kurdistan]
Gelkujî [Mass Graves]
3000 BC-2200 BC: Sumeria: Elamites
2200 BC-721 BC: Babylonia
1792-1750 BC: Hummurabi: 6th King: Builds Babylon’s ziggurat
721-710 BC: Merodach-Baladan II of Chaldea: (pron. kal DEE uh: SE Iraq) rebels against Assyria
721BC-626BC: Assyria
626 BC- 605BC: New Babylonia: Chaldean Empire of Nabopolassar
605BC-562BC: Chaldean Empire: Nebuchadnezzar II

597 BC: Captivity of the Hebrews
556-539 BC: Nabondius, Last King of Babylon-Chaldea
539 BC-341 BC: Persia: Cyrus the Great
341 BC: Rome
155 BC- 225AD: Parthian Empire
224 AD- 641AD: Sassanid Empire
634-661 AD: Caliphs Uthman & Ali
661-750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750-1031 AD: Abbasid Caliphate’s capital at Baghdad: Place of Solar Rays
1258 AD: Mongols
1510: Ottoman Empire
1880-1918: Kuwait included in a province of the Ottoman Empire called Basra. Basra later becomes part of Iraq
1918: Made a seperate nation in 1918 under British Occupation. Before that it was ruled by the Ottoman Empire for 4 centuries.
1920: Battle of Megiddo: England seizes Palestine, Baghdad, & Egypt: Iraquis revolt.
1921: King Faisal
1932: Independence.
1958: King Faisal II (assasinated) & Prime Minister (assasinated). Leadership: Brigadier General Abdul Karim Kassim
1961-1970: Kurdish Revolt: Kurdish leaders ask ruler General Abdul Karim Kassem for autonomy &. rejected.
1970: Republic: 18 provinces
1974: 3 Kurdish provinces: The Kurdish Autonomous Region.
1980-1988: Iran-Iraq War
1990-1994: Persian Gulf War: Iraq invades Kuwait
1992: Kurdish Uprising: Autonomy suspended: Kurdish elections with UN protection. Iraqi air attacks on S. Iraq. Swampland drained, rice planters deprived of food. Thousands flee to Iran.
1996: Oil For Food [Texas oil executive David Chalmers, 53, sole shareholder of Bayoil USA in Houston, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit wire fraud in a scheme to cheat the United Nations oil-for-food program out of millions]. Iraqi government sends troops & tanks to Kurdistan. United States launches missiles.
1998: United States & English air strikes
1999: Iraq not fulfilling terms of UN cease-fire agreement.
2001: Gulf War: Armor Holdings Inc supplies equipment to the Marine Corps & Army. DHB Industries bullet-proof vests
2003: Saddam’s sons executed (127) UN Oil For Food Director Benon Sevan suspended. Kojo Annan, Kofi Annan’s son alleged to have illegally procured Oil-for-Food contracts on behalf of Swiss company Cotecna. India’s foreign minister, K. Natwar Singh removed from office
2006: Rizkar Mohammed Amin resigns as chief judge over the tribunal of Saddam Hussein. Hussein is executed by hanging December 30. The hanging is broadcast around the world but not in the USA. (126)
2007: Hamad Sarha, 30-year veteran of the Iraqi national news agency shot to death by unidentified gunman.
2008: Wide Angle reports 2 million Iraqis left for Syria since 2003 & another 2 million to Jordan. President George Bush shoed.
2010: USA Senator Carl Levin, D-Michigan, Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, releases a chart identifying 31 affiliates of Blackwater Worldwide, now known as Xe Services. According to The New York Times a US government official [not named] claims the intelligence agency awarded up to 0 million in classified contracts to Blackwater & its affiliates XPG, Paravant [In a Senate hearing earlier this year, Army officials said that when they awarded the contract to Paravant for training of the Afghan army, they had no idea that the business was part of Blackwater] & Greystone [Founder Erik Prince incorporated the firm in Barbados for tax purposes & had executives working at Blackwater’s headquarters in North Carolina. Prince accused by The Times of being eager to find ways to continue to handle secret work after the 2007 shootings in Baghdad’s Nisour Square & set up a special office to handle classified work at his farm in Middleburg, VA. ,,,Current & former U.S officials said that the asssasination program did not carry out any operations.] since 2001. 0 million contract to provide security to agency bases in Afghanistan according to CIA spokesman Paul Gimigliano. (257: 7)

Their fellow Kurds in Turkey have been trying to secede from that country and join an independent Kurdistan, but their leader, Abdullah Ocalan, is in solitary confinement in a Turkish prison, where he is serving a life sentence commuted from the death penalty (91)

(pron. ih-RAHK) Iraq has 18 provinces.
Kurdistan Province: Land of the Kurds [Land of Shinar] [Major Kurdish cities are Arbil, Kirkuk, & As Sulaymaniyah in Iraq]
As Sulaymaniyah: Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel territory in northern Iraq, damaging a school & wounding 3 people according to Ahmed Deniz, a spokesman for the Kurdistan Worker’s Party or PKKK (99:13).

Abu Graib Prison [2004: Lynndie England wins dirtbag of the week for Iraqi prisoner abuse on Saturday Night Live], Camp Cropper Detention Facility [2007: Inmate dead of renal failure according to the Los Angeles Times], Al Basra Port [656 AD: Aisha. 1988: Damaged during Iran-Iraq War. 2006: Gunmen kill a cleric & his son leaving friday prayer services], Al Kufa [S.], Amarah [2008: Government security forces arrest 20 policemen & the city’s mayor Rafia Abdul-Jabbar (99:7)], Arbil [Kurdish town bombed in 1987], Babylon: Bab-Ili: Gate of God [Babil, Iraq: Nebuchadnezzar II’s legendary Hanging Gardens & Ziggurat Tower of Babel], Baquouba [bombs]
Diayala Province[NE of Baghdad. Mass grave]
Baghdad Airport [2005: US Army’s 717 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Company bomb chasers. Death X is the intersection of 2 highways home to IED: Improvised Explosive Devices: home-made rather than mass-produced bombs. i.e: artillery shells wired to radios & cordless telephones, dynamite attached to washing machine timers, remote-controlled toys, infa-red car door openers attached to molotov cocktails. Radio frequency jammers for defusement. 20 man company the 717th replaced saw 2 soldiers killed & 4 wounded in 6 months. Rumor of a ,000 price per Army man. The IED garden is a morbidly whimsical collection of things that have tried to kill them. EFP: Explosively Formed Projectiles detonate & melt into a fragment that slices through armor & flesh. Analysts estimate that improvised bombs have caused more than half of the roughly 16,000 American casualties & thousands more among Iraqui civilians since the war began. (135) WWII shell-shock: brain injury & mental health problems coming from people nearby detonated bombs]
Shula District [2007: Muqutada al-Sadir’s Al Mahdi Army accused by US Military Officials of directing death squads according to LA Times. US Troops invade pre-dawn & kill 18 after a patrol attack]
Baghdad: Place of Solar Rays[Capital on both banks of the Tigris River, 335 miles NW of the Persian Gulf. City 254 square miles on a fertile plain that is Iraq's agricultural heartland. Karkh: west bank of the Tigris, Rusafah: east bank. Kadhamain: Muslim holy city. 1000s of the poorest people live in public housing projects on the outskirts of the city. 1991: Heavy bombing by Allied Forces. The bombing destroyed much of the city’s power & water supply & crippled its transportation & communication systems . 2006: Unit 118 1at Infantry Division, Gunner PFC James Burmeister claims small kill teams baited Iraqi civilians into approaching fake U.S. military devices like cameras, luring them in to be shot by snipers. His deposition These citizens were almost always unarmed. In some cases the Iraqi victims looked to me like they were children, perhaps teenagers. He fled to Canada from a German hospital when ordered back to Iraq after a brain injury from a roadside bomb. He was deported after pleeing for asylum & faces court martial. (131)]
Central Baghdad Morgue [Saturated daily bombings in the city. US soldiers shooting civilians, looting, robbery, rape. Bernard Kerik, NY police commissioner, Commander of the police force according to AP Niko Price]
Duluiyah [AP May 13th, 2006: Tarke El-Tablawy: roadside bomb strikes Iraqi army convoy], Fallulah [Ban on coverage of war dead upheld by Pauline Jelinek: Associated Press, Washington. June 22, 2004: The Senate refused on Monday to change a Pentagon policy banning media coverage of America’s war dead as their remains arrive in flag-draped caskets. ...Banning press & public access to the arrival of caskets in Dover was started in the 1991 Persian Gulf War], Kirkush [Kurdish town. 1987: Kurds destroyed by poison gas. 4th infantry division. AP press places US death toll at 257], Najaf [The body of Iraqi army soldier Ahmed Mohan lies in a coffin as his sons, Haider & Mohdaffer, & his mother mourn in the holy city of Najaf, 100 miles S. of Baghdad (99:9)], Samarra [Combat], Tarmiya [2007: Multinational forces kill 7]

Khvarvaran Province [Ctesiphon Palace: Seiged by the Romans 3 times during the Parthian Empire. Then Sassanid Empire.]

Nineveh-Ninawa Province: Nineveh: Exceeding Great City-Mosul [1800BC-612BC: Muslin fabric comes from Mosul. Ancient Assyrian city razed to the ground. Many unburied skeletons at archeological site. Mosul is established across the river Tigris. 1800: French Consol at Mosul begins excavation at Khorsabad Mound: Royal Palace of Sargon II. 1849: Sir Austen Henry Layard: Kuyunjik Mound: Sennacherib Palace. Exhumed for European museums. 1900: British Museum excavates the Temple of Nabu: God of Writing. 1920: Turkish Republic claims province. Mosul bombed by British Royal Air Force 1926: League of Nations gives province to Iraq. 1927: British Mueum’s Campbell Thompson excavates, 1954: Iraqi excavation, 1990: Looting]

Qadisiya Province [Kim Gamel Article: 2 US Helicopters collided while landing at a base in Baghdad on Saturday killing 1 Iraqi soldier & wounding 4 people the military said. The 2 UH-60 Black Hawks crashed shortly before 9pm in a northern section of the capital known as Azamiyah the military said. Emergency services are on the scene Lt. Patrick Evans said....Poland’s mission in Iraq officially ended Saturday & its remaining 900 soldiers are expected to be home by the end of October according to Polish military officials. Polish troops operated out of Camp Echo in the S. Iraqi province of Qadisiya. The farewell ceremony was attended by General Ray Odierno, the top commander of U.S. forces in Iraq & General Babaker Shawkat Zebari]

1991: ’Coalition bombing severely damaged Iraq’s transportation systems, communication systems, petroleum & other industries. Coalition attacks also wiped out much of Iraq’s ability to provide electric power & clean water. As a result, many civilians died after the war from disease or a lack of medicine or food. After the war, Saddam Hussein continued to rule Iraq. But revolts broke out among Kurds in northern Iraq &, in S. Iraq, among Arabs of the Shiah sect of the Muslim religion. ...Iraq’s army swiftly put down most of the rebellions. 100s of thousands of Shiite Arabs then fled to Iran. Thousands of others hid in the marshlands of S. Iraq. More than a million Kurds fled to the mountains of northern Iraq & to Turkey & Iran. Tens of thousands of Kurds & Shiites were killed in the revolts or died later of disease, exposure, or hunger ’ – David A Deese PhD, Boston College, World Book Encyclopedia © 1998. 2005: C company. ]

Ireland: Snowdrop Land [Eire: Snowdrop Land]
Thie Obbyr [Place of Death: Work House]
Ruillick ny Moght [Mass Graves]

Claremorris Bacon Company / Imperial Tobacco / Royal Canal / Tara Mines / Courtown Brick & Tile Works

Eire (pron. AYR'EH)

Corporation of Cork / Cork, Bandon & Macroom Railway Co. / Benduff & Froe Slate Co. / Roche, Messrs. George, Walsh, Thomas & Coates, A / Powder Mills Co. / Irish Land Co / Messrs. Beamish & Crawford / Bank of Ireland

Cobh Corcaigh (pron. Cove Cork). cove means harbor in Gaelic-Breton-Cornish-Welsh & cork: red oats.
Brett & Sons built the Bank of Ireland in the town of Millstreet, Cork in 1878. Lord Stuart de Decies

Iridaceae: Iris Family: The name iris comes from the Greek word for rainbow. Iris rhizomes contain poison: bloom April-July. Clovis I’s Fleur-de-lis: French for flower of the lily; a design that represents the white iris. An emblem on the scepter of Egyptian rulers in 1500 BC & carved on the Sphinx. – Jerry M. Baskin, Ph.D., Professor of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky.

Sleabaght [Slave Ships]
Martin & Sons: Perseverance
Patrick Lynch: Love of My Heart
Francis Cherry Sikes: Triumph

Blue-coat-Hospital [1670: Installed by Charles II with the Arch-bishop of Dublin. Child slavery. Lord Lansdowne, British magistrate Francis Spaight, Sir John Benn-Walsh, Lady Carbery], (Harris)

Cillin: Killeen [Little Crosses] Child Mass Graves: Ardnamona [Board of Education evicted & starved people], Castle Fleming [17 yd plot has head-stones, marking the graves of unbaptized children]
Galway Workhouse [1839-1921: 1000+ inmates. Newcastle Rd behind University College. Cillin-Killeen: Little Crosses infant’s graveyard on site]
Ballykilcline [Co. Galway. Population of 8000 evicted & starved. mass graves] (Earthwatch 75: 15)
Kilchreest [Co. Galway. Slieve Echtge / Abhainn Da Loilgheach: ruins of entire villages] (Kilchreest 196)
Turoe [Co. Galway. Clery ’s Hill: human bones on edge of upper western rim. Fields of Athenry], Fearta [Ancient cemetery. mounds desecrated by Victorians] (Finnerty 195)
Feenagh: Wood Place, Co. Cork [Cluain Coirbthe: Meadow of the violation, Cluain Páistín: Meadow of the little children]
St Joseph’s Industrial School [Tralee: Christian Brothers]

Magdalen Asylums: Magh: fertile plain + Len: veiled covering

Les Soeurs de Misericorde a.k.a The Sisters of Mercy
(pron. MAWD-LIHN). Named for Mary Magdalene, the prostitute, founded in 1272 A.D by Bernard of Marseille for reformed prostitutes. Penitent branch founded in Barcelona, Catalon in 1218 by Saint Peter Nolasco.

Within the communal organizations of towns, local charitable institutions such as almshouses were established by confraternities or guilds, or by successful individual laymen concerned with the welfare of their souls, but often only local historians are aware of them.
Accounts of the roots of Los Penitentes date back at least a 1000 years to the flagellant orders in Spain & Italy. ... These men whip themselves with a short whip: disciplina during Holy Week, carry heavy crosses: maderos, & tie their limbs to crosses to hinder the circulation of blood on Good Friday. A wooden wagon, el carro de la muerte: the cart of death, bore a figure representing death & pointing forward an arrow with stretched bow. This procession went through the streets to the church, where the Penitentes prayed, continued their scourgings, returned in procession to the house: morada.

...Children who misbehaved were told to mend their ways or they’d be sent to the laundries with the sisters.

In receiving patients no discrimination is made in regard to religion, colour, or nationality. After their convalescence, those who desire to remain in the home are placed under a special sister & are known as Daughters of St. Margaret. They follow a certain rule of life but contract no religious obligations. Should they desire to remain in the convent, after a period of probation, they are allowed to become Magdalens & eventually take the vows of the Magdalen order. – Catholic Encyclopedia: Congregation of the Sisters of Misericordiae
Magdalens also known as Penitents or Maggies forced to work in laundries with punishment beatings for trying to escape. Inmates required until the 1970s to address all staff as mother & called children. Admitted to institutions at the request of family members, abusive husbands or priests. Without a family member on the outside who would vouch for them, some penitents would stay in the asylums for the rest of their lives, many of them taking religious vowsWikipedia: Frances Finnegan.

A sullen temper, often shown by refusing food, is best dealt with by silence. When a girl wakes up to the fact that no one takes any notice, nor is troubled by her self-starvation, she gets weary of her self-imposed martyrdom & learns sense. – Arthur J. S. Maddison, Hints on Rescue Work, A Handbook for Missionaries & Superintendants of Homes ©1898

By the early 20th century, the role had been expanded to care for unwed mothers & other young women the church considered to be wayward. The stigma attached to illegitimacy & promiscuity was so severe that the woman was often thrown out of her home, driven from her community, disowned by her family. And for many, the laundries were the only things that stood between them & the street. Although few visual records could be found, some of the massive compounds are still standing. ..When the last laundries finally closed, most of the Magdalenes had nowhere to go. Many of them now reside in group homes & convents around the country. For example, a convent in Dublin still holds some women now being cared for by the same nuns who once confined them. The association that represents the nuns, or the Conference of Religious of Ireland, declined an interview. It provided CBS a statement saying, the Sisters accept the part they played in this regrettable era & asked that it be examined in context. The statement also admits that many former Magdalenes had painful memories & welcomed the opportunity for them to speak with us. But when the CBS reporter knocked on the door, he was told, There's no one to speak. – Violet Feng: The Magdalene Laundry: A Life of Servitude Behind Convent Walls

Vincent Browne, founder of Magill magazine, believes what happened have a lot to do with people’s attitudes on sex & women. “That part of the veneration of the Blessed Virgin has been to accord a status to virginity. To some extent, women who had had sex, within or without marriage, were regarded as unclean &- and as less than perfect.&#8221 Browne said the nuns believed that through suffering & hard work in the laundries for the greater glory of God, they might find salvation in heaven. “And I suppose a lot of conscientious Catholics were going to be preserved for the hereafter, even though their lives on Earth was going to be harsh & difficult,&#8221 he added. – CBS News Sunday Morning

People in the News: Bono becomes a knight in less-than-somber manner: Associated Press, March 31st 2007
Irish rock star & global humanitarian Bono became a knight of the British empire Thursday – and joked that his youngest son thought he was about to become a Jedi instead. Bono, 46, was named a Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in an informal, laugh-filled ceremony in the Dublin home of British Ambassador David Reddaway.
 “You have permission to call me anything you want – except sir, all right? Lord of lords, your demigodness, that’ll do,&#8221 he told reporters afterward.
 Because he is an Irish citizen, Bono won’t have the title of Sir before his name. That honor is reserved for citizens of the United Kingdom or British Commonwealth countries. Ireland left the Commonwealth when it became a republic in 1949.

Souperism: Phenonmenon of the 1840s Irish Potato Famine. Non-Roman Catholic Bible societies set up schools in which starving children were fed, & subjected to religious instruction at the same time. People who converted for food known as soupers, a derogatory epithet featured in the press well into the 1870s. In the words of their peers: they took the soup. In order to avoid its stigma, many charities decided to only serve those whose religious persuasions matched their own. – Wikipedia

Bóthairín na déirce [Famine roads]
(pron: baw-thur-een naw airy)
Munster Province: Munster Bank / Mining Company of Ireland
Waterford Corporation / Waterford & Limerick Railway

[Limerick Union Workhouse]Limerick Union Workhouse
©2000 Peter Higginbotham
The Relief Commission
established by the Government in November 1845. The list of local subscribers to the relief funds was required to be published. Local relief committees could purchase imported American corn & sell it at cost price. The committees were not supposed to distribute free food except to those unfit for work who could not gain entry to the Workhouse. A whole family had to enter the workhouse to qualify for relief. – Waterford County Museum

'Fever, dysentery & diarrhoea are greatly on the increase, beginning with vomiting, pains, headache very intense; coming to a cnsis in about 7 days, relapsing again once or twice, from which death occurred through mere debility or diarrhoea, caused & kept up by bad food, principally Indian meal, supplied to them in small quanitities, & which they invariably swallow after only a few minutes boiling & sometimes cold & raw'. – Dr Daly (Mayo 201)

Captain Wynne, the District Inspector for Clare, Christmas Eve, 1846: There is no doubt that the Famine advances upon us with giant strides. The effects of the Famine are discernible everywhere; not a domestic animal to be seen. It is an alarming fact that, this day, in the town of Ennis, there was not a stone of breadstuff of any description to be had on any terms, nor a loaf of bread ...I ventured through the parishes to ascertain the condition of the inhabitants. Although a man not easily moved, I confess myself unmanned by the extent & intensity of suffering I witnessed, more especially the women & little children, crowds of whom were to be seen scattered over the turnip fields, like a flock of famished crows, devouring the raw turnips, mothers half naked, shivering in the snow & sleet, uttering exclamations of despair whilst their children were screaming with hunger. I am a match for anything else I may meet here but this I cannot stand. I have traversed a considerable extent of my district this week & I find distress everywhere on the increase. Without food we cannot last many days longer; the Public Works must fail in keeping the population alive. The workhouse is full, & police are stationed at the doors to keep the numerous applicants out; therefore no relief can be expected from that quarter.

Leinster Province Slaughter [Mass Killing]
Dublin Corporation / Dublin Barber’s & Surgeons Corp

This is the corporation that builds Public Housing Projects in Ireland. In Ireland they are called the Local Authority Accomodation.

Robert Rochfort Esq Exchequer
Rev Dr Stearne
Dr. William Griffith
Thomas Proby
Henry Aston

1703 an Act of the Irish Parliament provided for the setting up of a House of Industry in Dublin. A workhouse was subsequently erected on land at the SW. of James’s Street & was administered by a body called The Governor & Guardians of the Poor whose members included the Lord Lieutenant, Lord Mayor, Lord Chancellor, Protestant Archbishop of Dublin, sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, & members of the Corporation. This body, which met monthly, had powers to place people in the workhouse, & to discipline those already there if they disobeyed workhouse regulations. Punishments could include flogging, imprisonment or deportation. – Dublin South Poorlaw Union (71)

Province Munster: County Clare [Clear Water]: Ballyvaughn Workhouse [1852: Holds 500. Now a sports playing field with no markers or sites (75:12: Irish Hunger)], Corofin Workhouse [1848-1901: Mortuary, fever hospital], Ennis Workhouse [1846], Ennistymon Workhouse [1839-1929: 600 inmate plan by West Clare Railway], Kildysart-Kildysert Workhouse [1848-1922: 500], Kilrush Workhouse [1838 Terminal of the West Clare Railway. Fever Hospital, Female Lunatic Ward operational through 1921], Scariff-Scariffe-Drewsborough [1633: Near Loch Derg. Owned by Sir Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork. 1847: 4-12 die every single day from plague fever. Their bodies are rolled out of the workhouse in carts. Bradys & Drews sell their land holdings in 1852], Tulla [1850-1921: 500 inmates], Killaloe [The only church official who was willing to discuss the laundries was Willie Walsh, Bishop of Killaloe. He said, I think we ought never to be afraid of truth. I think truth is a fundamental Gospel value. Said Bishop Walsh. “I would see an obligation in us to make some effort to make our reparation for the wrongs that were done to these girls. It&#8221s not just a matter for the nuns, or for the religious orders. I think it’s a matter for all of us in society.&#8221 (CBS News: 203)]
Province Munster, County Cork [Red Oats]: Achill Island [Kildavnet Church Graveyard-Gráinne Mhaol tower], Ballyvourney [Sir George Colthurst’s estate updated 1846-1849 with forced labor], Bantry Workhouse [Lord Bantry starved them to death with 1 meal per day Feb 1847 & by May were fed nothing 100s buried in pits in Ardnavraher Abbey. corpse loads strictly adhered to, with some being buried alive (Fewer 202)], Bandon Workhouse [Rt. Rev. Dr. Delany & Nuns of Bandon Convent], Castletown Berehaven-Castletownbere Workhouse [1848: At foot of the Ceachah: Caha Mountains Slieve na Ghoile: Hill of the Mist, Cnoc Baoi, Maulin, Knockowen: Sun Hill, Com na Daibhche: Coomadiha. Mass grave at Cnoc Daod: Hungry Hill, the highest of the Caha Mountains at Beara Penninsula, Bantry Bay. Visitors will die of starvation if they step on the gorta mór: hungry grass], Clonakilty Workhouse, Cork Workhouse [1735: Slip bottom coffin; a re-usable box to transport the dead to the graveyard where the body was dropped into the grave by sliding open the coffin’s base (Fewer 202) Landowner Carr’s Hill Cemetery, Carrigaline Rd: 5,000+ Curraghkippane, St. Joseph's Cemetery, Douglas Street Cemetery (behind Loafer's Pub)], Good Shepherd Convent-University College Cork [ -1994: Magdalene washhouse & mass grave called Sunday’s Well: “From the front, the former Good Shepherd Convent in Cork looks like an exclusive private school, with a hidden history too heavy to tell.’ No one knows how many women were sent off to the laundries. The religious orders refuse to make those records available, but estimates range into the 10s of 1000s. Locked behind 20-foot brick walls, topped with shards of broken glass mortared into the concrete. Inmates watched 24 hours a day. In some cases, inquiring family members were told the church had found their missing relatives in other cities, & with new names, they could be difficult to locate. Mary Norris released when an aunt in Boston began making inquiries. Josephine McCarthy rescued by a brother in London. (CBS News: 203)], Dunmanway Workhouse-Saint Andrew’s Hospital [1840-1902: 400+ inmates. Starved to death on brown bread, gruel. Bodies left to rot], Fermoy Workhouse [British Army Barracks], Kanturk: Ceann Toirc: Boar’s Head [1839: Workhouse on Peacock Ln], Kinsale Union Workhouse [1840: Mortuary, Burial Ground. Desmond Castle & Jail accomodates further inmates] (71), Mallow: Magh Ealla: Plain of the Swans [1839: Between Cork & Limerick. Burial Ground. Great Southern & Western line from Dublin to Cork built through almost the entire length of Mallow union during the famine], Macroom Union Workhouse [1841: Burial well, mortuary hospital. Earl Grey Famine Orphans sent out to Australia in 1850. Famine Graveyard at Clondrohid (off Macroom-Millstreet Rd), Father Peadar Ó Laoghaire, Mo Scéal Féin: My Own Story 1915: “The Famine came & Síle Ó Buachalla & her father & her mother & little Diarmaidín had to go down to Macroom & go into the poorhouse. As soon as they were inside they were all separated from each other. ..Carraig an Staighre. They came to where the huge trench was. They knew that the 2 children were down there in the trench, along with hundreds of other bodies. They stood by the trench & wept their fill. The cabin where they had lived before they went into the poorhouse was up in Doire Liath.], Mahoonagh Castle [1862: Lords Fitzgibbon, Fitzgerald, Fitzelle & Fitzmaurice. Queen Elizabeth massacred the Irish & dumped their bodies in the castle. Now Castle Mahon Foods/O’Kane Poultry] (Dúchas 204), Monkstown [1837: Lords Longford & De Vesci establish an Indigent Room Keeper’s Society (Lewis)], Midletown [Between Cork City & Waterford. Lord Midleton’s woolen mills turned into a distillery by Messrs. Murphy & Co. Lord Midleton finances 800+ inmate plan, fever hospital, crematorium. 1841: Parish census 6,636: 4,591 living in the town. Messrs. Coppinger Brothers: Mr. Allen’s flour mills, site of the Royal Agricultural Society, export 3,000 lbs of flour annually. Ballinacurra is the shipping port for the town], Mitchelstown Union Workhouse [1851-1922: Clogheen Rd. Childrens’ ward, exercise yard, straw mattresses], Schull [1847: Shallow burials without coffins. Dead corpses dumped on the road & in evicted houses. starving fed to the dogs] (Fewer 202), Queenstown Workhouse [Formerly Kingstown. It is the Cobh of Cork. Famine Ship port], Skibberdeen Union Workhouse [1842-1851: 3,909+ killed. local cattle & poultry infected. Abbeystrewry Cemetery on Baltimore Road. Justice of the peace N.M. Cummings from Cork: “I was surprised to find the wretched hamlet apparently deserted. I entered some of the hovels to ascertain the cause, & the scenes which presented themselves were such as no tongue or pen can convey the slightest idea of. In the first, 6 famished & ghastly skeletons, to all appearances dead, were huddled in a corner on some filthy straw, their sole covering what seemed a ragged horse cloth, their wretched legs hanging about, naked above the knees. I approached with horror, & found by a low moaning they were alive—they were in fever, 4 children, a woman & what had once been a man. I was surrounded by at least 200 such phantoms, such frightful spectres as no words can describe, either from famine or from fever. Their demoniac yells are still ringing in my ears, & their horrible images are fixed upon my brain.&#8221 (Green Dragon)], Eochaille-Youghal: Yew Salmon [pron. yawl. Diocese of Cloyne, Avondhu: Blackwater River, Dingle Penninsula, Co. Cork. 1585: Mayor Sir Walter Raleigh resides in Myrtle Grove, Warden’s Residence of the Collegiate Church. 1st potatoes in Europe planted in gardens of Myrtle Grove. Myrtle Grove’s S. Gable is where Edmund Spencer is reputed to have written The Faerie Queen. 1663: Cromwell’s Arch. 1839: Youghal Union Workhouse: Slip bottom coffin disposes bodies. Anglican Church famine burials are pauper graves in the wall behind the church. Sir Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, shown with 1st wife & 2nd wife, Katherine Fenton. Sir Edward Villiers, Lord President of Munster & half brother Duke of Buckingham]
Province Munster: County Kerry [Yew Berry]: Cahirciveen Union Workhouse [1840: McCarthy family’s Bahaghs lodge Sanctuary to the Destitute. Sugrena churchyard mass unmarked grave. 1921: Remaining inmates transferred by cart to Killarney], Dingle Workhouse [Dec 1847: The Dingle Guardians on the Board of the Tralee Poor Law Union petitioned for a temporary workhouse to be set in Dingle. This was to be for the reception of the poor now reduced to such a state of hunger & weakness as to render them perfectly unable to travel to Tralee. Lord Ventry ousted as Chairman of the Board of Guardians. Infirmary & mortuary to the north. Graveyard on the hillside. Run by St. John’s Convent of Mercy (71)], Kenmare Union Workhouse [1841], Kerry Magdalen Laundry, Killarney Union Workhouse [1831: Bodies dumped in unmarked graves], Listowel Union Workhouse [1845: on Quill Street. 700 inmates], Tralee Workhouse [Operational through 1917. Mass graves at God’s Acre]
Province Munster: County Limerick / Luimneach [Bare Marsh]: Limerick Union Workhouse [1774-1839: Holds 1,600. Infirmary, sick-rooms, idiot wards, death sheds added 1846. 1st workhouse to hire the Sisters of Mercy as matrons. Operational through 1925. Mass grave of 3,571 incinerated by British Home Office in 1975] (71), Limerick Prison [Walled city established by Thormodr Helgason on Ptolomy’s Regia Island: Inis Sibhtonn (island in the River Shannon). 1651: Famine, plague, Cromwell. 1919: Special Military Area under the Defence of the Realm Act. 1921: Curfew Murders: Limerick’s Mayor, George Clancy &wife & previous Mayor Michael O’Callaghan assasinated], St. Joseph’s Convent Good Shepherd Laundry, Psychiatric Hospital & Orphanage [1826-1997: Clare St, Limerick. Mt Saint Lawrence cemetary. Now Limerick College of Art], Mt St Vincent Convent [-1962. O’Connell Avenue, Limerick. Punishment beatings], Croom-Cromadh Workhouse-St Nessan’s Mid-Western General Orthopaedic Hospital [1850-1941], Glin Union Workhouse [1850-1960s], Knockalisheen Refugee Camp [WWII: England’s Emergency Powers Act. 30,000+ defense forces. 1956: 500+ Hungarian refugees], Newcastle Union Workhouse [1839: Run by the Sisters of Mercy. Watchtowers. Now St Ita’s Hospital], Rathkeale Union Workhouse [1839]]
Province Munster: County Tipperary: Ballina [Workhouse], Borriskane-Borrisokane Workhouse Community College [1850: Designed by George Wilkson to hold 600 inmates. 1901 Census: 8,532 with 100 in workhouse], Cahir, Carrick-On-Suir [20% inmates killed in 10 years. Carrick-on-Suir Union included part of County Waterford (Desperate Haven)], Cashel: Shoe [Seat of the kings of Munster. 1839: Inmates starved to death on cornmeal, feverward. Now Saint Patrick’s Geriatric Hospital], Clonmel Union Workhouse [1772: House of Industry. 1842: Edward O’Riordan forced to resign after an unmarried inmate mother of a newborn male child revealed O’Riordan the father. 1850-1924: Sisters of Mercy, now Saint Josephs County Medical & Maternity Hospital (Ballinagree: 75:3)], Nenaugh-Nenagh Union Workhouse [1841: fever hospital], Roscrea Union Workhouse [1831: Children’s schoolrooms on side], Templemore, St. Mary’s Famine Church of Ireland Thurles / War Museum [Burial Place of Lady Elizabeth Matthew (-1673), Viscountess of Thurles, Projenitor to the present heir to the British Throne, mother of the Duke of Ormond. Museum esablished in 1995 displays a man trap used by land owners to prevent the starving from stealing from orchards or fields. Minutes of the Thurles / Rahealty Food Committee from 1846-1847 available for purchase. ( 75: 4)], Thurles Union Workhouse [1839: Thurles Union Workhouse on New Street/Racecourse Rd built for 700 inmates. Now the Hospital of the Assumption], Tipperary [Sean Ross Abbey: Tipperary],
Province Munster: County Waterford-Vaterfjord / Vedrafjord [Windy] / Maigh Adana [Water from Heaven]: Abbeyside Relief Committee [Chairman: Robert Longan. Secretary: Beresford Boate], Ardmore, Ring, Clashmore, Kinsalebeg & Villierstown District: Ardmore [1846: 706 familes on the roll (Green Dragon)], Kinsalebeg [Board of Guardians: Richard Power Ronayne], Villierstown [1846: 328 familes], Clashmore [3000 surviving on blackberries attack landlord Lord Stuart de Decies & magistrates leaving the courthouse on the 26 September 1846. The Cork Examiner. Black Hole, large ovens built in 1847 with liquidated assets from Munster Bank. forced labor until dead: spinning, cooking, weaving, stone-breaking, shoe-making by the Sisters of Mercy until early 1920s], Bonmahon & Kilmacthomas Relief Committee: Bonmahon Dispensary- Bunmahon–Macmahon [1846: Dr. George Walker notes starvation, fever (75)], Ballylaneen [1846: population of 3000 starving, work in the mines according to Bonmahon & Kilmacthomas Relief District Secretary James Power], Kilmacthomas [Tenants evicted & starved], Portnascully: Big School [Once a large parish. Chapel ruins with a Reilg: ancient graveyard. Tombstones in Irish], Dungarvan District: Dungarvan Workhouse [1846: 2/3 of population starved to death by Duke of Devonshire, Major Gordon of the 47th Regiment, Lord Waterford, Treasurer of the Dungarvan Relief Commitee: Andrew Carbery, Medical Officer Arthur Quin & Parish Priest Father Jeremiah Halley, Sir Nugent Humble, John Kiely of Stradbally, Robert Longan, Sir William Stanley & Richard Lalor Shiel. Their bodies are eaten by dogs. it is called extermination assistance. buried at Reilig na tSléibhe: The Mountain Graveyard & Cill Ruis 41/2 mile canal built by public works linking Dungarvan with the Avon Dhu: River Blackwater for £10,000. Shandon House is a Waterford cholera grave near Dungarvan (Gregory Fewer 53) 1873: Infirmary: Sisters of the Order of Mercy: Mary Jane Whelan, Mary Flanagan, & Bridget Morrissey from the Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin Medical Officer, Dr. King. 1881: Sisters Ellen O’ Connor, Matron Dora Whelan, Joanna Heffernan replaced the original Sisters, some of whom had died. Sr. Bridget Morrissey went to Northern Queensland, Australia in 1888. This practice of appointing a Mercy nun as Matron was continued up to very recently. By 1988, the nuns had given up the Matronship. Sr. Baptist was the last Mercy nun to act as Matron. (Desperate Haven 75:1)], Kilgobnet, Colligan & Seskinane Sub-Relief Committee Chairman: Kilgobnet Parish Priest Father Michael O’Connor [1846: 1,680 people], Lismore District: Lismore Workhouse [1744: In Líos Mor. Sir Richard Musgrave constructs mass grave with 40 bodies dumped per week: Cork Examiner: 3 May 1847. 700+ inmates per year with 2 mortuaries, 1 across the road from the railway station & the other next door to the childrens’ schoolroom. Duke of Devonshire employs inmates on drainage. (71)], Stradbally / Clonea Relief DistrictStradbally [1846: Pierce Marcus Barron notes great destitution of the 5,300 people living in the district composing of Stradbally, Clonea, Faha & Ballyvoille. Relief for 105], Waterford District: Waterford City Workhouse [Port of Waterford on the River Suir. 1785: 13% inmates killed in 10 years on gruel. fever hospital added 1799. cupping machine purchased to draw blood in 1848. Records of people admitted destroyed. 1838: Part of the Kilkenny Union (Rootsweb 53) Soup out of boiled bones, Open cesspit. People gassed, buried at St Otteran’s, Kilbarry Presentation Convent, Tallow Barracks & Malthouse.], Waterford Magdalene Convent Laundry [-1996: Register of Penitents: name changed, silence. “You were broken down & utterly at their mercy, They decided how long you would spend in the convent - a year or your life.” Sociologist Niall McElwee. “There would have been apple trees, for example. And this would be 1 place where children would not steal apples, mainly because they were afraid of what would happen to them if they got caught inside,&#8221. McElwee said in those days, “every effort was made to try & locate these girls.&#8221 Therefore, even if the confined girls wanted to escape, it would have been very difficult. (203: CBS)],3. Portlaw 3,6475. Tallow 2,9696. Carrickbeg 2,6807. Cappoquin 2,34110. Tramore 1,12014. Passage East 62415. Aglish 45816. Kill 33818. Ballyduff Upper 30219. Dunmore East 30220. Ringville 26421. Tallowbridge 25822. Annestown 14923. Rathcormack 13024. Cheekpoint 74 Estimated # of destitute households in County Waterford 50% as follows: Glenahiry 962 households; Gaultier 1,831; Middlethird 2,529; Decies within Drum 3,996; Upperthird 4,603; Coshmore & Coshbride 4,743 & Decies without Drum 6,378. (Desperate Haven)

Province Connacht [Clear Water]: County Galway: Ballinasloe Workhouse [1841: Fever hospital now a supermarket],Cairgean Castle [(Wilde 198) hosts the Gairdín an Ghorta: Garden of Hunger Memorial (Murphy 199) ], Gort (Green) Union Workhouse [1840-1921: Co. Galway. May 1849: goods & chattels of the workhouse sold by order of the High Sheriff of Galway, to help pay off debts accumulated by the union during the famine], Clifton Workhouse-Clifden-An Clochán [1840-1905: Galway Rd], Doolough [Population of 200 starved, The last time I visited Doolough, Co. Mayo, there was a celtic cross as a memorial to the famine victims drowned in the lough (76:12)], Galway Magdalene Laundries [2] (Ackstrom 200), Glenmaddy-Glenamadda Workhouse [1853: Run by the Bon Secours Sisters: Mortuary & Burial Ground], Letterfrack: St. Joseph’s Industrial school [Christian Brothers], Mountbellew Union Workhouse [1840], Oughterard Union Workhouse [1848: 600+ inmates, mostly children. Covering Cong], Portumna Union Workhouse [1840: Now County Council], Loughrea Union Workhouse [1840: Run by the Sisters of Mercy], Tuam Workhouse [1841]
Province Connacht: County Leitrim: Carrick-On-Shannon Workhouse [1840–1939: Quaker James Tuke reports in 1846: no sanitation, naked inmates sleeping on straw, starvation, typhus, dysentery deaths at the rate of 12 a week, graveyard. Famine pots from the soup kitchens on display], Manorhamilton Union Workhouse [1600: Town established. 1840-1954: 500+ plan], Mohill Workhouse [1840 at Railway Station 1/4 population dead or emigrated (71)]
Province Connacht: County Mayo: Maigh-Eo [Silver Plain] Ballina Workhouse [1838 Poor Law Act: Mayo divided into 5 areas or unions Ballina, Ballinrobe, Castlebar, Swinford & Westport. Each required to maintain a workhouse. Workhouse dead buried in mass graves. 1847: 1400+ died, including the medical officer. Leigue Cemetery: Killala Rd. By Lough Sheelin Side], Ballinrobe Union Workhouse [Mayo Constitution 23rd March 1847: this building is 1 horrible charnel house. Master, Matron, Clerk, Physician, Roman Catholic Workhouse Chaplain dead from fever / new rate cannot be collected. The last line: the unfortunate inmates, if they escape the awful epidemic, will survive only to be the subjects of a lingering death by starvation! Mass unmarked graves beyond boundary wall to SW], Ballycastle [1847: No blight, no crop either. Black 47 saw typhus called the fever. Workhouse crammed with fever patients. Auxilary workhouses opened & fever sheds established. (Mayo 201)], Balmullet-Belmullet Union Workhouse [1850], Castlebar [Land owned by Lord Lucan. People in rags because they pawned clothes for food money. food denied. dead dumped into fever sheds. (Mayo: 201) Evictions became wholesale on the Earl of Lucan’s estates. 10,000 people were ejected from the neighbourhood of Ballinrobe. Several populous villages in the neighbourhood of Castlebar completely disappeared, farms being established on the sites. Behind Castlebar House the Earl of Lucan established a large dairy farm; whole streets were demolished & the stones from the walls used to build barns & boundary walls. It was necessary to forbid any tenant to receive the evicted, on pain of being evicted himself; it was necessary to drive them out of the ditches; finally it was necessary to organise gangs, known as crow-bar brigades, to pull down cabins over the heads of people who refused to leave them. In addition to the crowbar brigade, a machine of ropes & pulleys was devised for the destruction of more solid houses. It consisted of massive iron levers, hooks & a chain to which horses were yoked. ...It was found that 2 of these machines enabled a sheriff to evict as many families in a day as could be got through by a crowbar brigade of 50 men. It was not an unusual occurrence to see 40 or 50 houses levelled in 1 day (Woodham-Smith: 55-2)], Crossmolina [1846: Society of Friends soup kitchen], Erris [People living in bogs], Hollymount [1847: Mayo Constitution reports fever & dysentery. 1847: Lord Brougham notes in the House of Lords 5,200 starving Mayo people with cholera among them sailing into Liverpool to be fed based on an official return quoted in the House of Commons by the Chancellor of the Exchequer. There had previously been a right of levying a distress on goods & chattels for rent, but this year in Mayo there were no goods & chattels left, so the person of the debtor was to be attached that is, he was to be imprisoned (Woodham-Smith 55:2)], Kilcolman-Claremorris-Clanmorris Workhouse [1852-1918 : Mass graves, killeen: child graves on Mount Street. Site of Claremorris Bacon company from 1933-1989. John Bingham (1762-1821), 1st Baron Clanmorris married the daughter of 1st Viscount Avenmore Barry Yelverton], Louisburgh [March 1847: starving told to meet the Board of Guardians at Delphi Lodge, 10 miles away the next day, who were at lunch & not to be disturbed. assistance refused, dead pushed in snow on the trip back] (Mayo 201), Newport [Dead pushed into sheds. May 1847: (Mayo 201)], Rosbeg [1847: Dying in sheds constructed by the side of the road. Some dead buried where they died, in fields, on the side of the road], Swinford Workhouse [Established 1846: Proprietor Joseph Bourke dumped bodies into open grave] (Mayo 201), Westport [Lord Lucan & Sir Roger Palmer starve people to death. 1842: Workhouse built. Guardians attempt to collect the poor rate for 2 years with the help of police & troops. Eventually, in 1844, a warship & 2 cruisers sailed into Clew Bay to assist — without success (71) In Westport the workhouse is a housing development and the bodies are buried in a quarry (75: 12)]
Province Connacht: County Roscommon: Boyle Union Workhouse [Connnacht Province heading toward Northern Ireland. Railway station. Mass Gravestone erected by Board of Guardians in 1910], Strokestown Famine Museum [1690-1979: Pakingham-Mahon Family residence. Archdeacon’s site down. In 1847, Major Denis Mahon, landlord of the 17,000-acre estate, assassinated following his attempt to clear 8,000 persons from his lands through eviction & assisted emigration to Canada. 1,000 people placed on ships & almost half of them die on the voyage due to starvation & unsanitary conditions In 1852 a Union Workhouse for the incarceration of 1,184 people built under the command of John Ross Mahon. Operational through 1920. The 1901 census counted a population of 15,000 people in the parish], Rathcroghan [Near Tulsk, ancient seat of the kings of Connacht.]
Province Connacht: County Sligo [Shells]: Sligo Union Workhouse [1842 The Sligo Champion, reported a female inmate pregnant by the son of the chairman of the Board of Guardians in the 1870s. The child was baptized Emma Hale. The Matron of the Workhouse is the niece of this dignitary, & Mahon, the medical officer, is his son-in-law], Sligo Town [1200s: Earl of Kildare, Maurice Fitzgerald, built a castle & monastery in the 1200s. Great Famine of the 1840s: Earl of Sligo: County lost 1/3 of the population through death & emigration], Tobercurry-Tubbercurry Union Workhouse [1853], Dromore West Union Workhouse [1850. Laundry block, hospital block, mortuary, workhouse cemetary. 1920: Union rate collectors ambushed by IRA to help finance its War of Independence. 1923: Workhouse burnt out by local anti-treaty IRA to prevent use by the Black & Tans. Remaining inmates transported on carts to St John’s & the Nazareth House in Sligo]
Province Leinster [Raven]: County Westmeath / Morgallion / Teffia: Athlone Workhouse [1100: Hugh de Lacy. 1839–1915: 700 people recorded in 1846. 200 boys, 100 girls. St Vincent’s Fever Hospital to the north run by the Sisters of Mercy], Castlepollard [Killafree Cemetery. Fore a Celtic burial ground], Castletowndelvin-Delvin [1850], Mullingar Workhouse [1840-1936: 900+ per year. Daily Diet Book recorded in 1878. Fever shed & infirmary by Loch Derravaragh: Children of Lir. Industries: Imperial Tobacco, Royal Canal & Midland Great Western Railway]
Province Leinster: County Meath [Honey]: Navan Workhouse [Railway, Boyne Valley’s Tara Mines. Hill of Tara nearby], Dunshaughlin Workhouse [1840. British Army Barracks. WWI Belgian POWs buried in unmarked graves], Newgrange-Knowth-Dowth, Meath-Hospital [Earl of Meath. human dissection], Charitable Venereal-hospital Oxmantown [1758], Oldcastle Workhouse [Railway to Navan. WWI POW internment], Kells Workhouse [1840], Trim Workhouse [1170: Hugh DeLacy’s castle. 1839: Workhouse. The Bishop of Meath saw a cabin being pulled down over the heads of people dying of cholera: a winnowing sheet was placed over their bodies as they lay on the ground, and the cabin was demolished over their heads. He administered the Sacrament for the dying in the open air, and since it was during the equinoctial gales: Cecil Woodham-Smith]
Province Leinster: County Carlow / Ceatharlach: Carlow Workhouse [Between Dublin & Galway. Home of a fortified fence called the Pale Templepeter Church & Cemetery from 1700s to present 8 miles out of town on Wexford Rd]
Province Leinster: County Dublin [Black Pool]: Ballabuggy [1880: walled-in by Board of Guardians. the head-stones are all rude & uninscribed. The Moat ancient desecrated graveyard. human skulls & bones. St. Kieran ’s Tree blown down on 6th of January, 1839], Balrothery Union Workhouse [1841: 3 miles NW of Lusk. Held Belgian refugees during WWI], Drumcondra High Park Convent Laundry [Sisters of Our Lady of Charity. 1993: Remains of 155 inmates buried in unmarked graves exhumed &, except for 1 body, cremated & reburied in a mass grave in Glasnevin called the Penitent Grave. 2003: Buried babies found in the back of the laundry. RTÉ interviewed Ms Kathy O’Beirne (45) who was repeatedly raped there between the ages of 12-14 & became pregnant. The Sisters deny she or any other pregnant girls ever worked there or that babies were born. Nuns May Sue RTÉ Over Sex Abuse Claim on Radio Show Irish Independent, August 4th, 2005], Magdalen Asylum, Lower Leeson St, Dublin [aided Protestant women after a first fall] Cottage Home for Little Children [Providing shelter for the very young children of the industrious Protestant poor.], St Joseph's Reformatory School for Catholic Girls-Catholic Rotunda Girls Aid Society North Dublin Dublin House of Industry-Bedford Asylum for the Reception of Children [1704: those under 6 left to die in local parishes, 1772-1912: N. Brunswick St, Parliamentary grant for operation], Hardwick Fever Hospital, Whitworth Hospital for Chronic Medical Patients, Richmond Surgical Hospital & Lunatic Asylum, Talbot Dispensary. South Dublin: Foundling Hospital & Workhouse of the City of Dublin-Trinity College-St. James Hospital [1702-1916: 160 people sleep in bunk-like beds crammed into workhouse cellars 240 ft long x 17 ft wide. Beggars, disorderly women, old, infirm, orphans diet of bread, milk, porridge, gruel & burgoo : oatmeal in cold water seasoned with salt & pepper. Governors apprentice out children between 5 & 16.At 1 of its gates, a basket was fixed to a revolving door. Someone wishing to leave a child anonymously could place it there, ring the porter’s bell, & then depart. Infanticide: 1702: 260+, 1757: 700+, 1790-1796: 12,786 admitted. 5,216 dead in infirmary, 1797-1826: 52,150 admitted. 41,524 dead. 1797: Irish House of Commons reports children stripped naked at the infirmary, laid in groups of 5 & 6 crushed together in cradles, swarming with vermin, covered with filthy, dirty blankets cast as unfit for use. The Hospital nurse then gave them the Bottle which the Surgeon claimed help them to die], Dublin: Dublin-Hospital [1762: Mr. Redmond Boate, surgeon. 12,000 relieved], Goldenbridge Orphanage [2,000 Irish children exported to USA], Kilmainham Royal Hospital [1677: James II purged British Army of 300 aging soldiers], Inns-quay Infirmary [1723] (Harris 209), Lazer Hill’s Hospital for the Incurable [plague], Lock-hospital [1755: women & children raped/infected with venereal disease, killed & dissected], Lying-in- Hospital [1745: Surgeon Bartholomew Mosse, bequeathed to Lord Viscount Sudley, Earl of Arran], Royal College of Surgeons Mary Mercer’s Hospital [1734: Mercer St. Torture, death & dissection], Sean McDermott St Laundry [Dublin. Sisters of Our Lady of Charity. Women given new names, heads shaved, starved, stripped, ridiculed once a week in mortifications 1998 Channel 4 documentary Sex in a Cold Climate], St. Patrick’s Hospital for Lunatics & Others of Inferior Note [1745: From will of Dr. Jonathan Swift, dean of St. Patrick’s. patients segregated by sex. Bodysnatchers visit on Mondays & Fridays] (Rootsweb), St. Nicholas-St. Catherine’s Hospital [1753: human dissection]
Province Leinster: County Kildare [Church of the Oak]: Athy Union Workhouse-St. Vincent’s Geriatric Hospital [1841: 1 hr S. of Dublin. Dublin-Waterford Rail Line], Celbridge Union Workhouse [1840: Run by the French Sisters of Charity. Infirmary, Chapel, Mortuary], Naas Workhouse [Kings of Leinster headquarters: WWII POW Internment Camp]
Province Leinster: County Kilkenny / Ossory / Osraigh [Deer]: Callen Workhouse [County of The 3 Sisters Rivers Barrow: Boiling, Nore, Suir: Sweet flowing to Waterford Harbor. Famines: 1740/1741, 1745, 1755, 1766, 1783, & 1800.Subsistence crises not limited to: 1816, 1817, 1818, 1819, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1830, 1831, 1836, 1837. 1817: Typhus: Amhlaoibh Suilleabháin, of Callan: Year of the plague when 1000s of people died as a result of eating rotten half-ripe food. 1830: Amhlaoibh: Kilkenny, Waterford & Kerry: Hungry July called Buímhís: yellow month fields are yellow, & the faces of the paupers are greenish yellow from the Black Famine, as they live on green cabbage & scraps. (Rootsweb) July 1847: 3 million people provided for in soup kitchens], Castlecomar [32% inmates killed in 10 years], Kilkenny St Patrick’s Industrial School [], Kilkenny Union Workhouse [1838: Built of stone, with stone floors, unplastered walls. & bare rafter ceilings. Heating by open turf fires, 1 for each room. Eating area long wooden forms & bare tables in a dark depressed setting. Each inmate in the workhouse was expected to work for room & board, & for no pay. Male inmates were given a coat, trousers, shirt, cap, brogues & stockings. Females provided a striped jerkin, petticoat, cap, shift, shoes & stockings. Children over 2 years of age sent to separate wards within the Workhouse, along with the sick & informed, and were not given shoes or stockings. Meals consisted of potatoes, bread & milk (Rootsweb)], New Ross [Over a 100 year old killing machine. aristocracy deny food], Thomastown [27% inmates killed in 10 years], Urlingford [33% inmates killed in 10 years]
Province Leinster: County Laois / Laoighis / Leix / Leixip [Raven] / Queen’s County : Abbeyleix Workhouse [pron LEESH. Viscount DeVesci. Near the Abbeyleix Mansion], Clogbeen Workhouse, Donaghmore Workhouse & Agricultural Museum [1853: Designed for 600+ inmates. Girls dorm. Burial ground behind marked Unacleggan], Mt. Mellick Union Workhouse [1842-1986: 800+ inmate plan, laundry block, fever ward run by the Daughters of Charity], Mt. Rath Workhouse [1831: Saint Vincent’s Daughters of Charity], Rath Domhnaigh: Black Womb [pron. raw dhouna. John Howard levelled it in 1840, removed 5 cart-loads of human bones with no skulls & interned them elsewhere. (Carrigan 208) Rathdowney Union Workhouse at Loughlinstown built in 1840; still going in 1912]
Province Leinster: County Longford / Annaly [Bright Water from Heaven] / Tethbae [Sea]: Ballymahon [Belfast 15km north], Granard Union Workhouse [1840-1922: Run by the Sisters of Mercy. Workhouse Medical Officer, Dr Kenny, did not get on well with the nuns & in 1903 made a complaint of neglect against them, but they were cleared in an official inquiry by the Local Government Board] (71), Longford-Mount Carmel Hospital [1839: 16,000+ deaths in the last 10 years of the workhouse’s operation. Mass graves on land adjoining the workhouse at the S. Graveyard bully’s acre for still-born infants. 1848: 2,300+ with fever hospital. Irish poet Padraic Colum born 1881 at Longford workhouse, where his father was workhouse Master until 1888]
Province Leinster: County Louth / An Lu [Raven]: : Ardee-Atherdee [Across from the River Dee], Drogheda Workhouse [Maghdalen Tower. Boyne Viaduct flowing into Ulster: Northern Ireland], Dundalk Union Workhouse-St Joseph’s Orphanage [1842-1983: The partition between Northern Ireland & the Republic of Ireland. Railway links it to Belfast & Dublin. Infants, children beaten by the Sisters of Mercy, no heating], Mt Bellew [1688: Baron Patrick Bellew]
Province Leinster: County Offaly [Wolf] / King’s County
Edenderry Union Workhouse [1839-20th Century: Fever Hospital, Burial Ground, Mortuary, Convent], Parsonstown-Birr-Biora Workhouse [1620: Sir Lawrence Parson. Current Earl of Rosse: Brendan Parson], Tullamore Union Workhouse [1839: Fever Hospital & Mortuary on Kilbeggan Rd]
Province Leinster: County Wexford-Waesfjord : Enniscorthy Union Workhouse & Wexford County Lunatic Asylum [1841: 200-ft-long stone pier, 500-ft-long approach road & retaining wall built at Slade in 1847-1848], Gorey [1847: Earl of Courtown’s government loan of £7,900 for brick-making kilns & slated drying sheds on his estate. This factory survived as the Courtown Brick & Tile Works until its closure in 1972], New Ross Workhouse & Fever Hospital [1831-1847: Slip-bottom coffin], Wexford Workhouse [Sir Robert Gore Booth £15,000 in removing 1340 tenants. Forced labor at Lord Courtown’s Courtown Brick & Tile Works], Wexford Harbor [1649: Plundered by Cromwell. County: W. boundary with Carlow lies along Blackstairs Mountains. Upland area extends from Wicklow into N. of county], Balcother, Killaduset
Province Leinster: County Wicklow: Wicklow [Viking settlement. E boundary Irish Sea. 1/5 county population lost through death & emigration (133)], Wicklow Mts [Made of Granite. E. slopes drain to River Avoca. West drains to Liffey: Aine Cliach: Water from Heaven’s Harp & Slaney: Health Rivers. Military Road built to battle rebels. Lugnaquilla the highest mountain: Lugh na Tigh: Lugh’s House for devotees of the god Lugh: Gleam. Translated into English as Lunatic], St. Kevin’s Monastery, Glendalough: Valley of the Two Lakes [E. Wicklow Mts. Benedictine Monastery part of the Dublin Ghost Bus Tour that highlights bodysnatching.], Baltinglas Union Workhouse [1840], Rathdrum Union Workhouse [1840: Run by Earl Fitzwilliam], Shillelagh [1840: Cemetary]

Israel / Is Rachel: Of the Dove [British Mandate of Palestine / Western Palestine / Greater Syria]
1400BC: Phoenician Canaan: Land of Purple (dye) a province of Egypt
Abraham’s son Issac: One Laughs, Antelope King gives birth to the twins Esau & Jacob with Rebecca. When Jacob marries the dove priestess Rachel he is called Jacob Ish-Rachel: or Israel.
1200 BC: Joshua’s army crosses the River Jordan & besieges Jericho. Takes Phoenican Canaan with 3 campaigns, kills the area’s inhabitants, & divides the land among the 12 tribes of Israel
1029 BC: N kingdom Israel with capital in Samaria (King Omri). S Kingdom Judah with capital in Jerusalem (King David). David kills Uriah the Hittite & marries Uriah’s wife, Bathsheba
850 BC-612BC: Assyria seizes Israel. Documents mention Arabs, nomadic camel herders centered in Palestine.
700 BC: King Hezekiah of Judah: Book of Micah: Prophet Micah prophecies punishment against Samaria & Jerusalem for the corruption of their leaders & Mt. Zion, the holy mountain in Jerusalem will be the sacred center where universal peace shall one day spring. – Eric M. Meyers, Ph.D., Professor of Religion, Duke University.
626 BC: King Josiah of Judah claims independence.
609 BC: Pharaoh Necho II leads his army into Palestine & Syria & fatally wounds Josiah at Megiddo
587BC-550BC: Babylonia seizes Judah.
550 BC-341 BC: Persia
341 BC: Rome: Alexander the Great
135 AD: Greater Syria divided. Judaea: Previously Canaan, renamed Provincia Syria Palaestina [Philistia] under Emperor Hadrian
160AD-633AD: Roman Palmyrene Empire: Syria, Palaestina & Aegyptus
633AD: Caliph Omarn
661AD-750AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750AD-1031 AD: Abbasid Caliphate
1050AD-1187 AD: Seljuk Turk vs Crusades
1250 AD-1516: Egyptian Mameluke Empire: Jews from Spain & Mediterranean migrate
1516: Ottoman Empire
1874–1878: Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener Palestine Exploration Fund. Authors The Survey of Western Palestine Including a Survey of Eastern Palestine.
Aliyah: 19th century emigration to Israel.
WWI: Ottoman Empire joins Germany & Austria-Hungary: Lieutenant Colonal Thomas Edward Lawrence Lawrence of Arabia archeologist under Palestine Exploration Fund
1914: Census: Total population of Palestine 700,000. 615,000 Arabs, & 85,000 Jews.
1916: Sykes-Picot Agreemant: England plans to carve up.
1917: Starvation, typhus & cholera outbreaks.
1918:Battle of Megiddo: England seizes. League of Nations divides Greater Syria into Syria & Palestine.
1922: Balfour Declaration: England divides Palestine into Palestine & Transjordan. Abdullah, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca rules. 1922 Census: 589,177 Muslims, 83,790 Jews, 71,464 Christians & 7,617 Other.
1931 Census: 761,922 Muslims, 175,138 Jews, 89,134 Christians & 10,145 other.
1936: Martial law
1939: Britain’s White Paper caps emigration. High Commissioner prohibits & regulate transfers of land. During the war, the British forbade entry into Palestine of European Jews escaping Nazi persecution, placing them in detention camps or deporting them to other places such as Mauritius.
1944: Members of the Jewish Lehi underground, Eliyahu Hakim & Eliyahu Bet Zuri assassinated Lord Moyne in Cairo on 6 November 1944. Moyne was the British Minister of State for the Middle East, responsible for implementing the ban on Jewish immigration to Palestine
1945 Census: 1,061,270 Muslims, 553,600 Jews, 135,550 Christians & 14,100 other.
1946: UN Partition: Israel (Plan D), Jordan (Independance), West Bank (Jordan), Gaza Strip (Egypt)
1948-1950: Arab-Israeli War: Israel declares independance under Prime Minister David Ben Gurion. France sides with Arab Nations against Israel. 950,000+ Arabs flee Israel. Census is 1,750,000: 31% Jewish.
1956: Suez Crisis: Egyptian President Nasser seizes canal & announces canal tolls will build the Aswan Dam. England, Israel & France attack. UN calls a cease-fire
1967-1975: 6 Day War: Israel seizes West Bank (Jordan), Golan Heights (Syria) & Gaza Strip (Egypt). Egypt closes the Straits of Tiran to shipping.
1972: Waffen SS Kurt Waldheim, UN Secretary exports UNDOF: United Nations Disengagement Observer Forces to Syria, Israel & Egypt. Suez canal closed
1978: Litanni River Operation: Israeli Troops occupy Lebanon
1991: Iraq launches Scud missiles at populated areas in Israel
1995: David Sultan, Israeli Ambassador to Cairo, asks to be relieved of his post after the Egyptian daily Al Shaab said he was personally responsible for the killing of 100 Egyptian prisoners
2002: 40% of the Israeli labor force works at the country’s minimum wage: 0 a month.
2008: Israel has 4 million Palestinian Arabs living in the country who are denied citizenship & are seperated. They are called surplus humanity.
W. Palestine along the Jordan River that flows into the Dead Sea.
Occupied by British under General Allenby.

Deir Yessin [Village razed, estimated dead 256. Menachem Begin Prime Minster of Israel 1976 (300)], Tantura [Village men murdered (300)], Safad [Galilean town. Population of 9,500 Arabs & 2,400 Jews. The entire Arab population driven out (300)], Haifa [1934: Oil pipline from Kirkuk, Iraq. 1948: Shelling of civilians trying to escape by sea, bomb detonation, ignited oil, sniper fire, 2007: Now saturated bombings], Megiddo [1920: Ancient city in the mountains of Northern Israel. Oriental Institute in Chicago has excavated: temples, jewelry & art objects. Armageddon is Greek from Hebrew Har-Megiddo. The Book of Revelation names Armageddon as the place where the rulers of the world will fight the last great battle between good & evil (World Book)]

Jerusalem: Holy Salem: City of the Great King [The capital. Located E. of Tel Aviv, S. of Ram Allah, W. of Jericho & N. of Bethlehem. Old City has 4 quarters: Armenian, Christian, Jewish & Muslim. Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad rose to heaven from here]

West Bank a.k.a Jordan River Valley [Judea]
[Territory between Israel & Jordan. Annexed to Jordan in 1950, boomeranged to Israel in 1967. Contains East Jerusalem, Ram Allah, Nablus, Bethlehem, Hebron & Jericho. In Hebron, Caleb ousted the Anakim from Machpelah Oracular Shrine during the Joshua era. David later moved the capital to Jerusalem. 1974-1987: Jordanian government pays salaries of West Bank public service workers, including doctors & teachers. 1987-1994: Intifada: Arabic term meaning uprising against military rule. 100s Palestinians killed. The Wall has been deemed illegal by the International Court of Justice & the UN. (300).]

Gaza Strip [Territory between Israel & Egypt described as one of the largest prison camps in history. Violent incursions, shelling & bombing. (300) Annexed to Egypt in 1948, boomeranged to Israel in 1967. 1987-1994: Intifada. Towns refuse to pay taxes to Israel. 1996: Israeli troops withdraw from portions of the West Bank & Gaza Strip. 1998: Yasser Arafat & Binyamin Netanyahu share Gaza Strip]

Golan Heights [Territory between the Sea of Galilee & Jordan River in Israel & the SW Syrian Border. In 1948, Israelis started farming settlements in disputed territory near their border with Syria, & Syrians began firing on the settlements from the Golan Heights. 1967: Israel occupies Golan Heights. 1000s of Arabs flee to seek refuge in neighboring Arab countries. Since 1967 Israeli troops have occupied Golan Heights. Israel has set up military & agricultural operations there. In 1981, Israel claimed legal & political authority in the Golan Heights. 2001: Syria calls for the return of Golan Heights. About 14,500 Arabic-speaking people called Druses & about 14,000 Israelis live in the area.]

Jordan [British Mandate of Palestine / Eastern Palestine / Greater Syria]
Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdiniyah Al-Hashimiyah [Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan]

1400BC: Phoenician Canaan: Land of Purple (dye) a province of Egypt.
Legend says Hebrew patriarch Abraham & his nephew Lot migrate from Ur in Sumeria to Canaan.
1200 BC: Ammonites [Lot’s son Ben-ammi], Moabites [Lot’s son Moab] Amorites, & Edomites [Adam: Red] farm lands east of the Jordan River
900 BC: Israelites under Kings David & Solomon conquer & rule region. Edom raided for copper & iron mines.
850 BC: King Mesha of Moab regains control
850 BC - 612BC: Assyria.
612BC-550BC: Babylonia.
550 BC-341 BC: Persia
400 B.C. The Nabataeans ruled from their unique capital city carved out of the rose-colored stone cliffs of Petra
341 BC-633 AD: Rome: Alexander the Great
106AD: Rome seizes the Nabatean Arab capital of Petra
633AD-1050 AD: Caliphate
1050AD-1187 AD: Seljuk Turk vs Crusades
1187: Muslim Ruler Saladin
1250 AD-1516: Egyptian Mameluke Empire
1516-1916: Ottoman Empire
1916: Sykes-Picot Agreemant: England plans to carve up.
1917: Starvation, typhus & cholera outbreaks.
1922: Balfour Declaration: England divides Palestine into Palestine & Transjordan. Abdullah, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca rules.
1946: UN Partition: Israel (Plan D), Jordan (Independance), West Bank (Jordan), Gaza Strip (Egypt)
1948-1950: Arab-Israeli War: Israel declares independance under Prime Minister David Ben Gurion. Arab nations attack Israel. Jordan receives 400,000 Palestinians fleeing the West Bank & 450,000 Palestinian refugees from Israel (World Book)
1949: Transjordan renamed Jordan.
1951: Abdullah of Jordan assassinated
1953: Hussein I succeeds in Jordan at 18
1956: Hussein I replaces Arab Legion’s British officers with Jordanians.
1958: England sends paratroopers to protect Jordan against Iraqi Pressure (World Book)
1964: PLO formed: Raids Israel from Jordan & Lebanon. Israel responds with raids.
1967-1975: 6 Day War: Israel seizes West Bank (Jordan), Golan Heights (Syria) & Gaza Strip (Egypt). Egypt closes the Straits of Tiran to shipping.
1970: Jordanian Civil War: Guerrillas attempt to overthrow Hussein I: Some flee to Lebanon
1988: Hussein breaks Jordan’s political & administrative ties to the West Bank.
1994: Jordan & Israel sign a peace treaty
1999: Hussein I succeeded by Abdullah II
2001: 10% of Jordan’s population lives in Palestinian refugee camps set up by the United Nations (World Book)
2003: Jordan receives refugees from the Iraq War.
In Eastern Palestine along the Jordan River that flows into the Dead Sea.Arthur James Balfour, Earl of Balfour ‘Bloody Balfour’ [1848-1930]: Born in Whittinghame, East Lothian. 1878-1880: Private Secretary to his uncle Lord Salisbury.
1886: Secretary of Scotland.
1887: Minster of Ireland. Balfour surprised his critics by his ruthless enforcement of the Crimes Act, earning the nickname Bloody Balfour.
1890: Conjested Districts Board for Ireland. Resisted Home Rule.
1891: Lord of the Treasury.
1902-1905: British Prime Minister.
1915-1916: Marine Minister.
1917: As Foreign Secretary he wrote the Balfour Declaration. His writings are in the Deutsche Bibliothek

In 1922, in an attempt to assuage Arab anger resulting from the Balfour Declaration, the British created the semi-autonomous, Arab Emirate of Transjordan in all Palestinian territory east of the Jordan river under a single British High Commissioner until 1946

Amman [60 BC: Named Philadelphia by the Romans. Capital City with 1 million people. Deaths: Moustapha Akkad, 72, executive producer of the Halloween franchise, in the Nov. 9th terrorist bombings in Amman, Jordan, which also claimed his daughter, Rima, 34 – Entertainment Weekly, Monitor, Tim Stack, Nov. 25, 2005], Abdoun District, Amman [Raghad Saddam Hussein is wanted by Interpol, She was living in an upscale neighborhood after Jordan’s ruler King Abdullah II, granted Raghad & her sister Rana refuge when they fled Syria in mid 2003. Mother Sajida Khairalla Tulfa & Izzat Ibrahim of the Baath Party also on list], Petra [Nabataean capital ruins 400s BC], Jarash [Greek city ruins of Gerasa], Dhiban [Ancient Kingdom of Moab. 1868: Moabite stone found by Mr. Klein with writing in Hebrew & Phoenician. The 34-line inscription tells of the deeds of Mesha, king of the Moabites, 865BC, in his wars against the kings of Israel & against the Edomites. When the French in Constantinople wanted to buy the stone, the Arabs of Dhiban broke the stone, hoping to get more money by selling the pieces separately. A French Embassy official in Constantinople had made a papier-mâché impression of the stone before it was broken. It is cobbled back together at the Louvre. - William A. Ward, Ph.D., Professor, Brown University.], Mt. Pisgah Range [Deuteronomy: Moabite King Balak built 7 altars for the prophet Balaam on Mount Pisgah. Moses saw the Promised Land from Mount Nebo], Seilom (Sodom) [Ancient city at the Dead Sea. The bible calls it the Salt Sea], Gomorrah [Ancient city at the Dead Sea], Al Karak [850-year-old castle built by crusaders], Az Zarqa [100,000+ people in the city], Irbid [100,000+ people in the city], Al Aqabah [Jordan’s only port. Cargo shipped through the Red Sea]

Syria [Assyria / Aram-Sumeria / French Mandate of Syria]
Al-Jumhuria Al-Arabia Al-Suria: The Syrian Arab Republic
Red Cresent Concentration Camps
3500 BC-3000 BC: Sumeria
2300 BC: Akkadians
Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent based on wheats, rye & barley. All these crops evolved in present-day Syria. Use of sickles trigger rapid transformation of wild grasses into grains.
15th cen BC: Mitanni State: Arameans arrive
14th cen BC-612 BC: Hittite Empire: Assyria
612BC-550BC: Babylonia
550 BC-341 BC: Persia
341 BC: Rome
135AD: By Pliny’s time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire: Judaea [Previously Canaan. Renamed Palestine in 135 AD], Phoenicia [Previously Canaan. Renamed Lebanon], Coele-Syria: Hollow Syria [Aram-Sumeria] & Mesopotamia [Previously Sumeria]
160AD - 634 AD: Rome conquers Arab Palmyra State. Palmyrene Empire: Syria, Palestine & Aegyptus
634-644 AD: Caliph Umar
657 AD -750 AD: Governor Muawiya forms Umayyad Caliphate
750AD- 972AD: Abbasid Caliphate
972 AD-1171: Fatimid Caliphate: Seljuk
1260-1516: Mameluke Dynasty of Egypt
1516: Ottoman Empire
1775: England’s Desert Mail Service to Aleppo, Syria
1886: English Diplomat Sir Richard Francis Burton
1910-1914: Lieutenant Colonal Thomas Edward Lawrence Lawrence of Arabia archeologist excavates Carchemish, N. Syria for the British Museum.
1918: Lawrence captures Damascus. The League of Nations divides Greater Syria into Syria & Palestine.
1922: Syria divided into Syria & Lebanon. The League gave France a mandate to manage Syrian & Lebanese affairs.
1941: English & Free French Forces drive the Vichy French out of Syria: Country declared a republic.
1945: Arab countries, including Syria, form the Arab League.
1946: France withdraws
1958: Egypt & Shukri al-Kuwatly of Syria form U.A.R: United Arab Republic
1961: Syria withdraws from U.A.R.
1967-1975: 6 Day War: Israel seizes W. Bank (Jordan), Golan Heights (Syria) & Gaza Strip (Egypt). Egypt closes the Straits of Tiran to shipping
1972: Secretary to the United Nations Waffen SS Kurt Waldheim exports UNDOF: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force forces to Syria, Israel & Egypt
2001: Syria calls for a return of Golan Heights
2007: Syria closes its borders to Iraqi refugees. Current Iraqi’s must register with the Red Cresent for Social Services & UN Refugee Cards.
Armenian Genocide: The mountains of Ashur is the border between Assyria & Armenia.
The Jordan River rises in the springs of Mount Hermon in Syria. The river is 200 miles long. It flows & then falls to the area of Lake Hula (now completely drained) & empties into the Dead Sea.

Damascus-Dimishq [1200BC Aramean City. Capital of the Umayyad Caliphate. Invaded by the French in 1918. Came under the control of the Vichy Government. Destination of SS Alois Brüner after the war. He was not extradied. (129) 2008: 17 civilians killed when a 400 lb bomb detonates The bombing followed 2 unusual political assasinations this year in Syria, a police state that generally maintains a tight grip on security. In the 1980s, the Syrian state, which is secular, battled hard-line Sunni Islamist rebels for years in a sruggle that left 10s of 1000s dead. (260)]

Aleppo [WWI Red Crescent Concentration Camp: Armenian Genocide: hanged]

Homs [WWI Red Crescent Concentration Camp: Armenian Genocide. 2001: City with more than 150.000 people]

Mari [E. Syria, near the Iraqi border. Sumerian culture. 1933 Archaelogists from the Louvre in Paris. 25,000 cuneiform clay tablets discovered]

Ugarit / Ras Shamra [1900 BC: Phoenician City in contact with Crete. 1400-1200 BC: Myceneaean Colony. 1929: Cuneiform clay tablets excavated]

Ar-Ruad-Arvad [The only island in Syria. 3km from Tartous: Syria’s largest port. In Greek it was known as Arado or Arados. The city also appears in ancient sources as Arpad & Arphad. Renamed Antiochia in Pieria by Antiochus I Soter]

Abu Hureyra [Domesticated emmer & einkorn grown 9,500 years ago]

Lebanon [French Mandate of Lebanon / Levant / Liban: Bright White / Greater Syria]
Kataeb Phalangist Murder
2900BC-1900BC: Canaan: Land of Purple (dye) of the Phoenicians. Purple-red dye
1400BC: Canaan a province of Egypt
1285 BC: Hittite Mutwatallis vs Ramses II at Kadeshr on the Orontes River. Hittite princess married to Ramses
850BC-612BC: Assyrians.
612BC-550BC: Babylonia
550 BC-341 BC: Persia
341 BC: Rome
135AD: By Pliny’s time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire: Judaea [Previously Canaan. Renamed Palestine in 135 AD], Phoenicia [Previously Canaan. Renamed Lebanon], Coele-Syria: Hollow Syria [Aram-Sumeria] & Mesopotamia [Previously Sumeria]
325AD- 451AD: Chaldecon Schism: Maronites from Antioch flee into Lebanese Mts
661-750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750AD-1030AD: Abbasid Caliphate
1050AD-1187 AD: Seljuk Turk vs Crusades
1250 AD-1516: Egyptian Mameluke Empire
1585-1635: Druze Lord Fahkr-al-Din II rules Greater Lebanon. Executed at Istanbul by Ottoman Forces April 13
Ottoman Empire until WWI
1918: League of Nations divides Greater Syria into Syria & Palestine.
1922: Syria divided into Syria & Lebanon: Occupied by France
1946: Independant
1948: Arab-Israeli War: Lebanon home to 110,000+ Palestinian refugees who fled from Israel
1958: Crisis of ’58: Government Rebellion: Eisenhower sends 6,000 sailors & marines for 3 months.
1975-1990: Lebanese Civil War: President Bachir Gemayel’s Kataeb Phalangist Party: Kills 1000s
1978: UN Peacekeeping force sent.
1982: Gemayel assasinated & replaced by his brother. Phalangists kill 1000s.
1987: Prime Minister Rashid Karami assasinated in bomb explosion.
1988: Two Governments: President Amin Gemayel steps down & appoints General Michel Aoun Prime Minster with a new cabinet. Prime Minister Salim Al-Huss claims his cabinet has the right to remain in office.
1989: Kataeb President Rene Mouawad elected & assasinated. Syrian commandos backed by Kataeb President Elias Hrawi defeat Aoun’s forces.
1998: Army Commander Emile Lahoud President
2005: Prime Minister Rafik Hariri assasinated by a car-bomb.
Balamad [June 1993: Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church & the Orthodox Church declared uniatism: can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking], Byblos [2900 BC: Phoenican trading center for papyrus. Greek spelling of the city is bible], Berytus / Beirut [64 BC: Roman Law School. 1975-1990: Lebanese Civil War: Gunmen fire on Phalangist leaders, killing 4. Phalangists led by Pierre Gemayels kill 27 civilians. Black Saturday: 4 Christians killed in East Beirut. Phalange erect roadblocks throughout the city, identification cards inspected for religious affiliation. Militias retaliate, 600+ Muslims & Christians butchered. Syria invades. 1978: Litani River Operation: UNIFIL: United Nations Interim Force with Israeli army. 1982: Israel sieges West Beirut. Israeli forces occupy S. Lebanese border to Beirut. US Embassy destroyed by a truck bomb. President Bachir assasinated. His brother Armin takes power. 1983: Truck loaded with explosives crashes into US Marine headquarters & French station at Beirut airport killing 295. 1989: Bombing causes large damage to the city. 1990: Government decrees withdrawal of all private militias. 2000: Israel withdraws temporarily. 2005: Intifada of Independence demands Syria’s withdrawal]

Mt Lebanon [Marada]

Qana [July 30, 2006: Qana Massacre: Dead children with blood in their mouths, bombed out houses, rubble, body bags with roses. Pictures at Kulturevoid (.com)]

Sidon [Famous for its purple dye & glass. Greeks adopted the keton, a Phoenician shirtlike garment. 1950: Trans Arabian Pipeline from Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia to Sidon port. Aerial bombed in 1982]

Tripoli [Maronite Christians]

Tyre: Rock [Phoenician City: Phoenician gods are baal: lord & baalat: lady. Melqart is Baal of Tyre. PLO seat & bombed by Israeli artillery. 1983: Israeli Military Headquarters attacked. 28 killed. 2006: Hezbollah]

Zahle [1981: Gemayel captures. Syria sends surface to air missiles, Israel sends fighter planes]

Kataeb Refugee Camps: El-Hilweh [Sidon refugee camp. Firebombed], Mia Mia [Sidon refugee camp], Nahr el-Bared [2007: Near Tripoli. 25 women & 38 children evacuated by Lebanese Army. Final assault against 70 militants in the hills. Fighting for 3 months], Sabra [West Beirut : Sabra & Shatila Massacres: 200 Phalangists enter the camp, massacring an estimated 700-3,000 Palestinians, according to official Israeli statistics, none apparently members of any PLO unit], Shatila [West Beirut: Destroyed in Lebanese Civil War], Bourj al-Barajneh [destroyed in Lebanese Civil War]

Italy [Italia: Land of Oxen / Etruria]
Campo di concentramento [Concentration Camp]
Watson Italiana & Ministry of Corporations at Vio Vittorio
1937: Machines maintain records of all Italian industrial, commercial, transportation & agricultural enterprises

The German-Italian Alliance: Blut & Eisen: The Axis of Blood & Steel

29th Italian SS Division: Estimated 30 000 of them dead after the war.

Herbert Kappler (1907-1978) Head of the GeStaPo in Rome. Deported 10,000 + Jews from Rome to concentration camps starting in 1943. After the war, he was sentenced to life in prison

MVSN: Fascio Brigate nere / MSI: Movimento Sociale Italiano
King Vittorio Emmanuele III: King Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947)
Government: Signoria, Chief Official: Signore
Primo Caporale Onorario:: Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (1922-1945: d. April 28, 1945)
Caporale Onårario: Adolf Hitler
Field Marshal: Pietro Badoglio
Foreign Minister: Count Galeazzo Ciano, Mussolini’s son-in-law (executed 1943)
Minister of Education: Giovanni Gentile
Gran Consiglio del Fascismo: Fascist Grand Council
Quadrumvirs: Michele Bianchi, Emilio De Bono, Cesare Maria de Vecchi, Italio Balbo
Theoretician: Alfredo Rocco
Facist Party Leader: Starace
Facist Party Leader: Farinacci
Facist Party Leader: Preziosi
Party Secretary: Giuriati
Ceka: Italian Secret Police
Moschettieri del Duce: Leader’s Musketeers.
Khaki dress, black shirt, fez & tie, silver metal fascio patch: Roman bundle of sticks wrapped around an axe
Zona = division
Legione = militia
Coorte = cohort / battalion
Centuria = company
Manipolo = platoon
Squadra = squade.
Squadristi: WWI veterans
Youth Organizations: Balilla, Arditi
November 1922: Il Popolo d’Italia: Arnaldo Mussolini

Sicily: Eisenhower invades this volcanic island in 1943
Salerno, Cassino: German Field Marshal Albert Kesselring vs USA Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark
1946: Italian people vote to abolish the monarchy.
1969: Piazza Fontana Massacre / Borghese Coup: Junio Valerio Borghese attempts to install a neofascist regime with Stefano Delle Chiaie. Vincenzo Vinciguerra convicted of massacre.
1990s: Alleanza Nazionale led by Gianfranco Fini. Alessandra Mussolini, grand-daughter of Mussolini, leaves to form Freedom of Action. Lega Nord led by Umberto Bossi
1993: European Union

Tomba Massa [Mass Graves]: Ardeatine Caves [1944: Italian partisans killed 33 Germans with a bomb on Via Rasella in Rome. Kappler & Pietro Caruso, chief of police, arrested, shot, & buried people under the sands], Rome Catacombs [Plague], Florence [1430: Medici family control largest bank in Europe. WWII: US War training film broadcast by CBS News Jan 31, 2008 instructs not to bomb Florence due to large amount of artwork in city. Harry Ettinger one of 12 monument restorers honored in 2007 whose job to recover moved & stolen artworks], Capuchin Bone Chapel [Chapel made of bones with bone chandeliers. the inner chamber is an image of the grim reaper & roman clock of bones (Salon)], Church of San Lazzaro, Côme [plague], Church of the Disciplini, Clusone [plague], Church Santa Maria in Silvis, Pisogne [plague], Chapel of San Stephano, Carisolo [plague], Church St-Vigile, Pinzolo [plague]

KL Arbe [15,000 prisoners], KL Corrapoli [Mussolini], KL Ferramonti Di Tarsia , [Near Cosenza, S. Italy. Largest of 15 internment camps established by Mussolini between June & September, 1940 (Victor 143)]
KL Dulag Carpi [Fossoli di Carpi], KL Gonars [7000 prisoners. 800+ prisoners from the Island of Rab in Croatia estimated dead here after transfer], KL Lipari [Island of Lipari], KL Molat, KL Monigo, KL Padova [800+ prisoners from the Island of Rab concentration camp in Croatia died when relocated here. Due to Italian propaganda & its role in the last years of the World War II, not much is known about this camp outside borders of the former Yugoslavia. Even in 2003 the centre-right Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi could afford a statement without any consequences that during the time of Fascism, there were no concentration camps, but just compulsory vacation for the opposers of the regime. – Wikipedia], KL Ponza [Island of Ponza], KL Potenza [S Italy], KL Renicci di Anghiari, KL Colonie Umberto Io di Tonezzi, KL Urbisaglia, KL Visco [near Palmanova].Regno di Sardegna: Kingdom of Sardinia Sardinia Island [King Vittorio Emmanuele II: Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy & Sardinia (1820-1878) 1849-1861 & 1st king of Italy 1861-1878. WWII: Island air & naval base]
Piedmont: Foot of the Mountain RegionNW: Base of the Alps: Provinces: Alessandria, Asti, Cuneo, Novara, Torino: Turin, Vercelli.
LiguriaNW: Alps & Apennine Mountains. Ligurian Sea Genoa / Genova [The growing strength of Venice led to a series of wars with Genoa, a rival sea power]
Regno di Lombardia: Kingdom of Lombardy Alpine: Includes provinces of Bergamo, Brescia, Como, Cremona, Mantova, Milano / Milan, Pavia, Sondrio, Varese, Parma, Verona ,KL Cremona [Mussolini Camp], KL Milan / Milano [Capital of Lombardy. The Iron Crown with which Lombard rulers were crowned. They established a Kingdom of Italy which lasted until 774. 1629-1631: Great Plague of Milan: high death rates. Archbishop orders Black Plague victims homes walled up with all occupants sick or well inside. WWII: Mussolini’s train station. 2009: Italian Judge Armando Spataro finds 23 Americans & 2 Italians guilty in the kidnapping & torture of Egyptian CIA terror suspect Cleric Osama Moustafa Hassan Nasr from Milan Feb 17 2003 according to Colleen Barry & Victor Simpson of the Associated Press. 8 acquitted due to diplomatic immunity. Chief Robert Seldon Lady (8 years), Consular Official Sabrina De Sousa (5 years), Lt Col Joseph Romano (5 years).]
Tyrol-Tirol / Trentino-Alto Adige Austria & N. Italian Alps: Provinces of Bolzano &Trento. Trento [The Romans conquered the Tyrol in 15 B.C. Later, the region fell into the hands of various Germanic tribes. In 1363, it became part of Austria. After World War I (1914-1918), the northern part of the Tyrol became a province of the Austrian republic. Southern Tyrol given to Italy], KL Bolzano [Mussolini]
Veneto: Venetia: Ancient Ones Region NE at Adriatic Sea: Venezia: Islands of Venice [The capital of Venetia. 1629-1631: Great Plague: City had high death rates], Marquisate of Mantua [Rigoletto by Giuseppe Verdi], KL Malo [NW of Venezia: Venice]
Free Territory of Trieste NE at Adriatic Sea: CityKL Risiera di San Sabba [Near Trieste. In 1943 the personnel from the Lublin Death Camp are moved here. Large crematorium]
In 1946 the UN took over Trieste. USA & British Troops in Zone A: city of Trieste & area to the north. Yugoslav forces in Zone B, an area south of the city. In 1975, Italy took formal possession of Zone A, & Zone B became part of Yugoslavia.
Bononia: Milk Country [Emilia Romagna] N. Italian PlainFelsina-Bologna [Capital: Dialect: Romanesca. Etruscan civilization in Po Valley reached its height in 400s B.C. It centered around Bologna]
Ravenna [Papal States] N Italy at Adriatic Sea, S. of Bologna: Capital of the Western Roman Empire 402-476AD
Kingdom of Etruria [Toscana: Tuscany Region]Pisa, Florence, Siena, Livorno: Lucca, Modena Umbria Region: Central Italy: Etruria. Latium Region: Etruria.
Roma: Rome [Latium Region: Papal States] [Rome had the distinction of having the last Jewish Ghetto standing in Western Europe. getto: 1st person singular of gettare: dump, to throw away. 1944: Anzio, Rome falls. 1945: Mussolini captured by Italian resistance fighters & shot April 28. May 2: Italy surrenders. After WWII Red Cross Center for Displaced Persons process identification documents. 1947: Santa Maria del Anima Rector Austrian Bishop Alois Hudel at his Christmas speech at the Casa Geneliza in Via Sardegna brags that 110 wanted war criminals are safe here. Santa Maria del Anima Secretary Hans Maler forges passports, 5 to Venezuela. (129).]Duchy of Spoleto
Safinim / Sannio / Samnium: Summer Country [Principality of Benevento] South Central Apennines in Italy Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania in the west & by Apulia in the east. Principal cities of the region were Bovaiamom-Bovianum (Bojano or Boiano) & Malventum-Beneventum (today: Benevento).
Puglia: Apulia Region: Phoebus Apollo Forms the heel of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Bari & Taranto port cities.
Lucania: Raven Country
Regno di Napoli: Kingdom of Naples / Neopolis: Neopolitan: New City / Parthenope: Shape of A Woman [Campania Region] [1598: Treaty of Vervins: Finance Minister & Cardinal Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma (Seville,1552/3 — Valladolid, 1625), 1st of the validos: strongmen through whom the later Spanish Hapsburg monarchs ruled, with secretary Rodrigo Calderón establish the Inquisition. 1656: Plague kills half of Naples’ 300,000 inhabitants. 1939: Paul Hermann Mueller’s DDT used as an insecticide to fight typhus carried by body lice. WWII: Becomes a processing center for NAZI war criminals to emigrate along with Brechsen in S. Tyrol. SS man Wolfram Trak escapes over the Brenner Pass into Italy, smuggled to Argentina. SS Josef Vättel sheltered by Italian priests & a bishop (129)]. Principality of Capua [Mount Vesuvius (vuh SOO vee uhs): An active volcano that erupted in 1944, causing much damage. The Appian Highway built in 312BC has tombs & catacombs along the road], San Sebastiano [Vesuvius destroys city. Other eruptions: 79 AD, 472, 1631, 1794, 1822, 1855, 1872, 1880, 1895, 1906, 1929], Herculaneum & Stabiae [Mummified cities from eruption of Mount Vesuvius: 79 AD], Pompeii [Mummified city from eruption of Mount Vesuvius 79AD, near the Bay of Naples], Duchy of Amalfi [Gulf of Salerno],
Regno di Sicilia: Kingdom of Sicily [Magna Graecia: Great Greece / Emirate of Sicily] 1100: Formed as the Kingdom of 2 Sicilies with Napoli & Sicilia making 1 kingdom each. After moving to the court of King Roger II of Sicily, al-Idrisi prepared an important geographical treatise, often called The Book of Roger. Completed in 1154, it surveyed all the countries of the world known to Europeans & Muslims of that time. 1713: War of the Spanish Succession: Austria seizes Naples, & Savoy seizes Sicily. Austria trades Sardinia for Savoy’s Sicily. 1820: King Ferdinand. 1940: IBM Census
Italian Republic: La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino: The Most Serene Republic of Saint Marino [Papal States]
300 AD: Christian stonecutter Marinus founds
885 AD: Religious community
1300 AD: Towers built
1631: Independance recognized by Pope
1877: Treaty of Friendship with Italy
WWI: Joins the Allies.
WWII: Fascist rule. English bomb once in 1944
KL Chiesanuova [(pron. san muh REE noh) 24 square mile European country entirely surrounded by Italy. Located in the Apennine Mountains of northeastern Italy near the Adriatic Sea. Much of it – including its capital & largest city – stands on Mount Titano. Linked to Italian city of Rimini by railway, highway & helicopter]
Italian Republic: Vaticani: Vatican City [Papal States]
The Vatican has its own mail system, railroad stop for freight, telephone, water supply, lights, street-cleaning, bank, radio broadcasting tower, printing plant & jail.
Vatican City located entirely within the city of Rome. Vatican City is independent from Italy & has its own diplomatic corps. Vatican Hill once the site of Emperor Nero’s public gardens & circus.
Jamaica: Spanish for Hibiscus
1519: Spanish governor of Jamaica sends Alonso Alvarez de Pineda to explore the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico.
1660: Charles II of England seizes, starts the Royal African Slave Company. A reward is offered for Juan de Serras, leader of one of the free settlements
1700: Colonel John Campbell (d-1740): Black River sugar plantation
1737: Maroon Wars: Windwood Maroons led by Nanny, the African Queen. Leeward Maroons lead by Cudjoe. They free slaves in Jamaica. Nanny makes a vow on Pumpkin Hill in 1737 to fight the British to the death. When she signs the treaty she is wearing their dead teeth
Saint James [1830: Emancipation Rebellion of Western Jamaica: Sam Sharpe & 20,000 slaves set the Kensington sugar works Estate in St. James on fire. 201 rebels killed in fighting the combined forces of the British army, navy & local militia.], Kingston [1845-1884: 5000 Hakka Han Chinese arrive in Jamaica on 3 voyages; most under contract as indentured servants. 1854: 205 Panama Canal Chinese workers hospitalized & die of Yellow Fever. <50 survive. During 1960s-1970s, substantial migration of Hakka Jamaican Chinese to USA & Canada].
Japan [Nippon: nitsu: sun + phon rising / Zipangu: Marco Polo: Land of Gold]
Pika-don [Lightening Flash Explosion]

Regent Shotoku Taishi’s (574-622) letter to the Emperor of China: The Emperor of the land where the sun rises sends a letter to the Emperor of the land where the sun sets to ask if you are healthy? Origin of the name Nippon: source of the sun – Wikipedia: Sinocentrism.

James Franck (1882 -1964) Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Nobel Prize jointly with Gustave Herz at Göttingen Physics Institute for electron theory. 1933: Atomic reactor University of Chicago Franck report 1945: 7 scientists issue warning.

Edward Teller: Physicist at Goettingen, helped in the development of the H-bomb

Leo Szilard: Kaiser Wilhelm Institute fathers of the atomic bomb.

Max Born: (1882-1970) Göttingen Institute of Theoretical Physics Director, 1954: Nobel Prize for quantum mechanics at Edinburgh University

Werner Heisenberg:1932: Nobel Prize University of Leipzig Atomic Physics. 1941-1945: Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics Director

4 large islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, & Shikoku & thousands of smaller ones make up Japan. The 4 major islands form a curve that extends for 1,200 miles: 126 million people.

広島市: Hiroshima [Nobel Prize winner Albert Einstein Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics. Nazis put 50,000 Reichsmarks on his head & he warns that Germany might acquire sufficient quantities of uranium to produce extremely powerful bombs of a new type The Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima by Lt. Col. Paul Tibbetson from the B-29 superfortress Enola Gay]

長崎市: Nagasaki: Long Peninsula [In the Kyushu region. Setting for Giacomo Pucchini’s 1904 opera Madama Butterfly. Atomic bomb dropped by Major Charles W. Sweeney from the B-29 superfortress Bockscar exploding 1,540 feet above the ground. No survivors within a 500-yard radius of Ground Zero, the point above which the bombs exploded. Those beyond that lethal range recalled seeing in the 1st seconds a brilliant blue - white flash that became a burgeoning orange ball, emitting unbearable heat. Almost at once a violent blast of air shredded buildings, clothes & flesh, & everything combustible seemed to take fire]

May 1946, after the war, Einstein, presiding over the National Commission of Nuclear Scientists, declared: ‘The release of atom power has changed everything except our way of thinking, & thus we are being driven unarmed towards a catastrophe... The solution of this problem lies in the heart of humankind.’

Tokyo Shokonsha: [The shrine has performed Shinto rites to house the kami (spirits) of all Japanese & former colonial soldiers who have died in conflicts. Formosan Taiwanese who arrived to request the removal of their relatives from the shrine & to perform spirit-calling ritual prayer for the return of their ancestors’ souls were denied entrance, met by protesters & police. Tokyo also bombed April 18, 1942 in the Doolittle Raid by the USA.]
Iwo Jima Island [21,000+ Japanese troops bombarded by aircraft. 25,000 marines, 30% of the landing force, killed or wounded.]
Okinawa Island [April 1, 1945: Allied troops pour ashore. Japan sends kamikazes to attack the landing force. Battle ends June 21, kamikazes sunk 30+ ships, damaged 350 others, 50,000 casualties. 110,000+ Japanese died, including many civilians who chose to commit suicide rather than be conquered.]

Aerial bombing during World War II rained destruction on civilian as well as military targets. Many cities lay in ruins by the end of the war, especially in Germany & Japan. Land battles spread destruction over vast areas. After the war, millions of starving & homeless people wandered among the ruins of Europe & Asia. In addition, millions of people died in fires, of diseases, & of other causes after such essential services as fire fighting & health care broke down in war-torn areas.

Enjo Küsai [Child Prostitution]
Enjo küsai, compensated dating, is a practice in Japan where high school-aged girls are paid by older men to accompany them on dates & / or to render sexual services.
5 to 13 % of high school girls engage in enjo küsai. Telephone clubs supply customers with a list of mobile numbers.
Kenya: Mountain [British East Africa Protectorate]
Sterilization Camps
Kikuyu: Kere-Nyaga: Mountain of Whiteness
Sponsored by the Lions Club
1498: Portuguese Vasco de Gama
1888: Imperial British East Africa Company leases area from Sultan of Zanzibar
1895: British East Africa Protectorate
Part of East Africa: Horn of Africa with French Somaliland [Djibouti], Italian Somaliland [Eritrea], British Somaliland [Somalia], Italian East Africa [Ethiopia], & Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
1944-1956: Mau Mau Movement: Kikuyu members of the KAU: Kenya Africa Union vs English Detention Camps
1963: Independance
Dr. Cathy Burns: Little Known Facts About Focus on the Family 900 operations a week in Kenya, Samburu District [Laikipiak Maasai. Uhuru: Freedom & Independence: Pre-independance NDF: Northern Frontier District, Only government officials were allowed to enter. - Wikipedia]
Maafa [Great Disaster, Horror]
The boundary between Kenya & Tanzania, which runs as a straight line back & forth across the lazily winding Umba River; doing so, it cleaves tribes in pieces. Kenya a Commonwealth Nation: President Mwai Kibaki
Mombasa Island / Kisiwa ya Mvita: Island of War. [In Kiswahili. A major port on the Indian ocean, destroyed by the Portuguese in 1539. British East Africa Uganda Railway built in 1903 runs along the side to Lake Victoria. Railway workers died of disease or attack by wild animals. Films: Man-eaters of Tsavo, Bwana Devil, Ghost & the Darkness], Basso Narok: Dark Water a.k.a Lake Turkana [Extends to Ethiopia: Nile perch & Nile crocodiles.1888: Hungarian Count Samuel Teleki renames it Lake Rudolf after Austrian Crown Prince Rudolf], Lamu [Slave-Trading], Nairobi: Cool Waters [In Maasai. Capital city with airport & depot for the Ugandan Railway. Burnt to the ground & rebuilt after the plague of the early 1900s. Ominous looking Registration of Deserted Native forms. Now in a state of famine with 3 million+ dead, with high prices for maize flour - Kenyans Fight for Cheaper Food Prices, disease, tuberculosis clinics, national identity cards that must be paid for.], Malela [2007: CARE, one of the world’s biggest charities, is walking away from million a year in federal financing, saying American food aid is not only plagued with ineffeciencies, but also may hurt some of the very poor people it claims to help. CARE’s decision is focused on the practice of selling tons of American farm products in African countries that it says in some cases compete with the crops of struggling local farmers. CARE plans to phase out its reliance on the system by 2009 – Associated Press]
Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea [North Korea / Choson: Land of Morning Calm]
Korean War
1894: Sino-Japanese War: Jiaw War: Korea’s Joseon Dynasty [1392-1910] the last as Japan takes over & China succeeds. Emperor Gojong of Korea forced to abdicate his throne. Crown Prince Sunjong moved to Japan. Empress Myongseong or Queen Min stabbed & dismembered by Japanese mercenaries; her body thrown into a fish pond & later burnt. Cheong’duk Palace in Seoul’s Memorial. Korea looted, subjected to slave labor, prostitution, murder & torture. Journalism supressed.
1895: Japan owned all the Korean railroads & sent thousands of Japanese settlers to Korea.
1948-1994: President Kim Il Sung
1950-1953: Korean War: 1,600,000 Communist troops killed, wounded or reported missing.
1995-1998: Food Shortages 100s of thousands of people starve to death.
1998: President Kim Jong Il
1999: Food aid from around the world.
9 provincess: Pyongyang [Capital City with the Status of a Province. In 2333 BC, according to tradition, the 1st Korean state developed along the Taedong River, near Pyongyang. It was called Choson. 108 BC: China conquers. 932 AD General Wang Kon renames country Koryo. The word Korea comes from the word Koryo. 1392-1910: Choson Dynasty a.k.a Yi Dynasty: General Yi King of Koryo renames the country Choson. Invaded during the Korean War (133)], Chongjin [City & province], Hamhung [Coastal city & province. Invaded in Korean War], Kaeson [City & province]. Before 1894 Korea had been a tributary state of China for hundreds of years. 1948: Korea liberated from Japan, but split in half. USA took the S. & Russia the N.. Then North Korea invaded South Korea. Start of the Cold War.
Republic of Korea [South Korea / Taehan-minguk]
Korean War
1894: Sino-Japanese War: Jiaw War: Korea’s Joseon Dynasty [1392-1910] the last as Japan takes over & China succeeds.
1895: Japan owned all the Korean railroads & sent thousands of Japanese settlers to Korea.
1950-1953: Korean War: 1+ million South Korean civilians killed & several million made homeless. 560,000+ UN & South Korean troops killed or wounded or reported missing.
1977: 38,000 U.S troops remain
1979: President Park assassinated
1980-1981: Martial Law
1981: President Ronald Reagan announces no more United States troops would be withdrawm
1987: Chun pledged to allow direct election of the president by the people rather than by the electoral college
1992: President Kim Young Sam
1998: President Kim Dae Jung: Stock market crash, currency falls, unemployment
9 provinces. Inchon [City & province. Tides up to 30 feet], Kwangju [City & province, 1980: Kwangju Massacre: Hundreds of demonstrators killed under martial law], Pusan [City & province], Taegu [City & province], Taejon [City & province 75 miles S. of Seoul. U.S. Army 24th Infantry Division], Seoul [City & province, 10+ million people]. Before 1894 Korea had been a tributary state of China for hundreds of years. 1948: Korea liberated from Japan, but split in half. USA took the S. & Russia the N.. Then N. Korea invaded S. Korea & UN Forces captured Seoul in 1951. Start of the Cold War.
Kuwait: Water Fortress [Basra]
Persian Gulf War
661-750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750AD-1030AD: Abbasid Caliphate
1775: England seizes Kuwait. The starting point of their Desert Mail Service to Aleppo, Syria.
1880-1920: Kuwait included in a province of the Ottoman Empire called Basra.
1934: Kuwait Oil Company
1950: Schools built
1961: Independance from England. Admitted to UN
1967: Middle East Crisis Troops sent to Egypt
1973: Arab-Israeli War Troops sent.
1981: GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
1985: Sheik Jabar Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah survives assasination attempt.
1986: Iran-Iraq War Constitution suspended.
1990: Persian Gulf War Iraq invades on Aug 2, Iraq in debt to Kuwait from Iran-Iraq War
1991: UN Coalition expel Iraqi forces
2006: Sheik Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, dies. (126)
Kuwait City [2/3 of the population. According to World Book Encyclopedia many people are on welfare. Food is imported, while shrimp from Kuwait Bay is exported. Agriculture includes dates, tomatoes, hydroponic foods], The [Persian Gulf] war also caused severe environmental pollution, as the Iraqis set hundreds of Kuwaiti oil wells on fire & dumped huge amounts of Kuwaiti oil into the Persian Gulf ’ – David A Deese PhD, Boston College, World Book Encyclopedia © 1998.
Latvijas Republika: Latvia [Lettonie / Baltic States]
Kara noziegumi [People Murder]
15th & 19th Waffen SS Divisions ‘Letvian’: Obersturmführer, 1st Lieutenant: Nieland
Friedrich Jeckeln appointed HSSPF in Ostland: Eastern Front which encompassed the Baltic countries Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia & parts of Belorussia
1212-1562: Teutonic Knights invade: called Livonia
1562: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1621: Sweden conquers northern Latvia
1715: Great Northern War: Prussia, Russia & Denmark vs Sweden over control of Estonia, Livonia [Estonia & Latvia], Karelia [Finland] & Baltic Waterways. Frederick I Wettin of Prussia wins Livonia, orders all Gypsies over 18 years of age to be hanged & hunted for sport through 1835.
Latvians also known as Letts
1800-1918: Russia controls all of Latvia
1918-1939: Independence
1941-1991: Latvian SSR: Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independences
Kokenhusen [Livonia / Liivimaa / Vidzeme District: S. Estonia & N. & E. Latvia: Livonia crusader castle], VL Jungfernhof: Young Fern Temple [Extermination camp near Riga]
KZ Riga I: Riga [1201: Riga founded by the Teutonic Knights]
KZ Riga II: Riga-Kaiserwald: Riga-Emperor’s Forest / Meïaparks [1943: Inmates of Kaiserwald Concentration Camp put to work as slave labor by Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft, which used a large number of female slaves from Kaiserwald in the production of their electrical goods. Mines, farms. starvation, 1000s killed Oberstürmführer Zaue. Others murdered in the forest]
KZ Dundaga, KZ Eleje-Meitenes, KZ Lenta
Liebau / Liepâja [Town in Kurland / Kuramaa / Kurzeme Territory, W. Latvia: April 1942: SS Boris von Drachenfels & Eanny Segal document people being mowed down by the SS. People moved to a ditch & shot by SS Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich: The Butcher of Prague’s men. In the territory an estimated 14,000 SS men never heard from again after the war], KZ Salaspils [Konrad Kalejs. Office Administration of Oranienburg], KZ Spilwe
Liberia: Latin: Free Land
Mass Graves
Firestone Tire & Rubber Company / Goodyear
1470: Portuguese slave trade.
1816: ACS: American Colonization Society buys land to return free blacks. Many die from disease
1838: Commonwealth of Liberia: Commonwealth controlled by ACS.
1847: Independance: President Joseph Jenkins Roberts
Liberia accumulates foreign debt
1926: Firestone Rubber Plantations
Works with League of Nations Slavery Commission to abolish forced labor & inter-tribal slavery
1944-1971: President William V.S. Tubman
1971: President William R. Tolbert Jr.
1980: Coup: Master Sergeant Samuel K. Doe executes 13 ministers from President William Tolbert’s government.
1989: President Charles Taylor’s NPFL: National Patriotic Front of Liberia
1990-1996: Civil War: Gio & Mano, Krahn & Mandingo vs Government.
1993: None of the ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States-sponsored peace talks included human rights on the agenda, thus making the West African countries [16: Bénin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equitorial Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Niger, Sierra Leone, Sénégal,] complicit in the absence of any discussion of human rights protections or accountability for past abuses – Human Rights Watch
2001: Less than 1% attend school beyond secondary level. Most of the country’s people cannot read & write. Official language: English
Kpelle (central Liberia), Bassa (coast), Gio, Krahn, Kru, Mandingo, Mano.
Monrovia [Named after US President James Monroe. April 14, 1979: Black Saturday: Rise in rice costs causes riots & looting. 1990: Masked soldiers attack UN compound & shoot 40 dead. ECOMOG: Economic COmmunity Cease-Fire MOnitoring Group aligns with former President Samuel Doe’s AFL: Armed Forces Liberia & Prince Johnson’s INPFL: Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia. 1000s of West African nationals trapped in Liberia & 10s of 1000s of refugees flee to neighboring countries. 1992: Operation Octopus: Siege of Monrovia Taylor’s promise to kill ECOMOG soldiers. Killings, beatings, looting, house & hospital firebombing, displaced persons camps, mass grave at Gardnerville. 2003: President Charles Taylor (1989-) starving people; who are eating snails, leaves & flower bulbs boiled for 3 hours. Warehouses of the port stocked with food. Taylor is wanted at the UN-Sierra Leone War crimes tribunal for involvment in the Sierra Leone Civil war.], Farmington River [Firestone’s Rubber Plantation, the largest in the world, waste is dumped here. Mass grave with 50+ skulls (304)] Buchanan [8000 refugees in a convent. Catholic Relief Services food & rice warehouse bombed], Gbarnga [Seized by rebels. Relief workers report women & children dead], Kakata [1992: Air Strike. Rubber & cocoa, Factories produce soap, beverages, explosives & process farm, forest, & mining products. Oil refinery], Harbel [Air Strike: Firestone Hospital, looting], Greenville [1992: Air Strike kills 15+. 100s flee], Nimban County [1985: Nimbans ethnically cleansed by the Government’s Armed Forces of Liberia under President Samuel Doe. 700,000+, 1/3 the population, flee.], Grand Gedah County [1990: 5 European ambassadors issue a statement warning that Liberia is sliding into anarchy & national suicide. Starvation, Dead bodies, often mutilated, dumped on the streets of the city or washed up beaches. Bodies not picked up because people fear being labeled as rebels. (Human Rights Watch 304)]
Libya [Tripoli / Italian North Africa / Barbary States: Barbarossa]
Campos de Concentracion
202 BC: Rome establishes the Africa Proconsularis.
1139 AD: Count Raymond II of Tripoli
1518: Turkish Sea Captain Barbarossa drives the Spanish & Italians from coastal areas
1551-1911: Ottoman Empire
Oct 1911: Italo-Turkish War: Italian Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti declares war on the Ottoman Empire
1912: Italy invades. As a result of the war Italy gained Libya & the Dodecanese Islands.
September 1940: Mussolini’s Italian forces in Libya invade Egypt. Hitler sends tank units, known as the Afrika Korps, led by General Ernst Rommel: The Desert Fox.
December 24, 1951: UN grants independence
1969: Muammar Muhammad al-Qadhafi’s military revolt overthrows the ruling monarchy.
Tripoli /Tripolitania / Beida [Seaport. Originally a Roman Province, then ruled by the Ottoman Empire until seized by Italy in 1912. Capital of Libya. US Embassy sacked in 1979. US Bombing raid in 1986 kills 60. Accused of Human Rights abuses. Moammar al-Qadhafi], Cyrenaica [600 BC Greek Province. 1942: England seizes], Fezzan [SW Province. 1942: France seizes]
Lietuvos Respublika: Lietuva: Lithuania [Baltic States]
Ypatingi Buriai [Death Squads]
Karl Jager (1888-1959) Commander of the Sicherheitsdienst: Security Police for the General Commissariat of Lithuania. In charge of extermination, returned to Germany as chief of police. Arrested in 1959 & committed suicide
100 AD: Roman historian Tacitus mentions the people living near the Baltic Sea selling amber to the Romans.
1212 AD: Teutonic Knights invade
1251-1263 AD: King Mindaugas (assasinated)
1386-1795: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1795-1918: Russia
1918-1920: Independence
1920-1939: Poland
1939: Germany
1940-1941: Lithuanian SSR: Soviet Socialist Republic
1941-1944: Germany
1944-1991: Lithuanian SSR: Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independance
The longest & largest river is the Neman: Pearl (called Nemunas in Lithuanian). It begins in Belarus & drains most of Lithuania during its course to the Baltic. KZ Kaunas-Kowno / Kokvno [2nd largest city in Lithuania. SS Office of Economic Administration. Getto Kovno: Deportations to Majdanek. 1944: Deportations to Dachau & Stutthof], Kaunas-Kowno II: Aleksotaskowno, Kaunas-Kowno III: PalemonasKZ Proveniskiasi / Pravieniskès, [1951: male & female prison camp], Ponary [Jacob Gens’ Einsatzkommando 9, assisted by Ypatingi Buriai: Special ones kill 5000 Jewish men, another 47,500. 80 prisoners kept to open up the mass graves & burn the bodies], Memel-Klaipeda-Klaipèda [1252: W. on the Baltic Sea Coast founded by the Teutonic Knights. 3rd largest city in Lithuania. 1919: Under Allied control after WW I. 1923: League of Nations cedes Memel to Lithuania after the port city is seized], Telsiai Prison [Punishment squad led by Donrsov called to liquidate prisoners in 1941 in Rainai Woods. 80+ tortured, mutilated & killed. According to the coroner’s examination after the exhumation, both the report & the testimonies of witnesses, concured that the Soviets cut off tongues, ears, genitals, scalps, put genitals into mouths, picked out eyes, pulled off fingernails, made belts of victims’ skins to tie their hands, burned them with torches & acid, crushed bones & skulls, & was done to living people. Massacre Organizers: Pyotr Raslan, 8th Border Army Mikhail Company Boris Mironov, NKVD Kretinga county deputy director Yermolayev, NKVD lieutenant Zhdanov. – Adomas Butrimas, Telsiai Region. History & Cultural Heritage],KZ Vilna / Wilno / Vilnius [Capital of Lithuania. Polish-Soviet War: Lithuania signs a peace treaty with Soviet Union that lays out Lithuania’s frontiers. Control of the city of Vilnius to Lithuania which became the seat of government. 1920-1938: General Zeligowski of Poland seizes & claims the central government of Lithuania under their protection. Annexed to Poland until 1938. European Volunteer Movement WWII.Liquidated 3700 sent to camps in Estonia & Latvia; 4000+ children, women, old men sent to Sobibór. 1000+ went into hiding in the Rudninkai & Naroch forests. 1944: liberated], KZ Volary
Malaysia [Malacca / British Malaya / British East Indies]
British Borneo Company / Royal Dutch Shell
1400 AD: Sumatran Prince Paramesvara of the Srivijaya Kingdom establishes Melaka. / Malacca Kingdom that controls the trade route through the Strait of Malacca.
1450: Melaka’s prosperity draws attention: Europeans wish to seize control of the spice trade.
1511: Fernao de Magalhaes a.k.a Ferdinand Magellan seizes Malacca for the Portuguese. The Malays move their center to Johor. Descendants of the ruling family of Melaka found other kingdoms on the peninsula
1641: Dutch seize Malacca / Melaka.
1786: British seize Penang Island.
1824: Anglo-Dutch Treaty divides British Malaya & Netherlands E. Indies: Indonesia.
1826: Straits Settlements: British East India Company Colony: Singapore, Melaka, Penang-Wellesley, & islands of the Dindings district.
1841: Sultain of Brunai cedes Sarawak to wealthy Englishman James Brooke & bestowes on Brooke the title rajah. Brooke & his descendants, called white rajahs, rule Sarawak as a self-governing state until the 1940s.
1881: North Borneo-Sabah seized by the British North Borneo Company.
1914: British Malaya: Kuala Lumpur is segregated by ethnicity: Malay, Chinese, Indian. British representatives seize each kingdom.
1930s Depression
1942-1945: Japanese occupation
1948-1960: Batang Kali Massacre-Malayan Emergency: Military police inspecting identity cards which are used for rice rationing IBM technology. Lieutenant General Gerald Templer’s intelligence network bribes for information.
1951: British High Commissioner, Sir Henry Gurney assasinated. Viscount Alan Tindal Lennox-Boyd of Merton (1904-1983) Minister of State for Colonial Affairs 1951-1952
1958: Miss Helen McWiney, Deputy Chief Commissioner for Overseas Territories in the Commonwealth
1963: British Malaya becomes Malaysia with acquisition of the British territories Sarawak & Sabah: North Borneo & Singapore: Lion City. Affirmative action creates a discontented class of educated but underemployed Malays.
1964: Indonesia invades Malaysia.
1965: Singapore withdraws from Malaysia & is independent.
1969: Race riots, emergency rule & a curtailment of political life & civil liberties which has never been reversed
1971: Bahasa Melayu: Malay language adopted. Lau Pak Khuan conferred Datuk Seri title by Malaysia Sultan leads unsuccessful bid for Chinese official language status during drafting of Malaysia Constitution
1995: Jury trials abolished
2001: Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy. Armed forces of Malaysia has 3 branches: the Malaysian Army, the Royal Malaysian Navy, & the Royal Malaysian Air Force.
Peninsular Malaysia consists of Kuala Lumpur City, Putrajaya City & 11 states on the Malay Peninsula. Borneo Malaysia has Sarawak, Sabah & Labuan Island. Rural Malays live in villages called kampongs.

1880s British expand tin mining, introduce rubber trees from Brazil & establish rubber plantations. British import Chinese workers for the tin mines & Indian laborers for the rubber plantations. British encourage Malays to farm for a living.

Tin, timber, resin, petroleum, gold mines insured by Lloyd’s of London. English plantations: tapioca, gambier, spice, cocoa, bananas, pepper, coffee, Ulu Tilam Rubber Estate, palm oil have indentured servants from India, southern China.

1948-1960: Batang Kali Massacre-Malayan Emergency: Workers fight plantation owners. Special Air Service Jungle commando unit, Special Constabulatory Unit, Gurkha Unit. 1950-1952: Transmigration Programme-Resettlement Plan: Resettlement of half a million plantation workers into 500 Resettlement Camps with round-the-clock armed sentries & barbed wire fences.

ProstitutionMedan, North Sumatra [Prostitution syndicate trafficking Indonesian girls & women from Medan to Malaysia. Syndicate makes identity cards & is accused of working with immigration officials to facilitate the departure of the women. Junior high school graduates told they will have good jobs as cellular phone shop attendants & then forced into prostitution. – Jakarta Post]

Singapore: Sanskrit for Lion City [Indonesia / British East Indies / British Malaya]

100AD-1200 AD: Temasek: Sea Town
1200 AD: Singapore: Lion City in Sanskrit applied to the island & city.
1377: Javanese invaders use as pirate base.
1819: Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles of the British East India Company, gains possession of the island through an agreement with a sultan of Johor (now part of Malaysia)
1822: Sir Stamford Raffles & Lieutenant Philip Jackson colonize Singapore by segregating people into 4 areas. European Town: European traders, Eurasians & rich Asians. Chinese Kampong: Chinese, Chulia Kampong: Indians, Kampong Glam: Muslims, Malays, Arabs.
1824: Anglo-Dutch Treaty divides British Malaya & Netherlands East Indies: Indonesia. All of Singapore comes under English control.
1826: Straits Settlements: British East India Company forms: Singapore, Melaka, Penang-Wellesley, & the islands of the Dindings district.
1915: WWI: Ghadar: Urdu-Punjabi for Rebellion-Singapore Mutiny-1915 Sepoy Mutiny: Har Dayal to oust the English from India, by armed revolution & enlists aid of the Madras Sepoy regiment sent to Singapore. England declares Martial Law & passes the Reserve Force & Civil Guard Ordinance requiring compulsory military service from all males between 15 & 55 years of age.
1917: Lord & Lady Baden Powell’s Girl Scouts at Church of England Zenana Missionary Society School.
1920: English build air bases & naval base on Singapore
1942-I945, Japanese troops occupy.
1946: Straits Settlements dissolved. Singapore a separate crown colony.
1959: Suzereignty. England responsible for defense & foreign affairs.
1963: Singapore joins Malaysia
1965: Chinese-majority Singapore seceeeds from Malaysia & becomes a nation
1968-1981: People’s Action Party holds all 81 seats in Parliament.
1999: Unisys Smart Card introduced.
2006: Amnesty International has criticised Singapore for having possibly the highest execution rate in the world per capita. British Gurkha regiment is the Singapore Police Force. Mandarinization Program: The decision of the government to dub Hong Kong Cantonese & Taiwan Min programs into Mandarin when 16% of the Chinese population actually speak Cantonese, 65% speak Min & the rest speak Southern Chinese dialects not related to Mandarin. – Wikipedia.
Singapore is a free port: goods can be unloaded, stored, & reshipped without payment of import duties.
Prime Minister: Lee Hsien Loong
Singapore is a small island country in SE Asia. It lies near the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula about where the South China Sea & the Indian Ocean meet. The sea is an arm of the Pacific Ocean. Singapore consists of a large 221 square mile island called Singapore & more than 50 smaller islands with a comined area of 18 square miles. Singapore has 4 official languages: Chinese (75% of the population), English (the language of instruction in all schools), Malay (15% of the population), & Tamil. More than 90% of the country’s people live in the city of Singapore on the southern coast of Singapore island. Singapore has 55,000 people in its army, navy, &anp; air force. Men must serve 2 years in the armed forces after reaching the age of 18. Its factories produce: chemicals, electronic equipment, machinery, metals, paper, rubber, scientific instruments, textiles, clothing, transportation equipment. Industries: food processing, lumber, petroleum refining, shipbuilding. Singapore has many banks, insurance, finance companies, & a stock exchange. Only a small % of Singaporeans work in agriculture. The nation's farmers produce eggs, pork, poultry, orchids, fruits & vegetables. A bus system serves almost every part of the island. A railway links Singapore with Malaysia. Changi International Airport is the nation’s chief airport. Singapore belongs to the Association of SE. Asian Nations.
Mauritania [Sahel / Afrique Occidentale Française: French West Africa]
Bafours the ancestors of the Soninke, a Mande speaking people. Soninke Hereditary king called the Ghana.
Romans called the people of northwestern Africa Mauri & the region they lived Mauritania
1076: Invaded by Al Murabitun monks.
1400: Portugal invades
1600-1800: England, France & the Netherlands fight: gum arabic trade
1895-1960: French West Africa
1970: Morocco recognizes independance
1970s-1980s: severe droughts cause loss of livestock & food shortages
2006: Oil discovered
Nouakchott [Capital City], Kumbi Saleh [Capital of Ghana Empire], Mauritanian 30-Year War (1644-74) Hassaniya, a mainly oral, Berber-influenced Arabic dialect that derives its name from the Yemeni Beni Hassan tribe became the dominant language. Castes developed, yielding ‘white’ Moors (the aristocracy), kewri (the indigenous peoples who were never enslaved) & ‘black’ Moors or haratin (the formerly enslaved).
Mauritius: Prince Maurice of Nassau [British Indian Ocean Territory]
1598: Seized by the Netherlands
1715: Seized by France & named Ile de France
1810: Seized by England
1835-1907: Indian laborers
1968: Independance
(Pronounced maw RIHSH uhs) Country consists of Mauritius Island just E. of Madagascar [Sugar exported], Rodrigues, Agalega, Cargados Carajos Shoals, Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia.
México [Métzli: moon + xictli: navel, center, son]
Estados Unidos Méxicanos: United Mexican States
1520: Bristol Company
1536: Mexican Inquisition: Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga, 1st Bishop & Archbishop of México (died 1548) establishes the Inquisition under Pope Clemente VII on Yucatán peninsula in conjunction with Don Francisco Marroquín, Bishop of Guatemala.
1536-1910: Land stolen. Only Spanish born colonists allowed to own land & plantations. Mexicans working on large estates called haciendas for wealthy landowners.
1600s: China poblana: Named for a Chinese princess kidnapped & sold in the slave market of Acapulco.
1810-1821: War of Mexican Independance: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s Grito de Dolores: Cry of Dolores in Dolores town calls for independance from Spain. Father José Maria Morelos y Pavon (executed) continues struggle. King Ferdinand VII’s armies invade. Spanish General Agustin de Iturbide & rebel leader Vicente Guerrero join armies. México independent.
1822-1823: Emperor Augustin I de Iturbide (overthrown)
1824: President Quadelupe Victoria
1829: Spain attempts to reconquer Mexico
1834-1855: US-Mexican War: President General Antonio López de Santa Anna (1975-1876): Texas, part of Mexico, revolts. France invades Veracruz in 1836. México cedes following territories to US: Arizona, Alta: Upper California, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming
1855-1872: Mexican Civil War / War of the Reform: President Benito Pablo Juárez (1806-1872), a Zapotec, stops payments on debts to England, France, & Spain. England, France & Spain invade Veracruz
Batalla de Puebla: Cinco de Mayo: May 5, 1862: General Ignacio Zaragoza, Infantry General Jaime Garcia, Calvary: Porfirio Díaz, the Zacapoaxtla & Xochiapulco defeat Count Charles Latrille de Lorencez’ 6,500 artillery troops. Victory quashed Napoléon III’s hopes of a quick takeover of México, which he was planning to use as a base to aid the Confederates in the American Civil War. Napoléon III withdraws forces. Emperor Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria (shot by Juárez), & Empress Carlotta of México (flees to Europe)
1872-1876: President Lerdo de Tejada (overthrown)
1876-1911: President General Porfirio Díaz (exiled to France)
1910: Mexican Revolution: Landowner Francisco Indalecio Madero runs against Díaz in a presidential election. Díaz imprisons him in San Luis Potosi. Madero flees to the United States on release. From San Antonio, Madero issues the Plan of San Luis Potosi: armed struggle.
1911-1913: President Francisco Indalecio Madero (assasinated)
1913-1915: President General Victoriano Huerta (leaves country) vs State Governor Venustiano Carranza. United States President Woodrow Wilson openly sided with Venustiano Carranza’s revolutionaries &. supplied them with arms. USA forces seize Veracruz April, 1914.
1915-1920: Républica Mexicana: President Venustiano Carranza (assasinated): Carranza’s armies vs Doroteo Arango a.k.a Francisco Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata. Villa crosses border in 1916 & raids Columbus, New Mexico. President Wilson sends General John J. Pershing into Mexico, but Pershing’s troops fail to capture Villa. <25% people read/write Spanish.
1920-1924: General Alvaro Obregon assasinates Carranza
1924-1928: President Plutarco Arias Calles (a wealthy landowner who had fought Huerta & Villa)
1928-1934: Peasant Rebellion: President Emilio Portes Gil
1934-1940: Oil Strike: General Lazaro Cardenas
1940-1946: President Manuel Avila Camacho’s bracero: day laborer program. Mexican agricultural workers sent to USA. México manufactures war equipment & sends air-force to the Philippines
1946-1952: President Miguel Aleman Valdes names Cuauhtemoc, the last Aztec emperor, huey tlatoani: great speaker a symbol of Mexican nationality.
1952-1958: President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines: Death rates reduced with expanded health care services.
1958-1964: President Adolfo Lopez Mateos
1964-1970: President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz: Government imports corn & sugar. USA companies set up maquilas-maquiladoras: assembly plants without paying duty, provided finished goods exported.
1970s: Army & secret police disappeared 100s of people.
1970: President Luis Echeverria Alvarez: Oil exported to USA
1976: President Josée Lopez Portillo: Currency devalued
1982: President: Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado: Mexican Economic Crisis: Unemployment
1988: President Carlos Salinas de Gortari
1994: President Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León: NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
1995: Economic Crisis: Currency devalued
2000: President Vicente Fox Quesada: 3,500 Plants employ 1.3 million workers. Maquila wages are 4 times the Mexican minimum wage. Plants make billion worth of goods. El Paso, Texas, once a center of clothing manufacturing closes down.
2000: Plan Sur: Plan South: 168,000+ Central American migrants caught crossing from Guatemala are deported back to their home countries, chiefly Honduras, El Salvador & Nicaragua.
2001: More than half of Mexico’s population under 20 years of age. Urban Centers report lacking adequate housing & clean drinking water
Manufacturing (cars, chemicals, processed foods, steel), agriculture (crops grown on 1/8 of land. 1 of the world’s leading producers of cacao beans, coffee, corn, oranges, & sugar cane), mining (leading world producer of silver, also: gold, lead, salt, sulfur, oil), forestry (ebony, mahogany, rosewood, walnut, pine & valuable hardwoods) & tourism.
175,000 men & women serve in Mexico’s army (130,000), navy, & air force. Mexican men required to serve part-time for a year in the army after reaching the age of 18.
México has 31 states & 1 federal district: Each state has an elected governor & legislature. The Federal District is governed by the elected mayor of Mexico City. All prominent political figures in the executive branch depend indirectly on Mexico’s president for their jobs. The president introduces many pieces of legislation & many have used constitutional amendments to support government policies. The president is elected by the people to a 6-year term & serves 1 term. Mexico’s legislature is called the Congress. It consists of a Senate (128 members) & Chamber of Deputies (500 members). Supreme Court (21 members).
Hand weaving is an ancient art & a region can be identified by the colors & designs.
Major languages: Maya, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Otomi, Tarascan, & Zapotec. In many homes, several generations of the same family live together.
Rural life: 1 out of 4 people lives on a farm or in a small vilage. Village homes stand along dirt roads or cobblestone. The people spend 1 day a week at market chatting with friends & doing business. Ejidos: farmlands held in common by communities include half of Mexico’s total cropland. The remainder is divided between small family farms & large haciendas the Mexican government has not broken up. Mexico has some highly modern & productive commercial farms owned by a few people, who are prosperous. The vast majority of Mexican rural dwellers live in poverty. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Baja California Norte: Lower California North State: Calpollis: Ancient Name for Family Groups: 1951 [1853-1855: Soldier of fortune William Walker seizes Baja California & declares it a Republic. He is imprisoned & freed, He invades Grenada, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, & Costa Rica. Walker becomes president of Nicaragua & writes The War in Nicaragua He is overthrown by Cornelius Vanderbilt with US forces; handed over to the British & executed in Honduras in 1860. The former territory was admitted to statehood as Baja California on Dec. 31, 1951. In 1974, its name was changed to Baja California Norte to distinguish it from the state of Baja California Sur], Tijuana [Large city], Mexicali [State capital: Lowest point in Mexico is in the far northern area, near Mexicali. This area, 33 feet below sea level, is the southern end of the huge Imperial Valley of California], Baja California Sur: Lower California South State: Calpollis: Ancient Name for Family Groups: 1974 [Calpollis are the ancient name for family groups], Sonora State Ciudad Obregon [Alvaro Obregon born in Navojoa district & raised a force of Yaqui people in 1912], Chihuahua State Borders New Mexico & Texas. Chihuahua City [1846: USA Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan’s 850 troops from Santa Fe, New Mexico capture the Mexican city of Chihuahua. Battle of the Sacramento: Feb. 28, 1847. Americans occupied the city March 1]. El Brazito [1846: USA troops defeate Mexican army]. Apache & Navaho War / Long Walk Massacre: Apache Nation [Geronimo] fights USA General Nelson A Miles. Death march. Land divided between US & Mexico. Geronimo grew up among the Nednais, a southern band of Chiricahua Apache, in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. His Apache name was Goyaale, which means the smart one. The Mexicans gave him the name Geronimo, which means Jerome in Spanish. Geronimo escaped from the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona & fought U.S. troops in the Southwest & in Chihuahua. He was returned to the reservation in 1880, Ciudad Juarez / El Paso del Norte [1662: City on the Rio Grande River, opposite El Paso, Texas. 1888: Renamed for President Benito Juarez, a Zapotec from Oaxaca. 1963: US-Mexican border dispute settled. United States returns 630 acres of land, including part of El Paso. Mexico transfers 193 acres near El Paso to the United States. 2004: 350 maquiladoras (91) 2009: Mexican government forces vs drug cartels], Culiacan State [S. of Sonora State: Nahua people at Culhuacan], Durango State: Doroteo Pancho Villa Arango Durango [Doroteo Arango a.k.a Pancho Villa. born here], 1500s: Spaniards establish huge ranches & mines. In the Durango & Chihuahua areas, vaqueros: cowboys develop skills at riding & roping cattle. American cowboys later copied these skills. Coahuila State Cuatrocienagas [President Venustiano Carranza Governor of Coahuila], Nuevo León: Spanish New Lion State Laredo [1755: City included what are now Laredo & Nuevo: New Laredo. They became separate cities in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo established the boundary between Mexico & Texas], Monterrey [City of 1,069,238 near Texas border. Linked with Laredo, Texas by Pan-American Highway, 1560: Spaniards mining in the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountain Range. Major center of the Mexican steel industry. 1846: Mexican War: General Zachary Taylor, later USA President, seizes Monterrey, Saltillo & Victoria, important towns of NE Mexico (133: 110). 1891: American Smelting & Refining Company: Meyer Guggenheim. Eventually, Guggenheim’s mining & smelting operations extended to South America & Africa], Tamaulipas State Matamoros [1846: USA General Zachary Taylor drove the Mexicans across the lower Rio Grande to Matamoros in the 2 battles of Palo Alto & Resaca de la Palma. On May 18, Taylor crossed the river & occupied Matamoros. Mexico still refused to negotiate with the United States.] San Luis Potosi: Saint Gleam State San Luis Potosi [Industrial city] Zacatecas State [1546: Spanish Silver Mines. Large shipments of silver became the fabled source of wealth. During the 16th century, Spain held the equivalent of US.5 trillion in gold & silver received from New Spain. (Wikipedia: Spanish Empire)], Nayarit State, Jalisco State [Colotlán] Guadalajara [1531: Founded by Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortez Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán & named for the city in Spain. Capital of Jalisco], Colima State [President Miguel De la Madrid Hurtado], Aguascalientes: Spanish Hot Waters State Mazatlán [Listed in World Book Encyclopedia as part of the Sinaloa State], Guanauato: Place of Frogs State [Purepuecha. 1520: Spanish Silver Mines], Michoacán: Place of the Fisherman State Michoacáan [West Central: Purepuecha-Tarascan massacred by Guzmán. President Lazaro Cardenas from here. Mictlantecuhtli, ruler of the dead], Tzintzuntzan [(Pronounced tseent soont SAHN): Ancient capital], Hidalgo State: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Querétaro State Querétaro [Volcanic area & manufacturing area],Tlaxcala: Place of Maize Tortillas State [Thin corn-meal pancake called a tortilla in Spanish is a tlaxcalli], Estado de México: Mexico State: Moon Center Netzahualcoyotl [Pronounced nay tsah wahl KOH yoht uhl: Large city with a population of 1,256,115. It has many poor people], Toluca [State Capital], Ecatepec [Large city with a population of 1,218,135: The people who call themselves Colhua-Mexica, Mexica, & Tenochca are called Aztecs in English history books], Morelos State: Father José Maria Morelos y Pavon [Borders District Federale], Valladolid [now Morelia],Distrito Federale: District Federal: Tenochtitlán: Place of Prickly Pear Cactus [Pronounced tay nohch TEE tlahn: Situated on an island in Lake Texcoco. 2001: 8,235,744 people. Texcoco: 1419 AD: Ruler Nezahual Coyotl, August 31, 1521: 11 million+ civilians & priests murdered under Cortez. Mexico City built over the ruins. 1847: Scott Campaign: USA troops under Generald Winfield Scott win the battles of Contreras & Churubusco on August 19 & 20. After 2 weeks’ armistice, the Americans won a battle at Molino del Rey & stormed & captured the hilltop fortress of Chapultepec [Chapultepec Castle, pronounced chu PUHL tuh peck, the residence of some former Mexican presidents]. Nicholas P. Trist, Chief Clerk of the USA Department of State negotiated a settlement with Mexican leaders. The treaty was signed on Feb. 2, 1848, at the village of Guadalupe Hidalgo, near Mexico City. (133: 110) Tlatelolco Plaza October 2, 1968. Student protestors threatened to embarrass a country busily preparing for the Olympic Games. The army shot 100s of them that night- & then set out to suppress all knowledge of the event. 1998: World’s leading silver producer], Guerrero State: General Vicente Guerrero[Mixtec Codices: Central Mexico], Puebla State [Beginning in the 1200s, Mixtec kingdoms integrated with kingdoms of the Zapotec through intermarriage of rulers & political alliances. The Mixtec also conquered several smaller Zapotec kingdoms in the Valley of Oaxaca. Later, the Mixtecs came under the rule of the Aztec Empire (World Book)]. Puebla [Factories]Oaxaca: Huaxyácac: Place of Guaje Trees State [Pron wah-ha-ka.], Monte Alban [500 BC Pyramids built on a flattened volcano in the volcanic mountain range Spaniards name Sierra Madre del Sur], Much of the gold of the Aztec empire probably came from the Oaxaca Plateau. (World Book) Veracruz: Spanish View of the Cross State S. Mexico: Olmec: Gulf of Mexico. Oil well Veracruz [1846: USA President James Polk’s army invades. 1847: USA Army General Winfield Scott with 10,000 men captures the city. The American army stormed a mountain pass at Cerro Gordo on April 17 & 18 & pushed on towards Mexico City. (133: 110)]. Tabasco State [SE Mexico on Bay of Campeche. Rainforest & oil wells. Good Friday 1519. Hernán Cortez Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán lands on the Yucatán peninsula at Tabasco], Campeche State Campeche [Oil well. Mexico a leading oil producer, but companies are foreign owned. Mayan City of Chicanná: House of Snakes Jaws. Doorway to the city is the mouth of Itzamná, the creator god, in the form of the Earth Monster. Linked with Becán: Road of the Serpent & Xpujil: Place of the Cattails nearby], Cabo [Escalera Nautica intends to spend .7 billion by 2014 in Los Cabos on a chain of yacht stops providing 10,000 hotel rooms. (91), Quintana Roo State [Yucatán Peninsula, pronounced yoo kuh TAN or yoo kuh TAHN, includes SE Mexican states of Campeche, Quintana Roo, & Yucatán; Belize; & part of El Peten, a department of Guatemala], Cancun [220-mile coral reef, 46,000 hotel rooms generate 40% of all Mexican tourist revenues. The former village of Cancun has 700,000 people, many who live in fenced-off squalor & have no access to the beaches. A leader of Yuxcuxtal: Green Life: our entire ecology has been concessionized. (91). Associated Press reports a bar arson with 8 dead in Castillo del Mar bar, in a poor area far from Cancun’s tourist area. Cartels & migrant traffickers operate according to Quintana Roo State Attorney General Francisco Alor.], Yucután State [Many keys: small islands in the gulf. Peninsula a low sacred limestone plateau: Limestone dissolves in water & rainfall reaches the sea through underground channels dissolved out of the rock. ...Most Indians live in villages in central & southern Mexico & the Yucatan Peninsula & are poor. Dishonest outsiders have treated many Indians unfairly, sometimes taking their land, exploiting them for cheap labor, or charging them higher prices for goods & services. As a result, conflicts between Indians & wealthier neighbors have occurred. (World Book Quote)], Chichen Itza [Tourist attraction with the other Mayan cities of Bonampak & Palenque in Chiapas, Tikal in Guatemala & Copán in Honduras], Chiapas State [1980s: 1000s of refugees from El Salvador, Guatemala, & Nicaragua settle in camps near the border in the Chiapas Highlands. (World Book) According to Time Magazine’s 2006 article HSBC, The Bank That Ate the World, 1 in 5 Mexicans have a bank account. China’s population of 1.3 billion people have 10 million credit cards compared with 1.2 billion credit cards in the US. In the next 25 years you’ll see economic wealth distributed more evenly with the world’s population – HSBC: Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corp Outgoing chairman John Bond (277)]
Prostitution Tijuana [Brothels], Guadalajara [2001: Population 1,650,205. Two U.S. pornographers who ran the International Male group recruited 300 Mexican children ages 7 to 11 to appear in their explicit productions. Some of the children are still missing.]
Mongolia [Outer Mongolia]
Country Split
1206: Temujin later named Genghis Khan/Chingis/Jenghis ruler of Mongolia. Mongol chiefs proclaim him khan of all the tribes.
1240 AD: Franciscan Friars John of Plano Carpini & William of Rubruck, visit Khan at Karakorum, Mongolia
1271 AD: Mongols establish Chinese Yuan: Red River Dynasty. Marco Polo sets off for China from Venice in 1271. More than 3 years later, he reaches Kublai Khan’s summer palace in Cambaleuc, Peking/Beijing
1500: Daya Khan
1578: Alta Khan: Golden King converts to Buddhism. He names Sönam Gyatso: Dalai Lama: Gyatso means Ocean. Dalai means Ocean in Mongolian.
1911: Lama Bogd Khan Last Emperor
1915: Kiaght Agreement: Outer Mongolia autonomous under Chinese soucerainty.
1925: Soviet Union invades
1939: Battle of Khalkin; Soviets defeat Japan
1991: Soviet President Gorbachev’s Glasnost: Openness
Outer Mongolia is the region that is part of Mongolia. Inner Mongolia: Nei Menguu is an autonomous region of China.

Life in Mongolia before Mongolian & Russian Communists took over resembled life in Tibet. The monks had religious & political power & great wealth. They owned large herds, which were given to them by the people as offerings. The youngest son of each family was expected to become a monk. The monks & a small group of nobles made up Mongolia’s upper class. The lower class consisted chiefly of herders who moved about the country with their flocks. The Communists established large livestock farms & tried to force herders to settle there. In the early 1990’s, the government allowed herders to leave the large farms. At the end of the 1990s the livestock herds & most agricultural land came under private ownership. (World Book Encyclopedia)

Morocco: Farthest West [Al-Maghrabiya / Barbary States: Barbarossa]
Vichy Camp de Concentration
Vichy law of 4 October 1940 provided that foreign nationals of the Jewish race would be detained in special concentration camps Laskier says there were 12 camps, & that the Jews there were reportedly suffering from harsh conditions, although their fate was better than that of the Tunisian Jews in concentration camps. Nevertheless, he characterized the Moroccan Jews’ situation at this time as precarious Although the King protected Moroccan Jews, Vichy restrictions imposed in Morocco included severe limitations on Jews’ professions & schooling, forced relocation to the mellahs (the Moroccan ghettos) & financial extortions, land expropriation, prohibitions from public office, & other regulations. – Encyclopedia Judaica, Robert Attal

770AD - 929AD: Idrisid Caliphate: Sultan Idris ibn Abdallah at Fez
929AD - 1031AD: Moroccan Umayyad Caliphate
1209AD - 1229AD: Caliphate of Córdoba vs Pope Innocent III
1240 AD-1420 AD: Moroccan Marinid Caliphate / Banu Marin: Spain invades Morocco. The last Marinid fortress in Spain fell to Castile in 1344
1420-1550 AD: Wattasid Caliphate
1506-1550: Spain & Portugal seize coastline
1550AD - 1650AD: Saadian Caliphate: Sharif: Descendant of Mohammed
1650 AD: Alaouite Caliphate: Alawi Sharif
1873AD - 1894AD: Sultan Hassan I
1904: Spain [North, Sidi Ifni Port, S Strip] & France [everything else]
1911: 2nd Moroccan Crisis
1921: Republic of the Rif: Abd el-Krim Muhammad Ibn ’ Abd al-Karim Al-Khattabi (c.1882–1963) leader of the resistance against French-Spanish colonial rule. After years of fighting, in 1925 Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain & a Spanish army of 250,000 soldiers use mustard gas. El-Krim exiled to Réunion from 1926 to 1947, given asylum in Egypt
1947-1955: Sultan Muhammad V urges Moroccan self-government. France exiled him. National Liberation Army vs French troops
1956: Independant protectorate of France & Spain.

Atlas Mountain Chain crosses the middle of Morocco from SW to NE. This area that crosses Tunisia, Morocco & Algeria is called the Maghreb: W. or Moghreb: Sunset

Fes-Fez [Camp just west of Taza. Gold trading route to Timbuktu, Mali]

Mellila [Spanish, resentful of Britain’s hold on Gibraltar, retain Ceuta & Melilla]

Oujda [Algerian-Moroccan border. Inmates sent to camp by train. Nov. 8, 1942: USA Lieutenant General Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States lands in Algeria & Morocco, defeating Vichy French forces]

Qued Zem [160 km inland from Casablanca, E. of Settat. Barbed wire across doors, windows, starvation, forced labor guards reinforced after escape of 10 Greeks (Holm 213)]

Moroccan Wall [The Wall of Shame, 2,500 km long defensive system of sand & stone walls with bunkers, fences, land-mines. Longer than the Berlin Wall & the West Bank],

Port Lyautey

Settat: Rudzin Camp #5 [S of Casablanca. 200 miles inland, forced labor, stone breaking, plantations, road work, starvation, no sanitation, dysentery, malaria, disease]

Sidi-El-Ayachi [Internment Camp: starvation, typhus, dysentery, malaria]

Taza [Forced Labor Camp. Transportation by rail from Casablanca under police escort. Communication with the outside world forbidden]

Tendrara [deportations to Natzweiler]

Western Sahara: Arabic for Desert [Spanish Sahara]
1509: Spain
1524-1860: Moroccan Rule
1860-1976: Province of Spanish Sahara
1976: Split between Morocco [North] & Mauritania [South]
1977: Polisario Front demands independance as SADR: Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic
1979: Mauritania gives up claim & withdraws
1991: UN supervised cease-fire
2001: Morocco claims. Some oppose the claim
Lies between Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania, & the Atlantic.
Republica de Mocambique: Republic of Mozambique [Portuguese East Africa]
Work Camps
1st inhabitants are the San, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples
1497-1975: Portugal seizes: Country became a slave-trading center
1855: Dr. David Livingstone follows the Zambezi River to its mouth in Mozambique
1961-1975: Front for Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) gains part of northern Mozambique.
1976-1980: Closes border with Rhodesia-Zimbabwe: Border fighting between Mozambican & Rhodesian troops.
1980-1994: Millions starve: Mozambique aids guerrilla forces opposing South African government. South Africa aids National Resistance Movement (Renamo) fighting the Mozambican government.
1994-2001: President Joaquim Chissano
Borders South Africa on the Zambesi river. Largest ethnic group, the Makua-Lomwe, 40% of the population. Most Mozambicans are farmers: tropical basins have extremely fertile soil. Economy depends on payments by neighboring countries for use of railroads & ports. Maputo & Beira are chief seaports. Cahora Bassa Dam produces electric power, much of which is transmitted to South Africa. Estimated 1 million+ dead in the war for independance, 1.7+ million exiles, several million internally displaced persons. Slave labor in mines. Portuguese sell labor to South Africa.
In the 1980's & early 1990's, droughts & disruption resulting from the civil war caused food shortages that led to malnutrition & starvation for millions of people. Frelimo & Renamo signed a peace agreement in 1992. Mozambique held its 1st multiparty election in 1994.
Myanmar [Burma]
Burned Villages: Papun District
Lies on the Bay of Bengal. 50 million people.
1500 AD: Toungoo Kingdom
1826: England seizes
1885: Third Burmese War: Burma a province of India until 1937
1937: Burma seperated from India. All-Burma Students’ Union call one another Thakin: Master, used before only in addressing the English.
1937-1938: 160,000 Chinese & Burmese build the 700 mile Burma Road to carry war supplies to China for its war against Japan. The road served as a back door to China, & avoided Japan’s blockade of the Chinese coast. From Lashio, Burma to Kunming, China.
1942-1945: WWII: Japanese forces advance into southern Burma. China sent troops into Burma to help England hold onto the Burma Road, where weapons, food, & goods traveled from India to China. April 1942, Japan seized & shut down Burma Road. In 1945 Allied forces united Burma Road with a new road, the Ledo Road, from Ledo, India. The road was renamed Stilwell Road after General Joseph Stilwell, who commanded U.S. forces in the WWII China-Burma-India theater.
Burmese refuse to join the British Commonwealth. Flag is red with stars representing: Burmans, Karens, Shans, Kachins, Mons [3000 BC: related to Khmer], Wa & Chinese.
1962: Ne Win’s BSPP: Burma Socialist Programme Party seizes government, newspapers, schools, economy, suspends Constitution. Restricted visits by foreign reporters.
1988: SLORC: State Law & Order Restoration Council Army Coup. SLORC changes country name to Myanmar.
1997: Council name change to SPDC: State Peace & Development Council. Major nations withhold economic aid because of the SPDC’s human rights violations
2002: 1 million Burmese live as refugees in Thailand.
ASEAN: Association of SE Asian Nations: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, & Vietnam,
Jadeite, or Chinese jade, a rare mineral, found mainly in Burma, Japan, California, & Mexico.
(pron MYAHN mah), Pagan [Capital of the Country on the Irrawaddy River, once ruled by Kublai Khan. Pagan has a Buddhist shrine ]
Mandalay [The Thais have had a longstanding interest in Burma’s valuable teak forests, while the Chinese have invested particularly heavily in Mandalay, the city at the Burmese end of the highway from China]
Tenasserim [1826: English seize]
Arakan [1826: English seize]
Yangon-Rangoon [1852: English seize. Previously named Dagon. 1990: Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1990 election, has been under house arrest in Yangon, the capital. Tazaungdaing: November 19th In memory of the robe Buddha’s mother wove for him, weaving competitions take place at pagodas all over Burma. At 5 pm several girls sit down at their looms in the Shwe Dagon Pagoda high above Rangoon weaving until each completes an entire robe. At dawn, monks lead a procession around the temple, & offer 1 robe to each of the 5 statues of Buddha.]

Papun District [SPDC: State Peace & Development Council state army murder, plant Chinese land mines, rice-tax. State destroys crops & murder livestock. Karen survive on herbal infusions, boiled bamboo shoots, ginger & klee root. State army has 400,000 men.]

Lu Thaw Township Ler Mu Plaw, Yay Gho Loh Der, Ta Er Nah Kee, Hser Tih, Loh Koh, Paw Kho Kee, Bler Ghaw, Hee Koh Loh Der, Dta Baw Meh Plaw, P ’Nah Ay Per Ko, K ’Baw Kee, Saw Ka, Taw Thu Kee, Na Ku Plaw, P ’Nah Po Plaw, Meh Hta Ko, Saw Toh, Pa Hta,Yu Loh Der, Khaw Thu, Wah Daw Klah/Mu T ’Ru Pu
Bu Tho Township Bwah Der, Meh Paw Mu Hta, Ma Mu Der
Dweh Loh Township Nya Peh, Noh Nay Pu, Meh Kleh, Nya Hsa Day, T ’Kaw Hta, P ’Nweh Hta, Meh Toh Kee, K ’Neh Khaw Hta, Maw Hta, Doh Koh Wah, Thay Ko, Hsaw Ph Hta, Hsaw Ph Kee, Lay Kee, K ’Waw Kee, Baw Naw Kee, Poh Loh Kee, Poh Loh Hta, Pway Day, Ler Wa Ko, Kloh Kee, Toh Meh Kee, Wa Tho Law, Noh Baw Law, Meh Paw Hta, Wa Law Kloh, Per Ko, Plaw Kee, Meh Paw Kee, Nya Hsa Kee, Ner Kee, Ler Toh Po, Ker Kaw Law, Maw Pu, Lay Hta, Da Baw Kee, Meh Gha Law, Paw Wah Der, Noh Paw Per, Dta Hu Law, Ka Pu Soh, Maw Thay Hta, Th ’Waw Kha, Th ’Waw Ku
Burned Villages: Nyaunglebin Dist: Mone Township Thay Nweh, Saw Tay Der, Wah Kee, Kh Day Ko, Taw Ray Der, Saw Nyeh Der, Tee Ner Hta, Nwa Lay Ko, Play Kee, Yaw Kee, Play Pa, Si Daw Ko, K ’Nay Kee, K ’Pah Hta
Kyauk Kyi Township P ’Yah Hser Der, Tee Mu Hta, Maw Kee, Kheh Der, T ’Kaw Der, Oo Keh Kee, Mu Kee, Doh Daw Kee, Tee Nya B ’Day Kee, Poh Hta, Po Khaw Der, Maw Lay Kee, Kee Tee, Hoh Lu, Peh Po Kee, Saw Baw Der, Lay Pway Kee, Shwegyin Township: Hsaw Gho Kee, Du Pa Leh, Tee Klay Kee, Tee Blah Hta, Thaw Gheh Ko, Tee Thareh Kee, Kaw Mu Der, Thay Ko Hser Der, Thay Ko Pu, Dta Say Der, Maw Pu, Saw Aw Hta, Meh Kyi Kee /Kyaw Mu Chaw Day
Concentration Camp Ku Thu Hta, Wa Mu, Meh Way, Klaw Hta, Meh Nyu Hta, Yan Myo Aung, Deh Kaw, Lay Bin Way, Kaw Tha Say
Nepal: Holy Mountain Abode
Gai Jatra: Cow Festival
October 8th: A queen was sad over the death of her child. The king sent a troupe of clowns to cheer her. The Nepalese believe cows open the gate of heaven with their horns, so families in which someone has died during the previous year let out cows decorated with flowers to wander through the streets. Clowns poke fun at the government & society, & people sing & dance.
1985: SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan & Sri Lanka.
Kathmandu Imperial Palace [1992: SAARC Tuberculosis Centre, 2001: Distraught prince high on drugs shoots & kills members of his Royal family. 2008: Associated Press reports monarchy is abolished], Chomolungma: Mother of the Earth: Mt Everest [1953: Sir Edmund Percival Augustus Hillary (1919-2008) with Tenzing Norgay climb the mountain. Hillary climbs 10 Himalayan: Abode of Snow Mts, crossing the Antarctic & Arctic. 1985: Hillary appointed New Zealand High Commissoner to Nepal, India & Tibet. 1996: 3 members of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police & 15 climbers die on Everest. Movies Into Thin Air: Deaths on Everest & Everest 2006: After Mark Inglis revealed David Sharp paid ,200 for an Asian Trekking climbing permit & he left him to die on Mount Everest, Hillary told the New Zealand Herald : They don’t give a damn for anybody else who may be in distress & it doesn’t impress me at all that they leave someone lying under a rock to die.]
1980s Bhutanese flee to Nepal, where they are admitted into 7 United Nations-run camps
Nepalese Civil War 1996-2006
Niger: Spanish for Black [French West Africa]
Mass Graves1884 Berlin Kongokonferenz: Triple Alliance: Mandingo-French War: Kongo Kingdom. Part of French West Africa: Afrique Occidentale Française: 1895-1960. The Sahara desert flows through. Sahara is Arabic for desert, so it is Desert desert Niamey [State Capital. 2005: 3.5+ million people starving. Plagues of locusts & drought. 30+ children dying every week of pneumonia, malnutrition-starvation. UNICEF is requesting donations.]
Nigeria: Spanish for Black [British West Africa]
Mass Graves
500 BC: Nok Culture: terra-cotta
11th Century: Kingdom of Nri (Igbo/Ibo People)
Kongo Kingdom
1796: Oyo Empire: Alaafin Awole deposed by Afonja, Aare Ona Kakanfo: Chief military commander of the army & Alim al-Salih
1835: Sokoto Caliphate razed Many slaves came from southern Adamawa in Cameroon or from the lands beyond Bornu.
1884 Berlin Kongokonferenz: Triple Alliance: Mandingo-French War: Belgian King Leopold II seizes Chad. England seizes Nigeria. Germany seizes Tangayika & Zanzibar. Italy seizes Somalia & Ethiopia.
1888: Protectorate of Great Britain. King Adeyemi I Alowolodu becomes a British Vassal.
1993: President Ibrahim Babangida allied with Liberia’s Doe Government. Troops sent to Liberia. Nigerian nationals hostages in Monrovia.
2001: Most populous country in Africa: 1/5 of Africa’s people: 35+ million. Largest British Commonwealth country with oil reserves in the SE. President Olusegun Obasanjo – Wikipedia
Lagos [State Capital dealing with large heroin problem. Center of Nollywood: Actors known in Ghana, Guyana, Kenya & Ivory Coast], Abeokuta [1899: British Lagos railway. Yorúbà County: palm oil, rubber, yams, shea butter], Biafra [1966: Ibo people targets of mass killings. 1970: Biafra ravaged by saturated air bombings; in great need of food supplies. Biafra re-incorporated into Nigeria. 1 million+ die of starvation alone], Kano [2003: National vaccination program suspended. Muslim clerics refuse US Polio vaccine as an effort by Westerners to sterilize young Nigerian Muslim girls. By May of 2004, polio reported to have spread to several other African nations which had previously been declared polio-free. On May 18, the state of Kano agreed to resume vaccination programs using vaccines produced in Indonesia, not the US], Ife [1200AD: Terra Cotta], Ilado [2006: People tap pipelines, seeking fuel for cooking. gasoline ignites on May 12th 2006 killing 200+],Yelwa [2004: Yelwa Massacre. 600 Muslims killed by Christians], Western Nigeria [Fon, Ewe & Yoruba: Vodún Priests]
Norway [Norge: Sea God Njord / Thule ]
Nasjonal Samling Folkemord [People Murder]
Watson Norsk, Jens Tellefson
300 BC: Greek Explorer Pytheas (pronounced PIHTH ee uhs) sailed around the British Isles & enters the North Sea, mentioning a land called Thule (pronounced THOO lee), believed to be Norway. – World Book Encyclopedia © 1998
1200: North German Merchants control grain
Norwegian is a dialect of Danish. Swedes, Norwegians, & Danes can usually understand each other.
1814: Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden
1905-1940: Independance from Sweden. Danish prince is Norway’s King Haakon VII
1918: Nansen Passport: Minister Fridtjof Nansen (pron. FRIHT yahf NAN suhn): Identification certificate for refugees. Directed return of German & Soviet war prisoners to their homelands.

Volunteer Legion Norwegen / 23rd Waffen SS Skijegerbataljon ‘Norge’: 1150 man reinforced battalion supported by Nobel-Prize winning author, Knut Hamsun. His son decorated with the Iron Cross, 2nd class

Operation Weserübung: NAZI authorities occupy Norway, impose martial law
NS: Nasjonal Samling AdministrasjonsrådetNorwegian NAZI Party Head of State: Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Quisling (executed)
Reichskommisar Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven
German Emissary: Curt Bräuer

Bredtvet [Oslo boarding school turned into a concentration camp]
Grini [Oslo. Main concentration camp run by the KDS Kommandeur Der Sicherheitspolizei: Security Police]
Christiania-Oslo [1624-1925: Christiania]
SS-Strafgefangenenlager Falstad [Levanger, Norway boarding school converted into a prison camp . Forced labor of political prisoners within Nazi-occupied territories. Executions in the forest just outside. Run by the GeStaPo under SS-Hauptscharführer Gogol & Hans Lambrecht, a prison guard known among the prisoners as Gråbein: Greyleg. Prisoners from Norway, Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Poland. Norwegian Jews deported to Auschwitz. 202+ exhumed bodies. Now a museum on human rights]
Norvik [Sea port receiving iron ore. Hitler lay explosives in the coastal waters to prevent England from cutting off shipments. Norwegian resistance workers destroy shipment of heavy water, a substance needed in the production of an atomic bomb, headed for Germany.]
Telemark [German Nuclear research program]
Trondheim / Nidaros [Sør-Trøndelag county in mid-Norway, by the mouth of the river Nidelven. 3rd largest city seized by German Forces & renamed Drontheim. ’The Nazis also contemplated a scheme to build a new 250,000 people city, Neu-Drontheim, centered 15 km SE. of Trondheim, near the village of Øysand in the outskirts of Melhus municipality. The new city—northern capital of a germanized Scandinavia—was meant to house the future German main naval base of the North Atlantic region, & would be the largest of all German naval bases.’]
Alterfjord /Lte Fjord
Badderboten / Badderen
Rotsuna / Rotsundelv
Nasjonal Samling Lebensborn [Spring of Life]
1935: Racially pure young girls raped by SS officers. Children given to SS nurseries for education & adoption to SS. Kidnapping of children in E. occupied countries who match the racial criteria of blond hair, blue eyes, etc.... to be Germanized. Children who refuse exterminated. – Heinrich Himmler: Lebensborn
Baerum [Pejorative terms tyskerunger: children of Germans, naziyngel: Nazi offspring, krigsbarn: war children], Berg, Gneisenau, Scharnhorst, Tromsdalen, Ulven [15 nursery centers called Lebensborn homes took care of the babies & their Norwegian mothers. After the war: torture, physical, psychological violence: addressed by numbers instead of names. Rettsoppgjöret: Post-war treason trials. Norwegian SS locked in stone fortresses, kept on starvation rations for 4-8 years.]
Oman [Sheba / Saba]
Sultanate of Oman

1500 AD: Portugal invades
1650 AD: Sultan bin Saif al-Yaribi forces out Portuguese
1740-1783: Sultan Ahmad bin Said
1798: English Treaty
1955: Sultan Said bin Taimur
1960: Sultanate of Oman Air Force Juniors Pipe Band tartan produced – The Complete Book of Tartan, Iain Zaczek & Charles Phillips, Hermes House, Anness Publishing Ltd, London: 88-89 Blackfriars Rd, © 2004. ISBN: 0681643013
Part of the ancient kingdom of Sheba a.k.a Saba which included Ethiopia & part of Yemen. 1981: Oman & 5 other Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf formed the GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council to work together on military defense. Following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Omani military forces took part in the 1991 ground campaign. (133)
Pakistan: Land of the Pure [British India]
2000-1500 BC: Pakhtuns / Pashtuns
550 BC-330 BC: Persia
330 BC: Mauryan Empire
46 BC- 400 AD: Kushan: Guishuang / Yueh-Chih Empire
1000 AD: Afghan Mahmud of Ghazni
1398: Mongol Khan Timur
1502: Vasco de Gama invades under Portuguese King Manuel I
1526: Battle of Panipat: Khan Babur establishs Mughal Empire
1530: Porgual seizes
1662: Passed to England in 1662 as part of Catherine of Braganza’s dowry to Charles I
1893: Sir Mortimer Durand: Ethnic Pashtun territories divided by Durand Line. Leads to strained relations between Afghanistan & British India-Pakistan
1905: Bengal State partitioned by Lord George Nathanial Curzon, Marquess of Kedleston, Viceroy of India. Millions of Indians die in a famine, Curzon does nothing
1902-1909: Commando Leader Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Earl of Khartoum & of Broome organizes the Bengal Army, Madras Army & Bombay Army
1928: Prince Aly Soloman Khan son of Aga Khan III; descended from the Shah Fath Ali Shah of the Persian Qajar Dynasty & Cleope Teresa Ginetta Magliano, a dancer with the Ballet Opera of Monte Carlo. His high profile lovers: British Debutante Margaret Whigham, Thelma Viscountess Furness who was simultaneously involved with the Prince of Wales
1947: Governor General: Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948): British India split into India & Pakistan at Punjab: Land of the 5 rivers. 5 Indus tributaries: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej & Beas.
1948-1949: Indo-Pakistani War: Pakistan claims Independant Kashmir & invades. The region’s Hindu ruler makes it part of India. United Nations arranges a cease-fire.
1956: Pakistan Republic: Major General Iskander Mirza
1957: Karim Khan, Aga Khan IV: 49th Imam of the Ismailis. Father: Aly Soloman Khan & mother; Joan Guiness
1958-1969: Prime Minister: Mohammed Ayub Khan (1907-1974): Afghanistan border disputes.
1965: Kashmir Dispute: India vs Pakistan. China aides Pakistan, USSR aides India. United Nations arranges cease-fire.
1969-1971: Prime Minister Yahya Khan (resigns): Indo-Pakistani War: Food & relief supplies delayed to E. Pakistan after tsunami. E. Bengal-E. Pakistan Province secedes to form Bangladesh with 3 million+ dead & 10 million+ refugees fleeing to India. Indira Ghandi’s Indian troops invade & withdraw from all provinces except Kashmir by 1972.
1972-1977: Prime Minister: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (executed)
1977-1988: General Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq: Martial Law: SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan & Sri Lanka.
1988-1990: Prime Minister: Benazir Bhutto (removed by Khan). President: Ghulam Ishaq Khan
1990-1993: Prime Minister: Mohammad Nawaz Sharif. President: Ghulam Ishaq Khan (both forced out by military)
1993-1996: Prime Minister: Benazir Bhutto (removed by Leghari). President: Farooq Leghari
1997-1999: Prime Minister: Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (exiled to Saudi Arabia), President: Mohammad Rafiq Tarar (overthrown)
1999-2008: General Pervez Musharraf: Constitution suspended
2008: Benazir Bhutto (assasinated)
2009: Sept 21: Columbia Broadcasting System Evening News Anchor Katie Couric: People withdraw. They do not call it the graveyard of empires for nothing.

There is no free speech in Pakistan. Blasphemy is a capital offense subject to hanging

Land of the Pure in Sindhi, Urdu & Persian. Official Language: Urdu. Punjab Province: Sanskrit for 5 Rivers [Punjabi language. The capital is Lahore: Country’s cultural center. Lahore the capital of the Sikh Empire before the English took it over. Indus Valley Civilization. 4500 –4000 BC disappearing without apparent cause Writing undeciphered. British Archaeologists excavate Harappa downstream & Mohenjo-Daro: Mound of the Dead at Larkana. They estimate the Aryans arrived a 1000 years later from Punjab with the sanatana dharma.]
Capital Territory of Islamabad-Federally Administrated Tribal Areas [Located as a territory in the Punjab Province.Islamabad: Marriott Hotel bombed. Bombing of Parliament building left a 25ft wide crater. Jim Shuto ABC World News, September 22, 2008]
Sindh Province: The Flood [Sindhi language. Indus is river flowing through the Great Indian Desert: Thar & is compared to the Nile. The Greeks dropped the 1st letter & referred to everything E. of the Sind as Ind or India. Captial is Karachi: Pakistan’s biggest city. 30 million mohajirs: (refugees in Urdu) from India. 2001: World Book Encyclopedia notes a shortage of fresh water in the city which must be pumped in from the interior of Pakistan. Wall Street Journalist Daniel Pearl’s abduction & beheading in Karachi in 2002 documented in the film A Mighty Heart.]
Balochistan / Baluchistan Province[Baluchi language] Quetta [1876: Seized by the English in a Treaty. University of Baluchistan located in this western Pakistan city. 2010: Suicide bombing claimed by the Pakistani Taliban kills 43 Shiite Muslims.]]
Azad Kashmir-Federally Administrated Northern Areas[Portion administered by Pakistani government divided into 2 administrative units.]
Northwest Frontier Province [1901: Kohistan, Peshawar, Hazara, Kohat, Banu, Dera Ismail Khan, Malakind (3 Princely Districts: Dir, Swat, Chitral), Khyber, Khuram, Waziristan], Peshawar [Emperor Kanishka of the Kushan Empire adopts Buddhism as the empire's official religion: his famous towering monument to house relics of Buddha the Gandharan school of sculpture at Peshawar]
Khyber [Khyber Pass links Pakistan & Afghanistan]
Waziristan [Sept 13, 2008: Marine Lieutenant Colonal Oliver North commented on the 700 Club that he did not see 90 civilian women & children murdered by American troops & he has been in the country for over a month. Singer Jello Biafra called him America’s Home-Grown Nazi in the 1980s referring to his tour in Central America], Mohammedkhel, North Waziristan [Oct 5, 2008: Mitlitants on Saturday buried the bodies of Arab comrades who were among at least 20 people killed when suspected U.S. missiles hit a house near the Afghan border, Pakistani officials said. The United States has launched a flurry of strikes in recent weeks against suspected al-Qaeda & Taliban targets in northwestern Pakistan, straining ties between the 2 anti-terror allies. 2 Pakistani intelligence officials, citing reports from field agents & informants said 14 Taliban militants & 8 Arabs died in the attack about 28 miles west of Miran Shah, the region’s main town (99:8)]
Damadola [U.S.A Predator drone’s 6 missiles destroy 3 houses. Parliament member Haroon Rashed documents 18 civilians killed. ‘Mohammed Rahim, 70, owner of one of the destroyed houses, wailed that several in his family had been killed. I can’t feed my own family. How could I afford to be hosting Zorayi? he said, mispronouncing Zawahiri’s name.’ – Sami Yousafzai, Mark Hosenball, Zahid Hussain, Periscope: Al Qaeda , Newsweek, January, 23, 2006]
Panama [Tierra Firme: Firm Land]
1513: Invaded by Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa (pronounced VAHS koh NOO nyayth day bal BOH uh)
1700: Bogotá the capital city of The Viceroyalty of New Granada contained the areas that are now: Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Panama.
1819: Venezuelan General Simon Bolivar defeats Spain
1821-1840: Panama a province of Gran Colombia.
1840-1841: Free State of Panama: President Tomas Herrera (1804-1854)
1841-1903: Province of Gran Colombia.
1850: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: USA & England an equal share in protection of a canal to be built through Central America. John M. Clayton, USA secretary of state, & Sir Henry Bulwer (1801-1872) British Minister to the United States.
1901: Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (pronounced HAY PAWNS fut): Signed by USA & England. Treaty gave the United States the sole right to build or supervise the construction of a canal across the Central American isthmus, as well as the right to manage it. All nations were to pay traffic charges & enjoy equal rights during peacetime. In wartime, the U.S. could close the canal to any nation. Treaty named for its negotiators – U.S. Secretary of State John Milton Hay (1838-1905) & British ambassador to the United States Sir Julian Pauncefote. – Steve C. Ropp, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science, University of Wyoming.
1903: Pacific War: Panama rebels against Colombia with help from the United States & becomes an independent country.
1908: Pacific War: Panama Canal: 1908: England launches 1st diesel-powered submarine.
1912: Panama Tolls Act: American ships use Panama Canal toll-free when sailing between U.S. coastal ports.
1915-1916: Panama-Pacific International Expositions: San Francisco & San Diego, California, USA
2007: France has requested extradition through the Geneva Convention of USA Prisoner of War Manuel Noriega, accused of laundering millions of dollars in drug proceeds through French banks.
Panama a center for the distribution of black African slaves in the New World Aruacas invaded, enslaved in Venezuela. Portobelo [1555: Sir Francis Drake, a slave trader in the Carribean, destroys it]
Paraguay [La Plata: Silver Viceroyalty]
Reducciones [Reductions]
1527-1529: Sebastian Cabot, son of John Cabot invades Río de la Plata, Parana & Paraguay rivers looking for a white king whose realm was supposed to be rich in silver.
1776: Paraguay part of the Spanish Colony: Viceroyalty of La Plata.
1806: English attempt to seize the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty.
1811: Spanish Governor overthrown. Independance declared.
1814-1840: Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia
1840-1862: Carlos Antonio Lopez
1862-1871: Francisco Solano Lopez (son)
1865-1870: War of the Triple Alliance: Argentina, Brazil, & Uruguay defeat Paraguay. Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias (1803-1880) leads operations against Paraguay. 60%+ of the population of Paraguay decimated.
1871-1932: 30+ presidents in power.
1932-1938: Chaco War: Bolivia cedes Grand Chaco to Paraguay.
1989: Dictator Alfredo Stroessner removed from power. Colorado Party in power.
(pron PAHR-ah-GWY) 1588-1767: Jesuit Order mission settlements for the Guarani called reducciones. Reducciones exported cotton, tobacco, yerba mate, hides, & wood under armed guard. By the 1730s, the Jesuits had built about 30 reducciones with a total population of about 140,000. ‘Many Spanish colonists came to envy the wealth and power of the Jesuits. They wanted to use the cheap Indian labor themselves on their farms. The Jesuits formed armies to guard the reducciones. Complaints from the colonists about the Jesuits’ power led the Spanish king, Charles III, to expel the Jesuits from all Spanish territory in 1767. The Jesuits left Paraguay, & the reducciones were abandoned. Some Indians returned to their old ways of life. Others worked on estates of the Spanish colonists.’ (133: 58). Paraguay Home of the Guarani. Books, newspapers, & magazines published in Guarani & Spanish. Most Paraguayans are very poor. Legal system described as inefficient by Professor Brett D. Wallach. Asuncion [1537: Conquistador Juan de Ayolas’ men built a fort. Under leadership of Domingo Martinez de Irala, Asuncion seat of government for all of Spain’s colonies in SE. South America. (133)]
Palau Islands & Federated States of Micronesia [Caroline Islands / Spanish East Indies]
1885: Spain.
1899: Germany
1918: League of Nations Mandate given to Japan
1944: United States forces capture Peleliu.
1947-1994: United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands under USA
1978: Self-government agreement divides islands into 2 groups – the Palau Islands & the Federated States of Micronesia. [Truk Islands, Yap Islands, Kosrae, Pohnpei]
1986: Federated States independence
1994: Palau Islands renamed Palau. Independance.
Archipelago of 930+ islands just north of the equator, between the Marshall Islands & the Philippines. The people of Palau & the Federated States of Micronesia control their internal & foreign affairs. But the United States must defend the islands in emergencies.
Philippines: Spanish King Philip II Habsburg [Spanish East Indies]
3000 B.C: Malays from Indonesia & Malaysia settle
April 27, 1521: Fernao de Magalhaes a.k.a Ferdinand Magellan (killed by islanders). Concepción ship abandoned
1565: Spanish General Miguel López de Legaspi names it after King Philip II Habsburg of Spain & Queen Mary I Bloody Mary of England.
1896: Emilio Aguinaldo, chief of the Katipunan, becomes the leader of the revolutionary forces, sails to Hong Kong.
1898: Spanish-American War USA seizes. US Military Governor: Elwell Stephen Otis
1900: US Military Governor: Arthur MacArthur III
1901: William Howard Taft sets up colonial government. Aguinaldo captured.
1916: Jones Bill: Reforms in administration of the islands.
WWII: Japan vs USA
1946: Independance
1949-1954: Huks want land for poor farmers.
1965-1987: Ferdinand Marcos: Martial Law: 1972-1981.
1983: Benigno S. Aquino Jr. assassinated. Marcos’ commission acquits accused assasins.
1986: Marcos wins election against Widow Corazon Aquino. Roman Catholic Bishops hint at election fraud
1987: Marcos, family & some supporters airlifted out of the Philippines by U.S. Air Force after mass demonstrations.
1989: Marcos dies, believed to have stolen millions. – World Book Encyclopedia © 1998
Luzon Island [1572: The Manilla Galleons shipped goods from all over Asia across the Pacific to Acapulco on the coast of Mexico. From there, the goods were transshipped across Mexico to the Spanish treasure fleets, for shipment to Spain. The Philippines together with the Pacific islands of Guam, the Mariana Islands, & the Caroline Islands remained under Spanish control until 1898. 1898: Battle of Manila: Manila the capital. 1899: Manila Slaughter: 3,000+ corpses line the streets according to the Chicago Tribune. 1900: Military Governor Arthur MacArthur claims no POW status for captured guerilla fighters. 15 Filipinos killed for every 1 wounded. 1902: Batanga Province burned by General J. Franklin Bell, Areas outside the concentration camps called dead zones. 1941-1944: WWII Japanese troops vs Generals Douglas MacArthur & Wainwright. Naval base], Bataan Peninsula [1941: Bataan Death March: General Douglas MacArthur withdraws malnutritioned-diseased troops. 75,000 troops surrender to the Japanese, forced to march 65 miles to prison camps], Corregidor Island [Some US Troops survived until May 6, 1941. By then the Japanese were victorious everywhere.], Mindoro [Northern Island. coconuts, rice, mahogany], Mactan [April 27, 1521 Ferdinand Magellan killed by islanders. Ship Concepción abandoned], Palawan, Visayan Islands [7000 islands: Samar: 1901: Balangiga Massacre: In retaliation for an attack on Company C lead by Thomas Connell & Lt E.C. Bumpus, USA Brigadier General Jacob Hurd Smith orders all Filipinos over the age of 10 to be shot dead on site. Littleton Waller burns 255 villages in 11 days. Political cartoon appears in the New York Journal May 5, 1902. Now copper pollution, Negros: copper, sugar & tobacco, Panay: coconut & sugarcane, Leyte: 1944: US vs Japan, Cebu: copper, rice, sugarcane, tobacco, coconuts, Bohol, Masbate: gold mining], Mindanao [1635: Spaniards built a fort at Zamboanga. City a center for Muslim culture & chief port, but Davao now holds that position. Fruit plantations], Sulu Archipelago [400 islands that stretch to Borneo. They speak the Malayan language called Sulu]
Polska / Poland: Plain in Slavic [West Prussia / Galizia: Love]
Ludobójstwo [People Extermination]
VL Vernichtungslanger: Extermination Camp
AEG Todt: Teutonic Order Death Camps

German-Soviet Boundary & Friendship Treaty: September 28, 1939: In 1939, after the signing of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact in August, the German invasion of Poland on 1 September & Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September resulted in the country being occupied by the Soviet Union & Nazi Germany. – Wikipedia: Gestapo-NKVD Conferences
1939: Blitzkrieg: Lightening War: Invasion of Poland. All Jewish banking accounts frozen, schools closed, deportations, house arrests, street raids & Jewish Councils set up. 1941: yellow identity cards issued. Death penalty all who shelter the Jews or keep their belongings.

One, two, Freddy’s coming for you
Three, four, better lock your door
Five, six have a crucifix
Seven, eight, don’t stay up late
Nine, ten, never sleep again.
–Friedrich Krüger: A Nightmare on Elm Street ©1984

The Final Solution: Verdict of LG Hagen AZ:II Ks 1/64: Dr. Buhler’s request for extermination of all Jews by the end of 1942. SS-Brigadefuehrer Otto Globocnik (d. 1945); subordinate to General Government Supreme SS- Polizeifuehrer, Obergruppenfuehrer Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger (1894-1945)

Warehouses of the body-snachers where hundreds of prisoners worked frantically to sort, segregate & classify the clothes & the food & the valuables of those whose bodies were still burning, whose ashes would soon be used as a fertilizer. Nearby was another mountain, of blankets this time, 50,000 of them, maybe 100,000 – Auschwitz: Spartacus

Polenlager [Polish People Camps]
440 of these camps, where at least 1.5 million Poles were set to hard labor. Many of these camps were transient in nature, being opened & closed according to the labour needs of the occupiers. - Wikipedia

Voivod Lodzkie: KZ Litzmannstadt / Kalisz-Lódz Koncentrák [(pron. looj, wooj or lahdz) Camp to exterminate Polish children who could not be Germanized. Poland’s 2nd largest city walled off by barbed wire. Eve of WWII population 665,000, population in May 1944, 77,000. 1944: Himmler orders the Einsatzgrüppen: Death Commandos. 900 people hide in ruins.Aktion Gehsperre: SS Leader Hans Biebow (executed) ’s curfew, ban on movement forcibly signed by Judenälteste, Chaim Rumkowski King Chaim [later taken to Auschwitz], City declared Judenrein: Free of Jews. Ghetto had an Arbeitsressorte: industrial complex inside creating a ,000,000 profit. 12-hour days, producing garments, wood, metalwork, electronics for the German military. Children forced into extermination trucks. Others thrown from windows to die. Human experiments, organ harvesting at Kochanowka Hospital by Dr Carl Hans Heinze Sennhenn & Dr Werner Villinger (Philipps-Universität Marburg, & later WFMH: World Federation of Mental Health Chairman who throws himself off a cliff in 1961 when he goes on trial in Limberg for war crimes).

Clay puppet Mr Bill is sent to a psychiatrist when he is discovered drinking rye in an allyway with grafitti saying No Bills. Dr. I. M. Häns puts him under hypnosis & asks if he had any bad childhood memories. Mr Bill remembers his father was decapitated in Sluggoville. Häns asks if he had trouble during the holidays or a bad Christmas. Mr Bill recalls Sluggo dressed as Santa bringing a train that crushed him. Mr Bill is asked if he has any nightmares. Mr Bill sees himself flushed down a toilet & a circle of hands saying Sieg Heil. Mr Bill is taken out of hypnosis, told he has hands paranoia & is given a lobotomy by associate Dr. Sluggo. – Walter Williams, Mr Bill Gets Help, Saturday Night Live, NBC: National Broadcasting Company: USA: 1979

Jugenverwahrlag [Children Camp] Dzierzazna, Kalish (160)

Voivod Zachodnio-Pomorskie / Pommern-Preußen
KZ Elbing / Elblag-Stettin / Szczecin
[pron SHCHEH cheen: Baltic seaport town at the mouth of the Oder River. Part of Germany before WWII & the capital of State of Pommern: Pomerania, German Prussia. After WWII most of eastern Pomerania absorbed into Poland, while western Pomerania went to Soviet East Germany]

Voivod Opolskie / Silesia Varsovie [Ghetto liquidated. Camp installed on ruins], Pustkow, Poniatowa, Schmotlz, Annaberg / Anny [GeStaPo transit camp] Polenlager Gorzyce-Gorzyczki [Silesia. It operated on the base of the Fryderyk mine facilities in 1942—1945. Mass grave. Transport depot at Lesna street, Gorzyce, holds a memorial plaque], Polenlager Katscher / Kietrz [Breslau-Wroclaw-Vratislav Durrogoy GeStaPo Camp: March 1933- July1934]

VL Auschwitz–Birkenau: Osecim–Brzezinka
EVO: Energieversorgung Oerschlesien AG, I.G Farben, Oberschlesische Hydrierwerke AG
Auschwitz I - Bobrek / Oswiecim: 1940 [Located at Oswiecim. Breslau Institute: Dr. Horst Schumann sterilizes hundreds of men, women & children with radiation X-ray burns. gasses them. Cuts off testicles for examination SS Hauptsturmführer: Dr Josef Mengele & Irma Griese the Angel of Death: the Blond Beast & the Queen of Auschwitz torture, vivisection], Auschwitz II-Birkenau / Brzezinka / Nowa Beruna: 1941[Gas chambers. bodies thrown to the dogs. Aktion Höß: Preparation of Hungarians for the gas chambers. In his autobiography Höß says 2.5 million were killed according to Eichmann. Annaliese Frank’s stepsister Eva Schloß survived. Eva’s autobiography of 1988 says she was called a protected Jew by an Oberführerin because her cousin worked as a nurse under Mengele. Anne Frank’s mom died there. Eva’s mother survived & married Otto Frank], Auschwitz III-Buna-Monowitz / Buna-Monowice: 1942[IG Farben chemical gas manufacture. Buna synthetic-rubber works. 940 deaths: 1.5 million Jews, 76, 000 French, 150 000 Polish, 23 000 Czech, 15 000 Russians. Hollerith Büro at German Civil Workers Camp 7, Barracks 18 under Herr Hirsch, Herr Husch, & card index systems runner Eduard Müller. Müller is described as a rabid NAZI who enjoyed harming inmates, a fat, aging, ill-kempt man, with brown hair & brown eyes who stank like a polecat. His song is Müllerschwein (Müller Pig) by the punk band Blut und Eisen: Blood & Iron Auschwitz historians were originally convinced that there were no machines at Auschwitz, that all the prisoner documents were processed at a remote location. Archivists found the Büro because it was listed in the I.G. Werk Auschwitz phone book on page 50, phone extension 4496.]
Außlager: Subcamps: Aldorf-Pless Zweil [Prince Pless], Althammer-Stara Kuniska, Babice, Bierun-Beruna, Bismarckshutte-Hajduki Bobrek [Distillery], Blechhammer / Dziedzice-Czechowice Ernforest Slawecice [Death march (Victor)], Bruntal-Freudenthal I: Budy, Bruntal-Freudenthal II: Furztengrube-Huta Ksiazeca, Charlottengrube-Huta Karolina [Coal Mine], Huta Königshutte-Chrolewska [Mine], Chorzow [Mine], Cmentarna Lagiska [Mine], Eintrachtshutte-Schwientochlowitz / Swietochlowice-Setochlowice [1942-1945: Metallurgie (Victor)],, Gleitz I, II, II, IV/ Gliwice [Operation Himmler. forced labor, mining, gas chambers (Victor)],Golleshau, Gunthergrube / Muslowice-Myslowitz [Mine], Harmeze-Plawy Hindenburg-Zabrse, Jaschowitz / Jawizowice: Brzescze. [Hermann Goring Reichwerk coalmine: Clotz Co. (Victor)], Lagiewniki-Slaskie-Hubertushutte [Metallurgy], Lawki I: Lepzinky, Lawky II: Lesslau-Wloclawek, Libiaz Maly [Mine], Lukow Mine, Neu Dachs / Jaworzno-Kobior [Coal Mine] (Victor), Neustadt / Prudnik, Peiskretscham / Pyskowice [crematoriums], Plawy-Harmeze, Rajsko, Rybrik Mine, Rydultowy Mine, Sosnowice Constructios, Trzebinia

VL Sobibór : Sobibór Village, District of Woldawa, S of Brest-Litovsk, on the Chelm-Wlodawa Railroad line. Sobibor was the 2nd killing center constructed as part of Operation Reinhard. It was built along the Chelm-Wlodawa railway line, in a wooded, swampy, thinly populated region. Before the war, Luta was predominately a Ukrainian village, with Poles & Jews. The Germans came & took these Jewish families to the forest & shot them. In Luta, everyone knew the Germans were building a death camp nearby. On one occasion, all the men were taken by Germans to be shot in retaliation for the partisan attacks on German soldiers. They were almost executed, but the women of Luta bought them back. The paid the Germans with a huge supply of eggs. ...When I was 16, I was forced one cold December day in 1942 to take the family’s horse & wooden cart to transport Jews to Sobibor. I wasn’t the only one. Every peasant had to provide a cart. My father was supposed to transport the Jews, but he was so scared, he hid, & I had to do it. Once we got to Sobibor, the guards took the carts into the camp & left the peasants outside. I knew what was going to happen to my passengers. Everyone in the village knew. You could smell the smoke all the way from Sobibor to Luta. There’s not a moment in my life when I forget what happened. I can’t forget. I remember all the time. When I tell my family or friends the story of what happened, they don’t believe it. They tell me I’m telling fairy tales. – Jan Manaj, the villager (89:2)Sobibór I: May 1942 [1942: A high observation tower overlooked the entire area. Path to extermination area fenced in on either side with barbed wire intertwined with pine branches. The camp was surrounded by a minefield 50 feet wide. Commandant at Sobibór Franz Stangl (dead) of the Aktion T-4 Euthanasia program. 20,000 killed per day / 280,000 est. Experienced workers from Euthanasia programs occupied leading positions. Forester’s Cash Office extorted money & valuables. A forester's house used as camp offices & living quarters for the SS (89:2). SS-Unterscharfuehrer Erich Fuchs’ gas chambers at the other end of tube Sick & infirm shot. Northwestern part contains gas chambers, burial trenches & housing for Jewish prisoners employed there.] Sobibór II: May 1942 [The last camp to be provided with larger gas chambers in 1942 by SS-Unterscharfuehrer Erwin Lambert. 6 gas chambers, 3 rooms on each side. New gas chambers accommodate 4,000 persons at a time, the old ones only 600. SS-Scharfuehrer Lorenz Hackenholt in charge of the gas chambers in Belzec & Sobibór. They had both been posted to Sobibór by Christian Wirth. A rebellion at Sobibór took place in 1943 among POW Soviet army officers who were rounded up as the Nazi army pushed farther into the Soviet Union. According to Selma Engel, 10 SS men were dead, the electricity was out, & the telephone was cut dead. She ran toward the entrance with Chaim. By dusk, 300 had escaped & surveillance planes followed them at dawn. Most were killed by Nazi pursuers or died crossing the minefields. After the revolt, some joined partisan units; others found shelter among sympathetic Poles. It is estimated just 50 escapees survived the war. The camp was liquidated & covered over with dirt & trees. The Germans exploded the buildings in the camp & buried everything in a pit in the woods. A 1944 photo shot by the German Luftwaffe 6 months after the camp was dismantled. (89:2)], Sobibór III [Oberscharfuehrer Hubert Gomerski: A narrow-gauge mine-track ran from the railroad platform to the mass graves in Camp III. It was to replace the trolleys pulled by prisoners or horses. A lane known as the Schlauch: The Hose or Himmelfahrtstraße: The Way to Heaven ended at the gas chambers. Many camps at the end of WWII were destroyed, dismantled, or burned out of fear of being discovered by allied forces. The open question was. What happened to Sobibor? – Archeologist Richard Freund (89:2)]

Voivod Lubelskie / Galizia: Love
VL Lublin-Majdanek-Budzyn
: Steyr-Daimler-Puch
In the city of Lublin, famous in the 1530s for their Jewish printing houses. 2nd largest Nazi Death Camp in Europe after Auschwitz. 25,000 killed per day. 400,000+. 7 gas chambers using Zyklon B & Carbon Monoxide, 2 wooden gallows, crematorium with 5 furnaces. SS-Brigadeführer Odilo Globocnik under Himmler with SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle, responsible for Reinhold Felix: collection of the victims’ valuables. Clothes, gold, money, jewelry & belongings stored, sorted at the unused hangars of Lublin Airfield, put into the Reichsbank. Aufseherin: Elsa Erich, Hermine Braunsteiner, Rosy Suess, Elisabeth Halt Die Klappe: Shut Your Mouth Knoblich. Lublin I: Majdanek: The Allies alleged at Nuremberg that the Germans killed 4 million at Auschwitz & another 1.5 million at Majdanek. Lublin II: Budzyn, Lublin III: Hrubiesow,Lublin IV: Lublin.Außlager: Satellite camps: Blizyn, Pulawy [typhus], Trawniki [death squad training camp.]

VL Belzec / BelzhetsGalizia: Belzec a small town in Tomazaw / Tomaszów District, Lublin, NW of Lvov, near Ukraine border. Lublin- Zamosc-Rawa Ruska-Lvov railroad line. Belzec I: March 1942:[Reception Center surrounded by barbed wire & 3 watchtowers. Built by the Polish inhabitants of the city & Soviet POWs under SS-Guards according to Stanislaw Kozak on November 1, 1941.Polizei-Kriminalkommissar Christian Wirth & Josef Oberhauser. SS-Robert Juhrs. Train brought into camp by specially selected team of railroad workers, gassing, gold teeth extracted,]
Belzec II: [Extermination Center: 15,000 killed per day under Aktion T-4 Euthanasia Program. (T-4 stands for the office’s address Tiergartenstraße 4 in Berlin). 100 Totenjuden: Jews of Death forced to drag the corpses from the gas chambers & to carry them to the open ditches covering up them up with sand, while thick black blood floods the ground like a lake, killed each day & replaced by new arrivals. SS-Scharfuehrer Heinrich Gley testified to incinerating corpses day & night without interruption with an average of 500,000 corpses within five months between November 1942-March 1943. Capablility of incinerating 2000 corpses within 24 hours. Zolkiew town 50 km. SW of Belzec liquidated in 1942]

VL Kulmhof: Kulm Temple-Chelmno: December 1941 Between Warsaw & Poznan, District of Kolo. Invaded by the Teutonic Knights in 1220 with the goal of exterminating the Prussian People. Extermination in 1410 called Operation Grünewald-Tannenberg: Operation Green Forest-Tree Mountain / Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War: 1409-1411. As a WWII VL: 350,000 dead with carbon monoxide in gas vans. Corpses incinerated with gasoline. Remaining bones placed on thin metal sheets, crushed & shaked through a narrow-mesh metal sieve. Ashes mixed with sand & garbage. Commander Hans Bothmann hung himself in 1947. SS-Standartenfuehrer Blobel’s Sonderaktion 1005 incinerate corpses at Kulmhof with incendiary bombs; then on wood fires straight from the gas chambers & existing mass graves

VL Treblinka
The Perfect Extermination Camp
At Treblinka village & railway station near Warsaw-Warszawa. Not far from Malkinia on the main Warsaw-Bialystok line & close to the Malkinia-Siedlce line. Director Kurt Franz sentenced to life in 1965. 25,000 killed per day. 1, 400,000 minimum est (witnesses were killed), starvation, urine drinking, poison gas. Gas chambers in a massive brick building in the center. Access paths, including the tube, in Treblinka named Street to Heaven by the SS-men. Treblinka I: April 1941[Pron. truh BLIHNG kuh: Infirmary, receiving area, Sonderkommandos unload train, undress passengers, thrown them in ditches, shoot & burn bodies. Others rushed into the gas chambers with attack dogs, whips & iron bars. 10,000-12,000 per day. 840,000+ in 1942], Treblinka II: April 1942 [500 prisoners, gas chambers that can kill 3000 in 2 hours & furnaces, dentists pull out gold teeth of the dead with pliers. Totenjuden: Jews of Death who clean the gas chambers, sift & bury the ashes. 1500 men work crews replaced every 3 to 5 days. SS Oberscharfuehrer Heinrich Matthes & Floß oversee corpse burning, In August 1943 forced laborers set fire to Treblinka II & tried to escape into the surrounding forest. Most were killed. The Nazis planted crops over mass graves & turned the area into a farm.]
Wirsitz / Wyrzysk: [Birthplace of Wernher Von Braun (1912-1977). 1932: Adviser in Germany’s rocket program. Developed the V-2 rocket, with which Germany bombed Allied cities during World War II. Sent to the U.S. to work on guided ballistic missile systems after the war. Jupiter rocket, USA’s Explorer 1 earth satellite, Saturn rockets, Apollo, 1972: He became an executive of Fairchild Industries. 1975-1977: President of the National Space Institute]

Voivod Lubuskie
Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 004: Hollerith Workdeath 004: KL Groß-Rosen: Large Roses / Rogoznica Koncentrák

D.E.S.T, Dierig Chemical, Shoenman Werke Aircraft & Famo-Werke Motorcraft

Chief Wardress Jane Bernigau has never been prosecuted.

Camp known for its huge stone quarry & its brutal treatment of NN (Nacht und Nebel) prisoners. A total of over 500 female camp guards trained, which at its height in 1944, contained up to 60 little camps around E. Germany & Poland.

Außenlager; Subcamps: Aslau, Bad Warmbrunn / Cieplice [Dorries-Fuellner], Berndorf / Bernartice [Jute], Brieg / Brzeg [Aerodrome], Bunslau / Boleslawiec, Bolkenhain, Dornhau, Dyhernfurth [Lubranil Society], Erlenbusch, Eule, Faulbruk [Armament inspection], Frierland, Fürstenstein-Schmiedenberg, Gadersdorf [Barthel Co], Gassen, Gebhardsdorf [Female Camp aviation], Görlitz [Female Camp], Granefort, Hartmanndorf [Walker Co], Hundsfeld, Kaltwasser: Coldwater [Weiden & Pertersil], Larche [Lingen Firm], Ludwigsdorf [Female Camp. Dynamite], Lehmwasser-Tannhausen, Marzbachtal [Weiden & Pertersil], Marzdorf, Mittelsteine, Niesky Klein Radisch, Oberalsstadt, Oberwustegiersdorf, Peterswaldau [Diehl & Ferd Co.], Reichenbach, Risznow, Schlesiersee Schanzenbau, Seuferwassergraben, Schotterwok, Striegau, Wolsberg
Christianstadt / Krzystkoce (Victor 143), Gellenau [Dierig Firm: 1,500 female prisoners (Victor 143)], Grünberg: Green Mountain / Zielona Gora [High Silesia], Gruschwitz / Kruszwice [Female Labor Camp], Neusalz: New Salt / Krusca, Halbstadt-Mezimesti [Messap Co. Colony] Hirschberg / Jelenia Gara, Hohenelbe / Wrszlabi, Kittlitztrebben / Kotlicki Trebin, Kratzau / Chrastava [Kratzau I & Kratzau II], Kursbach-Landeshut / Kamienogora, Langenbielau / Lielawa-Bielawa [Telefunken, Krijpp, Goldschmitt], Leszno / Lissa, Markstadt -Laskowitz [Krupp. Disciplinary Camp], Peritz [Labor camp at Bunzlau / Boleslawiec], Prausnitz / Prusnica, Parschnitz / Prici-Porici, Swiebodzice [Ksià Castle during the World War II, together with the underground cave complex, expanded to create Adolf Hitler’s private quarters], Waldenburg: Forest Town / Walbrzych [I.G Farben]. Wustegierdorf / Giercze Puste [Bahnhof: Train Station]

Voivod Pomorskie / Pomerania / Pommern
Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 012: Hollerith Workdeath 012: KL Stutthof: Stutt Temple-Sztutowo Koncentrák
AEG Org Todt. Teutonic Order

SA Gauleiter Danzig: Albert Förster (hung)
SS Hauptsturmführer Hans Jacobi: Unknown
SS Oberscharführer Hans Tolksdorf & Franz Spillmann: Acquitted & Released

Executed: SS Oberscharführer Ewald Foth, Alfred Nikolaysen, Johann Pauls, Albert Paulitz, Hans Rach & Josef Reiter, SS Oberaufseherinen Gerda Steinhoff: Stonetemple, SS Aufseherinen Jan Breit, Jenny-Wanda Barkmann, Elizabeth Becker, Wanda Klaff, & Ewa Paradies, SS Hauptsturmführer Theodor Meyer, SS Unterscharführer Kurt Dietrich & Fritz Peters, Waclaw Kozlowski, Fanciszek Szopinski, Tadeusz Kopczynski, SS Rottenführeren Karl Eggert, Paul Wellnitz, & Karl Zurell

Life Sentence: SS Hauptscharführeren Willi Buth & Erich Thun

15 Year Sentences:SS Hauptsturmführeren Albert Weckmüller & Wilhelm Vogler

12 Year Sentences:SS Unterscharführer Eduard Zerlin, SS Hauptscharführer: Otto Haupt

10 Year Sentences:SS Obersturmführer Karl Meinck, SS Oberscharführer Adolf Klaffke, SS Unterscharführeren Willy Witt, Emil Wenzel, Josef Stahl, Kurt Reduhn, Otto Schneider, Horst Köpke, Oskar Gottchau, Fritz Glawe, SS Hauptscharführeren Erich Jassen & Gustav Eberle, SS Scharführeren Rudolf Berg, Emil Lascheit & Otto Welke, SS Rottenführeren Adolf Grams & Werner Wöllnitz, SS Hauptsturmführer: Werner Hoppe

8 Year Sentences:SS Scharführeren: Karl Reger, Josef Wennhardt, Martin Stage, SS Unterscharführeren: Johannes Görtz & Adalbert Wolter

5 Year Sentences: SS Hauptscharführer Johann Lichtner, SS Oberscharführer Erich Mertens, SS Scharführeren: Hermann Link, Heinz Löwen & Martin Pentz, SS Unterscharführeren Erich Stampniok & Gustav Kautz, SS Obersturmführer Waldemar Henke, SS Sturmscharführer Johannes Wall, SS Rottenführeren: Johann Pfister, Alfred Tissler & Ernst Thulke, SS Aufseherinen Erna Beilhardt

4 Year Sentences: SS Scharführeren Nikolaus Dirnberger & Friedrich Tessmer, SS Unterscharführeren: Harry Müller & Johann Sporer, SS Sturmscharführer: Hans Möhrke, SS Hauptscharführer Richard Timm

3 Year Sentences: Kazimierz Kowalski, SS Scharführeren: Anton Kniffke, Hugo Ziehm & Walter Englert, Nikolai Klawan, SS Unterscharführer Karl - Otto Knott, SS Hauptsturmführer Christof Schwarz, SS Rottenführer Richard Akolt

7 Month Sentences: SS Hauptscharführer Richard Wohlfeil, SS Oberscharführeren Leopold Baumgartner, Bernard Eckermann, Walter Ringewald & Johann Wrobel, SS Unterscharführer Emil Paul, SS Rottenführeren Gustav Brodowski & Ernst Knappert

In the town of Sztutowo 34 km from Gdansk city. Crematorium & gas chambers expanded in 1943 for Endlösung: The Final Solution Estimated dead 85,000+. SS Hauptsturmführer Dr Otto Heidl committed suicide & SS Hauptsturmführer Dr Willy Jobst was executed by the Americans.

KL Bottschin / Bocion

KL Chorabie-Kiobia / Cieszyny-Gdansk

KL Danzig-Burggraben-Kokoschken / Danzig-Neufahrwasser / Danzigerwerf / Gdansk-Kokokszki Koncentrák / Gdansk: Water from Heaven N. Poland Baltic Seaport Town. 1308 AD: Administered by the Teutonic Knights. Herta Bothe concentration camp guard who death marched prisoners to Bergen-Belsen in 1945. Prisoners murdered using phenol injections to the heart. Museum has the utensils, surgical bed & needles. A ring of symbolic stones mark the holocaust stake. A 500 metre walk through the forest, to an excavated mass grave. Jews executed by firing squads, their bodies then burnt on funeral pyres. Children under 13. not admitted. (In Your Pocket 48)

KL Dzimianen / Dziemiany

KL Gotenhafen-Gdingen / Gdynia WWI battle. 1945: Baltic Sea mass grave for drowned people on torpedoed refugee ships, sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff remains the worst maritime disaster of all time, killing 9,000+ people. 2005: Russian scientists found over 5,000 airplane wrecks, sunken warships lying in the bottom of the sea.


Stutthof SK-III: Graudenz / Grudziadz SS Aufseherin Jenny Wanda Barkmann, Beautiful Specter, tortured people to death, selected women & children for the gas chambers. Arrested in May 1945 while trying to leave a train station in Gdansk. At the Stutthof Trial she is said to have flirted with her prison guards & was apparently seen arranging her hair while hearing testimony. She was publicly hanged on July 4, 1946, on Biskupia Gorka Hill near Gdansk

Gründorf: Greentown / Krogulno-Rawicz [Oppeln, Prussia]

Grodno / Gudohaj

Gutowo Koncentrák



KZ Kolkau Female Concentration Camp


Lauenburg / Lebork: Middle Pomerania. Commander Ewa Paradies arrested by Polish officers in Lauenburg, May 1945 At the Stutthof trial, several witnesses told of Paradies abuse. One told the court, She forced a group of women prisoners, in the dead of winter to undress. Then she poured icy water over them. If they moved then she would beat them. Paradies was found guilty of murder, hanged on Biskupia Gorka Hill near Gdansk

Malken-Malki / Mierzynek

Natz / Nawitz, KZ Niesky / Niskie Brodno

Piasnica Koncentrák [60,000 Polish & Kashub inteligentsia killed by Albert Förster]

Voivod Kujawsko-Pomorskie / Kuyavia-Pomerania
KL Thorn-Torun / Rosenberg Koncentrák
AEG Org Todt
Obersturmbannführer: Commander Max Pauly

And We Shall Know Him... His name is Thorn – Halloween 5

1266: Teutonic Order Castle
1473: Mikotaj Kopernic / Copernicus born in Toru´n & raised by maternal uncle Lucas Watzenrode Prince-Bishop of Warmia. Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross in Breslau-Wroclaw (pron.VRAWTS lahf). The prefect of Rome claimed his body was buried in Frombork Cathedral, but a group of archeologists in 2004 failed to find it. The search for his body will continue in 2005.

135 mi / 220 km northwest of Warsaw in Torun, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. Latin documents spell the city. Thorun, civitas Torunensis. Means mouth of the river Vistula.

Außlager: Satellite Camps: Bromberg / Bydgoszcz [30 km away. 85,000+ dead, 200 gassed in one month], Rippin [Bydgoszcz Province Einsatzgrüppen liquidated], Poschetzau / Bozicany, Scherokopas / Szerrokopas,Schiffenbeil / Zdunska-Wola Serappen / Obrzycko KZ Prault-Praust / Pruszcz Gdanski[Aerodrome] Sophienwalde / Myszyna, Stolp-Sluspk / SlipskStargard / Starorod

Voivod Wielkopolskie
KL Posen / Poznan Koncentrák

Teutonic Order Komturia
Capital of the Reichsgau Wartheland under Nazi occupation
City on the Warta River in west-central Poland
Hauptsturmführer: Hermann Kackmann.
Kommandant: Else Ehrich [death sentence]
Hildegard Lachert, the prisoners nicknamed Blutige Brigide: Bloody Brigide
Karl Koch
Max Koegel
Herman Florsted
Martin Weiss
Arthur Liebehenschel
Dr Heinrich Schmidt
Hermine Braunsteiner
(pron PAWZ nahn yuh) A plague known as St. Anthony’s Fire killed 1/3 of the population. During the Black Death of 1385 King Wladislaus II married Jadwiga, daughter of Louis I of Hungary. Dominican Order authorized murder of the Jews. Their flimsy excuse was that the Jews of Poznan had coerced a Christian woman to steal 3 hosts which were then desecrated. 13 rabbis rack-tortured, burned at the stake. Poznan Jews required to pay an annual fine to the Dominican church until the 18th century. WWII Jewish existed for only 3 months. At Red Army’s advance, staff destroyed documents, set fire to the buildings & crematorium, but failed to destroy the gas chambers & barracks. Only 111 of the 1300 staff members of the camp were brought to trial after the war.
Voivod Dolnoslaskie / Silesia
KL Plaszow / Plazow Koncentrák

Allgemeine Waffen SS Hauptsturmführer: Amon Leopold Göth found by the Allies at Bad Tolz Mental Institution, pleaded not guilty at trial & was hanged by the Supreme National Tribunal of Poland. Concerning the punishment of Fascist-Hitlerite criminals guilty of murder & ill-treatment of the civilian population & of prisoners of war, & the punishment of traitors to the Polish Nation, as amended by the Decree of 16th February, 1945. United Nations War Crimes Commission.

“Apart from denying certain facts & trying to throw the blame upon others or diminish the extent & gravity of the crimes alleged, the accused pleaded that he was only carrying out orders & instructions received from his superiors, which he had to obey as a military person. He also contended that the penalties he was inflicting upon the inmates; including putting them to death, were within his disciplinary jurisdiction as commandant of the camp, & were in accordance with the German regulations in force. The accused raised also the defence that his acts were legal because they were based on military necessity. Finally, one of the defending Counsel submitted that the Decree of 31st August, 1944, was not applicable to the accused in view of his German nationality, as it provided only for punishment of Polish subjects who committed offences against their own co-nationals. This plea could not, however, be upheld in view of the fact that, according to Article 3 para. 1, of the Polish Criminal Code, the Polish Criminal law is applicable to all persons, irrespective of their nationality, who committed a crime on the territory of the Polish State.”

Plazow I: Bierznow , Plazow II: Plaszow [Forced labor camp near Kraków. Breslau-Wroclaw-Vratislav. In Silesia on the Oder River, constructed by Amon Leopold Göth featured in Schindler’s List. SS-Sturmbannführer Willi Haase orders a list of 4000 ghetto inmates for deportation. 7000 Jews deported, 600 shot, home for the aged & orphanage liquidated. Göth executed 2000+ people alone from the ghetto in one day. Göth’s wife gave an interview in the &1980s & then committed suicide after telling daughter Monica she was just like her father. Survivor Helen, a young kitchen worker in the home overlooking Plazow, remembers the wife turning the stereo up when Götz shot people (Oprah 255)], Plazow III: Biesiadka, Plazow IV: Huta-Komarowska, Plazow V: Kosirce, Plazow VI: Kraków-Krakov [Voivod Malopolskie: Little Poland / Galizia: Love: Famo-Werke: Kraków: Head of the Reich’s Statistical Office 24 Murnerstrasse, where a 500 man Hollerith Gruppe tabulate punchcard results for the rate of death by starvation per square kilometer, 1266: Papal nuncio Guido authorized theft of Jewish real-estate, 1 synagogue per town, mandatory red badge, banned from public view during Christian holidays & excommunication for those inviting Jewish people to parties, 1407: Riot of Kraków Priest Budek has Jews killed, property destroyed & their children baptized
1648: Massacre: 1000s of Jews die. In 1942 12 year old Leo Fischelberg watched children rounded up by NAZI’s & loaded into open trucks from his hiding place. NAZI’s shot the grieving mothers with machine guns], Plazow VII: Mielec, Plazow VIII: Wielczka, Plazow IX: Zakopane

KZ Szebnie [Near Jazlo. Göth shut down the concentration camp ordering the inmates to be murdered on the spot. Stole many millions of zloties worth of valuables], KZ Tarnow [Göth killed an unknown number of people on the spot. Others died through asphyxiation during transport by rail or were exterminated in other camps, in particular at Auschwitz.]

Voivod Slaskie / Upper Silesia: Bystom, Katowice, Zawoja
1919: Treaty of Versailles recommended a plebiscite in Upper Silesia to determine whether the territory should be part of Germany or Poland. Complaints about the attitude of the German authorities led to rioting & the 1st 2 Silesian Uprisings (1919 & 1920). A plebiscite took place on 20 March 1921 with 59.6% (500,000) of the votes cast in favour of joining Germany. Poland claimed the conditions surrounding it had been unfair. This result led to the 3rd Silesian Uprising in 1921. In November 1921 a conference was held in Geneva: most of the area was given to Germany with the Polish section containing the majority of the region’s mineral resources.

Voivod Podkarpackie / Galizia: Love: Zagorze, Kroscienko

Voivod Podlaskie: Bialystok [June 28, 1941: Red Friday: NAZI’s burn the city. 1000+ Jews forced into the synagogue & killed. Orders issued that any Jewish person in Poland found outside a ghetto will be shot. In August 1943 Jews rebel against the NAZI’s in the Bialystok Ghetto & shot to death]

Vovoid Swietokrzyskie Radzillow [1942: 3000 Revolt. 1,500 killed. 1,500 escape to in the forests, Another 3.500+ mass murdered in Palmiry, Warsaw, Firlej, Wincentynów near Radom & in the Blizin forest near Kielce (Shirer 216)], KZ Radom [100 km W. of Warsaw. Mens & womens camp for Steiner & Steyr-Daimler firms. August 1942: City Deportations. Alfred Lipson “A few days later a young man came back. He had found a hiding place after the train stopped at Treblinka. He hid under the train by the wheels. He grabbed my coat by the lapels & with a frightened look in his eyes he said, I was there, I was there. They were all gassed. I wouldn’t listen. ...I tried to get away from him. What he was telling me was completely unbelievable. It couldn’t penetrate my mind. The man ran to other people We didn’t want to listen’], KL Skarzysko-Kamienna [40 km au SW of Radom. Skarzysko A, Skarzysko B & Skarzysko C], Kielce Ghetto [Leo Machtingier recalls NAZIs seperating people into 2 groups, shooting the unemployed. Survivors forced to dig a grave & dump the corpses in. There were 500, maybe 600, laid out like herring]
Voivod Mazowieckie / Masovia
KL Warshau / Pawiak-Warsaw Koncentrák

Watson Büromaschinen GmbH
24 Kreuz, punch-card technology used by the Nazis to organize the Polish railways & make the trains run on time to Auschwitz & Treblinka as well as categorization. Print shop for the punch cards at 6 Rymarska Street across the street from the Warsaw Ghetto. The welfare office punchcards were sent to the new expanded sorting office in Lichterfeld
Warsaw: Built by the Tsar in 1829. Used as a transfer camp to Siberia. After Poland regained independence in 1918 it became the main prison for male criminals. Female prison was G´siówka. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939 it was turned into a German GeStaPo prison & then part of the KL Warshau: Warsaw Ghetto. 37,000+ shot to death, disease, forced labor, starvation, 60,000+ death marched to other camps. April 1943: A revolt took place in the ghetto under Mordecai Anielecz when SS Death Heads General Juergen Stroop (tried & hanged in Warsaw in 1951) attempted to raze the ghetto & deport them Treblinka. The train consisted of 60 closed freight cars fully loaded with people including babies. By the time the cars got to Treblinka many had died of chlorine gas. July 30, 1944 Wilhelm Koppe Goecke orders the camp liquidated. 2000 men & 400 women sent to Groß-Rosen & Ravensbrück, remaining prisoners shot & the buildings blown up.
Voivod Warminsko-Mazurskie / Warmia-Mazuria [Landkreis Osterode: Ostpreußen: East Prussia]
F.H.Q Wolfshanze [Death’s Head]
The attempt on Hitler’s life, part of the plot called Walkuere: Valkyrie, July 20, 1944: Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg & Werner von Haeften, carry briefcases with hidden British made 975 gr. heavy bombs from Berlin to Rastenburg. Stauffenberg’s bomb detonated while he was out for a phone call, he escaped with Haeften & car driver Leutenant Erich Kretz to the Wilhelmsdorf airport. 7 died. The heavy wooden table together with the fact that the pressure of the bomb could escape through the opened windows protected the Fuehrer. – Stanislaw Siemisnki: Wolfshanze
Hohenstein-Olsztynek [1351: Teutonic Order Castle. 1927: Hitler’s Reichsehrenmal Tannenberg memorial destroyed in 1945 after the coffins of Paul von Hindenburg & his wife were removed], Wolfshanze Sperrkreis I / II / III: Rastenburg-Ketrzyn [Goerlitz Forerst, Masurian Lake District. Summer of 1940 road from Rastenburg to Angerburg-Wegorzewo. Train station used for the train Fuehrersonderzug Amerika & after 1941 no civilian use was being made of the railroad line anymore. Double apron barbed wire fence & mine fields. Camps Administered by the Fuehrer Begleit Bataillon]. Grossgarten: Great Garden / Pozezdrze [Across the Mauersee. Heinrich Himmler’s Hochwald]
Marienberger Komturia
Stamlager: Mannschaftsstamm und -straflager: A term used for Prisoner-of-War Camps. At each Stalag the German Army set up sub-camps called Arbeitskommando: Work Commandos to hold prisoners in the vicinity of specific work locations. The sub-camps were administered by the parent Stalag, which maintained personnel records & collected mail. Officers held in separate camps called Oflag. Marlag: Navy personnel]
Stalag XX B: Marienburg-Malborg / Malbork [1210 Teutonic Order Castle. Short for Briesen Leipe/Zedlitz, Marienwerder/Kwidzyn / Kwydzin [West Prussia. Site of the Teutonic Order Castle built in 1309. Now a television factory for Royal Philips Electronics] Stalag Luft III Sagen / Zagan [Near Silesia. Flying personnel POW camp. The Great Escape: March 24, 1944, 76 Allied prisoners escaped through a 110 m long tunnel. 73 were recaptured within 2 weeks. 50 of them executed by order of Hitler]
Portugal [Lusitania: Black Raven]
Capelas dos ossos [Bone Chapels]
People called Iberians: Yew Goddess People the 1st known inhabitants. The Hag of Bera
201 BC: Punic Wars: Rome lnvades
711 AD: Islamic Caliphate
1094 AD: King Alfonso VI of Castille names Henry of Borgogne: Burgundy Count of Portugal. Porto & Coimbra Counties, N. Portugal
1100 AD: Northern Portugal gains independance from Spain
1143 AD: King Alfonso Henriques de Borgogne of Portugal
1385: House of Aviz: King John I
1483: King John II of Portugal’s Council rejects Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus’ sailing proposal
1495-1521: King Manuel I of Portugal
1554-1578 : King Sebastião
1527-1598: King Philip II Habsburg of Spain & Queen Mary I of England
1604-1656: Dom João IV
1703: Methuen Treaty: England helps Portugal maintain its status as an independent nation as Spain seeks control of Portugal.
1734-1816: Dona Maria I
1817-1831: Emperor Pedro I
1851-1889: Pedro II & daughter Princess Isabel Orléans-Braganza (1846-1921)
1908: King Carlos I (assasinated in Lisbon with eldest son)
1908-1910: King Manuel II (overthrown)
In 15 years, the country had 45 different governments
1926: Army officers overthrow government & suspend civil rights.
1928-1968: António de Oliveira Salazar’s New State: Estado Novo: 1932 Secret Police: PIDE: Polícia Internacional de Defensa de Estado: International Police for the Defense of the State
1961: India, Angola, Mozambique, & Portuguese Guinea revolt against colonists. Portugal’s troops fight rebels. 1000s killed on both sides.
1968-1974: Marcello Caetano (overthrown).
Capela Dos Ossos: Chapel of Bones Church of Sao Francisco, Évora [Home of the Tribunal of the Inquisition. Hundreds tried & burnt at the stake. 1460: bones of more than 5,000 people on interior walls, ceilings, archways. cobwebbed skulls stacked to reach the ceiling], Faro Carmelite church [built entirely of bones. 1,250 skeletons. The floor is made up of gravestones covering even more bodies.]
1916: British Protectorate. 1971: Independance
1981: E. Arabia GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
1990: Gulf War
2001: The emir is a member of the al-Thani family, which has ruled Qatar since the mid-1800s.
Qatari air force base [1990: Used to attack Iraqi forces. Qatar took part in the bombing of Iraqi military targets & in the ground offensive to liberate Kuwait in early 1991.] – World Book Encyclopedia ©1998
République Centrafricaine: Central African Republic [Ubangi-Shari]
Mass Graves
1910-1959: Part of Afrique Équatoriale Française: French Equitorial Africa
The Ubangi River is a tributary of the Congo River.
Central African Republic became independent in 1960 under president, David Dacko. In 1966 Dacko was overthrown by his cousin Jean-Bédel Bokassa. His human rights violations (which are said to have included cannibalism & the feeding of school children to crocodiles, amongst others) & movements against French interests prompted France to support a coup against him in 1979, restoring Dacko to power. Current president: François Bozizé.
République Democratique du Congo [Belgian Congo / Congo / Zaïre]
Camps de Concentration
Gécamines: Société générale des Carrières et des Mines
1483: Portuguese navigator Diogo Cao invades
1500: Portuguese Slave Trade: hundreds of thousands of people enslaved in the Congo. Most sent to North or South America.
European hunters kill many animals & endanger species.
1700-1878: Luba Empire (Tsiluba language: Shaba Region) invaded by Arab & Portuguese slave traders
1732: Zaire by Voltaire a,.k.a François Marie Arouet (1694-1778)
1878: Belgian King Leopold II hires Englishman Henry Morton Stanley to set up Belgian outposts along Congo River.
1884 Berlin Kongokonferenz: Triple Alliance: Mandingo-French War: Belgian King Leopold II assasinates King M’Siri & rapes the area’s mineral wealth. He hires the British Army to murder millions of Africans in the Belgian Congo in his quest for rubber. He seizes Chad. England seizes Nigeria. Germany seizes Tangayika & Zanzibar. Italy seizes Somalia & Ethiopia.
1885: Leopold II names country Congo Free State
1906: Re-named Belgian Congo
1920: Belgium earns great wealth from the Belgian Congo’s copper, diamonds, gold, palm oil, & other resources.
WWII: Belgian Congo provides Allies with raw materials.
1949-1956: Joseph Desire Mobutu (1930-1997): Member of the Belgian Colonial Army
1959: Riot
July 1960: Independance: Premier / Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba (assasinated) asks UN to deal with revolt. He charged Belgians were aiding rebel Katangans [province seceeded]. U.S.S.R. sides with Lumumba against a group led by Congolese President Joseph Kasavubu.
1961: Prime Minister Cyrille Adoula
1964: Katanga rebels flee to Angola. White mercenaries
1965-1997: President Joseph Desire Mobutu
1971: Country re-named Zaïre. Until 1990, Zaïre had only 1 political party, which supported Mobutu’s policies.
1972: Joseph Desire Mobutu adopts the name Mobutu Sese Seko, shortly before he ordered all people in his country who had European names to adopt African names.
1977-1978: Katangans invade from Angola
1997-2001: President Laurent Kabila (assasinated) names country Democratic Republic of the Congo
2001: President Joseph Kabila
4 national languages: Kikongo, Lingala, Swahili & Tshiluba. Official language: French.
The Equator Runs through Northern Congo: World’s 4th highest copper producing country, a tropical rain forest covers 1/3 of the country. Kongo Kingdom (Kikongo language), Kuba Kingdom (Central Congo), Lunda Kingdom (Also Angola)
Baringa [Village cleared to make rubber plantation], Leopoldville / Kinshasa [Capital. Leopold II: 22 million+ dead (population estimated at 30 million), maiming, slave labor for rubber plantations, terres vacantes: vacant’ land —‘, anything no European living on belongs to Leopold & the servants of the state], Katanga / Shaba Region [Leopold’s Union Minière du Haut Katanga mining cartel a.k.a Gécamines: Société générale des Carrières et des Mines, a merger of Leopold II’s Société Générale de Belgique & Cecil Rhode’s Tanganika Concessions Ltd, hires contract mercenaries & guards to subdue the local population & transfer goods out of the country. In July 1960: Katanga Province seceded from the new nation & declared itself independent. This copper-producing province in the south ranked as Congo’s wealthiest area. The diamond-producing province of Kasai seceded in August], Kisangani [University: The king's agents forced villagers to collect a specified amount of rubber in the wild. If the villagers failed, their hands, fingers, or feet were amputated. Women & children were held hostage until their male relatives could provide the required amount of rubber. Leopold's agents burned villages & farms (133)], Lubumbashi [University: After 1960 many rural people moved to the city. Rapid growth of cities led to unemployment & crowded living conditions. Many people who have jobs earn low wages. Many factory & office workers live in crowded areas of small, cheap houses & apartments made from cinder blocks or baked mud bricks. Managers live in bungalows (133)], Stanley Falls [1859: Sir Henry Morton Stanley. After the Lualaba River passes over Stanley Falls it is called the Congo. 1887:Leopold hires Tippu Tipp the slaver from Zanzibar of the Spice Islands as governor. Cannibalism, beheading, hands cut off & used as currency]
Eastern Congo [1994: Rwandan Genocide: Rwanda’s Hutu flee into the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 1998: Uprising against government. Rebels backed by troops from Rwanda & Uganda vs Kabila’s Angola, Chad, Namibia, Zimbabwe forces. 1999: Chad removes troops 2000: UN Peacekeeping Force. 2005: Congolese Government issues an international warrent against Laurent Nkunda for war crimes. & abuses committed when his fighters seize Bukavu. 2008: Congolese Government spokesperson Lambert Mende & Rwandan Army spokesman Maj. Jill Rutaremara tell the Associated Press by telephone from Tanzania Rwandan & Congolese Troops have detained rebel leader Laurent Nkunda. Congolese Troops have been trained in Angola]
Goma Camp [1995: 1st Congo War: Watutsi People leave on penalty of death. 4.4 million+ dead. Dissappearances, tortures, killing. 1997: President Mobutu Sese Seko flees & is replaced by Laurent Kabila, a rebel assassinated by his own bodyguards. 1998: 2nd Congo War. 5,500 UN Peace-Keeping Forces. 2004 estimated 1000 dead per day with 3 million+ killed for gold & diamonds. Civilians fleeing to forest: dying of malaria, measles, diarrhea. 2008: 250,000+ forced from their homes. Peace Talks in Kenya.]
Kafe Camp [Ituri Forest. Internally displaced persons camp. 9 UN Peace-Keepers killed.]
Kiwanja Camp
Lake Tanganika [Bodies floating Nov. 10, 1871: Ujiji Town: Sir Henry Morton Stanley greets Dr. David Livingstone with: Dr. Livingstone, I presume? Cecil Rhode’s Tanganika Concessions Ltd mercenaries]
République du Congo [French Congo / Middle Congo]
1400: Kongo Kingdom: BaKongo people: Vodún Kongo rite, also known in the north of Haiti as Lemba.
1483: Portuguese navigator Diogo Cao invades
1500: Portuguese Slave Trade: Hundreds of thousands of people enslaved in the Congo. Most sent to North or South America
1875: Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza invades
1881: France seizes the Middle Congo. Bateke King Makoko signs treaty
1903-1959: Middle Congo a territory in Afrique Équatoriale Française: French Equitorial Africa
1910: Linked with Gabon, Chad, & Ubangi-Shari
1960: Independance
1965: Ernesto Che Guevarra’s soldiers support a revolt in the Congo
1969: People’s Republic of the Congo
1970-1991: Military Rulers
1992: Republic of the Congo: President Pascal Lissouba
1997: General Denis Sassou-Nguesso declares himself president
1998: Forum for Unity & National Reconciliation: Delegates elect 75 members to National Transitional Council.
Official Language: French
The Equator runs through the country: Ancestral home of the Mbuti. The people belong to 4 main groups: (1) Kongo, (2) Bateke, (3) M'Bochi, & (4) Sangha [northern forests]. Stanley Pool [1887: Sir Henry Morton Stanley’s expedition. Lake formed by the widening of the Congo River. The Congo River is the 5th longest river in the world], Brazzaville [Named after French marine officer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in 1881. Triangular slave trade. Kongo farmers live west & southwest of Brazzaville.], Point-Noir [Congo-Ocean Railroad], Oyo [Home of the Oyo Empire], Bateke Plateau [Bateke People: They make up 20% of the population]
République Gabonaise [French Equitorial Africa]
Industrial Farming
Gabon at Equator: Congo is E., Equitorial Guinea is N.
1470: Portuguese slavery
1839: Seized by France
1910-1959: French Equatorial Africa: Gabon 1 of 4 territories
August 17, 1960: Independance
1961: OPEC
Libreville [Gulf of Guinea. 1839: French missionaries], Owendo [Trans-Gabon railroad], Lambarene [1912: Hospital built by missionary Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) of Strasbourg, Alsace. 1923: Philosophy of Civilization, 1939: From My African Notebook, 1949: Goethe Bicentennial Convocation. 1952: Nobel Peace Prize Winnings used to build a leper colony] Foreign aid putting less money into African agriculture. ‘1st, farmers don’t want to be trapped into buying seed each year, for they have heard correctly that the seed companies insist that farmers sign forms promising not to save a portion of the crop for planting next year. 2nd, there’s a fear that transgenic plants will escape from the fields in which they were planted & may interbreed with local varieties to create Roundup-resistant superweeds. Third, there’s a fear that the giant companies developing these crops may succeed in patenting both transgenic & conventional crops & in this way slow down conventional breeding. ’ – Professor Brett Wallach Ph.D
République du Madagascar: End of the Earth [Malagasy]
Vichy Camp de Concentration
SE African country made up Madagascar Island & tiny surrounding islands: Comoro Islands
Malagasy language resembles Malay & Indonesian
1896-1960: French Colony.
WWII internment camps. Textile wages are 37 cents an hour: contracts from Victoria’s Secret and The Gap
République Togolaise: Ewe for Behind the Sea [Shutzgebiet Togo / French Togoland]
Mass Graves
Soninke Hereditary king called the Ghana. Ghana Kingdom invaded by Germany.
1884-1919: Shutzgebiet Togo: German Togo Protectorate
1919: Divided by Britain & France after WWI
April 27, 1960-1963: French Togoland becomes Togo. Sylvanus Olympo (assasinated)
1963-1967: Nicolas Grunitsky (overthrown)
1967-1998: Gnassingbe Eyadema
1998: Togolese national anthem is in Ewe & French by Alex Casimir-Dosseh. Interim President Bonfoh Abbass
1998: Gnassingbe Eyadema
Lomé [1897: Captial of German Togo. 1919: Capital & largest city of Togo. Contains Togo’s only University: University of Bénin. Port for Togo’s cocoa, coffee, cotton, palm oil. Airport, highways & railroads to coast & interior.] 1990s: Pro-democracy activists, S. Mina & Ewé, killed by Army. Political assassination, army violence, 100s of thousands of flee to Ghana & Benin, Ezame [Aja people], DeWolf Slave trading family: owns Cuban Plantations (LA Times 299)
Romania-Moldavia [Dacia: Wolf Moon / Wallachia: Love Land / Scythia Minor]
Porajmos [The Devouring]: Romani term for the Holocaust
Curatirea Terenului [Cleansing of the Ground]

Compania Electrocontablia Watson, Bucharest
Romanian Central Institute for Statistics:
Friedrich Burgdorfer & Ludwig Hummer
‘Romania was a sales territory operated directly from New York. But Hummer was specifically instructed to assist in the Romanian census by Werner Lier, IBM’s general manager in Geneva, Switzerland. Lier acted with the full knowledge of IBM president Thomas J. Watson’ – Edwin Black: And Then They Came for the Gypsies: The Legacy of Death’s Calculator © 2004

2000 BC: Dacia
700 BC: Scythians & Sarmatians
101 AD: King Decebalus. Emperor Trajan resettles Dacia making it Romania.
Romanian is the only Eastern European language that comes from Latin, the language of the Romans.
1478: Prince Vlad Tepes Vlad the Impaler of Walachia loses to the Ottomans
1504: Ottomans seize Moldavia & Transylvania
1775: Holy Roman Empress Maria Teresa Hapsburg takes Bukovina from Turkey
1821: Tax Revolt against the Phanariots: Phanar district of Constantinople.
1881-1914: King Carol I, Karl Eitel Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1839-1914), 1st King of Romania.
WWI: Romania joins Allies after being promised Transylvania.
1914-1927: King Ferdinand of Sax-Coburg-Gotha of Bulgaria & Romania-Moldavia (Carol’s nephew)

Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail: The Iron Guard founded by Corneliu Zelea Cordreanu.
1930-1940: King Carol II (Ferdinand’s son: Iron Guard forces out)
1940-1947: King Michael I Wettin (King deposed, stripped of his Romanian citizenship & lives in Switzerland)
1941: Ion Antonescu: ordered on-the-spot extermination of Jews. Deputy prime minister, Mihai Antonescu with Wehrmacht Eisatzgruppe D killed between 150,000 & 160,000 Jews during July & August 1941. Ion Antonescu’s goal was to have all the Jews of Romania annihilated in less than a year starting with Bukovina
1946: USSR organizes Romanian People’s Republic; part of the Eastern Bloc. Press calls it a Soviet satellite: nation controlled by USSR. Churchill warnsan Iron Curtain has descended across the Continent of Europe
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
1965-1989: Nicolae Ceausescu
1990-2001: Ion Iliescu
Romania is bordered on the N. & NE by Moldova, on E. by Ukraine, on W. by Hungary & Yugoslavia, & on S. by Bulgaria

1941 Census: ‘Romania’s massive census was so sophisticated it even enumerated which Roma Gypsies were already refugees temporarily absent or already interned in a concentration camp. Those afraid to admit their extraction settled gypsies ...Counting officials & inspectors received orders to make the official entries according to the countees’ wishes, but add a comment stating that in their opinion or in the general opinion of the community they were considered to be Gypsies. Hence, the IBM tabulations would record them as Gypsy regardless of the ethnic box checked. ...Prior to IBM’s 1941 system of census cross-tabulation, all 3 different types of Gypsies in Romania, regardless of whether they wandered, resided in forest camps or settled in villages, could not all be efficiently identified. An exact investigation of gypsies in numbers has not been possible until today, boasted Burgdorfer, He concluded, The total number of Gypsies (without counting Gypsy half-breeds) is estimated to be 300,000. 25,000+ Gypsies rounded up pursuant to the Romanian Interior Minister’s order #70S/1942. Roadblocks set up on the outskirts of town as gendarmes, with lists of names, fanned out to arrest the Gypsies, deport them in trains, scheduled & tracked by Hollerith machines.

Transylvania Region: Central & NW Romania: Transylvania has a sizeable Gypsy minority. The Carpathian Mountains & Southern Carpathians: Transylvanian Alps separate the region from the rest of Romania. Region’s largest city is Cluj-Napoca.
Bukovina Region [NE of Transylvania in the N. Carpathian Range. Soviets invade: Zionists & Enemies of the State deported to Siberia. Romanian NAZIs Infantry Battalion 16, Maj. Valeriu Carp, kills the Red Army & 1000s of Jews in the villages. property stolen], Chernovtsy [Ghetto. Einsatzgruppe D], Cotmani, Lujeni, Marculesti, Rezina [liquidated], Soroca [80% of Jewish residents murdered], Storojineti, Transnistria [Death march of 1,600 per day], Vertujeni [Daily death toll 170, starvation, torture, rape. Col.Vasile Agapie, an official of the National Bank of Romania steals valuables, sentenced to life], Vizhnitsa / Vascauti, Balti [Shot by the GeStaPo, houses burnt, death camp in Rautel forest]
Moldavia Region [NE: Extends from Transylvania to the Prut River along the border with Moldova]
Walachia Region: Bucuresti / Bucharest [Capital of Romania. Formerly named Circus of Hunger for the houses with no kitchens & the starving going to refectories for food now the site of a mall (Tichy 218) 1937: Near the Palace of the Republic stands the Romanian Athenaeum built in the late 1800s. 1941: Antonescu’s forces massacre peaceful crowds. 360+ men, women & children hunted down by armed gangs. No Legionaries killed. 1989: 1000s of demonstrators killed. President Nicolae Ceausescu ruling since 1965 & wife, Elena captured by the army. Charged with murder & embezzlement, they are executed on December 25. New President Ion Iliescu, National Salvation Front.], Timisoara [1989: 100s killed in demonstrations for an improved standard of living.], Banat Region: Iron Gate Dam [W. Romania from the mountains to Yugoslavia & Hungary. Dam stands at the Iron Gate, a gorge at the border between Yugoslavia & Romania. The power plant of the dam produces electricity for Romania & Yugoslavia. The Danube (a.k.a the Don / Donau) has become extremely polluted with chemicals & raw sewage.]
Dobruja Region: [Small plain between Danube & Black Sea. Sandy beaches & seaside resorts line Dobruja’s Black Sea coast. Constanta port-city.]

Republica Moldova: Republic of Moldova [Moldavia / Dacia: Wolf Moon]
Porajmos [The Devouring]: Romani term for the Holocaust
Compania Electrocontablia Watson, Bucharest
Romanian Central Institute for Statistics:
Friedrich Burgdorfer & Ludwig Hummer
2000 BC: Dacia
1300 AD: Principality of Moldavia: Includes Moldavia & Moldova (called Bessarabia)
1500 AD: Ottoman Empire
1812: Russia
1856: Crimean War: Principality of Moldova
1885-1924: King Ferdinand Wettin of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1865-1927) of Bulgaria & Romania-Moldavia
1924: Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Trans-Dnestr region.
1939: Romania seizes
1940: Russia seizes
1948: Head of Propaganda: Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (1911-1985), head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from February 1984 until his death in March 1985.
1989: Parliament orders a return to the Roman alphabet. Moldovan, a dialect of Romanian written in Cyrillic.
1990: Moldavian Republic renamed Moldovan Republic.
National anthem: Desteapta-te, Romane: Romanian, Arise
Chisinau / Kishinev [Concentration Camp. In Russian Kishinev, the capital of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldavia. Over half the buildings in the city were destroyed in World War II. Moldova (pron. mawl DOH vuh) has close ties with a region in E. Romania still called Moldavia], Cosauti Forest [Dnister / Dnestr River: WWII: Roads filled with the corpses of Jews who had been shot. 2001: The Russian army has small forces in the former Soviet republics of Georgia, Moldova, & Tajikistan. The army has both volunteers & draftees. After 18 months of active duty, Russian soldiers serve in the reserve until the age of 50.]
Republika Bulgariya: Republic of Bulgaria [Dacia: Wolf Moon / Thrace / Scythia Minor]
Sveno Concentration Camp
Watson Business Machines Incorperated Ltd, Sofia: Pavel A. Datsoff
2000 BC: Dacia
520-460 BC: Persian Empire
338 BC: Alexander the Great
101 AD: King Decebalus. Emperor Trajan resettles Dacia making it Romania.
441 AD: Attila the Hun invades
681 AD: Bulgarian Kingdom: Bulgarians got their name from a Turkic tribe called Bulgars. This tribe invaded the region during the latter part of the 7th century, & conquered the local Slavs, people whose forefathers had come from the area north of the Carpathians. Bulgars adopted the language & customs of the Slavs as the 2 peoples lived together & intermarried. – National Holidays Around the World, Lavinia Dobler.
May 24th: Slavic Script & Bulgarian Culture Day: 9th century Saint Cyril & Methodius [both brothers] of Czechoslovakia invent Slavic alphabet. Their followers were persecuted & fled to Bulgaria.
986 AD: Bulgars from Central Asia rebel against Byzantine Emperor Basil I who rebuilds his army. He is called Bulgaroctonus: Slayer of Bulgarians (133)
1018 AD: Byzantine Emperor Basil II seizes.
1382 AD: Ottoman Empire
1490: Stara Planina Mountain Range re-named The Balkans by Italian Diplomat Buonaccorsi Callimarco
1879: King Alexander of Battenburg deposes the Ottoman Sultan to become ruler with the help of Russia
1885-1918: King Ferdinand Wettin of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1865-1927) of Bulgaria & Romania-Moldavia (forced to abdicate: Bulgaria loses WWI)
1912-1913: 1st Balkan: Mountain War: Ottoman Empire vs Bulgaria-Serbia-Montenegro-Greece for control of Europe: London Peace Conference: Ottomans refuse war indemnity.
1913: 2nd Balkan: Mountain War: Bulgaria seizes E. Macedonia, N. & Central Serbia, Western Thrace & S. Greece
1918-1943: King Boris III Wettin of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1893-1943: Ferdinand’s son) of Bulgaria : Dies WWII under mysterious circumstances
1932: Sveno: National Socialist Party
1943: Prime Minister Dobri Bozhilov
1944: Prime Minister Ivan Bagryanov
1946-1949: Georgi Dimitrov: People’s Republic of Bulgaria: Eastern Bloc country
1950-1954: Vulko Chervenkov
1954-1989: Party Head Todor Zhivkov (imprisoned 7 years)
1984-1989: Turks adopt Bulgarian names. Some who refused killed, others forced to leave country
1989-1990: President Petar Mladenov (resigned)
1990-1996: President Zhelyu Zhelev
1996: President Petar Stoyanov
1997: Prime Minister Ivan Kostov – World Book Encyclopedia 1998: Vojtech Mastny, Ph.D.
Country on the Balkan Peninsula: Bordered by Romania on the N., Yugoslavia & Macedonia on the W., Greece & Turkey on the S., & the Black Sea on the E..
Attar (pronounced AT uhr): Oil obtained from rose petals. The most fragrant attar comes from a kind of red rose grown in Bulgaria. A less fragrant attar is taken from a white rose grown in Bulgaria. Attar comes from roses grown in Ukraine, Turkey, Morocco, & France
Burgas [Black Sea Port. Luftwaffe seize Bulgars’ airfields & attack Russia], Plovdiv [400 BC: Seized by Rome. 1878: Capital of Eastern Rumelia. WWII: German navy: Railroad center on the Maritza River]

Sofia [Capital of Bulgaria: Reichstag Office burnt in 1933. 1944: Fatherland Front has Bulgarian soldiers unite with Tito’s men in Yugoslavia. Georgi Dimitrov’s Purges of ‘46, & ‘47. Dimitrov, Politburo Premier, dies in 1949 on a trip to Moscow, The Communists removed non-Communists from government. People they considered to be enemies were killed or sent to labor camps or prisons. Private property was seized, & the freedom of the people was restricted. Todor Zhivkov continued policies that restricted freedom of the people. During the early 1960s, the country still suffered from a severe shortage of basic goods & services. A revolt within the Communist Party led by Foreign Minister Petar Mladenov forced Zhivkov to resign from office November 1989.]

Stara Zagora [SS, Naval Infantry seize railways. Every day 8 to 10 trains with food & raw materials depart to the Reich]

Varna [Black Sea Port seized by the Luftwaffe]

Zabokreg [Wehrmacht Unit]

Russia [Scythia]
Genotsid [People Murder] / Katorga [Concentration Camps]
SS Das Reich Division
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
WWII Foreign Minister: ‘Molotov claimed in radio broadcasts that the Soviet Union was not dropping bombs, but rather delivering food to the starving Finns, the Finns responded by saluting the advancing tanks with Molotov cocktails [a.k.a Napalm: naptholine-aluminum soap powder + palm oil + gasoline] ’ – Wikipedia
5000 BC-2000 BC: Kurgan Civilization
1200 BC-700BC: Cimmeria
900 BC-200 AD Scythia
700 BC: Hesiod’s Theogony: Titans exiled in chains to Tartarus, a dark region deep within the earth. Victorious sky-gods live on Mount Olympus.
200BC-200 AD: Sarmatia
200-370 AD: Goths
370 AD-453 AD: Huns
421 AD- 651AD: Sassanid Empire: Derbent Fortress, Caspian Gates
800 AD: Great Moravian Empire: Slavs of Belarus, Russia & Ukraine the East Slavs. Slavs speak similar languages called Slavic or Slavonic languages
988 AD: Grand Prince Vladimir I of Kievan Rus converted to Byzantine faith
1237-1480 AD: Batu Khan: Mongol Empire. Mongol armies called Tatars-Tartars Russia in a section called the Golden Horde. Capital at Sarai, near Volgograd.
1480: Ivan III’s armies vs Mongolia. Kremlin built in Moscow: an enclosed fortress with churches & palaces.
1547-1584: Czar Ivan 'The Terrible' IV & Czarina Anastasia Romanov crowned at St. Basil’s Cathedral : 1st Czar: Russian spelling of the Latin Caesar: Emperor. He murders his oldest son, nobles, burns towns & establishes slavery called serfdom: Latin serf: slave. Serfdom the economic basis of Russian power.
1584-1598: Czar Fedor I
1598-1605: Czar Boris Feodorovich Godenov (ascends throne by murdering the infant Dmitriy): Famine
1605: Czar Fedor II (assasinated)
1606-1610: Czar Basil Shuisky: Civil War
1613-1645: Czar Michael Romanov vs Siberia
1645-1676: Czar Alexis Romanov
1676-1682: Czar Fedor III
1682-1696: Co-Czars: Peter I & Ivan IV
1696-1725: Czar Peter I & Czarina Catherine I’s Butyrka Prison of Moscow: Transfer camp for GULAGs.
1703: Great Northern War: Volgograd named Petrograd: Saint Petersburg, then Ivangorod, then Leningrad, then Stalingrad.
1727-1730: Czar Peter II
1730-1740: Czarina Anne
1740-1741: Czar Ivan VI
1741-1762: Czarina Elizabeth
1762-1786: Czar Peter III & Czarina Catherine II (Catherine assasinates husband for throne): Russo-Turkish Wars: Austria, Prussia, & Russia divide Poland. Russia gains Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine & Western Turkestan.
1796-1801: Czar Paul Romanov (murdered)
1801-1825: Czar Alexander I vs Napoleón
1825-1855: Czar Nicholas I vs Decembrists (killed in Crimean War)
1842: Nikolai V. Gogol’s Dead Souls: The hero travels around Russia buying up titles to dead serfs whose names are still in the census.
1855-1881: Czar Alexander II (assasinated by a bomb) vs Peasants
1860-1880: Nihilist: Member of the Russian Revolutionary Party: Serfdom abolished.
1881-1894: Czar Alexander III (Vladimir Ilich Lenin’s brother Alexander Ulyanov hanged for attempted assasination): Famine & Autocracy: a system in which 1 person holds supreme power: Jewish people crowded into Pale of Settlement. & killed in a series of massacres called pogroms. 1000s flee to USA & Palestine.
1894-1918: Czar Nicholas II (murdered) & Czarina Alexandra (murdered)
1901: Zarya (Dawn): Marxists establish Russian Social Democratic Labor Party: Splits into bolshinstvo: majority: Bolsheviks & menshinstvo: minority: Mensheviks
St Petersburg Soviet of 1905: Jan. 22: Government troops open fire on striking workers at Czar Nicholas II’s Winter Palace. Duma law body. December 20: Moscow strike spreads to other cities. Revolution crushed.
1912: Pravda (Truth)
1917: October Revolution-Russian Revolution: Bolshevik soldiers take over Winter Palace. Lenin withdraws Russia from WW I.
1918-1920: RSFSR: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic: Lenin’s Red Army vs White Army: Czar’s family murdered at Yekaterinburg.
1921-1938: Fridtjof Nansen: League of Nations’ High Commission for Refugees: assist people who flee the Russian Revolution of 1917 & subsequent civil war. In 1923, the mandate of the Commission expanded to include Armenians.
1922: USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from RSFSR & 3 republics: Ukraine, Belarus & Transcaucasia
  • Supreme Soviet of the USSR : 2 House Federal Parliament: Congresses are Soviet of the Union & Soviet of Nationalities. Soviet a Russian word meaning council Members called deputies.
  • 1917-1924: Head of State & Chairman 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets: Vladimir Ilyich Ulanov: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: Lena River, Siberia (1870-1924: shot by Dora Kaplan 1918)
  • 1917-1927: Kommissar: Minister of War: Lev Davidovich Bronstein: Leon Trotsky (1879-1940: assassinated in Mexico City 1940: Icepick)
  • Minister of Nationalities: Iosif Vissarionovich Djugashvili: Josef Stalin (1879-1953: poisoning): Stalin from a Russian word meaning Man of Steel.
  • 1917: Council of Ministers: Founder of the KGB: Committee on State Security & Head of Russian Cheka / Tzeka: Felix Dzerzhinsky Iron Felix Arithometer: Calculator: 1924
  • Kommissar for Internal Affairs (NKVD): Secret Police Chief: Nikolai Yezhov (-1940: executed)
  • 1939: Kommissar General of State Security (GUGB) of the NKVD: Lavrentiy Pavlovitch Beria (1899-1953: executed by Marshal Pavel Batitsky under Malenkov)
  • MGB Head: Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov (replaced 1946 by Viktor Abakumov, 1953: Semyon Ignatyev)
  • MVD Deputy Minister: Stepan Mamulov
  • 1930: Kommissar of Foreign Affairs: Maxim Maximovich Litvino (1876-1951)
  • Presidium of the Supreme Soviet: Legislation
  • Politburo: Lev Kamenev
  • Politburo: Grigori Zinoviev
  • Republic Party Organizations: Each republic governed by a supreme soviet with a presidium, & council of ministers
  • Regional Party Organizations
  • District Party Organizations
  • Primary Party Organizations: Local groups (factories, farms, offices, schools)

1928-1953: 17+ million people sent to Gulag prison system. The government made groups give up their identity & merge into 1 common culture, based on Russian. Languages once written in the Roman or Arabic alphabets had to use the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language.
1936: Stalin’s Great Purge Officials arrested who helped Stalin rise to power; shot or sent to labor camps. Camps called joy divisions. Youth Leagues: Little Octobrists & Young Pioneers
1940: NKVD: Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Order no. 00689. Secret police take people away to a remote location to be killed in the night. For important people: artists airbrush them out of photographs; books, records. (220) Histories recalled, rewritten, or redacted; pictures, busts, statues taken down. Never mentioned again. In this case it is Nikolai Yezhov, the signer of the Order in 1940
1941-1944: Germany invades & loses
1945: Soviet Atomic Bomb Project: NKVD Gulag uranium mines
1948: Leningrad Affair: Beria & Malenkov purge the deceased Andrei Zhdanov’s associates: Aleksei Kuznetsov, Nikolai Voznesensky, Pyotr Popkov & Prime Minister of the Russian Republic, Mikhail Rodionov
1953: Doctors’ Plot: Prominent Jewish doctors accused of poisoning top Soviet leaders. MGB prepared to deport all Soviet Jews to Russian Far East or even massacre them. Many sent to Gulags & executed. Beria executed for Crimes Against the State
1949-1964: Secretary of the Communist Party: Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (1894-1971)
1953: Premier Georgi Maximilianovich Malenkov (1902-1988) [Stalin’s secretary]
1955: Premier: Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bulganin (1895-1975) [Secret Police 1918-1922], Defense Minister: Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov (1896-1974)
Oct. 4, 1957-March 1961: Sputnik 1: Traveling Companion 1st artificial satellite to orbit the earth. 9 sputniks: Sputnik 2 carried the 1st space traveler, the dog Laika.
1961: Vostok: East: Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin 1st person to orbit earth. Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova follows in 1963 on Vostok 6
Oct. 12, 1964: Voskhod: Sunrise : Vladimir M. Komarov, Konstantin P. Feoktistov, & Boris B. Yegorov
1964-1980: Premier Aleksei Nikolaevich Kosygin (1904-1980)
1964-1982: Communist Party Head: Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (1906-1982): Brezhnev Doctrine: During a speech at the 5th Congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party 1 month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism-Leninism with capitalism.
1975: Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Apollo capsule links with the Soyuz capsule
1983-1985: Central Committee Secretariat: Grigoriy Vasilyevich Romanov
1985-1991: Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev: Glasnost: Openness
1991-1999: Boris Nicholayevich Yeltsin: Perestroika (pronounced pehr uh STROY kuh): Restructuring: Republics form a new, loose federation called the Commonwealth of Independent States.
1993: Constitution establishes civil rights.
1999: Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
Largest groups include Tartars-Tatars; Ukrainians; Chuvash; Bashkirs; Belarusians; Mordvins; Chechen; Germans; Udmurts (Finnic People of Volga River Valley: Language Votyak); Mari; Kazakhs; Avars; Armenians; & Jews, who are considered a nationality group in Russia. Siberia: Aleuts, Chukchi, Inuit & Koryaks. Mongol & Turkic: Buryats, Tuvinians, & Yakuts.
German Konzentration Lager: Concentration Camps: Borisovo [Mass grave October 1944 under the SS Das Reich division (130)], Lipetsk [300 German pilots received training], Katyn Wood [5 March 1940: Gestapo–NKVD 3rd Conference: NKVD head Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria sends a note (no. 794/B) to Stalin. Polish POWs at camps & prisons in western Belarus & Ukraine enemies of the Soviet Union & recommends. execution. Katyn Massacre: Beria massacres 25,700+ under Stalin], Saratov [Toxic gas invented here. German chemical weapons research & manufacture. Volga River]

GULAG: Lagerya: Labor Camps Akmétchetka, Balanowka, Bar, Bisjumujsje, Bogdanovka, Citadelle, Czwartaki, Daugavpils, Domanievka, Edineti, Kielbasin / Kelbassino, Kislowodsk, Khorol, Klooga, N. Pechora, Mezjapark, Ponary, Rawa-Russkaja, Salapils, Strazdumujsje, Toksovo [Nikolai Yezhov, the signer of the Order in 1940 disappears], Yanowski, Vertugen, [2001: Shortages of food, services, & manufactured goods have been common features of city life in Russia. The shift toward capitalism that began in the 1990s has not yet cured the shortages. Even when goods become available, they are often too expensive for many people to afford (World Book)]Central Federal District: Butyrka Prison [Moscow: Lev Sergeyevich Termen: León Theremin, inventor of the theremin, burgler alarm & drum machine, imprisoned at Butyrka by Josef Stalin in 1938 & later sent to work in the Kolyma gold mines. Although rumors of his execution were widely circulated, Theremin was, in fact, put to work in a sharashka, together with Andrei Tupolev, Sergei Korolev, & other well-known scientists & engineers. The Soviet Union rehabilitated him in 1956. During his work at the sharashka, he was put in charge of other workers, Theremin created the Buran eavesdropping system & a bug called The Thing, , a tiny condenser microphone connected to a small quarter-wavelength antenna activated when 330 MHz microwaves beamed in. The Thing was embedded in a carved wooden plaque of the Great Seal of the United States in U.S. Ambassador Averell Harriman’s Moscow Office in 1945. MI5 counterintelligence officer Peter Wright heard conversations on an open radio channel in 1952 Theremin worked at the Moscow Conservatory of Music for 10 years. After Glasnost Theremin visited France in June 1989, the United States in 1991, where he was reunited with Clara Rockmore who performed a number of concerts. He made a concert at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague in early 1993 before dying in Moscow in 1993 at the age of 97 – Jolly, James, general editor (January, 1994). Obituaries. Gramophone Magazine 71 (848): 17. Middlesex, UK: General Gramophone Publications Limited. ISSN 0017-310X]European Russia: Kirov Oblast
Kirov Ballet
Soviet Bashkortostan Republic [Turkic speaking region],Soviet Udmurtia Republic
Northwestern Federal District: KL Königsberger / Kalingrad / Kaliningrad Oblast [Teutonic Order Komturia Camp: Ostpreußen: E. Prussia. N Part given to Russia. S Part given to Poland. State dissolved in 1945], KL Heiligenbeil / Mamonowo [E. Prussia on the border of Kalingrad], KL RagnitNorthwestern Federal District: Soviet Karelia Republic Nyen / Volgograd Oblast [Karelia Border, Gulf of Finland with a Teutonic castle. a.k.a Izhora/Ingria/Vod /Ingermanland/Inkeri. Great Northern War: Swedish deportee destination. WWII: population transfers: 63,000+ fled to Finland during World War II, sent back to Stalin & executed as unreliables. GULAG. High floor cells. Pushcart displayed pastries. If you had money you could buy anything you wanted. As some prisoners in our cell commented, you could not get such selection of bakery in the stores anywhere in Leningrad], Northwestern Federal District: Nenetsia [Nenets Okrug] Northwestern Federal District: Soviet Komi Republic, Northwestern Federal Disrict: Solovetsky IslesSolovki Camp [1921-1939: Onega Bay, White Sea. 1923. Had a sign that read: With an Iron Fist, We will Lead Humanity to Happiness. Beloye More: White Sea part of Arctic Sea & frozen from September to June. Russian sea-port town Novo-Kholmogory / Arkhangelsk. Other important one Nakhodka. Used as a WWII naval base. 6 islands known as the Solovki: Bolshoy Solovetsky Island, Anzersky Island, Bolshaya Muksalma, Malaya Muksalma, Bolshoy Zayatsky, Maly Zayatsky. Stone labyrinths]

North Caucasia Federal District: Chechyna [Soviet Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic] KL Grozny / Groznyy [1991-1999: Uniters of Chechnya & Dagestan for an Islamic State vs Russian troops. Russian troops bomb Chechnya’s cities & kill many civilians. Refugee camps. Government headquarters bombed. 2002: 200,000 estimated people remain without public services & depend on bread lines. Night curfews by Russian troops. One Chechen mother: “The bombs destroyed my house, Soldiers killed many of my relatives, & this war has turned my children into cripples... I hate this war, & I hate what Russians are doing to us.&#8221 (Professor Bret Wallach)]
North Caucasia Federal District: Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, North Caucasia Federal District: Dagestan / Daghestan: Mountain Land [Soviet Dagestan Republic] [SW Corner of Russia: Causacus Mts & Caspian Sea. Persia surrendered it to Russia in 1813. 1999: Civilians flee to Ingushetia]
North Caucasia Federal District: Ingushetia [1924: Soviet Union creates Ingush Autonomous Region & deports intellectuals. 1934: Ingush & Chechen political units combined. In 1944, Joseph Stalin deported all of the Ingush & Chechens to Kazakhstan & Siberia. 1000s died. 1957: Ingush allowed to return after Stalin’s death. 1991: Ingushetia attempts to reclaim Prigorodny from North Ossetia. Russian military intervenes. 60,000+ Ingush refugees.]
North Caucasia Federal District: Soviet North Ossetia-Alania Republic [South Ossetia is in Georgia.], North Caucasia Federal District: Soviet Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Causacus: Adygeya [Soviet Adygea Republic] [Caucasian rugs come from the Caucasus Mountains between Europe & Asia], Causacus: Kalmykia [Soviet Kalmykiya Republic]

Ural Federal District: Uralsky federalny okrug: Ural Mountains 1 of the boundaries between Europe & Asia. >12 million prisoners died at a Soviet camp called Perm-36 in the Ural Mountains. Governments in Vietnam, North Korea, & China have also held thousands of political prisoners in gulags (World Book Encyclopedia). The administrative center of the district is Yekaterinburg. Ural: Chuvashia [Soviet Chuvashian Republic] [Volga-Vyatka Region 1860–1914: Peasants leave homes. Final wave took place during Stolypin’s Land Reform Program. 1930: Kulak farmers deported to GULAGs], Soviet Mari El Republic [1/4 Russian population lives in rural areas. Huge government farms called sovkhozy. Collective government-contolled farms called kolkhozy. New laws allow people to withdraw from government farms & set up private farms]
Volga Federal District: Mordvinia / Respublika Mordoviya [Soviet Republic of Mordovia] Mordvin language is Finno-Ugric. The Golden Horde disintegrated in 1430s, which resulted in some Mordvins becoming subjects of Khanate of Kazan, whereas others were incorporated to the Muscovy. When Ivan IV of Russia annexed the khanate of Kazan in 1552, the Mordovin lands were subjugated to the Russian tsars. In the 1700s, the Latin alphabet was used in writing Mordvin, but from the mid-1800s, Cyrillic was used.

Tataristan [Soviet Tartaristan Republic / Tartary] Tatars (pronounced TAH tuhrz) are Turks & are related to the people of Turkey. Most are Muslim. During the 1200’s they joined with other Mongol tribes to invade eastern Europe. >1 1/2 million of them live in Tatarstan, a republic in Russia. Suslonger [GULAG: Railway station for timber transport. barracks, no electricity, forced labor, starvation], Kazan [NKVD: Soviet Police: Volga River, Western Russia: Forced labor prison inside a medieval fortress. starvation. 10 ounce/300 gram bread rations. transportation to Siberia by Stolypin rail-car. Tank training]

Siberian GULAG
Dalstroy General Industrial & Highway Construction Company: Far North Construction Trust
Siberia, also known as North Asia, makes up 75% of the area of Russia & is in Asia. The temperature drops below -90 °F & there is ice 6 months a year. For centuries, Russian / Soviet rulers have sent millions of political prisoners there.

1932: NKVD official Petrovich Eduard Bierzin appointed manager (purged 1937) & Karp Aleksandrovich Pavlov commandant of the Kolyma camps.
1940-1948: Ivan Fedorovich Nikishev
1948-1950: Ivan Grigorevich Petrenko
1950-1953: I.L. Mitrakov
March 18, 1953: Ministry of Metallurgy
1970: Russian author Andrei Amalrik sentenced to Kolyma
1990s: Yeltsin releases Kolyma prisoners
Sibirsky federalny okrug: Siberian Federal District: Tannu Uriankhai / Respublika Tyva [Soviet Tuva Republic] In the far south of Siberia. Administered by Russia. Claimed by Republic of China. During the 1911 revolution in China, Tuva, part of Outer Mongolia, became the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II 1914. In 1911, Mongolia became independent under Russian protection. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 most of Tuva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak’s White Russian troops. In autumn 1918 the SW part occupied by Chinese troops & the S part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav. From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army controlled Tuva, but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor Yan Shi-chao). On August 14, 1921 the Bolsheviks established Tannu-Tuva. Tuvans are known for throat-singing & the language is Turkic with Mongolian loan-words.
Soviet Altai Republic SW & W of Tannu Uriankhai. Golden Mountains of Altai
Soviet Khakhassia RepublicNW & N of Tannu Uriankhai
Soviet Buryatia Republic

Dalnevostochny federalny okrug: Far Eastern Federal District: Magadan Oblast [Russian Far East] [Trans-Siberian Railway with a station at Vladivostok carries slave labor in goldmines discovered in 1925. Polish, German, Romanian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Mongolian, Chinese, Korean, Afghan, Armenian & Japanese POWS. Dismantled late 60s. Government records banished Survivors victims of severe frostbite. Dead remained forever in mass graves, dug into the permafrost, or had their bodies buried under rocks or carried away by spring flood to the Arctic Sea (Kolyma 221)], Far Eastern Federal Disrict: Kolyma [Pronounced koh-lee-MAH: Forced labor in gold & diamond mines. Called the White Crematorium: the land of White Death. Stalin had wooden watchtowers pulled down, police women disguised as swineherds & prisoners hidden when US Vice-President Henry Wallace visited in 1944, Kolyma Highway known as The Road of Bones. ‘The Moscow directors of the newly organized government agency, The Central Gold Monopoly, realized that effective exploitation of Kolyma’s gold fields could not reach the peak of productivity without advanced American technology. A group of their geologists & technocrats made a trip to California to acquaint themselves with American mining systems. They inspected some of the American mines & managed to recruit a few American engineers. That was, however, the limit of the assistance they got from the Americans.’ – Stanley J. Kowalski], Far Eastern Federal District: Vladivostok [1860: Korean border. Trans-Siberian Railroad. The Trans-Siberian railway stretches from Beijing to Moscow. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, author of The Gulag Archipelago, calls it the pole of cold & cruelty. Prisoners disembarked at 1 of several transit camps (such as Nakhodka & Vanino) & transported across the Sea of Okhotsk to Magadan, Far Eastern Federal District: Soviet Sakha Republic , Far Eastern Federal District: Transbaikalia: Kara [1838-1893: Set of prisons at Kara River in Transbaikalia & included into the system of Nerchinsk katorga. 185 men & 32 women political prisoners used in gold mining. 1889: Kara Tragedy Woman prisoner flogged to death. 18 prisoners take poison & 6 of them die], Sevvoslag: NE Camp[Mass executions of the inmates ordered by Colonel Sergey N. Garanin, Chief NKVD Officer for the Sevvostlag region. He is later shot in 1939 (Polish 222)], Maxim Gorky [gold mine], Laso, Chukhots, Maldyak, Komsomolets, Yoshkar-Ola, Sukhobezvodnaya [corrective labor-camp. Sector 4: transit camp. barbed wire with dogs in-between], Vorkuta [1932: Stalin sent his daughter Svetlana’s fiancé Alexei Kapler here], Far Eastern Federal District: Wrangel Island: Ferdinand von Wrangel [Far East bordering Alaska]
Sharashka GULAG
General Valentin Kravchenko
Scientists & engineers prisoners picked from other camps & given relatively better conditions in exchange for their slave-like work on scientific & technological problems for the state – Wikipedia
Mavrino [Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn The 1st Circle & Lev Kopelev interred here. In the 1970s, the KGB, led by Yuri Andropov persecuted Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn & Andrei Sakharov for criticizing the leadership. After 10 year old American Samantha Smith wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war, Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union. She is on a CCCP postage stamp], Bolshevo [Moscow. Aircraft engineers]
Respublika Byelarus: White Russia [Litwa / Belorusso / Belarus]
Katranisanje [Mass Graves]
30th Division White Russian SS: Senior Obergruppenführer: Friedrich Jeckeln (Sentenced to death)
General Commissar for Belorussia: Wilhelm Kube (post war trial in Koblenz)
Commander Security Police & Security Service: Eduard Strauch
800 AD: Kievan Rus, a state founded by East Slavs. W. Ukraine: Red Ruthenia
1300: Part of Lithuania: Belorussia: Bielobog White God, Chernarossija: Chernobog Black God Black Sea
1386: Grand Duke of Lithuania marries Queen of Poland
1569: Lithuania & Belarus merge with Poland
1919: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1939: Soviets reunite Western Belorus occupied by Poland since 1919 with Byelorussia
1986: Country receives 70% of the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Radiation contaminates food, water; causing cancer deaths & health problems.
1991: Independance
1992: Nuclear weapons
1994: President Aleksandr Lukashenko
Belarus is divided into 6 provinces, each named for the capital of the province: (1) Brest, (2) Homyel, (3) Hrodna, (4) Minsk, (5) Mahilyow, & (6) Vitsyebsk.
Rivers of Belarus: Bug, Nyoman / Neman: Pearl River, Dvina, & Dnepr / Dnyapro. Belovezha Forest (Bialowieza in Polish), is a remnant of the virgin forest that covered Europe in prehistoric times. European bison are wisent.
VL Maly Trostenets / Maly Trostinec [Extermination camp near Minsk. 1941: 500,000 killed. NAZIs tried to remove all traces of the camp. No survivors are known to exist 1942: Autumn Transports from Terezin Concentration Camp in Prague were shot by execution squads in the little pine wood at Maly Trostinets & buried in a pit. This mass killing was complemented by the Sonderwagen: Special cars in which the prisoners were killed by exhaust gases. (Porges)], Minsk [1941-1944: NAZI's occupy country during World War II. Minsk was almost entirely destroyed. After the war, the Soviets regained Byelorussia. 1942: General Commissar for Belorussia Wilhelm Kube reported to his superior he liquidated 10,000 Jews in Minsk in 2 days: June 28 & 29, by mobile gas vans & firing squads stating 6 500 were Russian with others from Vienna, Brno, Bremen & Berlin. (Porges)], KL Koldichevo / Koldichev [Barovich railway station at Kolpenice village received the prisoners; who were shot in the woods. A group of prisoners from the nearby Koldichev camp buried the dead in prepared pits (Porges)], Lahava [SS Friedrich Jeckeln: 14,000+ Hungarian Jews, liquidating Riga & Belorussia], Lida, Mir: Peace, Niesez, Pinsk [SS Totenkopf: Death’s Head division ride in on white horses looking for Jews & Bolsheviks. Igor Kravek recalls one cart with women tied up & another with their sons. 16,000+ killed. SS Officer Herman married Gretel Braun, sister of Eva Braun. (129)], Ivanitchi [Village outside of Pinsk. SS Death’s head trample the victims with white horses. Nina Ijenkowa hears their screams & sees blood on the hooves. Vera Bulina says the people were forced to dig their own graves, shot, & dumped into them. One SS men played a mouth organ while others screamed at them to dance. (129)], Slonim
Ukraine: Borderland [Crimea / Galizia: Love]
Henotsyd [Extermination]
SS Galicia Division
900 BC-300 AD: Scythia
900-1000 AD: Kievan Rus: Ruthenia founded by East Slavs
988: Grand Prince Vladimir I
1200-1475: Crimean Khanate
1475-1783: Ottoman Empire
1783: Russia invades
1853-1856: Crimean War
1905: Russian Revolution: Battleship Potemkin mutinies in Odessa
1919: Ruthenia part of Czechoslovakia
Region on Southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains & SW highland. Uzhgorod principal city
1921: Crimean Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic
1931-1933: Holodamor: Ukrainian Famine: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic has 8+ million dead this year
Stalin’s reprisals from state security personnel for those unwilling to join farm collectives: Siberia. After kulaks: rich peasants destroy farm equipment, burn fields, & slaughter livestock, government officials lock up remaining food stores & induce a famine. These shortages of farm products resulted in the greatest man-made famine in the history of mankind. – Stanley J. Kowalski
1939: Hungary seizes Ruthenia
  • 1941: Ukraine Reichskommissar: Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt
  • 1941 - 1943: Ukraine Reichkommissar: Erich Koch Ukrainian Volunteer SS Division
  • Generalbezirk: General Districts
    1. Dnjepropetrowsk: Nikolaus Selzner
    2. Kiew / Kiev: Generalkommissar Waldemar Magunia
    3. Krim (Crimea) & Taurien: Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld
    4. Nikolajew: Ewald Oppermann
    5. Shitomir: Kurt Klemm
    6. Wolhynien-Podolien: Heinrich Schoene
1945: Yalta Conference: Repatriation Agreement Order No. 270: Millions of former Russian citizens forcefully repatriated into the USSR. Ostarbeiters: Easternworkslaves, Soviet POWs & Vlasov men put under the jurisdiction of SMERSH (Death to Spies). – Wikipedia: Refugee
1954: Crimea absorbed into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independent country of Ukraine.
Mass Graves: Crimea (pron. cry-MEE-ah) a.k.a Taurica or Scythica [NAZIs occupied the entire area except Sevastopol: Hero City], Balaklava [Battle of Balaklava, (pronounced bal uh KLAH vuh): Oct 25, 1854: Near the town of Balaklava in the Crimea during the Crimean War. English, French, & Turkish troops seize & set up a base . Russians sent a large force from Sevastopol, a naval base near Balaklava, to reconquer the town. 250 of 673 men in the English calvary’s Light Brigade killed or wounded & their attack fails. Poet Lord Tennyson made it famous in his poem, The Charge of the Light Brigade. English soldiers retreat to Scutari to be treated by Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) whose Crimean illness injured her health. Balaclava the name of riot police helmets used in Northern Ireland. It also the name of a woolen coat & woolen head covering. (133: 118)], Babi Yar [Kiev Mass Grave. 34,000+ documented dead by SS. History Channel shows a hanging with a sign reading Tseka Juden. Special Squad 4A. (128-129)], Chernobyl, Dnepropetrovsk-Ekaterinoslav [(pronounced nehp roh pih TRAWFSK) E Ukraine. 1776: Prince Gregory Potemkin founds city. 1941: 20,000 liquidated in one day],, Charkow / Kharkov [Capital of Ukraine until 1934: 14,000+. One of the biggest cities in the Soviet Union bombed for the Führer. Chief squad Hausser. SS throw grenades at a military field hospital & the people inside are burnt alive (130)],Vinica [Over a thousand bodies]
VL: Vernichtungslager: Extermination Camp Simferopol / Scythian Neopolis [120 BC -300AD: Capital city of the Scythians. Now capital of Crimea]
KZ Lemberg / Lwow / Lvov / Lviv [Voivod Galizia-Volhynia: Lvov: pronounced luh-VAWF: Lev, ruler of the independent principality of Galicia: pronounced guh-LISH ee uh, founded Lvov in the 1200’s. Poland controlled the city, spelled Lwow by the Poles, from the 1340-1772. 1772-1918: Austria ruled Lvov & renamed the city Lemberg. 1918-1945: Poland. During WWII this was a Polish Extermination Camp located in Poland. Now part of the Ukraine since 1945. Eastern Galicia to the Ukraine, Western Galicia to Poland. WWII Kommando Czwartaki incinerated corpses with fire. Lemberg D.A.W. workcamp], Barnova [buried alive by NAZIs]

KZ Janowitz-Janowice-Urchtovy-Janówska[Voivod Podkarpackie-Galizia Concentration Camp near Lvov. Simon Wiesenthal interned & transferred to a camp affiliated with the repair works in Lvov of the Ostbahn: Eastern Railroad of German-ruled Poland]
KZ Golta [Slobodka surburb liquidates 70,000+. 10,000+ death-marched to Golta concentration camp. 19, 582 transported in cattle wagons to Berezovka then killed in Golta], Khotin [1940: SS officers seige the city, shoot 2,000 soldiers, assault, rape, kill women, girls, rabbis, lawyers, doctors, teachers. Houses looted], Novoselitsa / Nua Sulita [1941: 800 Jews murdered, shot to death. survivors rounded up into a ghetto, killed or buried alive], Odessa [5th largest city in the Ukraine. 1905: Workers’ Uprising. Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin 100s of citizens murdered on the great stone staircase. At the top of the steps stands a statue of Richelieu. Famine in 1920s.1941: Odessa Massacre. 240,000+ dead from Einsatzkommando & Romanian Army. 5000+ Jews hanged or shot. 19, 000 Jews enclosed on Tolbukhin square, doused with gasoline & set on fire, 15 000 women, children & handicapped shot by machine guns at Dalnik under Lieutenant-Colonel Nicolae Deleanu. In order to make sure that no one had survived, they set the buildings on fire at 17:00 hours, grenade-launched it the next day], Secureni [60,000+. forced labor, starvation, disease, SS guards rape women & girls. Only 500 survive], Tutzin, Vinnitsa [late 1920s the state takes over farms. millions starve to death in the famine: Holodomor], Zhmerinka [Stalin], Zhitomir

Rwanda [Deutsch-Ostafrika: German East Africa / Belgian Ruanda]
BPR: United Popular Bank
1885-1919: Part of German East Africa
Governors: 1889-1891 & 1895-6: Hermann von Wissmann, 1891-1893 Julius von Soden, 1893-1895 Friedrich von Schele, 1896-1901 Eduard von Liebert, 1901-1906 Gustav Adolf von Götzen, 1906-1912 Albrecht von Rechenberg, 1912-1918 Heinrich Albert Schnee
WWI: Seized by Belgium. People taxed, forced into slave corvée labor on coffee plantations. Capital city Kigali near the Nile-Congo watershed.
‘Genocide is justified in the fight against the enemy. ’ – 1994: Prime Minister & United Popular BPR banker Jean Kambanda: Radio Rwanda. Convicted by ICTR: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to life imprisonment in Mali
Kigali [90% of the population is currently working in subsistence agriculture / coffee & tea plantations. 1990: Military government of Juvénal Habyarimana instigates pogroms against the Watutsi. Militia kill 800,000+ Tutsis & Hutu moderates in the Rwandan Genocide: French send in peace-keeping troops in Opération Turquoise. 2 million+ Hutus flee.], Butare & Gitarama [Kambanda distributes small arms ammunition. He confessed that the government organized the genocide in advance. His lawyer argued that he was a puppet of the military, who dragged him from his bank, after killing the previous prime minister], Lake Kivu [dead bodies thrown into the lake. 1994: 1/2 million people massacred in less than 4 months]
Saudi Arabia: Al Saud Ruling Family
570 AD: Quraysh Empire
661-750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750 AD-1031AD: Abbasid Caliphate
1516-1918: Ottoman Empire
1918: Sharif Hussein of Mecca & English military fight Ottoman rule.
1932: Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud proclaims territory the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1944: Aramco: Arabian American Oil Company
1960: OPEC
1967: 6 Day War: Faisal sends troops to Jordan & Syria
1973: Saudi Arabia takes partial ownership of Aramco; stops exporting petroleum to United States & the Netherlands.
1980: Aramco becomes Saudi Arabian Oil Company
1981: GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
1990: Persian Gulf War
2001: The only non-Muslims in Saudi Arabia are foreigners.
Khafji [1991: Invaded by Iraqi troops. 1991: Iraq launches Scud missiles at populated areas in Israel & Saudi Arabia, terrorizing the populations of targeted cities & killing a number of people in both Israel & Saudi Arabia. – World Book Encyclopedia © 1998], Riyadh [Capital City], Mecca [The Holy City. The 5 Pillars of Islam: The Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca. When completed al-Hajj added to name. The sacred Black Stone sent from Allah to the Prophet Abraham by the Angel Gabriel, is the stone to which one turns 5 times each day to pray.], Yethrib-Medina [N. of Mecca. Hegira the trip from Mecca to Medina. King holds the title Custodian of the 2 Holy Mosques: The Great Mosque in Mecca & The Prophet’s Mosque in Medina.]
Seychelles: Jean Moreau de Séchelles
1502: Portugal
1756: Seized by France
1814-1976: Ruled by England
1976: Independant
(pron. SHEHL or say SHEHLZ) 90 islands in the Indian Ocean just N of Madagascar. Mahe Island [85% of the people live here. cinnamon, coco-de-mer: double coconut palms], Most of the rest live on Praslin & La Digue Islands.
Sierra Leone: Lion Mountains in Portuguese
1460: Portuguese funded by Prince Henry of Portugal collect gold dust & African captives who they sell into slavery
1500: Settlement of the Americas creates a demand for slaves, other Europeans begin to sail to the west African coast to take part in the slave trade
1524-5s: William Hawkins: Treasurer to the Corporation of Plymouth: Guinea / Sierra Leone / Brazilian slave trade
1808: English diamond mines. Jamaican maroons transported into the country
1832: St. Kitts Rebellion, La Amistad Revolt: Cinque/Singbe, an African headman from Sierra Leone kidnapped, kills the captain & crew. Cinque & 38 of his followers arrested with piracy at Long Island Their owners sue for their return. According to Anti-Slavery International the average slave in 1850 fetches ,000
1926: League of Nations Slavery Commission organizes raids against slave traders; saving 200,000
1961: British Commonwealth Republic

When a government is in place, we have fully achieved our mission. Human rights is not a mission for a military service. Other organizations can be tasked with that. – Staff, Brig. Malu

Bunce Island [18th century British slave castle that sent many of its captives to Georgia & South Carolina where American rice planters paid a premium for experienced slaves from Africa’s Rice Coast. Gullah People part of the Mende People – The Language You Cry In ]

Freetown [City for former slaves living in London. 1989: Foday Sankoh’s wars against the government with child soldiers. 500 UN Peacekeepers held hostage. 2 million people, 1/3+ of the population, displaced refugees in neighboring countries, 200,000+ dead, others disfigured & amputated with machetes. 2001: Sankoh indicted by UN-War Crimes Commission.]
Blood Diamonds: Child slaves work under armed guard for 2 cups of rice a day

Slovakia: Slovenska Republica [Bohemia: Milk Land]
Czech Republic [formerly Czechoslovakia]
Koncentrák [Concentration Camp] / Vyhubit [Extermination]
Watson Printing Plant: Director Emil Kuzcek of Prague KreditBank & Co-Manager Georg Schneider
1936: Near Prague. 16 presses & 2 cutting machines. Czechoslovakian State Railways utilize 52.2 million punch cards per year.
1938: Statistical Office for the Protectorate of Bohemia & Moravia Prague. 102,000 of the 200,000 Kroner value held by Stefan Schmid, IBM’s attorney in Prague & 98,000 to IBM European General Manager John Holt.
Central Office of the Reich’s Security Archive Located at Theresienstadt: Saint Teresa City / Terezin Camp
  • SS Governer of Czechoslovakia: Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich, The Blond Beast, The Butcher of Prague, Der Henker: the Hangman (assasinated by Czech patriots, Jan Kubis & Josef Gabcik in Prague with a bomb May 26, 1942 on his journey to implement Final Solution for France)
    At Prague Cathedral, Wencelas Chapel he documented 11 million murdered Jews at the Wannsee Conference. Prague / Praha lies on the Vltava River, in the central part of the country. Prague Castle, once the home of the kings of Bohemia, stands on Hradcany: Castle Hill on the left bank of the Vltava River. St. Vitus’ Cathedral also stands on Hradcany. Palaces line the narrow, winding streets of Mala Strana, a district of Prague located on the slopes & at the bottom of the hill. Father Bruno composer of the opera Amen: Reinhard’s Crime. (129)
  • Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich & Hans Gunther receive Slavs & others racially unfit for Germanification. at Terezin – Prague
  • SS Governor of Czechoslovakia: Ernst Kaltenbruer (takes over after Heydrich).
  • Supreme Commander of the SS & the GeStaPo Police in Bohemia & Moravia.: Karl Hermann Frank
  • Protectorate Commander of the Security Police: Horst Bohme (1942)
  • Chief of the Prussian GeStaPo in PragueHans Geschke
  • Supreme Commander of the SS & the GeStapo Police in Slovakia: Josef Tiso (hanged 1945).

800: Great Moravian Empire (pronounced maw RAY vee uhn)
1246: King Ottokar of Bohemia gained control of Austria & Styria. Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf I Habsburg defeated Ottokar in battle in 1278 & acquired for his family the lands the king had taken. Rules under salic: salt law
1400-1457: Unitas Fratrum: Unity of the Brethern / Catabaptistae: Anabaptist: Re-baptizers / Moravian Church / Hussites: Roman Catholic Priest Jan Hus burned at the stake under the Council of Constance; though he had been promised safety if he attended the council to defend himself.
1618-1624: Defenestration of Prague / Battle of White Mountain: King Ferdinand of Bohemia removed for Holy Roman Emperor Frederick, elector: prince of the Palatinate, Germany
1918: Czechoslovakia: Eduard Benes
1919: Ruthenia, a region E. of Slovakia in the Ukraine part of Czechoslovakia

1921: Czech word robot used to describe mechanical workers in play R.U.R by Karel Capek
1938: Munich Agreement: Czechoslovakia cedes Sudetenland region to Germany. Poland & Hungary claim parts. Eduard Benes flees.
1939: German troops occupy Prague during World War II. Many of Czechoslovakia’s people, including thousands of Jews, killed by the Germans
1945: Eduard Benes: Soviet Army: Ruthenia to Ukraine. Sudetenland returned
1948: Soviet Czechoslovak Communist Party: Chairman Klement Gottwald: Eastern Bloc country
1953-1957: President Antonin Zapotocky
1957-1968: President Antonin Novotny (removed)
1968: President: Ludvik Svoboda: Prague Spring: Action Program of liberalizations, increasing freedom of press, freedom of speech & freedom of movement & limiting power of the secret police & potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact. Soviet Red Army with most of their Warsaw Pact allies [E. German, Bulgarian, Hungarian, & Polish troops] invade Czechoslovakia with tanks. Religious activities shut down, food lines. Invasion followed by a wave of emigration, including an estimated 70,000 Czechs initially fleeing, with total eventually reaching 300,000. The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia, Romania & China, & from Western European communist parties.
1975-1989: President Gustav Husak
1989-1991: Velvet Revolution: End of Communist Rule: Strikes. Party leader Milos Jakes resigns & Karel Urbanek replaces him.
On Dec. 31, 1992, Czechoslovakia ceases to exist, & the Czech Republic & Slovakia form in its place. Vaclav Havel resigns saying he did not want to preside over the breakup of his country. Prague capital of the Czech Republic. Slovakian language: Slovencina. Czech language: Cestina dialect of Slovakian: Slovencina

Masov´y hrob [Mass Grave] Ausona-Hallstatt Chapel [near Prague. plague bones on walls & ceilings, bone chandelier.], Prague / Praha [1300: Old Town Hall seat of Prague / Praha. Clock with statues of the 12 apostles that move every hour]

VL: Vernichtungslager Theresienstadt: Externimation Camp Teresa City / Terezin Koncentracní tábor
Bypass built from Prague 60 km away to the camp. 11 barracks, military installations partly built into the redoubt as casemates, the Small Fortress police prison of the Prague Gestapo with a strong SS guard division, & 218 civilian houses. Protectorate Gendarmes a special division transferred to Terezin. Contact with prisoners punished by death. Terezin founded by Austrian Emperor Joseph I as a military fortress in the basin of the river Labe at the confluence of the Labe & Ohe rivers. Neighboring Litomerice was already part of the Sudeten district. Prisoners forced to split mica, produce war machinery, explosives, ink powder. (Porges). 1942: Autumn Transports: Death Marches: 50,000+ per year processed at the Bohusovice railway station, starvation, typhoid fever, spotted fever, no sanitation. Those still living from the September transports killed in March in the gas chambers. Living witnesses, those who knew too much, removed. ‘The Terezin columbarium, filled with paper urns containing the ashes of prisoners tortured to death in Terezin & cremated in the crematorium of the camp, liquidated. About 17 thousand urns, possibly more, were dumped in the Ohe river, the remainder in a pit near the Litomerice concentration camp’
Stadtverschonerung: City Beautifying Activity: On 23rd June, 1944, Dr. Rossel & 2 Danish Red Cross delegates visited Terezin. This the Nazi organizers of the final solution got an excellent reference from Dr Rossel. "Let us say that to our complete amazement we found in the ghetto a town which is living a nearly normal life... This Jewish town is remarkable..." he wrote in his report & as evidence he enthusiastically described his own impressions. In addition, ex privatissima industria, Dr Rossel sent photos taken by him in Terezin to the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, Eberhard von Thadden. Among them were also pictures of children prisoners playing in a park. Within 4 months all these children had ended their lives in a gas chamber. On March 5, 1945 Eichman announced a 2nd visit of the International Committee of the Red Cross. The mass graves were levelled & an imitation of a Jewish cemetery with Hebrew inscriptions was established. Pavements were again washed & the windows were furnished with curtains. The SS Headquarters checked nearly every day on how the rehearsals for the children’s opera The Beetles was progressing. From Prague they ordered everything needed for staging The Tales of Hofmann. A day before the inspection, sugar, cheese & chocolate were distributed to the prisoners. On April 6, the delegation of the Red Cross International Committee arrived. The report by Otto Lehner was even more monstrous than the earlier one by Maurice Rossel. (Porges)

Außlager: Subcamps:
KZ Leitmeritz / Litomerice [Sudeten District: North of Prague on the Elbe River]
KZ Rabstein / Rabstejn [Kamenice River Valley. On October 1, 1942 , the entire complex of Preidl’s textile factories in Rabstejn, Janská & âeská Kamenice were confiscated by the Greater German Reich & Handed over to the company Weserflugzeugbau Bremen. 6000+ workers. Werk A Zone: Nové Brémy Camp. Weapons production, 1 camp with 700+ . Flosenbürg prisoners transported to build an underground factory in Janská] (185:8)
KZ Brüx-Maltheuern / Most [N. Bohemia. Childrens camp for Theriesenstadt]
KZ Lobositz / Lobosice-Lovosice [Sputh factory & an oil factory]
KZ Nestemice
Usti / Usti nad Labem [Schicht factory. Now a main manufacturing center]

Slovenska Koncentrák [Slovakian Concentration Camps]: Bordered by Poland [N], Ukraine [E], Hungary [S] & Austria / Czech Republic [W]. The Little Carpathians & the White Carpathians dominate much of western & northwestern Slovakia. Danubian Lowlands make up southwestern Slovakia. Pressburg / Bratislava [1291: Chartered city 35 miles E. of Vienna, Austria on the Danube / Don River: railroad. Chemical, machinery, & petroleum factories. St. Martin’s Cathedral & Bratislava Castle]

Kosice [pron KAW shee tsay. 1241: King Bela IV of Hungary chartered settlement After the WWII, Kosice was returned to Czechoslovakia by Hungary.]

Jungfernbreschan / Panenske-Brezany[Castle Jungfer-Breschan]

Sered [1944: 416 prisoners transfered to Terezin (Porges)]

Czech Koncentrák [Czech Concentration Camps] Regions: Bohemia [W], Moravia-Morava [E: Named after a river (pron. moh RAY vee uh) which empties into the Don: Abyss a.k.a Danube: Water from Heaven. Slopes SW from Carpathian: Red & Sudeten: South Mts], Silesia [N. Other part in Poland]
Czech, noun 1. a member of a branch of the Slavs. Bohemians, Moravians, & Silesians are Czechs.

Holletrith Arbeitseinsatz: Hollerith Workdeath 150: KZ Graslitz / Kraslice [Inmates sent for extermination in Flossenbeurg]

Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 561: KZ Neu Rohlau bis Nikolsburg / Nová Role [Near Prague: Director Christel Jankowsky. Pohl von der Neudeker Papierfabrik. Invalids amputated. Russian POWs, Catholics, 70 & 80 year old men & women. Train passengers unloaded with pistols. In the Kitchen of Hunger people grab for potato peelings.. Inmates sent for extermination in Flossenbeurg after being worked to death in the Bohemia China Factory (Sudenten: 161)]

Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 603: Holleischen-Staab / Holysov [Inmates sent for extermination in Flossenbeurg. Holysov now production site of DaimerChrysler]

Hollerith Arbeitseinsatz 887: Zwodau / Svatava [Inmates deathmarched to Flossenbeurg]

Außig [Massacres in 1945. Residents shipped off to KZ Lerchenfeld & KZ Schöbritz]
KZ Brunnlitz / Bruenec [Kriegswichtige: War Essential Factory. Schindler’s list ones moved here]
KZ Faulknau-Bruss / Brusy-Eger-Cheb [In Cheb. Inmates death-marched to Flossenwieler. Eger part is in Hungary]
KZ Hertine / Rtyne
KZ Hohenstein-Sankt Joachimsthal / Jachymov [Public executions]
KZ Hohenelbe: High Elbe / Vrchlabi
KZ Hradischko
KZ Kaaden / Kadan [Tscachwitz: June 1945: Murders of Sudeten Germans (161)]
Karlsbad : Red Bath / Karlovy Vary (pron. KAHR law vih VAH rih) : Ohre River Health Resort with 19 Mineral Springs 70 miles W, of Prague. Sprudel Spring is 165 °F & yields 2,000 quarts of water a minute. Glassware, pottery, & china. Nearby hills have coal & kaolin, a clay used in making china. – Vojtech Mastny, Ph.D., Senior Research Scholar, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars]
KL Klaidovka [Trial of Jan Kouril]
KL Klattau [Deportation & POW Camp]
KL Kolin
KZ Kremieniewo
KZ Krondorf-Sauerbrunn / Korunní Kyselka
KZ Lauenburg
KZ Lety [At Písek. built by Schwarzenberg]
KZ Lidice [Chelmo. 1942: SS unit kills all males: 172 of them (CC List) Women seperated from their children & taken to Ravensbrück concentration camp. Town completely destroyed. Legend says the SS destroyed it anger after the assasination of Reinhardt Tristan Eugen Heydrich. Zdena Zupikova one of the child survivors. (129)]
KZ Mülsen / St. Micheln: Saint Michael
KZ Malken / Mierzynek
KZ Marienbad: Sea Bath / Mariánské Lázne [Railroad labor camp in the Ore: Golden Mountains of Bohemia. Named after the mineral spring waters used for bathing. Coal mining in the mountains & industrial pollution have damaged the environment.]
KZ Nachod [POW Camp]
KZ Neutitschein: New Light / Nov´y Jicín
KZ Niemes-Prachatitz
KZ Niskie / Narazenie
KZ Schörnlinde [Deportation Camp. Executions]
KZ Sörgsdorf-Jauernig
KZ Stecken: Case [Near Iglau. Slave Auction]
KZ Steinschönau: Beautiful Stone / Kamenickém Senovû
KZ Tremosna-Pilsen / Plzen [Pilsner beer from here. Severe abuse, death, dysentery, typhus, dropsy. Bory Prison: Starvation related typhus (161)]
Tabor Prison
KZ Tepl
KZ Trautenau
KZ Troppau
KZ Weidseifen-Vietseifen Thomasdorf: Thomastown
KZ Zschachtz / Zschopau
KZ Znaim [POW Camp]

Moravia Koncentrák [Moravian Concentration Camps]
KZ Grulich / Kraliky[Famo-Werke Motorworks at this camp in Moravia]
KZ Gurein [Moravia]
KZ Mährisch-Weisswasser: Whitewater / Bila Voda: White Water [Moravian Internment Camp]
KU Nieder-Mohrau-Sternburg-Hodolein-Olmütz: Lower Moravia-Stern Castle / Dolní Moravice [Moravia]
KZ Reichenau / Richnow / Richnov / Rychnov na Moravê, [Near Trübau in Moravia. Crematorium]
KZ Zlin [Moravia Forced Labor Camp]

Slovenia: Slovenjka [Karantania: Red Yew Berry / Yugoslavia: South Land of the Slavs]
Republica Slovenija
Mnozieni Umor [Mass Graves]
Yugoslav Watson AG
13th SS Division ‘Handschar’ SS: Dieter Wisliceny
500 AD: Lombards move to Italy
623 AD: Franks
1358: Louis the Great, Angevin: Austro-Hungary.
1918: NAZI Hussar general Joseph “Tito” Broz declares himself president, Slovenia part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes
1929: Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats & Slovenes renamed Yugoslavia.
1946: Slovenia a republic in the Yugoslav state.
1980: Tito dies
1991: Independance. President: Janez Drnovsek. Slovenian Language: Slovensko. It is written in the Roman alphabet, not Cyrillic used for many Slavic languages.
Hrastovlje [Plague], Ljubljana [Pron: lyoo blee YAH nuh: Capital City with its own veal cutlet. Settlements from 3000BC], Maribor [Excavated part of 1941 trench found bones of 1,200 skeletons of entirely decomposed male bodies. Considering some 15 skeletons per meter in that excavated trench part only, one derives to say over 30,000 killed males is still not marked by any visible sign], Tezno Woods [60-80,000 killed. childrens’ bones], KZ Loibl-Pass Süd [Listed as a sub-camp of Mauthausen-Gusen. KZ Loibl-Pass Nord is in Klagenfurt, Southern Austria]
Somalia [British Somaliland]
Xusuuq [Mass Murder]
Part of E. Africa: Horn of Africa with Djibouti [French Somaliland], Eritrea [Italian Somaliland], Ethiopia [Italian E. Africa], Sudan [Anglo-Egyptian Sudan] & Kenya [British E. Africa]
1880: Seized by the Britsh
1940: Mussolini’s troops invade.
1960: Independance.
1977: Seizes Ogaden region of Ethiopia.
1988: Ethiopia & Somalian Peace Agreement
1993. Siad Hersi Morgan son-in-law of the late dictator rules SPM: Somali Patriotic Movement
2008: Pirate ships
Shabeelle & Jubba Rivers [Italian settlers established banana plantations. Crops grown: bananas, mangos, papayas, citrus fruit, sugar cane, corn, cotton, sorghum], Mogadishu [Posters of late dictator Siad Barre, 1969 -1991, seen. 1978: Government killings 1988: 60,000+ dead. 1992: 28,000 US Troops deliver food after 350,000+ die of starvation. 1993: UN massacres civilians in Hussein Aideed’s province after 24 UN soldiers killed - Jason P. Sorens & Leonard Wantchekon, Social Order Without the State: The Case of Somalia, Yale Univ. Before his death in 2002 President Egal accused the UN of trying to undermine his nation.]
Djibouti [French Somaliland]
Xusuuq [Mass Murder]
Vichy Camps de Concentration
200AD - 600AD: Aksum Kingdom: Djibouti, Eritrea, N Ethiopia, Sudan
1884: Danakil Sultanate of Tadjourna brought under French Protectorate: French East Africa
1946: Part of French Union
1967: Renamed Territory of the Afars & Issas
1977: Republic of Djibouti.
Ambabo [Coastline seized by France in 1856. The Mad Mullah fought against the British in 1901, & it took until 1920 for the British to regain control], Shoa [Explorations by Rochet d’Hericourt (1839-42), Henri Lambert, & Fleuriot de Langle.]
Eritrea: Latin: Red Sea [Italian Somaliland]
National Murder
200AD - 600AD: Aksum Kingdom: Eritrea, Djibouti, North Ethiopia & parts of Sudan
1137 AD - 1270 AD: Zagwe Dynasty
1882: Colonized by Italians
1885: Italy & England annex the port of Massawa, Eritrea on the Red Sea from the Egyptian Empire
1889: Treaty of Wuchale: Italian Prime Minister Francesco Crispi signs with Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopeia. This treaty ceded Ethiopian territory around Massawa to Italy to form of the colony of Eritrea.
1936: Eritrea becomes part of Ethiopeia: Italian East Africa
1945: British Protectorate.
1952: UN annexes to Ethiopia
1961-1993: Civil War
Asmara [1960: 30 year long Civil war after United Nations annexes the area to Ethiopia in 1952. Massive population displacement, reduced economic development, & one of Africa’s more severe landmine problems Eritrea declared independent in 1993. 2000: Algiers Agreement establishes UN Mission in Eritrea & Ethiopia peace-keeping force. There has been no food since March.]
Mali: Hippopotamus [French Sudan]
Mass Graves
Mali means Hippopotamus in the Bambara language. Griot: Oral historian.
300-1230 AD: Soninke Ghana Empire
1230 AD: Sosso King Sumanguru conquers Malinké Kangaba Kingdom part of Mandingo clan & 9 kingdoms of Ghana
1235 AD-1255 AD: Sundjata: Lion King defeats Sumangaru, names Kangaba Mali
1312-1337 AD: King Mansa Munsa spreads Empire E. to Gao
1400 AD-1500 AD: Songhai & other states conquer Mali‘s outlying areas.
The ancestors of most American blacks came from an area of Africa known as the Western Sudan. From AD. 300’s to 1591, 3 highly developed black empires, in turn, controlled all or most of the Western Sudan: Ghana, Mali, & Songhai. Their economy was based on farming, on mining gold, & on trade with Arabs of northern Africa. – Alton Hornsby, Jr., Ph.D., Fuller E. Callaway Professor of History, Morehouse College.
Part of French West Africa: Afrique Occidentale Française: 1898-1960: Cote d’Ivoire: Ivory Coast, Dahomey (Bénin), French Guinea, French Sudan (Mali), Mauritania, Niger, Upper Volta (Burkina Faso).
1959: French Sudan & Sénégal: Federation of Mali
1960: Independant
Fulani & a related people called Toucouleur make up the largest group of Mali’s people. 3 main Mandingo subgroups: Bambara, Malinke, & Soninke. Others: Dogon, Songhai, & Voltaic peoples.
1/5 of babies born in rural areas die as infants. Malaria is widespread. Mali has only a few hundred doctors to serve its entire population. Senegal & Niger are Mali’s chief rivers.
Sahara Desert [in the N], Sahel Semi-Desert [Central Mali], Gao [linked to Timbuktu by ferry service], Timbuktu [Under Mansa Musa a 14th century Islamic-Mandika/Soninke book publishing empire stretching to N., W., E. Africa. Invaded by Portugal. A drought & desertfication in the 1970s & 1980s kills the livestock of the Tuareg Berbers. Government provides no aide. In 1990 Tuareg separatists attack government buildings & fight the national army. Peace Treaty as of 1998.], Sadiola [Largest gold mine in W. Africa], Sikasso [1876: Tieba King of the Kénédougou Empire. Senegal Niger-Kongo languages. Palace on sacred Mamelon hill. Sieged & taken by the French in 1898.]
Sénégal [French Senegambia]
Fagaala [People Murder]
300-1230 AD: Soninke Ghana Empire
1230-1500 AD: Mali Empire
1492: Portuguese Colonial slavery
1588: Dutch
1624: French King Louis XIII
1755: Senegambia: Peanuts introduced as a food crop for the slaves
1783-1817: War with English: Sénégal section to France
1830: Peanuts exported
1895-1959: Part of French West Africa: Afrique Occidentale Française: 1/7 of Continent
1959: French Sudan & Sénégal: Federation of Mali
1960-1981: Independant under Leopold Sedhar Senghor
1981-2000: Abdou Diouf
2000: Abdoulaye Wade
Largest groups: Wolof, Fulani-Fula, Serer, Toucouleur, Diola, & Mandingo
2001: 3/4 of Senegal’s people work in agriculture. Water & food contaminated by parasites & other impurities is a major cause of illness & death in the country, especially in rural areas. Senegal has a severe shortage of physicians. Senegal has 1 of the finest transportation systems in western Africa. The system includes about 6,800 miles of roads & 700 miles of railroads. (World Book)
Dakar [1902: Coastal City: Capital of French West Africa & Sénégal. Hundreds of years ago the E. section was part of the old African empires of the Soninke Ghana & Mali], St. Louis [1658: French fortified trading post at the mouth of the Sénégal River], Goree Island [(pron. gaw RAY). Blacks captured in Africa brought for examination, storage, shipment overseas as slaves. Building called the House of Slaves with its Door of No Return], Casamance River Region [Since the early 1980s: Government forces vs MFDC: Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance. 1000s+ dead]
Gambia [British Senegambia / Western Sudan]
Surrounded by Sénégal
300-1230 AD: Soninke Ghana Empire
1230-1500 AD: Mali Empire
1492: Portuguese Colonial Slavery
1588: Antonio, Prior of Crato, sells Gambia River to Queen Elizabeth I
1755: Senegambia
1783-1817: War: Sénégal section to France
1830: Peanuts exported
1965: Independent February 18 under Prime Minister David K. Jawara
1994: Military Officer Yahya Jammeh
2001: The only industry in Gambia is peanut processing (World Book)
5 main ethnic groups, in order of size, are the Mande-Mandingo, Fula-Fulani, Wolof, Serahuli, Jola
Banjul-Bathurst [1816: British military post. 3 million+ slaves over 3 centuries of the transatlantic slave trade], Juffure [According to Alex Haley’s Roots, the Gambia River provided one of the clues that helped him trace his American family history back to Africa. The words Kamby Bolongo were among the few words that his family had been passed down from generation to generation; he discovered that a bolongo was a moving water or river in the Mandinka language, so he concluded that the phrase probably referred to the Gambia River. His theory was confirmed], James Island [slave trade, UNESCO World Heritage Site]
Sudan: Black in Arabic [Kush / Nubia / Anglo-Egyptian Sudan]
Mass Graves
Part of E. Africa: Horn of Africa with Djibouti [French Somaliland], Eritrea [Italian Somaliland], Somalia [British Somaliland], Ethiopia [Italian E. Africa] & Kenya [British East Africa]
3300 BC: Pharonic Kingship
2700 BC-2180 BC: Old Kingdom: Kingdom of Kush
2100-1720 BC: Middle Kingdom: Egyptian forts guard flow of gold from mines in Wawat
1700-1500 BC: Kush Kingdom: 3rd Intermediate Period of Egypt
1570 BC-1100 BC: New Kingdom: Pharaoh Ahmose I incorporates Kush as an Egyptian province governed by a viceroy.
750 BC-740 BC: Kushite King Kashta conquers Upper Egypt & rules Thebes. His daughter, Amenirdis I, adopted as the Heiress to the God’s Wife of Amun prior to his own death.
8th century BC: 25th Dynasty: King Piankhy: Featured in 1932’s The Mummy
688–663 BC: King Taharqa returns dynasty to Napata. Dies in exile. Napatan kings.
590 BC: Egyptian army sacks Napata, compelling Kushite court to move to Meroe near the 6th Cataract.
2nd Century BC: Meroitic Kingdom: Meroe extends from 3rd Cataract in north to Sawba, near Khartoum
1st century BC: Hieroglyphs give way to a Meroitic script the indigenous Nubian language
350 AD: Kush Kingdom ends under Alexander the Great
350 AD-543 AD: Rome subsidiizes Nobatae as a military aristocracy
543 AD: States: Nobatia-Ballanah in north with capital at Faras, Egypt; Muqurra-Makuria at Dunqulah, & Alowa-Alodia at Sawba. Functionaries bear Byzantine Greek titles under Empress Theodora
Albaqut: Islam
1093: Dunqulah Muslim King
1500-1821: Funj Sultanate
1821: Albanian-Ottoman Pasha Muhammad Ali of Egypt deposes Sultan Badi VII
1847 German Colonial Administrator Eduard Schnitzer (1840-1892: killed in the Upper Congo) of the Turkish army joins British Army & made military governor of Sudan. Sudanese Mahdi rebel
1869: Egyptian Khedive: Ruler Ismail Pasha appoints Sir Samuel White Baker Governor General of Sudan. Baker author of Albert N'yanza, Great Basin of the Nile (1866) & Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia (1867)
1877-1885: Orabi Revolt: Sudanese War: Muhammad Ahmed the Mahdi (divinely appointed guide) vs Englishman Charles George Gordon (1833-1885: killed)
1885-1898: The Mahdiyah: The Mahdi dies of typhus & Abdallahi ibn Muhammad is Khalifa: successor of the Mahdi. Fight English in Egypt, Belgians in Equatoria, & Italians in Eritrea & Ethiopia
1896-1898: Battle of Omadurman: The War in the Soudan: Lord Kitchener vs Mahdi
1898-1916: General Governor of Sudan: Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Earl of Khartoum & of Broome (1850-1916: drowned) massacres the Sudanese in 1884 with Maxim machine guns. It is documented in Hilaire Belloc’s The Modern Traveller
1916: General Governor of Sudan: Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack
1924: Mutiny: Split in 2. Illegal to visit the other area.
1925: SDF: Sudan Defence Force
WWII: East African Campaign
1956: General Governor of Sudan: Sir Robert Howe: Independance
1958-1964: General Ibrahim Abboud
1969-1985: Colonel Gaafar Nimieri (forced out)
1986-1989: Sadiq al Mahdi (overthrown)
1989-2009: Brigadier General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir: Suspends Constitution & bans political parties (March 4, 2009: Al-Bashir indicted for War Crimes)
1997: USA firms barred from doing business with Sudan
23 December 2005: Chad-Sudan War: Chadian President Idriss Déby declares war with Sudan. Sudanese janjawid raiding refugee camps in eastern Chad
2008: International Criminal Court indicts State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs Ahmed Haroun & Janjawid militia Ali Mohammed Ali a.k.a Ali Kosheib for Darfur atrocities
Nubian Desert [N. bordering Egypt: Nubians, the Hamitic Beja, Fu], Napata [Capital of Kush. When destroyed the capital moved to Meroe: Red Sea Place], Port Sudan [Red Sea], Khartoum [1823: Slave market city built by Mehemet Ali of Egypt. Capital of the country on the Nile River. Downtown streets laid out with union jacks. Machine guns placed in the center of each cross. Charles George Gordon vs Muhammad Ahmed the Mahd (divinely apponted guide). Gordon held the city for 317 days & was killed 2 days before an English relief party came], Khartoum North [2001: Largest urban center consists of 3 cities located where the White & Blue Nile come together. These cities are: Khartoum, Khartoum North, & Omdurman with a combined population of >1 million], Bahr al Jabal City / Omdurman [1898: Nile river called the Bahr al Jabal: Battle of Omdurman: English Prime Minister & War Secretary Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), grandson of the Duke of Marlborough of the 4th Hussars fought this after Bangalore. His book The River War ©1899 & the 4-volume history of WWI: World Crisis (1923-1929)], Torit [Civil War: 1955-present. 500,000+ killed before temporary cease-fire in 1972.], El Gezira-Al Jazirah [1920s: Gezira Scheme: Canals to water sorghum, cotton. Central Sudan between the Blue & White Niles. Nuba Mountains along White Nile], Darfur [Darfur Affair / Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899 & the Treaty of 1936 2 million+ internally displaced persons], Juba [In the 1980's, the Dinka, the largest black ethnic group in Sudan at nearly 6 million, Nuer & other southern peoples (Shiluk, Azande) formed an opposition group called the Sudan People’s Liberation Army: Civil war & famine. 2001: Fighting in the south has continued. It has interfered with the production & distribution of food & caused widespread hunger. Many civilians have fled to the north or to neighboring countries. Drought conditions in the mid-1980s, the 1990s, & the early 2000s contributed to the spread of hunger & disease. – World Book.], Equitoria [1870: Southern Sudanese Province established by Sir Samuel White Baker & his wife Florence von Sass. Mahdi rebel. 1878-1885: Governor Eduard Schnizter retreats southward into Uganda]
Displacement Camps Bela [Deserted village. Militas killed 37 people], Hassa Hisa Displacement Camp [Outside Zalingei], Garsila Hospital [W. Darfur: Ward for malnourished children. 2003-2007: 400,000 killed, 2.5 million displaced. UN sending 26,000 peacekeeping troops. UN Peacekeepers have been accused of child rape, sexual abuse or soliciting prostitutes during various peacekeeping missions, starting in 2003, in the Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Sudan, Burundi & Côte d’Ivoire. (Wikipedia)]
Spàin: Spoon [Iberia Capasienses: Winter Yew / Al Andaluz]
España [Latin: Hispania]
Los Campos de castigo o reconcentración de Movimiento Nacional [Concentration Camps of the National Movement]
FET: Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS: Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista: Traditional Spanish Finger & the Army Offensive National-Syndicate

Generísimo Fransico Franco’s Waffen SS Spanish Blue Division called the Falange Española (pronounced FAY lanj or fah LAHNG hay, ehs pahn YOH lah): Spanish Phalanx: Finger. Powered after Spanish Civil War: July 1936–April 1939: Finger vs Government Republicans. Both sides kill civilians & prisoners. Franco in power from 1936-1975
  1. El Caudillo: The Leader: Generalísimo Francisco Franco Bahamonde (1892-1975).
  2. Party Founder: José Antonio Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquis of Estella (son of dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera)
  3. Symbol: El yugo y las flechas: yoke & arrows, symbol of the Reyes Católicos: Catholic Kings
  4. Anthem: Cara al Sol: Facing the Sun
  5. Comunión Tradicionalista: Carlist faction. Symbol a red beret
  • Youth organizations: Frente de Juventudes: Swan symbol of Cardenal Cisneros
  • Flechas: Arrows
  • Pelayos
  • Sección Femenina: Young Women: Pilar Primo de Rivera
  • After WWII Falangistas are Movimiento Nacional: National Movement. SS General Otto Skorzeny (dead) escapes to Spain. Adolfo Suárez Chief of the Movement.

29-13 BC: Cantabrian War: Octavian a.k.a Caesar Augustus invades Spain for Celtic Asturi gold & Cantabrian: Clear Water People iron. Silius Italicus writes the poison they use is made from the seeds of the yew tree, a plant with mythic significance.
268 AD: Roman Emperor Claudius II recoversHispania.
573-711 AD: Forum Judicum / Fuero juzco: Jews are forbidden to testify against Christians, their property is seized & they are enslaved.
711-929 AD: Muslim Empire
929-1031 AD: Moroccan Umayyad Caliphate: Moroccan general Tariq ibi z-Zaid names it Al-Andaluz. jabalu t-tarîq, Gibraltar named after him.
1031 AD-1100 AD: Golden Age of Jewish History in Muslim Spain
1083 AD: Alfonso VI of Castile seizes Muslim Magerit in Madrid
1209-1229 AD: Caliphate of Córdoba vs Pope Innocent III
1290: Kingdom of Granada last Muslim territory
1350: Black Death: Plague kills 1/4 of population. Crusaders massacre Muslims & Jews & blame Jews for the Black Death
1478-1492: Spanish Inquistion: King Ferdinand VI of Aragon & Queen Isabella I of Castile persecute, torture & expel Jews & Muslims from Spain. Marranos: Christian convert victims. Spanish Inquisition continues for 300 years
1479: Treaty of Alcacovas: Canary Islands to Spain & the Madeira & Cape Verde islands & the Azores to Portugal
1482-1496: Segovian Dominican Friar Tomás de Torquemada (1420-1498), confessor to Isabella. Before he retiredto the Dominican monastery at Avila, he personally expelled 200,000 Jews & condemned 2,000 people to death. Isabella’s spiritual advisor Hernando de Talavera
1492: Royal Treasurer Luis de Santangel approves Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus’s 1st voyage. Ships: Martin Alonso Pinzon: Pinta, Vicente Yanez Pinzon (brother): Nina, Columbus & Juan de la Cosa Santa Maria 90 crew members, 1 translator, 3 physicians, servants for each captain, 1 secretary, 1 accountant: Bahamas, Cuba, Hispanola
1493: Colombo: Columbus returns to Barcelona, Spain & shows the court gold trinkets & the Taíno People who survived the trip. Columbus in charge of 17 ships for a 2nd voyage. 1,500 colonist men & priests. 12 ships return with sailors sick from tropical fevers: Dominica, Jamaica
1494: Treaty of Tordesillas
1496: To assemble crews for Columbus’ 3rd voyage of 1498, Ferdinand & Isabella pardon prisoners. Columbus’s sons serve as pages at court: Colombia, Surinam, Guyana, Venezuela
1500: Colombo brothers sent to Spain for trial. Nicolas de Ovando sent to serve as governor of Hispaniola, with 30 ships carrying 2,500 colonists: Brazil
1502: Columbus’ final voyage with 4 ships: Martinique, Trinidad, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama
1504: Queen Isabella dies a few weeks after Columbus returns.
1506-1556 AD: Carlos I a.k.a Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Habsburg (also spelled Hapsburg): Seizes Spanish throne by having his mother Juana La Loca of Castile imprisoned as a mad woman, with the embalmed corpse of his father Philip I Habsburg for company
1558-1598: Philip II Habsburg & Queen Mary I Bloody Mary of England: Escorial Palace tombs in Madrid
1598-1621: Philip III Habsburg
During the 16th century, Spain held the equivalent of US.5 trillion in gold & silver received from New Spain. The wealthy preferred to invest their fortunes in public debt: juros, backed by silver imports, rather than agriculture. This helped perpetuate the medieval aristocratic prejudice that saw manual work as dishonorable. The problems caused by inflation were discussed by scholars at the School of Salamanca & arbitristas but they had no impact on the Habsburg government. The Habsburg dynasty squandered the riches in wars across Europe for Habsburg interests, defaulted on their debt several times, & left Spain bankrupt. (Wikipedia: Spanish Empire)
1621-1665: Philip IV Habsburg vs Protestants
1665-1700: Carlos II Habsburg
1700-1746: War of Spanish Succession: Philip V Habsburg-Bourbon
1746-1759: Ferdinand VI Habsburg-Bourbon
1759-1788: Carlos III Habsburg-Bourbon
1788-1808: Carlos IV Habsburg-Bourbon expels Jesuits
1808-1808: Ferdinand VII Habsburg-Bourbon
1808-1813: Joseph Bonaparte
1814-1833: Ferdinand VII Habsburg-Bourbon
1833-1868: Franco-Prussian War / 2nd Reich: Revolt removes Queen Isabella II. Napoléon III vs Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia & the German Confederation
1875-1886: King Alfonso XII Habsburg-Bourbon & Queen Maria Cristina of Austria
1886-1902: Queen Maria Cristina of Austria
1902-1923: King Alfonso XIII Habsburg-Bourbon (1886-1941: ousted)
1923-1931: General Miguel Primo de Rivera, 2nd Marquis of Estella
1931-1936: Spanish Republic: President Niceto Alcala Zamora
1936-1975: Generalísmo Francisco Franco Bahamonde
1975: Juan Carlos I Habsburg-Bourbon
1977: Democratic Government of Spain abolishes Falange
The government-owned Spanish National Railways operates an extensive railway system, including some high-speed trains

Franco’s mass executions called paseitos: promenades. Spanish society cleansed of red Spain: trade unions, agragarians, political parties in Aragon, Valencia, Zaragoza, Madrid, Málaga, Bilbao, Barcelona, Gijón, Senander, Segovia, Sevilla, Pamplona, Cádiz, Sherish, Oviedo, Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo, Alcazar & Asturias, 330 assasinations, 113 general strikes, & the destruction of 160 religious buildings.
Region Galicia: Gaelic for Love: Galician Mountains [NW Spain. Dialect is Galician-Portuguese], Gijón [Asturias City: Museo de la Gaita: Museum of the Bagpipe], Oviedo [City in Asturias], Alcazar & Asturias [General López Ochoa & Lieutenant Colonel Juan Yagüe, under Minister of War Diego Hidalgo], Region: Icanti Briga / Cantabrian Mountains: Clear Water MountainsSanander [N. Spain. Franco’s mass executions], Billbao [Basque seaport city on Viscaya: Bay of Biscay / Gulf of Gascony known in ancient times as the Cantabrian Sea. Franco’s mass executions. Under Franco, many Basques & other Spaniards arrested for revolutionary activities. 1975: Franco executes 5 Basque rebels before his death], Guernica [Basque country. German Condor Legion Heinkel. 51 biplanes bomb it. Casualties estimated at 1,000,000+], Kingdom of Navarre / Navarra Small area E of Bilbao: Pamplona [Franco’s paseitos] Region: Miranda de Ebro [Burgos. After the fall of France in 1940. limpieza de sangre: cleanliness of blood. Judería - Castille Call - Majorca]Kingdom of Aragon: Fertile Place NE. Spain. Caesarea Augusta: Zaragoza / Saragossa [25 BC: Emperor Augustus. 1100 AD: Capital of Aragon], Teruel, Region: Cataluña: Grain Protector Girona [NE Spain: Catalon-Provençal dialect], Barcino-Barcelona [230 BC: Carthaginian Leader Hamilcar Barca. Capital], Tarragona, Montserrat: Latin for Notched Mountain, [The Black Virgin, a small, wooden, black figure of the Virgin Mary carved by Saint Luke & brought to Spain by Saint Peter AD 30 is Our Lady of Montserrat, Patron of Catalonia] Kingdom of Castile: Sego Briga / Segovia: The Path [Castille-Leon Province: North Central Spain], Toledo [Spanish Civil War: Alcazar destroyed. Alcazar name given to palaces built by Moorish rulers in Spanish cities. Castile-La Mancha Province], Valle de los Caídos: Valley of the Fallen Mausoleum: Madrid [Madrilenos speak Castilian Spanish, the official language of Spain. 1936: Spanish Civil War: Italian troops, Moroccan colonial soldiers. Franco ordered the mausoleum built with forced labor. Franco’s corpse is interred beside José Antonio’s, The dates of their deaths are both November 20th: 20N. The burial chamber lies inside a mountain. 46,000 men who died in the Spanish Civil War buried there. A cross 500 feet high, cut from a single piece of stone, stands on top of the mountain]

Region: Al Andaluz: Tarifa: Tarif ibn Malik [711 AD: Cádiz Province, Andalucia across the Strait of Gibraltar from Morocco. 1294: Sieged by the Marinids 1340: Castillian victory. Marinids return to Morocco. 1953: Spain & United States sign 10 year military agreement. Spain recieves billion+ in US grants & loans. US builds permanent Air Force & Navy bases in Spain.], Jerez de la Frontera a.k.a Sherish [Cádiz Province: Sherry from here], Málaga, Cádiz [pronounced kuh DIHZ or KAY dihz: Spain's chief naval station. Flota System: The riches of the American colonies poured into the city.], Seville-Sevilla [Andalucia Province: 1647-1652: Great Plague of Seville: 25% population dead.],Caliphate of Córdoba [Andalucia Province: Caliph: Successor of Mohammed, the former title of religious & political heads of some Moslem states. Also, calif, kalif, khalif, khalifa. Caliphate, noun. the rank, reign, government, or territory of a caliph. Also, califate, kalifate, khaleefate, khalifat, khalifate.], Kingdom of Granada: Pomegranate: Latin pomum (apple) + granatus (seeded): [Iliberis: Elvira] [Andalucia. Bronze Age Rose family red fruit native to the Caucasus, Sind/India, Middle E., Persia & Himalayas. Israeli & Hindu sacred plant, Qur’an Fruit of Paradise, Sumerian Cybele’s plant: wineapple in Ireland, Persephone’s rhoa: red Food of the Dead: Greek wedding, funeral & New Year fruit. Titan Orion marries Side, a name that in Boeotia: Anatolia means pomegranate. The Immortals, an elite infantry unit in ancient Persia, had spears with pomegranate-shaped counterweights at the butt made of gold (for officers) & silver (for regular infantry). Garnet is a stone named after the fruit color. – Ruck & Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994. Seize by King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella January 1492] Other Provinces: Huelva, Almería, Jaén.

Jarama [1936: La Battela del Jarama: Battle of Jarama: Spanish Civil War: International Brigades throw Spanish General Franco’s Falangists armed with Mauser grenade rifles, Italian Black Arrows, the French Foreign Legion & German Arrow Cross back from the gates of Madrid. Abraham Lincoln Brigade suffers 50% casualties but their song to Popeye the Sailor Man is noted: In a green little vale called Jarama, We made all the fascists cry Mama!; we fight for our pay, just 6¢ a day, & play football with a bomb-a – Source: Gang of 7 Animation]
Balearic Islands Province
(pronounced bal ee AR ihk): Group of 5 major Mediterranean Sea islands: [Majorca-Mallorca, Minorca-Menorca, Ibiza] & numerous smaller oneslying E. of Spain. Palma on Majorca is the capital of the islands. The Iberians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, & Byzantines all occupied the islands. Moors invaded the islands. 1230: Aragon took all the islands except Minorca, taken in 1287 (World Book). After the fall of France in 1940. limpieza de sangre: cleanliness of blood. Judería - Castille Call - MajorcaCanary Islands Provinces: Latin Canis: Dog Group of 13 volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean, 60 miles off the NW coast of the mainland of Africa. The islands cover 2,796 square miles & have 626 miles of coastline. 7 are inhabited. They have a population of 11/2 million. Ships going down the West African coast can stop there to refuel. The province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife includes the islands of Tenerife, La Palma, Gomera, & Hierro. Las Palmas province includes Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, & Fuerteventura. The people are of Spanish descent, mixed with the Guanches, a blond-haired people who originally lived there. Canary birds 1st found on the Canary Islands. The islands once belonged to Queen Catherine of Castile, & later to the Portuguese prince, Henry the Navigator. In 1479, they were returned to Spain. (World Book)

Co-Principality of Andorra
Andorra’s legal system is based on ancient laws & common law that date from the Roman Empire.
800 AD: Charlemagne.
800-1000 AD: Spanish Nobleman the Count of Urgel puts it under the Diocese
1000: Spanish Nobleman the Lord of Caboet defends region. Title passes to French Count of Foix in 1200s.
1200 AD: Until 1993, the bishop of Urgel, Spain, & the president of France ruled Andorra jointly under treaties signed in the 1200s. Both rulers, known as the princes of Andorra, had to agree before any changes could be made in Andorra’s government.
1930: Roads open to France & Spain
1933: Male voting rights.
1950: Tourists visit. Goods are relatively inexpensive because Andorra charges almost no tax on them
1970: Women allowed to vote.
1994: Parliamentary Co-Principality: French franc & Spanish peseta legal tender. Government prints official documents in Catalan.
2001: All public records kept by the church, & only Roman Catholics can get married in Andorra.
2002: Euro replaces currencies
September 8, Andorrans make a pilgrimage to the shrine of Our Lady of Meritxell, patron saint of Andorra
Andorra, is a small country high in the Pyreneés mountains between France & Spain. The official name of Andorra in Catalan, a language that closely resembles the Provençal spoken in southern France, is Valls d’Andorra: Valleys of Andorra. Andorra la Vella: Andorra of the Valley, a town of 22,000 people, is the capital. Andorra has 2 postal systems: 1 French & 1 Spanish. To keep cropland from being divided into tiny plots, farmers gave at least 3/4’s of their inheritance to 1 of their children, usually the oldest son. Many of the other children had to move out of Andorra. More people of Andorran descent now live in France & Spain than in Andorra. Until 1993, as the old treaties required, Andorra paid about every other year to the president of France & about to the Spanish bishop. The bishop also got 6 hams, 6 cheeses, & 12 hens every other year. Many 3-story stone-walled Andorran farmhouses with rough slate roofs can be seen in the countryside Ground floor barn & tool shed, 2nd floor living room & kitchen, 3rd floor bedrooms opening onto wooden or iron balconies. Ski slopes at Pas de la Casa & Soldeu, where snow lasts until the end of April (133: 31)
Sri Lanka: Blessed Isle [Ceylon]
1537: Vasco de Gama voyages to Sri Lanka. Diego Fernandez Correa writes in the Luciads, that he cut off the hands, ears, & noses of 800 Indian Muslims, tied up the rest of them & set their ships on fire
1948: Independence from England. English replaced with Sinhala & Tamil. Kings of Ceylon are the Kandy & their flag is a lion on a red background. Kandy Temple has a tooth of the Buddha
1985: SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan & Sri Lanka.
1956-1959: S.W.R.D Bandaranaika (assasinated: leadership to widow Sirimavo Bandarnaika)
1977-1988: President J.R. Jaywardene
1988-1993: President Ranasinghe Premadasa (assasinated)
1994-2001: President Ms. Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga
Anuradhapura [Royal City. Pilgrims view a sapling of the sacred bo tree where Buddha obtained enlightenment], Kolamba: Leafy Mango Tree [Portuguese invaded in 1517. Named the capital city Colombo after Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus. Precious jewels: rubies, sapphires, pearls, spices. 1656-1796: Invaded by the Dutch], Kandy [1815: English took over the mountain kingdom. Coffee, coconut, rubber, tea plantations], Jaffna [Professor Brett Wallach: Tamil Tigers fighting for autonomy since 1983. 60,000+ dead. 2002: Ceasefire & peace talks]
Konungariket Sverige: Kingdom of Sweden
Skånland: Scandinavia: Sand Land
Massgrav [Mass Grave] / Folkmord [People Murder]
IBM Sweden: Stockholm
1939: IBM Sweden sells 1.9 million punch cards to Demark, 1.3 million to Finland, 696,000 to Norway, 1 million to Yugoslavia, 700,000 to Spain & 251,000 to Hungary.

Undergångens arkitektur: Architecture of Doom © 1989: Peter Cohen. Skönhetskult och barbari i Tredje Riket.

Waffen SS 3.Kompanie: Schwedenzug: Waffen SS 3. Company 3. Sweden Train
Swedish SS-Hauptstrumführer: Hans-Gosta Pehrsson

Count Carl Gustaf Ericsson von Rosen (1909–1977): Swedish aviator, son of the explorer Erik von Rosen & nephew of Karin Göring, wife of Hermann Göring. Instructor for the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force.

Hermann Göring: World War I Ace & a taxi pilot for Svenska Lufttrafik.

Raoul Wallenberg: Foreign Ministry sends him to Budapest to give provisional Swedish passports to Hungarian Jews & set up the International Ghetto Captured by the Soviets, charged with spying for the Germans, he & Vilmos Langfelder lost
Swedish is a Germanic language that closely resembles Danish & Norwegian. People from Sweden, Denmark, & Norway can usually understand one another.
Lappland: Sapmi: Sami people live at the Arctic Circle
100 AD: Roman historian Tacitus writes of Svear People
800 AD: Vikings: Pirates
990 AD: Olof Skotkonung
1100 AD: German Hanseatic League controls waterways & fishing on Götland Island.
1397: Union of Kalmar: Queen Margaret of Denmark & Norway gains Sweden
1520: Blood-Bath: Massacre of Swedish nobles after the coronation of Christian II King of Denmark, Sweden & Norway. Martin Luther imprisons Christian II & converts Christian III of Denmark to Lutheranism.
1523: King Gustav I Vasa. Sweden independent.
1618-1648: 30 Years War / Baltic War: Sweden vs Russia, Poland, & Denmark.
1697-1718: Absolute Monarch Charles XI the Lion of the North cedes Baltic. Depicted with the goddess of Scania at his feet.
1818: Napoleonic Soldier Jean Baptiste Bernadotte elected king of Sweden as Charles XIV. Sweden’s present royal family is descended from him. (World Book)
1867-1886: Famine

Provinces: Landskap: Ångermanland, Bohuslän, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gästrikland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lappland: Sapmi, Medelpad, Närke, Norrbotten, Öland [Öland Island], Östergötland & Västergöttland [Götland: Gothland], Halland, Blekinge & Skåne: Scania [Skånland: Scandinavia], Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värmland, Västerbotten, Västmanland: Westman Land

Doverstorp [Internment camp]

Storsien [Norrbotten. 300-370 communists, syndicalists & pacifists kept during Winter 1939-1940]

Naartijärvi [S of Luleå]


Grytan [Östersund]


Vindeln [constructed in Västerbotten in 1943]

Stensele [constructed in Västerbotten in 1943]

Gravens [Plague Graves] St-Peter ’s Church, Malmö [Plague], Church of Ronneby [Plague], Adolf Fredrikskyrkan, Stockholm [1649: For unbaptised infants & non-Lutherans e.g René Descartes], Reval [1715: Great Northern War: Czar Peter I’s Russian army invades Sweden, conducts biological germ warfare by flinging plague-infected corpses over the city walls]

Switzerland: Schwyz Province [Confoederatio Helvetica: Sun]
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft [German], Confederation Suisse [French], Confederazione Svizzera [Italian]
National Movement of Switzerland (NBS)IBM-DeHoMag: Walter Jones & General Manager Werner Lier: Geneva
Banking. NAZI policies are to leave no witnesses
KriPo: KriminalPolizei: Criminal Police: Arthur Nebe Reichskriminaldirektor: Head of the Criminal State Police of all Germany, Austria, Switzerland & the Berliner Sturmabteilung: Storm Troopers
Marienberger Komturia: Concentration Camps: Swiss Aid Society for Jewish Refugees
1020: The name Habsburg comes from 1 of the family’s castles, the Habichtsburg: Hawk’s Castle built in Switzerland
1273-1806: Rudolf Habsburg 1st member of the family elected Holy Roman Emperor. 3 years later he conquered Austria, which became the Habsburgs’ new home. Habsburg family members elected Holy Roman emperor almost without interruption until 1806.
1506 AD: Pontifical Swiss Guard: From cantons of Zurich & Lucerne. Vatican still has them.
1616 AD: French Royal Switzers: Bodyguards until monarchy disbanded – Richard A. Sauers Ph.D, Military Historian – World Book Encyclopedia © 2001
1798-1815: France sets up the Helvetia Republic
1815: Congress of Vienna: Swiss neutrality
1863: International Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement: Jean Henri Dunant
Aug 1: Lúnasa: Swiss Independance Day
730 BC: La Tène Celts the Helvetti: Sun People.
51 BC: De Bello Gallico: Julius Caesar attacks the Helvetti a.k.a Helvetians (pronounced hehl VEE shuhnz) under Orgetorix who are migrating to France. Caesar’s 8 legions kill 60% of the 470,000 population & the rest escape into the mountains of Switzerland
Helvetia is the female personification of Switzerland. She has braided hair, wreath, flowing gown, spear & a shield with the Swiss flag

On December 6, 1944 a train dispatched from the Bergen-Belsen camp with 1 368 Jewish prisoners actually crossed the Swiss border. Among them were 97 Jews from Czechoslovakia. 4 days earlier - according to the recollections of Felix Kersten whom Himmler had been using for his international political contacts - the Reichsfuhrer of the SS at a meeting in Triberg promised to free 2 to 3,000 Jewish prisoners from Terezin on condition that the world press would not interpret this release as a sign of weakness on the part of Germany. On January 15, 1945, Himmler met Jean-Marie Musy, the former chairman of the Swiss Confederation Council for the 2nd time, & displayed his readiness to enable the departure of Jewish emigrants if Germany received for every one of them goods to the value of ,000. The 1st of these transports left Terezin on February 5 & 2 days later was welcomed on Swiss soil. According to Himmler's records of his meeting with Musy in January, this Swiss politician, who sympathized with Nazi Germany, repeated again that this Jewish problem by itself is only a secondary affair because the main thing is that it could stimulate greater developments. These did not take place and the 1st Terezin transport to Switzerland was the last one. (Porges)
Canton: Province Genf (German) / Genève (French) / Ginevra (Italian) / Geneva Switzerland has 3 official languages: German, French, & Italian. Latin name for Switzerland, Helvetia, appears on Swiss coins & postage stamps.Lake Geneva: Genfer See: Lac Leman: Rhône River lake cities: Vevey, Montreux, Geneva [SW Switzerland: WWII: 100,000+ refugees. 1954: CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research]
Canton Vaud Lausanne [Lake Geneva: Capital of Vaud. Home of the Federal Tribunal]
Neuchâtel: Lake Neufchâtel
Canton Jura The Alps & the Jura Mountains cover more than half of Switzerland. [1979: French speakers]
Basel / Basilia Dominican Churchyard, Basel [Plague. 1523-1526: Hans Holbein the Younger, court painter to King Henry VIII, The Dance of Death woodcuts],Canton Zurich Lake Zurich on Limmat River. Zurich [1774: Stans Orphanage: Psychologist Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi’s Anschauung: German: Perception or Observation: Observation of objects, other people, & moral situations basis of all true knowledge. Children learn best in an atmosphere of love, rather than harsh discipline. 1916: Dadaism. IBM Zurich Research Laboratory: atomic scanning tunneling microscope]
Bodensee: Lake Constance in the upper Rhine River Valley where the borders of Germany, Switzerland, & Austria meet. Major towns include Konstanz & Friedrichshafen, Germany; Rorschach, Switzerland; & Bregenz, Austria
Canton Bern / Berne: Bear Bern / Berne [1191: Duke Berthold of Zahringen along Aare River. Bernese Oberland south of the city], Dominican Churchyard, Berne [Plague], KL Hausernmoos [Emmenthal], KL Inkl [Near Bern], KL Sumiswald [Near Bern]
Canton Luzern / Lucerne Vierwaldstatter See: Lake of 4 Forest Cantons: Lake of Lucerne (pronounced loo SURN): Luzern, Schwyz, Unterwalden, & Uri. Marienburger Komturia: KL Felsberg [Lucerne], Le Bridge du Moulin [Lucerne Plague Grave], Jesuits College, Lucerne [Plague Grave]
Canton Schweiz / Schwyz
Canton Uri[1291: The free men of Schwyz & Uri feared the growth of the Habsburgs’ power & invited the nearby region of Unterwalden to join them. The confederation came to be known as Switzerland]
Canton Unterwalden: Under Forest
Canton Graubunden
Speaks Romansch Latin. Saint Moritz.
Canton Valais Matterhorn in Pennine Alps. WWII: Swiss transportation tunnels in the Alps a supply link between Germany & Italy.
Canton Ticino Ticino River tributary of the Po River flows into the Adriatic Sea. Saint Gottard Pass.
Canton Aargau Lengnau
Lake Maggiore (pronounced muh JOHR ee): NW of Milan. Important cities include Locarno, Switzerland; & Stresa, Italy. Campo di Lavoro [Locarno, S Switzerland]
Saint Bernard Passes:2 Alpine military roads. Great St. Bernard Pass on border between Martigny,Valle d’Entremont, Switzerland & Valle D’Aosta, Italy. Little St. Bernard Pass between France & Italy: Mount Blanc. Each pass has a Augustinian hospice: refuge for travelers.
Die Grabeln [Mass Graves] Segendorf [1710 Plague]

Furstentum Liechtenstein: Principality of Liechtenstein: Viennese Prince Johann-Adam Liechtenstein: 1699 [Swabia]
1699: Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation: His descendants still rule Liechtenstein.
1815-1866 AD: German Confederation
1924: Economic union with Switzerland.
The government collects money by taxing >5,000 foreign businesses that set up their headquarters in Liechtenstein & selling postage stamps.Trains & buses link Liechtenstein with Austria & Switzerland.
(Pron LIHK tuhn styn) Tiny country in south-central Europe on the Rhine River between Switzerland & Austria. Liechtenstein covers only 62 square miles & has only about 33,000 people. Constitutional monarchy ruled by a prince who is head of the House of Liechtenstein. Prince Hans Adam ruling since 1984. Switzerland operates its postal, telegraph, & telephone systems & represents Liechtenstein in the country’s diplomatic & trade relations. Up to 2001 Liechtenstein was using the Swiss franc. Most of the people speak Alemannic, a German dialect. Vaduz (pronounced VAH doots) is the capital. Schellenberg.
Tanzania [Deutsch-Ostafrika: German East Africa / Tanganyika & Spice Islands]
German SS Schutzstaffel: [AfrikaKorps]
1884 Berlin Kongokonferenz: Triple Alliance: Mandingo-French War: Belgian King Leopold II seizes Chad & Congo. England seizes Nigeria. Germany seizes Tanganyika & Zanzibar. Italy seizes Somalia & Ethiopia..
1885-1919: DOAG: Deutsche Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft: German East African Company: Karl Peters
Governors: 1889-1891 & 1895-6: Hermann von Wissmann, 1891-1893 Julius von Soden, 1893-1895 Friedrich von Schele, 1896-1901 Eduard von Liebert, 1901-1906 Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen, 1906-1912 Albrecht von Rechenberg, 1912-1918 Heinrich Albert Schnee
Zanzibar, Pemba & Mafia Island are called the Spice Islands [Slave Trade center under the Portuguese & then the Sultans. Bismarck sent 5 warships: Stosch, Königsberg, Gneisenau & Prinz Adalbert to the Omani Sultan of Zanzibar’s palace. British & Germans divided the mainland Livingstone, Stanley, Speke, Burton & other 19th Century explorers of the African interior set out with their caravans from Zanzibar, some of them never to return. Richard Francis Burton: Arabian Nights & John Hanning Speke: Lake Regions of Central Africa], Lake Victoria [1859: Dr. David Livingstone names the source of the White Nile: Lake Victoria. It is shared with Uganda], Mzizima ‘Healthy Town’ a.k.a Dar-es-Salaam [Capital city & port town exporting coffee, cotton, sesame, sisal & hides under German East Africa Company using forced labor], Lugalo [1891: Emil von Zelewski’s battalion intended to suppress the Hehe attacked by Sultan Mkwawa’s 3,000-strong army. Battalion overpowered & Zelewski killed], Matumbi Hills [German Schutzstaffel collect head taxes in 1898. 1905: Mahj-Mahj Rebellion. (mahj is water in Swahili). Hundreds of thousands cut down by German machine gun fire under Count Götzen], Tanga [1914: Battle of the Tanga. British repelled. Usambara railway goes from the city to the foot of the active volcano Mt Kilimanjaro. Swahili for the mountain that glitters], Serengeti [National Park], Lake Tanganyika [World’s largest fresh-water lake. Cecil Rhode’s Tanganika Concessions Ltd contract mercenaries. League of Nations slavery commission succeeds in reducing the death rate of workers constructing the Tanganyika railway from 55% to 4%. ]
Pratet Thai: Thailand: Free Nation [Siam]
400-700AD: Tai: Free People of Southern China adopt Buddhism from the Mon (Vietnamese) & Hindu practices from the Khmer (Cambodia)
1000 AD: Foreigners call region Syam-Siam
1238-1317 AD: Sukhothai Kingdom: Alphabet
1350: Ayutthaya Kingdom: (a YOOT tah yah): Chao Phraya River
1511: Portuguese invade
1600: Dutch, English, Spanish, French traders & missionaries
1767-1782: General Taksin (overthrown)
1782-1807: General Chaophraya Chakri: King Rama I
1807-1824: King Rama II & Queen Suriyendra
1824-1851: Nang Klao: King Rama III (half-brother)
1851-1868: Phra Khom Klao-Mongkut: King Rama IV: Forced to grant Western countries extraterritorial rights: allowed them to set up courts of law for their people in Siam
1868-1910: Chulalongkorn: King Rama V: Abolishes slavery
1890: France: Siam loses authority over Laos & Cambodia
1909: 4 Malay States handed to England
1910-1925: Vajiravudh: King Rama VI
1925-1935: Prajadhipok: King Rama VII (brother)
1935-1947: Ananda Mahidol: King Rama VIII (assasinated): Named changed to Thailand
1948: Bhumibol Adulyadej: King Rama IX. Military Dictatorship: Army, Navy, Air Force
1957-1975: Vietnam War: Thai forces aid USA. USA uses Thai military bases to attack Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos. 1 million+ refugees in Thailand by 1975.
1967: ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, & Singapore.
1980: General Prem Tinsulanonda
1988: Banned logging
1991: Constitution suspended.
1992: New constitution.
2001: Constitutional Monarchy: >70 provinces, 6,600 local government units: tambons: 65% of people in farming-fishing: most rural, 10% manufacturing.
Each Thai village has a wat (Buddhist temple-monastery), which serves as the religious & social center of the community. Most Thai villagers live in traditional wood houses on stilts for protection against floods.
The government provides limited housing for the urban poor, many of whom end up living in slums. 4 cities with populations of > 200,000: Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nanthanburi, & Songkhla. Thai economy is based on free enterprise, in which businesses operate largely free of government control. Manufacture: automobiles, rubber, clothing, electronic goods, food, plastics, textiles, natural gas, zinc, copper, feldspar, kaolin, lead, lignite, limestone, tin, rubies, sapphires, precious stones from Cambodia & Myanmar.
Kader Industrial Toy Company 3 Industrial fires. Polyester fabric used to make dolls ignited in a spinning machine. No sprinkler system & no fire exits. 188 dead. 469 injured.
Mattel: Dynamic Toy Industry Bangkok. 13 hour shifts. Lion King toys, Pocahontas dolls & Barbie accessories. Paid 3,480 baht a month, 550 baht less than the estimated minimum survival wage.
Global Horizons Manpower USA Federal grand jury in Honolulu indicted the president, 3 executives & 2 Thai labor contractors from a Los Angeles manpower company on charges they imposed forced labor on 400 Thai farm workers in what justice officials call the biggest human-trafficking case ever brought by federal authorities. Justice Department Spokeswoman Xochitl Hinojosa says they recruit foreign farm workers for the federal agricultural guest worker program known as H-2A. Workers forced into debt in Thailand to pay fees to local recruiters. 100s of Thai workers brought to farms in Hawaii & Washington State from 2004-2005. Chanchanit Martorell, executive director of the Thai Community Development Center of Los Angeles said questions arose when 1 laborer fled a work crew in Hawaii & found his way to the Center. (257: 8)
Prostitution This and the spread of AIDS has been noted in the World Book Encyclopedia as a health care crisis.
Trinidad [Iere: Land of the Hummingbird]
1502: Cristoforo Colombo: Columbus destroys the Arawaks & Carribs
1838: During slavery Carnival was restricted to white upper class & freedmen called maroons. By 1838, the aristocracy had lost control, & former slaves flocked to the streets & africanized the festival.
Tunisia [Carthage / Barbary States: Barbarossa]
Vichy Camp de Concentration
DeHoMag-CEC: Companie Electro-Comptable de France
Machines used by the French War Ministry in France’s colonies of N. Africa & Indochina
850 BC: Phoenicians name it Carthage.
202 BC: Rome establishes Africa Proconsularis with its administrative centre at Carthage. Slavery.
661 AD- 750 AD: Umayyad Caliphate
750 AD-972 AD: Abbasid Caliphate
972 AD-1171 AD: Fatimid Caliphate
1347: Hafsid Empire falls

1518: Turkish Sea Captain Barbarossa drives the Spanish from coastal areas
1518-1879: Ottoman Empire: Turks seize it & it is called the Barbary States the stronghold of pirates.
1879: Italian Prime Minister Agostino Depretis: Italy annexes
1881: Treaty of Bardo: Tunisian bombshell: French troops invade & declare it a French Protectorate.
1956: Independence

Forced labor camps during WWII. 1942: Battle of El Alamein: Ernst Rommel’s Afrika Corps seize it, later surrender. According to under President Jacques Chirac, The Ministry of the Interior is currently torturing & murdering students & protesters who would like a decrease in unemployment, clean toilets & a library with more reading materials. One man was soundproofed, injected with drugs, immersed in urine & bleach, beaten & subjected to electro-shock. Club Med’s new advertisement for the area is If you sleep, you die and hopes to attract lots of tourists to the country.
Turkiye Cumhuriyeti: Republic of Turkey [Asia Minor / Galatia: Milk Giving / Anatolia / Phrygia]
Mass Graves
1900BC-1200BC: Hittites
1320BC: Milesians: Honeyed Ones
1200BC-545BC: Phrygia (FRIHJ ee uh): Aegean Kings Gordius & Midas
545BC-530BC: Persia: Cyrus (SY-ruhs) of Persia defeats King Croesus (KREE suhs) of Lydia
278BC- 239BC: Galatia
239BC-25BC: Parthian Empire
25 BC: Asia Minor: Emperor Augustus
224 AD- 651 AD: Sassanid Empire: Eastern Rome
1071 AD: Battle of Manzikert: Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine Army
1096-1099: 1st Crusade
1243: Mongol Khanate
1300-1922: Ottoman Empire named after Osman I of Turkey
1453: Muhammad II
1481-1512: Sultan Bayezid II
1516: Ottoman forces conquer Syria & Egypt
1520-1566: Suleiman I expands borders to Hungary, Yemen: S, Morocco: W, & Persia: E.
1683: Siege of Vienna
1783: Ottomans lose Crimea, a penninsula on the Black Sea
1876: Sultan Abdul Hamid II & Sultana
1878: Russo-Turkish War: Ottomans cede the Balkans.
1894-1917: Armenian Genocide
1908: Young Turks Revolt: Sultan Muhammad V / Mehmed V (Hamid II’s brother)
1915: E. Armenia becomes W. Turkey
1922: League of Nations Commission for Refugees establishes camps in Turkey: League of Nations’ Fridtjof Nansen passport: Identity card for stateless refugees, particularly in Turkey in the period to 1926
Bey: Governor of a Turkish province or district before Turkey became a republic. Persons of rank in Turkey, Egypt, or countries under influence of Turkey
Princess Senijé Zogu of Albania (1908-1969) married His Imperial Highness Prince Shehzade Mehmed Abid Efendi of Turkey, a son of Sultan Abdul Hamid II
1923-1938: President Mustafa Kernal: Republic of Turkey
1928: Government establishes new alphabet, orders language education program & outlaws the use of Ottoman Turkish, a written language using Arabic characters with no letters to represent many sounds used in spoken Turkish.
1938-1950: President Ismet Inonu: US Military Bases
1950-1960: President Celal Bayar (imprisoned), Prime Minister: Adnan Menderes (hanged)
1960: General Cemal Gursel
1965: Prime Minister: Suleyman Demirel
Hundreds of thousands of people in Turkey have left their farms & villages to seek work in the cities. The cities do not have enough jobs. Many Turkish citizens work in other parts of the Middle East. Many also work in Australia, Austria, Canada, France, the Netherlands, & Germany (World Book)
3 bodies of water – the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, & the Dardanelles – separate Anatolia from Thrace. By its control of the Straits, Turkey can regulate the movement of ships between the Mediterranean Sea & the Black Sea.
Thrace Region Istanbul / Byzantium / Constantinople [330AD: Constantine’s Hippodrome. 4th Crusade: 1229 AD: Pope Gregory IX murders Issac II by burning him alive in the Church of Constantine, massacres the people, decrees that Jews must live in ghettos, wear yellow or red badges & pointed hats. 1390: All that remained of the Byzantine Empire was the area around Constantinople. 1453: Sultan Muhammad II conquers & renames Istanbul], Edirne / Adrianople / Hadrianopolis [(eh DIHR neh, ay dree uh NOH puhl): NW Turkey near Bulgarian border: Thracian city named after Emperor Hadrian. 1913: Balkan War: Bulgaria invades], Tarsus [Cilicia]
Anatolia / Asia Minor Region Iconium / Konya [1071 AD: Capital of the Seljuk Turk Empire. From this point onward, the Christian religion & the Greek language of the Byzantine Empire were gradually replaced in Anatolia by Islam & the Turkish language], Adana: Water from Heaven, Drynemeton-Ankara [Galatian capital of Turkey. 1923: Capital of the Republic of Turkey. 1920s-1930s: Modernization: Government resettles Kurds into rural farming villages. Islamic traditions abolished: Caliph, Arabic alphabet, polygyny: multiple wives, Muslim schools, Islamic legal system, veil & fez. Women receive the right to vote & hold public office], Antakya / Antioch [300 BC: Ruins of Seleucus’ Antioch built over Meropis / Meroe: Sea Place located here. 900 AD: Capital of Syria. 1919: France seizes until part of the Republic of Turkey], Izmir / Smyrna [1300BC: Ruins of the ancient city of Sardis, capital of the Kingdom of Lydia destroyed in 615AD], Selçuk, Lydia [35 miles west is the ruins of Ephesus (pron. EHF-ih-suhs). 550BC: Temple of Artemis, 1 of the 7 Wonders of the World made of marble. City flooded with silt 6th century AD], Halicarnassus [353 BC: Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, 1 of the 7 Wonders of the World holds the remains of Mausolus, a provincial ruler in the Persian Empire. Greek architects Satyros & Pythios designed the tomb. Stepped pyramid on colonnade. Destroyed in earthquake]
Media 30,000 Turks, mostly young men desperate to support their families, try each year to enter Europe through Bosnia, into which Turks are allowed legal entry. From there they head to Croatia, Slovenia, & Italy. They are joined by Afghans & Kurds & Pakistanis flowing west into Turkey. In 2000, the Turks caught almost 100,000 illegal foreigners, but others made it through the country & continued west. Unable to legally enter Bosnia, they tried getting into Greece & to the porous borders that lie beyond.
1191 AD: King Richard I of England seizes for Knights Templars
1192 AD: Transferred to Guy de Lusignan
1489-1570: Venice
1570-1878: Ottoman Empire
1878: English Rule
1950: Greek Cypriot EOKA guerrilla attack English
1955: Martial Law: Archbishop Makarios III: Michael Christodoulos Mouskos (1913-1977) exiled to Seychelles
1960: Independance: President Makarios
1964 -1967: UN Peacekeeping Force
1974: Turkish troops invade.
1975: Turks declare captured territory autonomous region
1983: Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
2001: England largest trading partner with 2 military bases on island. Turkish & Greek areas divided by green line or Attila line. UN peacekeeping troops patrol.
Island in NE corner of the Mediterranean Sea: England encouraged divisions between Greek & Turkish Cypriots as a way of keeping the groups from uniting against English rule. Greek nationalists called for enosis: union with Greece, & Turkish Cypriots demanded partition of the island into Greek & Turkish zones: Nicosia / Lefkosa [Capital of both: Cyprus is divided politically & culturally into 2 sections: Republic of Cyprus & TRNC: Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Cypriots of Greek origin control the Republic of Cyprus in the southern part of the island. People of Turkish ancestry control the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The government of the Greek Cypriot section is recognized by all countries except Turkey as the legal government of the entire island of Cyprus. Turkey only recognizes the northern section as an independent nation. International airports at Larnaca & Paphos serve Greek section. Larnaca & Limassol are the chief ports. Turkish area has international airports at Ercan & Lefkoniko. Main ports are Kyrenia & Famagusta. (133)]
Turkmenistan [Parthia: Shape of a Woman / Russian Turkestan]
2000 BC: Silk Road at Annau
500 BC-331 BC: Persian Empire
331 BC-323 BC: Alexander the Great (dies)
323BC-250BC: Seleucid Empire
235 BC-226 AD: Parthia (regains independence)
138-109 BC: Han Diplomat Zhang Qian’s silk trade between China & Roman Empire
46 BC- 400 AD: Kushan: Guishuang / Yueh-Chih Empire
421 AD-651 AD: Sassanid Empire: Last Sassanid ruler Yazdegerd III captured & beheaded by Arabian army invaders at Merv. His son Pirooz & many others went into exile in China.
751 AD: Revolt: Tang Dynasty trade routes to the Middle East closed.
900 AD: Oghuz Turks: Turkmen
1050 AD: Seljuk Turk Empire
1237 AD-1480 AD: Yuan Dynasty: Mongol Khanate Emperor Timur-Tamerlane’s Empire in Samarqand. Mongol armies called Tatars
Great Tartary: Middle Ages term encompassing Western Siberia, Turkestan, Greater Mongolia, Manchuria & sometimes Tibet
1480-1600 AD: Persian Safavid Dynasty.
1600: Russia invades Siberia
1870: Russia invades & sets up Caspian Sea Port of Krasnovodsk (now Turkmenbashy)
1881: Russia establishes boundary between Iran & Russian Turkestan
1887: Anglo-Russian commission establishes boundary between Afghanistan & Russian Turkestan
1924-1991: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic / Turkmenia: Russian Turkestan divided into 5 Soviet states: Tajik, Turkmen, Uzbek, Kazak, Kyrgyz,
1990: Saparmurad A. Niyazov in office for life.
1991: Turkmenistan bordered by Uzbekistan-Mongolian Desert: E., Iran-Caspian Sea: W. Afghanistan: S, Kazakstan-Siberia : N.
Western Turkestan: Countries of: Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Eastern Turkestan is China’s Xinjiang Region. Southern Turkistan is the Afghan province of Mazar-i-Sharif
Ashkhabad / Ashgabat [pronounced ash guh BAHT: Capital of Turkmenistan in an oasis in the Karakum desert. 1919-1927: Called Poltoratsk. Carpet, textile, metal, & glass manufacturing.], Ahal Province: Annau [Capital: Silk Road, Nephrite, the chief source of Jade, is from Turkestan], Margiana [Seized by Sassanids], Balkan: Wooded Mountains Province Nebit Dag / Balkanabat [Capital]. Krasnovodsk Port: Caspian Sea [ The largest inland body of water in the world. During the past several centuries, the Caspian has been shrinking in size because the rivers that empty into it bring less water than it loses by evaporation. Great salt lake below sea level between Europe & Asia east of the Caucasus Mts. Bordered by Kazakhstan on N & NE, Turkmenistan on SE, Iran on S [Bandar-e Torkeman & Bandar-e Anzali ports], Azerbaijan on SW [Baku port], & Russia on W & NW [Astrakhan & Makhachkala ports] . It is 750 miles long at its greatest extent, & varies from 130 to 300 miles in width. Important rivers that empty into the Caspian include: Volga, Ural, Emba, Terek, & Kur. The Volga-Don Canal links the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. The Caspian Sea has no tides & is a source of petroleum.. – Leszek A. Kosinski, Ph.D., Secretary General, International Social Science Council, UNESCO.Dasoguz Province: Dasoguz [Capital], Lebap Province: Çärjew-Türkmenabat [Capital: 2009: Turkmen citizens & foreigners require permission to visit parts of the province bordering Uzbekistan], Mary Province: Mary [1881: Capital established by the Russians. Ancient desert oasis city of Merv on the Silk Road is 20 miles west]
By 1885, all Turkmen lands were under Russian control. In 1924 Turkmenistan became the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviets made many changes: building roads, schools, housing, hospitals, communications systems, collectivized agriculture: ending private farming & transfering control of farms & livestock to the government. Religious worship discouraged, traditional Turkmen culture suppressed. – World Book Encyclopedia ©1998
Uzbekistan: Noble Land [Sogdiana: Water from Heaven / Russian Turkestan]
Uzbekiston Respublikasi: Republic of Uzbekistan
Pre-1800s: See Turkmenistan
1809: Tashkent annexed to Kokand Khanate
1800s: Khanates conquered by Russia.
1889: Trans-Caspian Railway
1924: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
1928: State Farm Collectivisation
1930: Tashkent capital of Uzbek, replacing Samarkand
1937: Great Purge: Prime Minister Faizullah Khojaev (executed)
1991: Independance: Islam A. Karimov
Central Asia: Extends from the foothills of the Tian Shan (pron. tyehn shahn): Heavenly Mountains & Pamir Mountains: Bam i Dunya: Roof of the world to just west of the Aral Sea. Leading silk producer
Tashkent: Stone City / Zhe-Shi Province: Tashkent / Zhe-Shi [Capital of Turkestan & Uzbekistan. Studios broadcast radio & TV in Uzbek & Russian], Andijon Province Leninsk-Asava, Bukhara Province Bukhara [GULAG], Karakul [Sheep], Fergana Province Jizzakh Province, Karakalpakstan: Black Hat Land, Namangan Province, Navoiy Province Qashqadaryo Province Samarqand Province, Samarqand / Samarkand [Site of ancient Maracanda. Alexander the Great destroyed Maracanda in 329 B.C. Mongol conqueror Timur Tamerlane chose the city as his capital. Factories make radio components, silk goods, superphosphate, & tractor parts] Sirdaryo Province Surxondaryo Province Xorazm Province
Tajikistan / Tadzhikistan: Crowned Land [Tojikiston: Crown of the World / Russian Turkestan]
Tajik is a eastern dialect of Farsi a.k.a Persian
500 BC-331 BC: Persian Empire
331 BC-323BC: Alexander the Great (dies)
323-250 BC: Seleucid Empire
130 BC: Bactrian Empire
46 BC- 400 AD: Kushan Empire
421 AD-651 AD: Sassanian Empire (defeats Kushan with White Huns from central Asia)
700 AD-1200 AD: Turkish Empire
1200AD-1500AD: Mongol Khanate
1500AD-1800AD: Uzbek Turks
Late 1800s: Czarist forces invade
1921: Russia controls all Tajikistan
1924: Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Uzbekistan
1929: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independance.
1992-1997: Civil War: Soviet President Rakhman Nabiyev forced out. 10s of 1000s dead, 100s of 1000s flee. Economy disrupted.
1997: Peace agreement.
(pronounced tuh jihk uh STAN): The Basmachis resisted Soviet control into the mid-1920s

Kurgan-Tube located here. Dushanbe [(pron. doo SHAHN buh) 1926: Capital city at the foot of the Gissar Range of the Tian Shan (pron. tyehn shahn): Heavenly Mountains. 1929: Name changed to Stalinabad. 1961: Destalinization campaign changes name back. 1991: 1.2 million+ flee to Pakistan]

Qazaqstan Respublikasy: Republic of Kazakhstan: Land of the Free [Kyrgyz Oblast / Russian Turkestan]
Virgin Lands Project
1731: The Kazakhs accept Russian rule for protection
1830: Russian Forts
1917: Nationalist Revolution
1936: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
1988: Soviet shuttleBuran: Snowstorm does a 2-orbit flight & lands on a runway at the Baykonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
1991: Independence: Nursultan Nazarbayev
1992: START I: Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty: Nuclear weapons
Home of the yurt. Tian Shan & Altai Mountains. Aral Sea. Caspian Sea to west.
(pronounced kah zahk STAHN): Khazars
17 Oblasts: governments. 1930s: Forced collectivisation kills millions of peasants by famine. WWII: Forced relocation of Germans, Tatars, Ukrainians from the western part of the Soviet Union to Kazakhstan. – World Book Encyclopedia © 1998. Kyzylkum Desert: Red Sands in Turkic [pron kuh ZIHL KOOM: SE of Aral Sea], Leninsk [Baykonur Cosmodrome space-launch facility], Akmola-Akmolinsk [1830: Russian Military Outpost on the Ishim River Plains. 1950s:Virgin Lands Project brings 1000s from other parts of the Soviet Union. Land planted with grain. 1961: Renamed Tselinograd: Virgin Lands City. 1998: Renamed Astana: Capital], Almaty: Father of Apples [At the foot of the Tian Shan Mountain Range]
Kyrgyzstan / Kirgizstan: Land of the Inextinguishable [Kara Kyrgyz Oblast / Russian Turkestan]
Land Mines
1200-1758 AD: Mongol Khanate
1758-1830: China
1830-1876: Khanate of Quqon
1876: Russia defeats the Khanate of Quqon
1878: Russian Province
1916: Kyrgyz Rebellion
1936: Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic
1991: Independance
(pron. KIHR guh stahn) Borders Uzbekistan. The language is a Turkic dialect. Tian Shan Mountains are to the west. 1916: Land seizures, killings, 150,000+ flee to China. 1930s: Government collective farms. Kyrgyz nomadic herders raising livestock in mountain valleys forced to live on farms. Tulip War has exiled goverment. Mines: antimony, coal, gold, lead, mercury, petroleum, uranium, & zinc.
Uganda [British East Africa]
Obutemu Ssaanya [Killer Squads]
Idi Amin Dada Ournee (1928-2003)
Named after Ganda-Baganda-Buganda People
1300: Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom
1859: Dr. David Livingstone names the source of the White Nile: Lake Victoria. It is shared with Uganda
1888: Ugandan Religious Wars Kumasi, Kenya, & Uganda. Africans dispossessed of their lands, forbidden to grow crops & forced into 999 year leases on plantations. The cultivated land is re-named The White Highlands.
1894: British East Africa Protectorate
1903: British East Africa Railway
1937: West Nile Virus named for province.
1946: Idi Amin King’s African Rifles. Promoted to Lieutanant for Mau-Mau War in Kenya. Reaches the higest rank of effendi.
1962: Commonwealth Country: Prime Minister Apollo Milton Obote. Sir Edward Mutesa II, the Kabaka: King of Buganda elected president in October of 1963.
1966: Mutesa’s palace attacked & he flees.
1971-1979: Idi Amin Military Dictator January 25 '71 - April 11 '79
1980: Obote returns: Tanzanian troops.
1985: General Tito Okello (overthrown)
1986: President Yoweri Museveni
Kampala [Amin seizes power while the Prime Minister is at the Commonwealth Summit Meeting in Singapore. He gives Uganda’s 70,000 Asian-born citizens 90 days to leave the country. Those who do not leave are deported from the cities to the countryside. He orders the persecution of Acholi, Lango & other tribes he believes support the Prime Minister who is in Tanzania. He bombs Tanzania & murders civilians. Estimated murdered Ugandans 500,000+ Nile Mansions Hotel in Kampala his interrogation & torture center. He escaped war crimes trial by exiling himself to Saudi Arabia], Luwero Triangle [1981-1986 300,000+ civilians dead in civil war between the government & National Resistance Army’s Yoweri Kaguta Museveni], Gulu & Kitgum districts [1995: 1.5 million displaced persons. Museveni invades Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in the 1st & 2nd Congo Wars.] Largest of Uganda’s provinces is Buganda.
Union of South Africa: Persian for Blessed [Cape Colony / Zululand]
Mfecane [Great Crushing Death March]
Marquess of Salisbury. British Commander-in-Chief: Field Marshal Lord Roberts, Alfred Milner & General Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener – The Razorblades

1488: Portuguese Bartolomeu Dias (pronounced bahr tul uh MEH oo DEE uhs) commands 1st European voyage around Capetown: Cape of Good Hope at the Southern tip of Africa.
1647: Dutch East India Company ’s Jan van Riebeeck exterminates the Khoikhoi: Men of Men
1715: Smallpox war commandos exterminate Bushmen/San & import slaves from India, Indonesia, Madagascar & Mozambique to work on plantations
1795: England invades.
1814: Netherlands cedes the Cape to England.
1818-1828: England vs Zulu leader Shaka. England seizes land from the Xhosa.
1835-1838: Great Trek: Andries Hendrik Potgieter’s 10,000 Dutch-speaking trekboers: migrant farmers (Dutch boer, German: bauer) journey into the interior of South Africa to seize land. Eastward expansion stopped by war with the Xhosa people.
1837: Andries Hendrik Potgieter attacks Ndebele people led by King Mzilikazi of the Khumala clan who control the Vaal River region. Dutch attack Mosega capital & Potgieter claimes Mzilikazi& #8217;s kingdom by right of conquest. Mzilikazi leads his people to the Matopo hills in Zimbabwe, where they establish a permanent home.
1838: Battle of Blood River: Boers under Piet Retief threaten Zulu leader Dingane/Digaan who kills them. Andries Pretorius crushes Zulu leader Dingaan. Paul Kruger: Kruger National Park has Zulu civilians arms hacked off. Zululand named Natal.
1840: Netherlands Railway Company: Andries Hendrik Potgieter’s Transvaal & Orange Free State
1842: England seizes Natal-Zululand
1860-1911: Asians from India recruited to work sugar plantations in Natal as contract laborers.
1867: Cecil John Rhodes: Rhodes Scholarship: joins his cotton grower brother, owner of Kimberly Diamond mines
1877-1881: 1st Anglo-Boer War: (pron. bawr) England seizes Transvaal, then known as the ZAR: Zuid Afrikan Republik: United South African Republic from the Netherlands. Dutch defeat English.
1879: Zulu War: English storm Pedi capital & defeat Sekwati’s successor, Sekhukhune
1888: Cape Colony Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes of the British South Africa Company combines all his mines into De Beers Consolidated Mines
1892: Franchise & Ballots Bill: Africans denied voting rights. Land seizures
1895: Jameson Raids: Rhodes sends Leander Jameson to invade the Transvaal. 38,000+ Boers dead
1898: All the blacks in South Africa had lost their independence.
1899-1902: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog: 2nd Anglo-Boer War: Transvaal & the Orange Free State declare war on England. Treaty of Vereeniging ends war: Transvaal an English colony.
1902: Indentured laborers imported from China for the mines & they are flogged
1910: Union of South Africa
South African Secret Police: A society strong enough to impose violence on people. They have supported rulers who understood that regimes can endure for generations by relying chiefly on cold terror.
1912 ANC: African National Congress.
1914: Boer Rebellion: De Wet imprisoned. De la Rey shot.
1915: Prime Minister Louis Botha seizes German Southwest Africa (now Namibia).
1917: Prime Minister Jan Christiaan Smuts seizes German East Africa (now Tanzania)
1918: South African Prime Minister, Jan Christiaan Smuts publishes The League of Nations: A Practical Suggestion
1934: African voters removed from the Cape Province common roll
1948-1991: Daniel François Malan’s Apartheid: Seperateness in Afrikaans-Dutch:
A policy of rigid racial segregation. The government officially categorized people into 4 main racial groups: (1) black, (2) white, (3) Coloured, & (4) Asian. The government segregated the groups from one another in housing, education, employment, transportation & other public facilities.
1960: PAC: Pan-Africanist Congress targets laws that require blacks to carry passes: identity papers. Police open fire & kill 69. The government bans ANC & PAC.
1961: Prime Minister Dr Hendrik F.Verwoerd (assasinated) declares a Republic.
1966-1978: Prime Minister Balthazar J. Vorster.
1979: Prime Minister Pieter Willem Botha: Government allows labor unions & repeals the job reservation system, which had reserved certain jobs for certain races.
1980: New regulations permit restaurants & theaters to serve all races
1981: Students in each racial group required by law to attend separate public schools. Until 1981, the law did not require any black children to go to school.
1984-1990: Martial Law
1990: Prime Minister F. W. de Klerk releases Nelson Mandela, the most famous member of the ANC, from prison. Namibia gains full independence from South Africa.
1991: Homeless build makeshift shelters on empty land inside the city limits & on land along major roads leading into the cities.
1993: Voting rights to all races
1994-1999: President Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (imprisoned 1962-1990)
South Africa has 11 official languages: (1) Afrikaans, (2) English, (3) Ndebele (officially known as isiNdebele), (4) Sepedi, (5) Sesotho, (6) Swazi (SiSwati), (7) Tsonga (Xitsonga), (8) Tswana (Setswana), (9) Venda (Tshivenda), (10) Xhosa (isiXhosa), & (11) Zulu (isiZulu).

Concentration camp 1st used in 1900 to describe open-air camps in South Africa where the English kept Boer prisoners of war: It was the MPs C.P. Scott & John Ellis who 1st used an ominous phrase concentration camps, taking it from the notorious reconcentrado camps, set up by the Spanish to deal with Cuban guerillas – Thomas Pakeham

North West Province [Transvaal / Bophuthatswana] The Sun City entertainment complex & nearby Pilanesberg National Park are North West’s leading tourist attractions. Road & rail routes to Botswana pass through North West. Home of the Tswana People. Klerksdorp [Railway Line: Lichtensburg-Klerksdorp-Vryburg], Vryburg: Free Town Camp, Mafeking Concentration Camp / Mafikeng [Administered from the Transvaal. Women washing clothes in water fouled by excrement. 400 typhus deaths a month. 2000+ Africans under the orders of Baden-Powell shot & left to die of starvation], Potchefstroom Camp [1838: Established by the Boers. Boer War: Lloyd George says 450,000 women & children killed per year. Estimated 3 million Boer dead]
Northern Province [Northern Transvaal] 1980s: Large numbers of Mozambicans, fleeing civil war, enter the region from the east through the Kruger National Park. Krugersdorp
Mpumalanga Province: Where the Sun Rises [Eastern Transvaal] Nelspruit [Provincial Capital. Many people live in poverty. Mines produce coal, andalusite, chrysotile, diamonds, gold, lead, manganese, silver, titanium, & vanadium. Some refugees from Mozambique live in the province. Some rural areas lack basic services, such as schools & hospitals (World Book)], Witbank [City], Ermelo [City], KwaNdebele Bantusan [Self-governing bantustan: black homeland created for the Ndebele a.k.a Matabele people. Abolished 1994. For many years, blacks were assigned to permanent residency in the homelands. On some lands previous owners had damaged the soil by overgrazing their herds. Only blacks who had jobs with white, urban employers were permitted to live temporarily in cities. They were restricted to segregated neighborhoods, far from the center of town. (World Book)], KaNgwane Bantusan [Self-governing bantustan: black homeland created for the Swazi / Ngwane speakers, Abolished 1994. Most commonly spoken language in the province is Swazi, followed by Zulu & Afrikaans], Barbeton / Barberton Concentration Camp [1884: Gold discovered], Middelburg Concentration Camp, Standerton Concentration Camp
Gauteng Province: Place of Gold [Transvaal / PWV: Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging] Irene Camp [Pretoria. The administrative capital of South Africa. Parliament meets in Cape Town, the legislative capital], Johannesburg [Whipped until dead. survivors forced to work in mines & shot dead if protest. Area of the Highveld around Johannesburg called the Witwatersrand: the world’s largest & richest gold field of 1886. 2001: Farmers raise cattle, corn, fruits, potatoes, & wheat], Soweto: South Western Townships [12 miles southwest of Johannesburg: 40 sq miles.1923: Native Urban Areas Act decreed local councils had to provide housing for black people living in their area. Kliptown, Sophiatown, Western Native Townships established in & around Johannesburg for black & Colored people. 1927-1930: Klipspruit, Western & Eastern Townships. 1930: Orlando East 1st township making up modern day Soweto. 1950: Group Areas Act: Black people living in & around Johannesburg forced to move to newly laid-out townships SW of the city: Mofolo South, Moroka North, Jabavu, Molapo, & Moletsane owned by Johannesburg Mining Houses. 1976: Soweto Riots: School pupils spark off the resistance movement. 1978: Sowetans able to buy their homes on a 99-year lease basis. 1980s: Rent boycott. 1986: Freehold rights granted. 2001: 25 townships. Soweto has no town center. A shortage of communication links, electricity, & drainage systems makes life difficult. The use of coal as a fuel causes severe pollution. Most homes are overcrowded: as many as 17 people live in some houses. 9 hostels house 47,000 people, mainly migrant laborers. Housing is a major problem in Soweto with 8,000+ shacks in squatter camps & 50,000 backyard shacks on township properties. People living in these shacks pay rent to the owner of the house. Many small shops. Baragwanath Hospital the largest hospital in Africa. Soweto has 1 university campus, a teacher’s training college, & > 200 schools. Almost all the working people of Soweto travel to work in the Greater Johannesburg area. Individual car ownership is low. Most commuters travel by train or minitaxi. A railroad links Johannesburg with stations in Soweto. 50% of residents do not have jobs. (World Book)], Vereeniging
Free State [Transorangia: Orange Free State] Sotho: Mrs. Millicent Fawcett, & Lady Knox visit 33 white concentration camps. Thomas Pakeham reports 31 camps for Africans in the Orange Free State Alone: Aliwal N. Camp [Women & children starve to death], Bloemfontain: Fountain of Flowers Camp [Emily Hobhouse reports 1000s left to die of disease, typhus & starvation in rags. Military Governor: Major-General Pretyman: 13 toilets for 3,500 people, no water or soap they are luxury items. Doctor & 2 nurses die of typhus. The judicial capital of South Africa], Modderfontein [1901: Boer General Jan Smuts murders the Xhosa villagers, leaving their bodies unburied]. Norsvalpont, Springfontein
KwaZulu-Natal Province [Zululand] Pinetown, Pietermaritzburg [Germans from German Southwest Africa placed here. Surveyor General Dr P. C. Sutherland]
Western Cape Province [Cape Colony / Cape Province ] Xhosa: Cape Town [2008: AIDS activists celebrated the removal of South Africa’s health minister, accused of causing countless unnecessary deaths by promoting nutritional supplements instead of conventional medicine for people with HIV. New President Kgalema Motlanthe, within hours of taking office, won instant praise by announcing that Manto Tshabalala-Msimang would be removed as health minister & given a lesser post. Activists accused Tshabalala Misimang of spreading confusion about AIDS by saying she did not trust antiretroviral medicies & preferred nutritional supplements such as garlic, beetroot, olive oil & the African potato. Her views earned her the nickname Dr. Garlic & Dr Beetroot. (99:12)]
Balmoral Camp [110,000 Dutch & 107,000 Africans, starvation, farm destruction, disease, fed meat & flour crawling with maggots, poisoned with copper sulfate, ground glass, fishhooks & razor blades. Transportation in open cattle trucks]
Belfast Camp
Bethulie Camp
Boschoff Camp
Cape Argus
Heilbron [Kitchener sends measels-infected internees into the town. Death-rate of 10 per day. Cemetery]
Kroonstad [Wolvehoek-Kroonstad Railway Line]
Eastern Cape Province [Transkei & Ciskei] Port Elizabeth Brandfort Camp [1901: 337 killed in 1 epidemic: Apartheid instituted. Nelson Mandela is Thembu Royalty, a subgroup of the Xhosa]
Northern Cape Province [Griqualand & Namaqualand] Griquatown [Missionaries name people of mixed ancestry Griqua. Khoisan ancestral homeland. 1871: Arbitration court rules the Diamond Lands belong to the Griqua under Nicholas Waterboer. English annex it. The Griqua at 1st benefited from the new economic activity associated with diamonds, but increasingly lost their lands to whites & descended into poverty (World Book: Northern Cape)], Kuruman [Mission Station: Founder: Robert Moffat], Magersfontein [1899-1902: 2nd Anglo-Boer War: Major battles. Part of the railway between Capetown & Kimberley], Sishen [Iron ore transported by railroad line to the port of Saldanha]Kimberley Deathcamp [Diamond mine owned by Cecil Rhodes: 10s of 1000s of miners, most white, tried to make their fortunes as diggers. Larger numbers of Africans traveled long distances to Kimberley to find work, for which they were often paid in guns. In the mid-1880’s, underground mining began. From that time, 1000s of African laborers were housed in closed compounds while they worked at Kimberley, to ensure that they did not keep any diamonds they found. (World Book)]. Orange River [Many Khoisan people killed. 1878: 1st Boer War: Cape authorities impose control all along the river. White sheep farmers take over the land. Non-whites removed to reserves & mission stations Orange River orginally called Gariep]

Namibia: Enormous [Deutsch-Südwestafrika: German South-West Africa]
German SS: Schutzstaffel
Vernichtungsbefehl: Extermination

Nama for enormous Nama a group of the Khoikoi: Men of Men
1487: Portugal invades
1864: Germany invades
1869: Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911),cousin of Charles Darwin, spent 5 years in Sudan & Namibia studying the people. His studies of fingerprints led to their use in identification. 1st to call the science of human breeding eugenics. In his will, he left money to found the Chair of Eugenics at London University. He wrote Hereditary Genius (1869), English Men of Science (1874),& Inquiries into the Human Faculty & Its Development (1883)
1884: Deutsch Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwest-Africa: German Colonial Neighborhood for Southwest-Afrca
1885-1888: Governor: Reichskommissar: Heinrich Ernst Göring (1839-1913: Herman’s Dad)
1894: Reichkommissar: Theodor Gotthilf Leutwein (1849-1921): Elf Jahre als Gouverneur in Deutsch-Südwestafrika: 11 Years as Governor in German South-West Africa
1904: Shutztruppe Colonial Administrator: Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha (1948-1920) issues the Vernichtungsbefehl: Extermination Order: “Within the German borders, every Herero, whether armed or unarmed, with or without cattle, will be shot.&#8221
1905: Friedrich von Lindequist: Census
1920: League of Nations mandate to South Africa
1966-1990: War of Independance from South Africa: SWAPA: South West Africa People’s Organization
1990: Independence from South Africa
Ai-Gams / Otjomuise / Windhoek [Regionalbüro. Administered by the Schutztruppe, the colonial armed force of Imperial Germany from the late 1800s to 1918 when Germany lost its colonies. 1100,000+ murdered in 1904 alone by Germany. Herero & Damara people killed. Windhoek is the capital of Namibia. South of Windhoek Basters & Nama.]

Etosha National Park[E. Gate near Namutoni dedicated to Friedrich von Lindequist, responsible for bringing the Karakul sheep from central Asia to the country after the people were massacred. By 1908 surviving Herero were forbidden to own cattle or land & he required them to carry messingsmarke: brass discs for identification, restricting them to reservations. He established a police force & several agricultural federations. From 1914 to 1933, he served as Deputy Chairman of the German Colonial Company. He died in 1945 on his asparagus farm. The term kolonialistischer Eroberung: colonial table Robbery is used to describe this one]

Ovamboland [Ovambo / Owambo people near Angolan border], Okavango River [Kavango People]. Okahandja [1885-1888: Heirich Ernst Göring’s Schutzstaffel Headquarters]

Caprivi Strip [Seized for access to the Zambesi river. Caprivian People]

Otjihanena [Concentration Camp collection point]

Omburo [Concentration Camp collection point]

Karibib [Concentration Camp]

Swakopmund [Concentration Camp. Typhus, starvation rations of uncooked rice, salt & water]

Shark Island [1905-1908: Concentration Camp at Lüderitz. German Shutzstaffel issue numbers, meticulously recording every death of a Herero in the camps & including the name. Death by starvation & forced labor. Inmates build the railway between Lüderitz & Keetmanshoop. Damara & Herero occupy central Namibia.]

Botswana [Bechuanaland]
Mass Graves
South Africa, the Tswana people. Setswana language.
Boer Paul Kruger subdues Bechuana Chieftan Secheli
1849: Dr. David Livingstone arrives at Lake Ngami
1885: Cecil John Rhodes seizes from Chief Linchew. Mining.
1895: England names it Bechuanaland Protectorate
1931: Gemsbok National Park
2001: 40,000 Botswana citizens work in neighboring African countries, mainly South Africa.
1948: England seizes. Seretse Khama, chief-in-waiting of the Bamangwato tribe of Bechanaland marries Englishwoman Ruth Williams (d. 2002). The British ask Khama to renounce all claim to the chieftainship in return for lifelong payments; he refused, is banished, returning only in 1956, when he abandoned his claims to the chieftainship & became president of newly independent Botswana in 1966. Kalahari Desert [Diamond Mine], Pitsani Camp [On the borders of Cape Colony & the Transvaal. Administered by the Rhodesian mounted police], Gaborone [pronounced gahb uh ROH nee. The capital, Other groups: San-Basarwa & Kalanga]
Lesotho: People Who Speak Sotho [Basutoland]
Mass Death
Named after the Sotho people. Literally the people who speak sotho. Also called the Basuto. Invaded for its gold mines.
1856-1868: Basotho war with Dutch Boers
1868: English Protectorate of Basutoland
1871: Cape Colony
1880: Cape Peace Preservation Act / Gun War: Rebellion against Sir Gordon Sprigg. Water & electricity sold to South Africa
1910: Basutoland Council
1966: Kingdom of Lesotho: Chief Motlotlehi Moshoeshoe II, great-grandson of Moshoeshoe
1990: King Letsie III
2001: Constitutional Monarchy: Almost 50% of all men are migrant laborers working in South Africa in mines, factories, farms, or households.
(pronounced lay SOO too or luh SOH toh): Railway system is completely owned by South Africa. Now: AIDS rate is 29% of the population. Thaba Bosiu: Mountain of Night [Hill 15 miles from Maseru. 1824: Many ethnic groups almost completely wiped out & homes destroyed. 21,000 victims fled into the highlands of Lesotho & given protection byAfrican Chief Moshoeshoe who united them into the Basotho nation. The chief died in 1870. Boer War. 1500+ Basotho killed]
Swaziland [Ngwana]
Mass Death
Surrounded by South Africa on 3 sides. Mozambique to E.
Dlamini Kingdom: Sobhuza I: 19th cen. Dec 22: Incwala Kingship Ceremony. Aug 21st: Umhlanga: Reed Dance in Lobamba. Girls coming of age bring reeds to the Queen of Swaziland.
1830: Invaded by English & Dutch Boers
1880: Treaties: Swazi leaders sign over gold mine lands
1894-1902: Boer War: England seizes
1968: Kingdom of Swaziland: Ngwenyama: King, Ndlovukazi: Queen Mother
Nguni people: Swazi, Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele of Zimbabwe & southern Transvaal.
1978: SiSwati taught in schools. 1968 constitution still suspended. 2002 drought has 1/4 of the population needing emergency food. 34% unemployment rate. Sugar plantations, wood pulp, mining. 40% of adults infected with HIV, making it the world’s highest AIDS rate. Europeans own nearly half of all the land in Swaziland. 6,000 work in South African gold mines.
United Arab Emirates [Trucial States]
1820- 1971: English protection
1971: Independance
1981: GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
Federation of 7 Arab States: Abu Dhabi [Federation Capital], Dubai, Ash Shariqah, Ajman, Umm al Qaywayn, Ras al Khaymah [1820: English destroy the city of Ras al Khayma], Al Fujayrah.
United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland / British Isles: White Cow Isles
Northern Ireland: Greek: Rainbow [Ulster-Uladh: Noble Place (pron OLOO)]

Sleabaght [Slave Ships]
John Dunn [Hibernia, Gulnare. Indentured Chinese from Hong Kong to California. When the Gulnare rounded the Cape of Good Hope, the Chinese set fire to her & attacked the crew. Bankrupt in 1857], Messrs J & J Cooke / Herbert Cooke & Co [Londonderry], British East India Company: 1774: Baron George Macartney of Antrim & Baroness Jane Stuart of Bute (daughter of the Prime Minister)
Peerage The English monarch grants peerages on the recommendation of the prime minister. The monarch issues documents called letters patent, which creates the peerage & specifies how it will be inherited. Life peerage cannot be inherited.
Duke / Duchess: Ruler of a Duchy
Marquis / Marchioness: Ruler of an outlying province
Earl / Countess: Ruler of a Jarl
Viscount / Viscountess (pronounced VY kownt): Ruler of a Vicomte. Established 1440
Baron (pronounced BAIR uhn): Ruler of a Barony: Noblemen in the lowest rank in the British peerage. Greater barons became earls or dukes, often with the lesser barons as their retainers. The wife of a baron or a woman who holds a barony is a baroness. Until 1999, the holder of a barony was entitled to a seat in the House of Lords.
Baronet: Title taking rank between those of baron & knight created by King James I. A baronet is addressed as Sir.
Immunity from attachment: Freedom from arrest in civil cases for 40 days before & after a meeting of Parliament
Courtesy Title: The oldest son uses the highest of his father’s lesser titles. For example, the oldest son of the Duke of St. Albans uses the courtesy title Earl of Burford, but he is not a peer.

Donegal Corporation sub Dublin Corporation / Lord Aran: Viscount Earl Sudley

Viscount Castlereagh: Robert Stewart (1769-1822) War secretary & leader of the House of Commons from 1812 to 1822 persuaded the Irish Parliament to unite with the English Parliament in 1800 & served in the united parliament in 1801 until his death. Castlereagh’s mind gave way under strain in 1822, & he committed suicide.

Gaols: Houses of Love / Deathcamps
pron. GAY-L for holding the Gaelic: pron. GAY-LICK: love people. In the USA: jail
Mandatory identity cards with computer recorded fingerprints will be issued to all citizens & foreign guestworkers in the United Kingdom in 2007.
1999: 3 new political bodies:
(1) Northern Ireland Assembly [suspended 2000]
(2) North-South Ministerial Council: Northern Ireland & Republic of Ireland (Southern Ireland)
(3) British-Irish Council / Council of the Isles: UK, Ireland, Channel Islands, Isle of Man

Isle of Man [Manaw]
Ny Hewnyn: The Hebrews
England’s Council for German Jewry

This is an Island off the Coast of Ireland in the Irish sea. The Manx cat comes from here. Belfast, Northern Ireland is to the W. & Leeds, Yorkshire is to E. 32 miles long x 16 miles wide. Tax haven with banking industry. Population 85,000.

The head of the 6 adminstration districts is called the Coroner. The head of state is currently HM The Queen, her title on the Island is Lord of Mann. There is no Manx citizenship. Manx people are classed as British citizens but those defined as Manx under Protocol 3 have a special endorsement placed in their passports preventing them from freely living or working in European Union states. ...Travel to the Isle of Man is regulated by the local government laws. Visitors from countries who require a UK visa may also require a special Manx visa, obtainable from a British diplomatic mission. All non-Manx, including UK citizens, are required to obtain a work permit to take up employment on the Island. – Wikipedia

Ballancry Hanging:
Croghey: Foddey er dy henney v’ad croghey deiney son geid kirree, ny cooid erbee elley, veagh eh feeagh ny smoo na peesh groit as lherig. Te recortyssit j eh dooinney ren goaill yn sock j eh keeaght, voish boayl er-gerrey da Colby gys Ballarobert. Va’n sock feddynit er yn cheeaght echey, as va leagh currit er liorish bing cc groit as lherig, as v’eh croghit. Va MacSteaoin, sherin shaner Juan Juan yri Oe, va’n chied er dy gholl noi yn leigh..Cha row margey erbee son oarn, agh dy yannoo lhurie jeh, as ren dooinney geid sack dy oarn. Va MacSteaoin er y ving, as hug eli yn leagh groit er yn oarn, as ren yn ving rheynn ry cheilley ayns daa lieh, as hooar dooinney jeh. Ren yn vriw briaght jeh MacSteaoin, Quoid sack yinriagh eh creck ec yn leagh shen. Whilleen sack as yirinagh oo xiy merriu bio lurg daue er ye croghit. Ren Chiarn Athol caghlaa yn leigh. Hanging: Long ago they hanged a man for stealing sheep, or any other goods, that would be worth more than 4 pence halfpenny. It is recorded of a man who took the plough-share off a plough from a place near Colby to Ballarobert. The share was found on his plough, & the price put on it by the jury was 4 pence halfpenny, & he was hanged. Costain, the great grandfather of John John the grandson, was the 1st man who went against the law. There was not any market for barley, but to make ale of it, & a man stole a sack of barley, Costain was on the jury, & he put the price of 4 pence on the barley, & the jury divided into 2 divisions, & the man got off. The deemster asked Costain (son of Steven), How many sacks of barley he would sell at that price? As many sacks as the dead you could make alive after they were hanged. Lord Athol changed the law. (24: A Second Manx Scrapbook)

Northern Ireland [Ulster-Uladh: Noble Place (pron OLOO)]
Duchy & County of Antrim [Dalriada: Red Kings]
All of Northern Ireland is in the Ulster Province: Noble Place. The other 4 provinces of Ireland, now a separate country, are: Munster: Sun, Leinster: Raven, Connacht: Sense & Meath: Honey. Bally is Irish-Breton for Town. BG/1 Antrim District: Antrim Workhouse [Antrim, County Antrim: Poor Law records are archives of the Boards of Guardians which administered the Poor Law in Ireland, 1838-1948. PRONI hold extensive records for some 28 Poor Law Unions (BG) that operated in the area now covered by Northern Ireland. Each Poor Law Union was named after a chief town in the area, which usually serviced the area in a 10-mile radius, & often extended across county boundaries. The system was financed by a rate collected under the Poor Law Valuation. By the turn of the century the workhouses in Ireland had become a refuge for the old, the sick, & destitute children under the age of 15. The extent to which the records survive for each of these unions varies from place to place. Most of these registers are closed for 100 years from the latest date in each volume. This means that a register that contains information recorded in June, 1903, will not be open to the until January 2004: the 1st working day in the year following their 100th anniversary. A guide to Workhouse Records: Ulster Ancestry: Ancestral & history research in Northern Ireland], BG/3 Ballycastle-Moyle District: Ballycastle Workhouse-Dalriada: Red Kings’ District Hospital [Ballycastle, Co. Antrim: 1842-1923: Fever Hospital across road from Orange Hall. Cornmill: There are complete sets of minute books for almost all the unions, & even those unions with imperfect sets lack only an occasional volume. They contain minutes of the meetings of the various committees & a great deal of purely statistical information. They also contain the names of those individuals whom the Board of Guardians assisted to emigrate], BG/4 Ballymena District: Ballymena Union Workhouse [Ballymena, Co. Antrim: 1842: Cushendall Rd. 900 inmate plan: Admission & discharge registers list those entering & leaving the workhouse; births, deaths & those receiving outdoor relief. Occasionally, lists of inmates of infirmaries & fever hospitals survived], BG/5 Baile Monaidh: Ballymoney District: Ballymoney Union Workhouse [Ballymoney, Co. Antrim. 1842: Fever Hospital, Model Farm & School, Graveyard. Ballymoney town located on the main road between Coleraine & Ballymena, with rail connections to the main cities in Northern Ireland, Belfast & Londonderry. Masonic hall used as a courthouse built in 1775 by the 6th Earl & 2nd Marquis of Antrim], BG/7 Belfast District: Belfast Union Workhouse [Belfast, Cos. Antrim & Down: 1841: New Lisburn Turnpike toll road. Fever ward, infirmary, brickworks, yard, school for 1300 children. WWI: Army barracks], Belfast Charity Society Workhouse-Clifton Poorhouse & Infirmary [1771: Lands donated by Lord Arthur, Earl of Donegal. Belfast Charitable Society celebrated its 250th anniversary. Today Belfast remains segregated by walls, commonly known as peace lines, erected by the British Army after August 1969, which divide 14 districts in the inner city.], BG/17 Larne District: Larne District Hospital-Moyle [Larne, Co. Antrim: 1842: Older recorded Irish name for Larne Lough was Loch Ollarbha or Inbhear nOllarbha, from Ollarbha the ancient name of the Larne Water. To the west is the volcanic Antrim Plateau, with its glaciated valleys: Glens of Antrim], BG/19 Lisburn District: Lisburn Workhouse [Lisburn, Co. Antrim: 1842-1920: Lodge, Cemetery, Graveyard, Smithy, Handkerchief & Laundry Works, Largymore Weaving Factory], BT/37 Newtonabbey District Belfast Auxiliary Society [The Belfast Day School for the Deaf & Dumb was a small schoolroom at the Donegall Street Congregational Church at College St (now Donegall St) in 1831. They moved to Lisburn Road in Belfast in 1845 where the Medical Department of Queen’s University is & finally to Jordanstown, north of Belfast, Newtownabbey, County Antrim, in 1961 where they became the Jordanstown Schools], Carrickfergus District / Barony of Carrickfergus
County Armagh: Fertile Plain / Emain Macha: Crow’s Height: BG/2 Armagh District: Fertile Plain: Armagh Workhouse [Armagh, Co. Armagh: Waterford Corporation / Marquess of Waterford], BG/22 Lurgan-Craig Avon District: Water Rock: Lurgan [Lurgan, Co. Armagh. inmates fed rotting scraps of beef (Fewer 53:3)]
County Down / Dun: Abyss: BG/6 Banbridge DistrictBanbridge [Banbridge, Co. Down: Mass grave] BG/12 Downpatick District: Downpatrick Workhouse [Downpatrick, Co. Down: 1840: Double graveyard], Castlereagh District [pronounced KAS uhl ray]: Castlereagh Union Workhouse [1839-1920: 1,080 naked inmates in 1847 sleeping on dirt. Children’s room full of people prematurely old from the effects of hunger, cold, rags, dirt. Schoolroom without books, slates or any apparatus], BG/16 Kilkeel District: Kilkeel Workhouse [Kilkeel, Co. Down], BG/24 Newry District BG/25 Newtownards-Ards District: Newtonards-Newton Ards Union Workhouse [Newtownards, County Down: 1842-1922]
County Tyrone: Rowan Land / Tir Eoghain [Tir: Land + Owen: Sun Honey] / Ruan: Rowan: Quicken Tree: BG/8 Castlederg DistrictCastlederg Workhouse [Castlederg, Co. Tyrone: 1841-1929: built by John MacGuire of Omagh], BG/9 Clogher District Clogher [Clogher, Co. Tyrone: 1842-1948: Bodies seperated by Christian denominations in graveyard. 1849: Bulley’s Acre graveyard at Ballymagowan Bridge. 1916: William Coote MP converts it into a woolen factory], BG/11 Cookstown District: Cookstown Union Workhouse [Cookstown, Co. Tyrone: 1842-1948: Fever hospital, graveyard. WWII food rationing done from workhouse], BG/13 Dungannon District: Dungannon Workhouse [Dungannon, Co. Tyrone: 1842-1910: Childrens’ ward, Fever Hospital, Graveyard, Cemetary, Shiel’s Institute Almshouses, Rectory], Tullyhogue [Ancient court near Dungannon], BG/26 Omagh District: Omagh Workhouse-Omagh General Hospital [Omagh, Co. Tyrone: City is administrative center of County Tyrone. 1843: Board of Guardians met at courthouse], BG/27 Strabane District: Strabane Workhouse [Strabane, Co. Tyrone: Marquis of Abercorn. Inmates starved on buttermilk, oatmeal gruel, rotted beef heads. Those who refused to work given 12 lashes from a whip. Running away from the workhouse: no milk for 2 weeks. Other punishments: solitary confinment, cold baths], BG/28 Gortin District: Gortin Union Workhouse-St Patrick’s Roman Catholic Church [Gortin, Co. Tyrone (united to Omagh, c.1870): 1842-1886: At Mt St Patrick. 1st Workhouse Master Daniel McFarland. Fever Hospital the Presbyterian manse]
County Londonderry: Raven Oak: BG/10 Coleraine District: Oak Water: Coleraine Union Workhouse [Coleraine, Co. Londonderry: 1842-1941: Nursery, Mortuary, Fever Hospital, Burial Ground. Location of Lower Bann: Milk River. The River Bann: Milk River is the largest river in Northern Ireland. The Upper Bann rises in the Mourne Mountains: Don’s House & flows into Lough Neagh (pron LAWK NAY). The Lower Bann flows N. from Lough Neagh into the Atlantic Sea at Portstewart near Coleraine], BG/18 Limavady District: Newton-Newtown Limavedy / Limavady Union Workhouse [Limavady, Co. Londonderry: 1842], BG/21 Londonderry District: Raven Oak: Londonderry Union Workhouse [ Londonderry, Co. Londonderry: 1846: Marquess of Waterford supplied £300 for the free distribution of soup on his County Londonderry property. 2 mass graves], BG/23 Magherafelt District: Magherafelt Union Workhouse [Magherafelt, Co. Londonderry: 1839-1941: Left of railway station with Fever Hospital. Burial ground to the right of station. Bellbrooke Masonic Hall across from Courthouse]
County Fermanagh / Feor Magh Eanagh: Plain of the Birds: BG/14 Enniskillen District Enniskillen Union Workhouse [Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh: Fever sheds], BG/15 Irvinestown District Lowtherstown-Irvinestown. [Irvinestown, Co. Fermanagh: 1844: Workhouse across road from Castle Irvine School], BG/20 Lisnaskea District [Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh]
Jarldom & County of Donegal: Black Love [Tir Connail: Conn’s Land]: 1949-Present: This is a county geographically in Northern Ireland that is NOT part of the United Kingdom Grianan Aileach: Sun House [Lugh’s tomb & Conn’s house: stone fort between Lough Swilly & River Foyle], Ballyshannon-Saint Mary’s Roman Catholic Church [Graveyard, Mortuary, Infectious disease hospital], Donegal Workhouse [Destroyed in 1847: Donegal Corporation sub Dublin Corporation / Lord Aran: Viscount Earl Sudley: Starved by Lord Aran. Donegal Quay exported 2000 lbs grain daily, inmates lived in complete filth with open sewers. moonlight burials of fevered corpses], Dunfanaghy [1843: Board of Guardians inaugural meeting August 31st 1841: Chairman Alexander Stewart of Ards, Vice-Chairman William Ramsay. Now a museum with soup pans], Glenties Workhouse [1844], Inishowen-Cardonagh District Hospital [1845: Tourbuses to Doagh famine village at Inishowen], Letterkenny District Hospital [1841], Milford [1845: Burial Ground, Mortuary], Stranorlar Workhouse [1844: Mullandr above Lifford Rd. Burial Ground behind Infectious Disease Hospital. Operating through 1901 census]
County Cavan / Cavanagh: Caomhánach: Afterbirth / Breifni: 1949: This is a county geographically in Northern Ireland that is NOT part of the United KingdomBaileyborough-Baileborough [1841-1922: Mortuary], Ballymancy [Donegal Corporation sub Dublin Corporation / Lord Aran: Viscount Earl Sudley], Belturbet [Railway station built 1885], Bawnboy Workhouse [Closed 1921], Cootehill [1841-1917]
County Monaghan / Orgial: Gold Love: 1949: This is a county geographically in Northern Ireland that is NOT part of the United Kingdom Castleblaney-St Mary’s [1841], Carrickmacross Union Workhouse [1842: Children’s wing], Castle Leslie [1846: Leslie family offered stirabout & turnips to anyone seeking food in the courtyard], Clones [1842: The only part of the building to survive was the fever hospital which continued in use until 1966. It subsequently became a veterinary unit for a meat processing company (71)], Lisnaskea [1843: Inmates starved to death on cornmeal, childrens ward, stonebreaking, fever hospitals at Brookborough & Derrylin. Male inmates forced to bury the dead in mass graves. Girls 14-18 packed on coffin ships to New South Wales & W. Australia]

Isle of Man [Manaw]
Curragh Glass: Green Bog Pool
[Valley below Greeba Mt. Henry VIII’s drowned witchcraft victims. 1504: 5th Earl of Derby, Lord of the Isle: All livestock & corn forfeited by felony conviction divided between the Lord of the Isle & the Coroner. (24)]
Slieau Whallian Mountain [2 miles from Peel. Accused witches who could swim burned alive or rolled from the top of Slieau Whallian in spiked barrels.Fines for drawing blood entered at the end of the 1st Manorial Roll, or rent-roll for each parish, in which women were often sufferers. Someblood-wipers - i.e. blood-wites or compensations-noticeable in court records held by the Bishops may be due to the same cause. Spirit shrieks nightly. (24)]
Castletown [Slattey: Ec lheid y traa shen jeh’n vlein, va ny deiney aegey, as ny ‘neenyn aegey, sumnit gys Ballachastal, as oddagh yn chiannoort, ny briwnyn, ny toshee yioarree, as ny oaseiryn elley, reih nane erbee dy bailleu, son hoght skilleeyn ‘sy vlein as nyn vreayll. Va’d goll ny vud oc gollrish reih booa ‘sy vargey, as va’n ghuilley, as ny ‘neen, yinnagh yn toshiagh.-jioarey cur yn dat orroo, v’ad eignit dy hirveish yn vlein shen, lhig daue ye booiagh ny dyn. Va warreevooar my yishig as v’ee er n’ghoaill da’n vriw liorish yn slattey, as hie ee gys Lunnon. Yarding: At a certain time of the year, the young men & young women (of the island) were summoned to Castletown, & the Governor, deemsters, coroners, & other officers, could choose any 1 he liked, for 8 shillings a year & their keep. They were going amongst them like choosing a cow at a fair, & the boys, or girls, the coroner would put his rod upon, they were obliged to serve for that year, whether they were willing or not. The great-grandmother of my father was taken for the deemster by the rod, & she went to London. (16)]
Ramsey [Concentration Camp. Rumors of phenol & tetanus injections. According to the Crown Dependancy Geography Locator: The Island has since disappeared due to land reclamation, but was formerly in the middle of the town’s river. Veiled references to it are in Francis Ford Coppola’s movie Dementia 13]

Ellanyn Vooir Eeaght: Channel Islands a.k.a les îles de la Manche / les îles Normandes: Isles of Normandy [England & Normandy]
England’s Council for German Jewry
Waffen SS Britishes-FreiKorps St Georgs-Legion: British Legion of Saint George
[British Freikorps]
KL: Konzentration Lager
Created by Conservative Cabinet Minister Leopold Stennett Amery (1887-1955), Colonial Secretary for India, who forms 2 holiday camps: Special Detachment 999 & Special Detachment 517, both under the umbrella of Stalag III, near Berlin. English-speaking guards used as information gatherers, overseen by German intelligence officer Oskar Lange. Camps run by Battery Quartermaster Sergeant John Henry Owen Brown of the Royal Artillery, a member of the BUF: British Union of Fascists [formed 1932 by ex-Labour government minister Oswald Mosley 6th Baronet who organized several anti-Semitic marches in London, such as the 1 that resulted in the famous Battle of Cable Street in October 1936] & Thomas Cooper [jailed for 7 years after war] of the Royal Airforce & Waffen-SS LAH: Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler: Bodyguard Division
Aide received by Leopold’s son John Amery [hanged in 1946], Jacques Doriot & Vichy Hauptmann Werner Plack of the German English Committee.
SS-Hauptsturmführer: Johannes Roggenfeld
SS-Hauptsturmführer Hans Werner Roepke
SS-Obersturmführer: Doktor Walter Kühlich

An order for 800 sets of the special BFC insignia to the SS clothing department is made at the SS Nordic Study Centre at St. Michaeli Kloster in Hildesheim.
1944: BFC train as assault pioneers at the Waffen-SS Pioneer School at the Wildermann Kaserne, Dresden. They are transferred to Berlin School Schonhauser Allee. At the SS Division Nordland, located at Angermunde, half join SS-Sturmbannführer Rudolf Saalbachhe on March 22, 1945 in Schoenberg & the other half to 3.Kompanie - Schwedenzug. They then went to Templin. On May 2, Cooper & the men with him surrendered to unit of the US Ninth Army near Schwerin. William Joyce (also known as ‘Lord Haw Haw’) tried. Their memory is survived in the band SOD: Stormtroopers of Death’s Speak English or Die. 2004: Prince Harry in NAZI garb at a party

I don’t want a holiday in the sun
I want to go to new Belsen
I want to see some History
’cause now I got a reasonable economy
. ..The Berlin wall.
Sensurround sound in a 2 inch wall
Well I was waiting for the communist call
I didn’t ask for sunshine & I got World War Three... – John Lydon & The Sex Pistols

British Crown Dependancy: Elizabeth II, Queen of Normandy signs all laws.

Ellanyn Vooir Eeaght: Channel Islands Concentration Camps / Camps de Concentration des îles Normandes Kitchener [WWI camp located in SE England;. 3,500 male refugees, primarily from Germany & Austria. After the outbreak of the war, most of the internees were allowed to volunteer for the Auxiliary Military Pioneer Corps, with the rest of the internees being transferred to the Ramsey Camp on the Isle of Man]

Alderney Island-L ’Isle d’Aurigny [1940: English evacuate native population & island taken over by Germans. KL Borkum: named for Borkum Island in OstFriesland: East Frisia in Lower Saxony, KL Norderny for Norderny Island in East Frisia, KL Syllt for Syllt Island in East Frisia in Lower Saxony. 687+ Russians alone dead from starvation, beating, forced labor under the SS Death’s Head Division Operation Todt. Others buried alive in tunnels. Evacuated in 1944 & the inmates death-marched to Neuengamme through Cherbourg, Lille & Hazebrouck. Others interned in the N. of France at Boulogne-sur-Mer . Alderney has been nicknamed the island of silence, due to the fact that little is known about what occurred there during the occupation. Some of the few remaining unevacuated Alderney natives also found themselves in camps.]

Casquets [Underwater sandstone ridge rocks 13 km NW of Alderney. 1734 owner Thomas Le Cocq installed 3 lighthouses. British Small Scale Raiding Force commando Operation Dryad, September 1942 seized the 7 lighthouse keepers as POWs]
Lisia-Guernsey-Guernesey [1294: French Raids kill islanders. Victor Hugo exiled Les Travailleurs de la mer 1940: German Watchtowers. Islanders sent to concentration camp Lager Lindele at Biberach an der Riß in Tübingen, SW Germany]

Lihou [Connected to Guernsey at low tide by an ancient stone causeway. Vraic: seaweed harvested & dried on frames set up on the beach. 1927 factory building produced iodine from seaweed. All traces of the industry disappeared during the German Occupation], Herm [1570: Guernsey governors’ hunting ground. Tenant Prince Gebhardt Fürst Blücher von Wahlstat built granite quarries from 1889-1914. Occupied by the Nazis during World War II], Jethou [S. of Herm. Not open to the public], Yn Tark-Sark Island-Sercq: Love Goddess[Seized by the Germans during WWII. Dame of Sark Sybil Mary Hathaway (13 January 1884-14 July 1974) did not evacuate the islanders. Bones are said to rise from the sea & it is said the dead will come for you if you stay on the island. Seignurship has passed to her grandson John Michel Beaumont], Brecqhou [Left of Sark. Owned by Sir David & Sir Frederick Barclay. No visitors], Burhou [Used by the Germans for target practice in WWII. No survivors], Jersey-Angia-Jèrriais [The Channel Islands (Les îles Normandes) were part of the Duchy of Normandy until it ceased allegiance to the English Crown in 1204. They remained predominately Norman-French speaking even as late as 1914. Islanders referring to the English monarch as Notre Duc. June Tabor: liner notes for Belle Rose, Rosa Mundi. Newfoundland fisheries, Occupied by the NAZIs from 1940-1945], Chausey [South of Jersey that is part of the French district of the Manche, Normandy. Channel Islands entrenched almost 40,000 German soldiers, sailors & airmen, snug behind Atlantic Wall fortifications stretching from Norway to the P&ycirc;yreneés], Ortac [No survivors], Isle of Wight [1770: Workhouse. Part of County Hampshire Workhouse Union], Hayling Island [Co. Hampshire], Portsea Island [Co. Hampshire], Les Minquiers: [Maîtresse Île, Les Maisons, Le Niêsant, Les Faucheurs, La Haute Grune. Featured in Victor Hugo’s novel Ninety-Three] Les Ecréhous: [Maîtr’Île, La Marmotchiéthe, Lé Bliantch’Île, Les D’mies, La Grand’ Naithe, L’Êtchièrviéthe, Lé Fou, La Froutchie] Les Dirouilles, Les Pierres de Lecq: The Paternosters

Sleabaght [Slavery]

na Glashu: Port of Glasgow, Milngavie Museum of Social Work, Mossbank Industrial School [Hogganfield. 600+ destitute children forced into domestic slavery], Canadian Home for Friendless Girls-Edinburgh Emigration Home [Lauriston Rd], Wester Ross [By Rùm. 1773: The ship Hector safely carried the people to Pictou, Nova Scotia], Easter Ross [1849-1946: Arthurville. Children starved to death on potatoes, pea-soup, treacle-water, oatmeal. Area now owned by Mohamed al-Fayed of Harrod’s]

Effective burghs in Scotland from the coming into force of the Burgh Police Act 1892. Ineffective burghs, which had not used legislation to adopt a police system, take on local government duties and reform their town councils, were abolished on this date. A burgh (pronounced burruh) is the Scots’ term for a town or a municipality. It is correspondent with the Scandinavian Borg, the English- Borough, and the German Burg

Eaddeeyn-Vaaish [Mass Graves]
When you realise the pace at which those ancestors multiply – 4 grandparents, 8 great-grandparents, 16 great-great grandparents, etc. there are a lot of ancestors up there waiting to be discovered. You should, for example, have little difficulty in getting back to 1800 – & at that date there may very well have been 64 people from whom you can claim direct descent! – Alwyn Jones

Aberdeen-Kingswells Consumption Dyke, Gillahill [Bodysnatchers buried dismembered corpses in wooded enclosure (223)], Doctor Moir’s Aberdeen Anatomical Theatre [1832: Aberdeen Riots: Seiged by a mob and burnt to the ground. A dog digging at the rear of the theatre discovered a bone, which caused rumors that 100s of dismembered corpses were buried there], Achill Island, Argyll–Kilmartin Valley [Valley of the Ghosts (The Magic Shop)], Athole, Ayr–Loudounkirk / Kilwinning Abbey [Abandoned villages. dead noblemen buried in vault. built by the Benedictine The Order of the Holy Cross (Scottish Memories: 222)], Edinburgh-Bruntsfield Golf Course (Zombie Nation 223), Edinburgh’s Carubbers’ Close [1832: Cholera epidemic killed 600 in 6 months on the Royal Mile (270)], Edinburgh–Mary Kings Close [Formed in 1645 for the Inquisitiones Generales. People buried alive. Street bricked off at either end. (Morpeaux 225) For weeks their screams & cries for water, food & mercy could be heard, but gradually it grew quiet. 2 butchers who survived the Plague, were sent in to the Close to rid it of the bodies. They took 400 corpses [others say 600] & cut them into sections. ’ The souls still haunt the Close. Council City Chambers built over top (Castle of Spirits 226)], Edinburgh Theatre [Mass Grave], Glasgow City [Goulter’s Mortification of 1790], Govan Workhouse [Humane Society Inc. killed by drowning], Inverness-Culloden Moor [Fleet Street was overlooked by the skulls of the Scots rebels decapitated after 1745, skulls kept there till 1772 (Whats On 224)], Inverness [Mass starvation. whole families found dead of cholera in their beds]

Perth was Scotland’s capital for a time.
Register House, Edinburgh: the chief security for title to land in Scotland from 1617 on. Landowners now represented by the SRPBA: Scottish Rural Property & Business Association of Musselburgh, just outside Edinburgh.

Duke of Buccleuch (270,900 acres as of 2005) estates, castles & palaces in Selkirkshire, Dumfriesshire, Dalkeith Palace in Edinburgh. His sister is the Duchess of Northumberland & her daughter is Duchess of Sutherland.

Earl of Mansfield: Scone Palace, Perthshire: Feudal Tenure Bill & Land Register of 1617
Wm. MacDonald, St Martin’s Abbey, Perth, 22,600, £9,191
Earl of Kinnoull, Dupplin Castle, Perth, 12,657, £15,413
Baroness Willoughby D’Eresby, Drummond Castle, Crieff [Earls of Ancaster: Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby-D’Eresby], 76,837, £28,955
C.S Home-Drummond-Moray, Abercairney, 38,797, £29,720
Sir Patrick Keith Bart-Murray of Ochtertyre, Crieff, 17,876, £11,051
David Robertson-Williamson of Lawers, Crieff, 30,094, £6,205
Sir Archibald D. Bart Stewart, Murthly Castle, 33,274, £18,040 [Now Don Steuart- Fothringham]
Francis W Garden-Campbell, Troup-Glenlyon House, 10,516, £1,620
Sir Robert Bart Menzies, Castle Menzies, 68,248, £11,647
Sir James Henry Bart-Ramsay, Bamff House, Alyth, 12,845, £3,394
Alexr. Gilbert Robertson of Struan, in Jamaica, 18,000, £1,038
Major Robert Stewart, Ardvorlich, Lochearnside, 10,001, £2,654
Col. Alexr. MacIan MacDonald of Dunalastair, Strath Tummel, 14,000, £2,675
Lt-Col. J.R. Farquharson, Invercauld, Braemar, 20,056, £1,508 [now AAC Farquharson]
David Carnegie, Skibo Castle, Stronvar, Balquhidder, 22,205, £3,558 [Andrew Carnegie inherited]
John Buchanan-Baillie-Hamilton, Cambusmore, Callander, 12,172, £3,207
Mrs Margaret Malcolm-Patton, Glenalmond, 11,074, £1,995 [Now Sir Jasper Whitaker]
Archibald Butter, Faskally, Pitlochry, 17,586, £5,670
Patrick Small Keir, Kindrogan & Strathardle, 10,000, £2,445
Edward G Place, Lochdochart, Killin, 10,500, £1,130 [Ben Challum Ltd]
Richard Hemming, Rachael & Glaschorie & Bently Manor, Bromsgrove, 10,000, £155
1879: Edgar Wm Robertson, Duke of Atholl, Blair Castle, 216,372 acres, £43, 662.
Earl of Breadalbane, Taymouth Castle: 1879: 234,166 acres, £35,977 annual rental
James Patrick McInroy of Lude, Blair Atholl, 15,680 acres, £2,460. Pearson subsidiary. The mother of the present duke is not only sister to the richest Baron in Britain – Viscount Cowdray, who through a network of family trusts controls a powerful industrial empire – but is herself an able business woman, director of a number of family enterprises, and chairman of Westminster Press Provincial Newspapers. Deer carcasses from his hunting estate are sold as luxury venison in Germany. – Acreocracy of Perthshire

Scotland: Greek: Dark One [Aran: Snowdrop Land / Caledonia: Sea Holly]
Scotia, Daughter of Pharoah Nectanebo Kheperkare: Strong Re Abides: 30th Dynasty

Thie ny Moght [Place of Death]Scottish Borders: Duchy & County of Berwickshire [Duns-shire]: Galashiels Poorhouse [1881-1950: Mass graves], Dhùn Bhreatainn: Dumbarton Workhouse, Duchy & County of Roxburgh: Harwick Poorhouse [1857: 133+ inmates], Jedburgh’s, The Rowans Museum [1825: Castle turned into a workhouse & reformed jail. 1881 Census. (270)], County Peeble [Tweedale]: Peebles Workhouse [Rosetta Rd], Galldachd [Lowlands] (Low Tide Moon): Lowland Dialect: Galwegian Gaelic: Barony & County of Dumfriesshire Dumfries Hospital [1751: James & William Moorhead (71) Here on a site near the current building stood the original hospital which, in the early days of medicine, had catered for the mentally-disturbed by chaining the more violent to walls of the cells in treatment rooms. During modernization: The cellars & special rooms sealed off or used merely for storage, though retaining the iron-barred doors & manacles in the walls. The hospital was closed & it became a boarding school. In 1963, the whole construction was levelled to the ground, leaving the grim reminders of the days of Bedlam untouched but buried. (Mystical: 253)], Annan [1708-1918: One of the Dumfries Burghs with Lochmaben & Sanquhar], Kirkpatrick-Fleming [1861], Upper Nithsdale [1881], Galloway: County Kirkudbrightshire (pronounced Kir-COO-bri-shir) [Mearns Mormaerdon]:Kirkcudbright Workhouse [1849-1950], West Galloway: County Wigtownshire [Lord Lieutenant of Wigtown]: Rinns of Galloway [1850: Stranraer, Wigtownshire. 381+ inmates. Described in 1946 as worn-out, dreary without proper sanitation or heating], County also includes the Mull of Galloway and the Machars: New Statistical Account of Scotland ©1834 Inbhir-Àir: Barony & County of Ayrshire [Carrick Mormaerdon]: Now split into N. Ayrshire, S. Ayrshire & Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear: East Ayrshire. [Loudoun District, Kilmarnock District, Cumnock District, Loch Doon District], Ayr [1756: 150+ inmates. H-Block childrens’ quarters. inmates dying from: pneumonia, pleurisy, phthisis, cancer, paralysis from starvation, senile decay: wet cases (71)], Barr [Brythonic language had disappeared according to a reference in The Carrick Covenanters by James Crichton, village of Barr in Carrick: inland to the east of Girvan], Cunninghame [1857-1996: Irvine. Punishment beatings. Irvine 1 of the Ayr Burghs with Ardrossan, Ayr, Prestwick, Saltcoats, Troon], Maybole [1867-1918: Burgh of Barony in 1516], Siorrachd Rinn Friù: County Renfrewshire Now split into Renfrewshire & E. Renfrewshire: Paisley Asylum-Abbey Parish-Renfrewshire Abbey [1849: 650+ inmates. Oakum picking, Infirmary], Busby [1906], Greenock Parochial Lunatic Asylum [1868-1941: Starved to death on broth, bread, & herring, fed twice a week. Coal shoveling. Girls covered with lice eggs, insects & vermin. 1934: Inmates drugged with thormaldithyde & bromide by nuns. Half of male inmates from N. Uist], Duchy & County of Dunbartonshire: Black Fortress Now split into E. & W. Dunbartonshire: Dumbarton Workhouse [1861: W, Infirmary (287): Dumbarton Royal Burgh by 1532], County Inverclyde: Mouth of the Gleaming River Greenock, County Lanarkshire [Lannraig]: Glasgow: Dear Green Place: Glaswegian Gaelic Now split into N. & S. Lanarkshire: E. of Glasgow City. Glasgow lies on the River Clyde: Raven Gleam: Strathclyde Cambusnethan [Inmates stripped naked, starved to death on broth, whipped, & drowned in cold baths], Dalziel [1903: Laundry, disinfector], Monklands [2 workhouses. Child murder], Town’s Hospital Inc. [1730], Glasgow City Poorhouse [1809: 1500 beds], Glasgow Barony–Barnhill [1853: Mass graves. Railway station. Children starved to death on the C-Plan of oatmeal, bread & milk. Old women starved on tea & bread], Hutcheson’s Hospital [1639: Mass grave], Stobhill Poor Hospital [1903-1930: 2000 beds], W. District [1903], Eastern District [1904-1996: Duke St], Buchanan Institution [47 Greenhead St. Destitute boys], Night Asylum [71 N. Frederick St. Poor women], Glasgow Home for Deserted Mothers [308 Renfrew St], Queen’s Park Deaf & Dumb Asylum, Hamilton [1864-1930: Bothwell Rd. No running water, pigsty, rats], Lanark [fever hospital], Lesmahagow [Castle owned by Sirdar Iqbal Singh as of 1999], March & County of Linlithgow [West Lothian: Léoneis: Raven Place]: Lithingow / Linlithgow Workhouse [1851-1969: Marquis of Linlithgow. 500+ inmates crush bones of the dead. Stonebreaking. 1900: St. Michael’s Home Infectious Disease Hospital], Duchy of Edinburgh / County Edinburghshire [Midlothian: Léoneis: Raven Place]: Edinburgh is to the W. of Glasgow on volcanic soil: Dalkeith Castle [1881 Census], North Leith Poorhouse [1763: Citadel], South Leith Poorhouse [1763: 97 Giles St], Leith Parish Poorhouse [1863: N. Junction St. Dead Room Mortuary], Seafield Rd Poorhouse [1906: Leith. 650+ inmates. Last poorhouse built in Scotland. Cruciform infirmary. Closed 2002 (71)], Din Eidyn / Dùn-éideann: City of Edinburgh: (pron DOON EDIN) Cannongate Charity Workhouse [1762: Tollbooth Wynd: 64 Cannongate], Edinburgh Charity Poorhouse [1739: Port Bristo. 484+ adults, 180+ children], Edinburgh City Poorhouse-Morningside [1867: Morningside Rd: plague. bones of the victims in rose beds. (223)], Edinburgh–Grassmarket Workhouse, St. Cuthbert’s-Westkirk Charity Poorhouse-Now Caledonian Hotel [1758: Craigleith: 4 story parapet with iron railing, gatekeeper, fumigator, probationary wards, airing yards, infirmary, chapel, dining hall, kitchen, Aged Women’s Room, laundry, Doctors’ & Surgeons’ Room. Foul air ward. Orphans separated into Very Decent, Decent, Bastardy & Depraved with 4 seperate doors for each. 410 inmates called chattel in 1866 by Trustees of Fettes College under Sir James Gardiner Baird Bart. 1914: POWs then Ministry of Pensions (71)], Orphan Hospital [1733: Dean Bridge], Girls’ House of Refuge [Western Suburbs], Rescue & Probationary Home for Fallen Women [1861: 18 St John’s Hill], Edinburgh Industrial Home for Fallen Women [Alnwick Hill, Liberton], Hospital for the Aged & Infirm [Run by Little Sisters of the Poor], St Mary’s Hospital [1619: Leith Wynd], Regality & County of Haddingtonshire [East Lothian: Léoneis: Raven Place]: East Lothian Workhouse [1864-1946: East Linton, Prestonkirk. East Linton became a burgh in 1863. Prestonpans Burgh of Barony in 1552. Haddington Royal Burghs 1708-1885: Dunbar, Haddington, North Berwick],Fìobh: County Fife [Fife Mormaerdon]: Dunfermline [1843: Located on Cemetery Rd. Now Leys Park Rd], Dysart [1863: Thornton, East Fife. Financed by the Scottish Widows of Edinburgh. Inmates starved to death on gruel. Slavery in laundries & garden (71)], Kircaldy [1895], St Andrews Royal Burghs [Ansruther, Crail, Kilrenny, Pitterweem], Burnt IslandCentral: Regality & County of Clackmannanshire: Alloa Burgh of Regality [1497], Alva Burgh, Dollar Burgh of Regality [1702], Tillicoultry Burgh of Barony [1634] Duchy & County of Sterlingshire-Stirlingshire [Lennox Mormaerdon]: Duke of Montrose, Buchanan Castle, Sterlingshire, Falkirk Poorhouse [1850: Near railway station, iron barred windows, seclusion room 9 ft. long, 61/2 ft. wide, 11" ht, shower bath punishment. Gassed to death in fever hospital, 1857 Inspection & report by Lunacy Commissioners (Higganbotham 71). Myot Hill: Maeatae: Stone People], Windsor Rd Poorhouse [1905], Sterlingshire Poorhouse [1860: Bridge St, Loch Lomond, Sterling], Ebudae: Yew: Inner Hebrides: Strathclyde Region: Stream of the Gleaming RiverCounty Ross: Red Place [Ross Mormaerdom]: Nodoreys: Northern Islands: Skye Workhouse [1851-1933: Isle of Skye, Loch Bracadale: Freckled Trout Lake, Hebridean Sea. Owned by John Mackenzie, whose family has owned the Isle of Skye for 500 years. Infirmary, fever wards. Workhouse taken over by the Carnegie Foundation], Oronsay: Golden Leaves Island, Wiay Island, Isay Island: Fertile Crops, Eilean nan Caorach: Yew Berry, Ascrib Islands: Clett, Mingay & Tarner (Harlosh), Lindil, Eilean Bàn: White Island, Kyle of Scalpay: Clear Stream: W of Skye: Scalpay, Staffin Islands: Hebridean Sea. NE of Skye: Eilean Flodigarry, Tulm Island, Roe / Loch na Cairidh: Red Yew Berry Lake: A’Chomraich: Applecross peninsula links to Wester Ross, E of Skye: Gairloch: Red Yew Berry Island, Danna:Water from Heaven, Longay: Blackbird Island, Pabay: Thieves’ Island, Ratharsair: Isle of Raasay: Isle of Roe: Red Deer Island [Inverarish village served as a prisoner-of-war camp for Germans during the World War I. Iron mines. Hallaig is the deserted township called the ghost clachan N. of Beinn na Lice], S Rona: Red Deer, Eilanan Crò linne: Crowlin: Nut Islands: Eilean Beag: Little Island, Eilean Meadhonach: Middle Island & Eilean Mór: Big Island, Elianan Beg: Small Isles: Hebridean Sea. S. of Skye Eigg, Muck: Pig Island, Cuillen: Hazel. Soay: Sheep Island in Norse, Canna [Workhouse], Rùm-Phoebus Island The Forbidden Isle [1826: Cleared of human population for sheep farming. 400 sent to slavery in Canada. Purchased by the Marquis of Salisbury for hunting estate. Sir George Bullough, a textile tycoon from Lancashire’s father bought Rùm for his summer residence. His Kinloch Castle featured BBC’s Restoration as a bid for funds to restore it.Escape from Experiment Island a reality TV show filmed on the Island & broadcast by the Learning Channel had American Teams build vehicles to escape from the island in 2002. Currently protected from tourists by strict access rules], Sanda-Sanday, Oigh-Sgeir: Reef, Garbh Sgeir: Rough Reef, Humla, Eileananan Each, Eilean Chathastail: Castle Island, Dubh Sgeir: Black Reef, Eagamo, Ny h-Ellanyn Souree: Summer Isles: Loch Broom, Ullapool (Apple Region) near Mull (Shingly Beach), W. Ross: Mulled Cider, Sudoreys: Southern Islands: Ionia: Moon Isles, Iona: Moon [Icolmkill Workhouse], Chaol Mhuile: Isle of Mull: Shingly Beach [pron. kyle MOO-lah. 1860-1923: Tigh na Bochdh Workhouse. 130+ inmates], Eilean Chalmain-Colonsay: Dove Island, Erraid: Snow Drop [Cleared], Eorsa [Workhouse], Laggan Ullamh Dha-Ulva [Workhouse. Island that is 7.5 miles wide by 2.5 miles long owned by the Howard family from Northern England. Ulbha islanders call themselves Ulbhaich. The highest point of Ulva is Beinn Chreagach: Rocky Mountain. ’M'Quarrie: He told us, his family had possessed Ulva for 900 years; but I was distressed to hear that it was soon to be sold for the payment of his debts.’ – Boswell Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D ©1785. Inquiring after the reliques of former manners, I found that in Ulva, &, I think, no where else, is continued the payment of the Mercheta Mulierum; a fine in old times due to the Laird at the marriage of a virgin. The original of this claim, as of our tenure of Borough English, is variously delivered. This payment, like others, was, for want of money, made anciently in the produce of the land. Macquarry was used to demand a sheep, for which he now takes a crown, by that inattention to the uncertain proportion between the value & the denomination of money, which has brought much disorder into Europe. A sheep has always the same power of supplying human wants, but a crown will bring at one time more, at another less. – Dr. Johnson A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland ©18 January 1775], Little Colonsay: Little Hazel Island [Workhouse], Gometra [Workhouse], Staffa [Fingal’s Cave: Staffa Workhouse], Cairn na Burgh Mòr-Cairnburgh [Carna Workhouse], Cairn na Burgh Beag: Little Cairnburgh, Eilean na Monich: Black Moss Island, Tiree: Grain Land [Workhouse], Gunna [Workhouse], Coll: Hazel [1700s cleared. Slavery to Australia, Canada, South Africa. Others transferred to Mull Workhouse. Lachlan Macquarie sometimes called Father of Australia & Governor of New South Wales from 1809-1821 born on Ulva and buried on Mull], Calve, Dubh Artach: Black Bear, Glenans: Green Islands, Slate Islands-Treshnish: Treshnis: Treasure Islands: Volcanic islands 6 miles West of Mull (Shingly Beach) Luinn Luing: Slate Island [Workhouse], Seil: Pebble Island [Workhouse], Nagvisog, Bac Beag, Easdale, Inch Kenneth: Eilean Mhic Coinnich [An uninhabited island in the Inner Hebrides near the Isle of Mull. Nazi sympathiser Unity Valkyrie Mitford, daughter of Lord & Lady Redesford, spent her final years living on the island. Unity accompanied Göring, Himmler & Goebbels to meetings, rallies & the Munich Olympic Games. Hitler told newspapers in Germany that Unity was a perfect specimen of Aryan womanhood. She was given the gold Nazi party badge, the highest honour Hitler could bestow. Her sister Diana married British fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley. Unity died in 1948 of complications of a self-inflicted bullet to the brain. The Island is now owned by Dr. Barlow. – Lorn Macintyre The Black Lyre: Black Ace Books © 2005], Shian Bac Mór (Yellow Weed: Dutchman’s Cap), Eilean Righ: King’s Isle, [Island of the Kings Workhouse], Eilean Macaskin [Cleared], Eilean Mhic-Chrion, Uberga, Eilean Dubh a’ Chumainn Mór: Black Isle [Workhouse], Triarach: Sacred Meeting Place: Sgeir an Eirionnaich: Snow Rock, Sgeir na h-Iolaire: Eagle Rock, Sgeir a Chaisteil: Castle Rock, Eilean Bhride: Brigid’s Isle, Lios Mòr-Lismore [Lismore Union Workhouse], Eilean nan Caorach-Cara [Workhouse], Shuna [Workhouse], Assaig: Ferry Isle, Oisg-Seasg (Isles of Ewe), Fladda, Eilean na Cloiche, Sgeir an Fheoir: Gross Skerryvore, Eilean Mòr, Ardistar, Eilean Musdile, Bernera: Yew Wood [Cleared], Eilean Loch Oscar, Eilean Droineach-Torsay: Thorn Isle, Eilean Balnagowan-Belnahua, Eilean Ramsay, Kerrera: Red Yew Berry [Workhouse] Dunadd: Duchy & County of Argyllshire [Dal Ríata: Red Kings] Campbeltown-Mull of Kintyre-Dalriada Epidium [Haunted with ghosts. Glen Scotia Whisky Distillery. One of the Ayr Burghs 1708-1832 with Inveraray and Oban. 1859: Workhouse on Witchburn Rd], Lochgilphead [1861-1920], Lorne [1862-1946], Dunoon [A burgh], Tobermory [A burgh], Cenél nOengusa: Islay Islands: Hebridean Sea: Firth of the Clyde: Venicones / Erc: Sacred Salmon People: Finlaggan [Palace of the Kings of all the Islanders], Chaol Ile-Islay [pron. kyle EES-lah, some pronounce ee-lya. Workhouse: 1865-1935], Eilean Mòr: Great Island, Eilean na Comhairle: Council Island [From council of twice 7 nobles, whose custom was regularly to declare justice], Cairn: Grave, Eilean Mic Mhaolmhoire: Hazel Island, Corr Sgeir, Eilean Iosal, Eilean Imersay, Eilean Bethidh: Birch Island, Outram, Texa [Workhouse], Eilean na n’Caorach: Sheep Island, Eilean na Naosg, Eilean Rinard: Bluff Height Island, Tarr Sgeir, Liath Eilean: Stone Island, Achnarra, Eilean Dealloch Dune, Stacbadis [This is Latin], St John’s Island, Orsay: Gold Island, Eilean nan Coinein, Eilean an Tannais-sgeir: Holy Fire Island, Eileen Naomh: Nave Island, Eilean na Bany: Isle of Women, Oronsay Islands: 8 miles from Islay: Oronsay, Eilean Bhaiodernal, Colonsay: Hazel Island, Rinns of Islay: Islay Bluffs / Corryvreckan: Whirlpool on the Sea: Argyll. NE of Islay: Sannda, Gigha: Vulva [Cleared], Gigalum, Scarba [Cleared], Diùra -Island of Jura [1948: Eric Arthur Blair George Orwell writes 1984 while suffering from tuberculosis: Character Winston Smith re-writes the official record, removes all reference to predictions that didn’t come true, & re-touches official photographs to remove people officially rendered unpersons (people who the state declares as having never existed). The original document is dropped into a memory hole leading to an incinerator. Party members refrain from sex, since sexual attachments might diminish exclusive loyalty to the Party. Artificial insemination: ARTSEM is strongly encouraged. (Art: the Golden Bear of Creation: King Arthur, ficher= index). 1984’s Oceana from James Harrington’s 1656 book The Commonwealth of Oceana dedicated to Cromwell. New Model Army Officer & London printer John Streater Reprinted in Dublin in 1758 in a super-edition, containing a version of Henry Neville’s Plato Redivivus & appendix by Rev. Thomas Birch (1705-1766). 1984 begins April 4, 1984 at 13:00 hours: It was a bright cold day in April, & the clocks were striking 13. In the story’s course, he concludes the date is irrelevant, because the State can arbitrarily alter it to be whatever it says it to be. 13 is actually the diabhna: divinity or fate in Scotland. Previously, Orwell’s essay You & the Atomic Bomb published October 19, 1945, in the British newspaper Tribune contemplates a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear war, a peace that is no peace, which he called a permanent cold war. In The Observer of March 10, 1946, Orwell wrote “. . . [a]fter the Moscow conference last D, Russia began to make a cold war on Britain & the British Empire“], Guirasdeal: Jura Paps, Craig, Craro, Garvellachs: Isles of the Sea: Rough Islands: SE of Jura. Dún Channuill: Black Channel, Eileach an Naoimh: Nine Goddess Isle [Cleared] & Garbh Eileach: Rough Island March & County of Buteshire [March of Bute]: Rothsay Royal Burgh, Millport Burgh, Keeylys Boadagh: Bute Kyle / Burnt Islands: Water Islands: Firth of the Clyde between Ayreshire & Argyll Eilean Mór: Large Island, Eilean a’Bhealach: Fraioch: Broom Island: Heather & Eilean Buidhe: Yellow Island, Eilean Dearg: Red Island, Eilean Dubh: Black Island, Sgat Mòr;, Sgat Beag, Lunga [Workhouse: Marquess of Bute], Rubha Fiola, Fiola The Cumbraes: Firth of the Clyde between Ayreshire & Argyll: The Eileans, Castle Island, Trail Isle, The Broad Islands, The Clach, The Leug, The Spoig, Gare Loch: Green Island, Kilbrannan Sound: Firth of the Clyde between Ayreshire & Argyll: Skipness, Cour Island, Eilean Grianain-Eilean Sunadale: Sun Island, Eilean Carrach-Carradale, An Struthlag, Island Ross, Thorn Isle, Gull Isle, Loch Fyne: Firth of the Clyde between Ayreshire & Argyll: Ardmarnock, Eilean Buidhe-Portavadie: Yellow Island, Eilean a’ Bhuic, Eilean Ardgaddan, Kilbride Island, Eilean Math-ghamhna, Eilean Aoghainn, Eilean Fraoch: Heather Island, Glas Eilean, Liath Eilean, Eilean Mór: Great Island, Duncuan Island, Inverneil Island, Eilean an Dúnain, Eilean a’ Chomhraig. Moreabh: Sea Islands: Hebridean Sea: Firth of the Clyde: Co. Bute Ailsa Craig-Creag Ealasaid-Ailsa Craig Ear: Bass Rock, Arran: Snowdrop [Workhouse], Bute-Eilean Bhòid [1926: Thompson Poorhouse], Cramond, Craigleath, Cumbrae Mòr-Cumaradh Mòr: Great Cumbrae [Workhouse], Cumbrae Beag: Little Cumbriae [Workhouse], Dera-Eilean Dà Bhàrr-Davaar, Eilean MoLaise: Holy Island, Fidra, Hamilton Island, Horse Island, Ibris-Eyebrough, Inchkeith, Innis Colum-Inchcolm: Dove Island, Innis Garbhach-Inch Garva: Rough Island, Innis Mheàrnaig-Inchmarnock, Inverclyde [Workhouse], Innis nam Bhiocaire-Inchmickery, Isle of May, Lady Isle, Lamb, Pladda, Rabbit Island, Sandaigh-Sanda, Stroma, an Tae: Tayside: Charming River: County Perthshire [Mormaerdon of Atholl]: Athole & Breadalbane Workhouse [1859-1946], Perth Workhouse [1860-1930: Glasgow Rd. Visited by Queen Victoria], Fortingall [Mass graves], Scone [Moot Hill, Near Perth], Duchy & County of Monteith [Menteith Mormaerdon]: , Duchy & County of Kinross [Strathearn Mormaerdon]: Strathearn Workhouse [1861: Isolation block. Landlord Lord Rollo, Duncrub House-Dunning: 10,148, £8,418: 1878. Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught & Strathearn (1850-1942), the 3rd son of Queen Victoria & Governor General of Canada from 1911-1916], Duchy & County of Forfarshire-Angus [Angus Mormaerdon]: Arbroath & St Vigean’s Workhouse [Brechin Rd, Arbroath: Declaration of Arbroath], Grubbers’ Poorhouse [1878-1946: Brechin. Children mass murdered. Infectious disease hospital & cemetery], Dundee Workhouse [1853: 800+ children worked 16 hour days & those that rebelled were put in iron chains. 1887: Dead bodies dissected by the local anatomy school under the direction of Dr A. Melville & Dr. Robert Sinclair], Liff & Benvie Parish Poorhouse [1864: Dundee], Forfar [1882: Infirmary disposed of mental defectives & maternity cases], Kirriemuir Almshouse [1912: Beechwood Pl], MontroseGrampian Region: County Aberdeenshire [Mormaerdon of Mar & Buchan]: Aberdeen-Buchan Workhouse-Now Maud Hospital [1867-1946: Inmates starved, forced to grow potatoes, turnips, oats. Cesspool. Mass graves. Pathways made from cinders of the workhouse boilers 1862: Sir Robert John Abercromby of Airthrie Castle, Perthshire, 10,407 acres, £7,007 annual rental], Aberdeen–St. Nicholas-East [1847: Nelson St], Aberdeen–Old Machar-West [Fonthill Rd], Aberdeen-Oldmill Poorhouse [Skene, 961 inmates in 1925. Childrens’ Infirmary Block], Balmoral Castle, Grampian Region: Barony & County of Banffshire: White Boar Rathven Parish Hospital for the Poor [1912. Banff Royal Burgh 1203-6. 1 of the Elgin Burghs 1708 to 1918 with Cullen], Aberchirder [Other burghs are Aberlour, Buckie, Dufftown, Findochty, Keith, Macduff, Portknockie & Portsoy] County Kincardineshire: Kincardinshire Workhouse [1867-1948: Woodcot Brae W. of Stonehaven], County Morayshire [Mormaerdom of Moray]: Moray Firth: Morayshire Workhouse [1867-1948: Elgin. H-block cells, laundry], To Sort: Craiglockhart, Inveresk, Kyle, Highland: Gaeltacht: County Nairn: Alder Tree RiverNairn Workhouse [1860: Now owned by Lord Balgonie], County Caithness: Mouth of Grain [Caithness Mormaerdom]: Castle Sinclair: [Royal Burgh of Wick. One of the Tain Burghs 1708-1832], Latheron Workhouse [1850-1946: Pregnant women killed], Thurso Workhouse [1854-1924 designed by WL Moffat.], Castletown [Recently revealed roadsigns for Castletown in Caithness in the Highlands indicate The Highland Council’s intention to introduce bilingual signage into all areas of the Highlands have caused some controvery (Wikipedia)], County Lochaber: River Lake W. Highlands Glen Coe [1745: Glencoe Massacre. Bought by the Scottish National Trust from Lord Strathcona in 1935. No camping. ’ The reason? We are damaging the flora: The Angry Corrie 22: Glen ponder], County Cromarty: Bent Bear Cromarty Firth: Black Isle [1859-1946: Ness Road. Children starved to death. Laundry. Mass graves known as Agricultural Improvements Between Inverness & Cromarty], Caitaibh: Grain / Duchy & County of Sutherland [Suderland Mormaerdom]: Sutherland-Stonehaven Workhouse [1863: Laundry, childrens’ wards. Now Migdale Hospital], Outer Hebrides [na h-Eileanan Siar: Western Isles]Glas na Goirteann: The Minch: Ruled by the Glaucii: Blue Men of the Minch
Eilean Glas: Blue Island, Leòdhas Na Hearadh-Lewis na Hearish: Isle of Lewis & Harris: Lewis: Raven & Harris: Of the Hills [1894: Lews Workhouse operational through 1942], Isle of Taransay: Thunder Island [Human bones protrude from sand on Peible Beach], Scarpa [West coast of Isle of Harris], Bardsey, Scalpay-Scalpy [Workhouse], Rònaigh-Ronay: Seal Island, Sula Sgeir, Sgeotasaigh: Scotasay, Griomasaigh-Grimsay, Eilean Mor Phabail: Mid-Day Light, Eilean Adam: Red Earth, Eilean nan Uan: Holy Lamb, Viccowill, Eilean Thuilm, Havreray: Summer Isle, Eilean Mor Lacsaidh, Era, Eilean Chaluim Chille: Saint Columba, Eilean Thoraidh, Eilean Iubhard: Yew Island, Fladay, Innse Gall: Monarch Isles: Uibhist a Deas: South Uist: South Sweet Water-Benbecula-Eilean Heisgeir: Heisker: Monarch Island- Uibhist a Tuath: North Uist: North Sweet Water [This island when the tide flows in is triple, when the tide recedes it is 1 island. The tide leaves the white-fish with heather caves. In the caves are holy churches for sacred rites to the sacred quintuple number. South Uist: 1851: Highlanders seized & led to ships in chains. Placed in the steerage & died of disease. Long Island Workhouse: 1882-1946: North Uist, designed by Kinnear & Peddie. Infirmary, Mortuary] All linked to North Uist during lowtide: Baile Sear-Baleshare [ Population decline. 1830 -1843: 80% of infants dying of tetanus & deaths continued at a lesser pace until 1891. 1912: Food shortages 1913: Influenza. 29 August 1930: Last 36 remaining inhabitants evacuated to Scottish mainland. Islands purchased by Marquess of Bute in 1931, who bequeathed them to the National Trust for Scotland in 1957. 1937: Michael Powell’s film, The Edge of the World], Bhalaigh-Vallay, Bheàrnaraidh Beag: Little Yew Island, Boraraigh-Boreray: Boar King, Ceann Ear: Head East, Ceann Iar: Head West, Eilean Domhnuill: Dark Island, Hearnish, Deasker, Siolaigh: Shillay, Stockay, All linked to South Uist during lowtide: Orasaigh: Golden, Eilean nan Caorach: Isle of the Sheep, Eilean na Haikersait, Garb Lingeigh, Flodaigh, Fuidheigh Mòr, Fuidheigh Beag, Hay, Hellisay, Gighay: Vulva, Lingeigh, Fiaraidh, Fuday, Eiriosgaigh-Eriskay: Snowdrop. Barra Isles: Yew Isles: Hebridean Sea, S. of the Minch. Ruled by the Hag of Barra: 80 miles before Skye to the Summer Setting of the Sun extend: Eilean Bharraigh-Barra: Yew [Stretching 7 miles in length to the summer rising from the winter setting of the sun. Herring. MacNeil landlords since the 12th century cleared people from black houses named after the coal smoke for sheep farming. Farmers & fisherman forced to Canada, Ireland & United States], Bhatarsaigh-Vatersay [Rusted landmne shells from WWII, Memorial commemorates 450 dead aboard Highland Clearances emigrant ship Annie Jane in 1853. Dhiarr a’Mhuir a Bhith ga Tadhal (yeer ah voor ah vee gah tahl): The Sea Claims Her Own (McNeil: 273)], Kisimul: Old Norse for Castle Island [Off south coast of Barra. Owned by John Allen MacNeil who inherited the castle from his father Robert Lister MacNeil in 1937], Lingeigh-Lingay, Greanamul: Sunny Shingly Beach, Berneray: Yew Island, Miùghlaigh-Mingulay, Pabaigh-Pabbay: Priest Island, Maol Domhnaich-Muldoanich, Sanndraigh-Sandray, Cenn Bheàrnaraidh: Barra Head, Flodaigh Hiort: Saint Kilda Islands: 60 miles W. of North Uist: Beyond this to the Summer Setting of the Sun: Hirta Island-God’s Isle [Now occupied by the military & scientists for the Hebrides missile tracking range who do test firings], Bearnaraigh Mòr: Great Yew Wood Island: Great Bernera [Workhouse. Island in Loch Roag, off the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides. It is fairly close to Lewis, but it was not until 1953 that a bridge was built, after the islanders threatened to dynamite the hillside to create a causeway. Bernera Riots: Sir James Matheson having bought the island of Lewis, took charge of Bernera & appointed a solicitor, Donald Munro to be his factor in 1872], Bhacsaigh: Freckled Trout, Cealasaigh-St. Kilda: Church Island, Cearstaidh: Christine, Cliatasay [Near Fuadh Mòr], Dun: Brown, Eunay Mòr [Between Fuadh Mòr & Great Bernera], Flodaigh: Floating Island [2nd Flodaigh], Fuadh Beag: Little Spring, Fuadh Mòr: (pronounced Vuai Mòr): Big Spring [Off the W. Coast of Lewis near Great Bernera in Loch Roag. Highlanders cleared. Now uninhabited according to the UK Census of 2001], Garbh Eilean: Rough Island [Near Fuadh Mòr], Geile Sgeir [Near Fuadh Mòr], Eilean nam Feannag [Near Fuadh Mòr], Grimsay [Workhouse], Grousam [Near Fuadh Mòr], Lambay: Rennet’s Milk, Linngeam [Near Fuadh Mòr], Levinish: Sweet Milk Island, Luchruban: Small Body, Pabaigh: Bishop’s Island, Siaram Mor: Great West Isle, Siaram Beg: Small West Isle, Sish, Stac Lee: Smooth Precipice, Stac an Armin: Precipice, Soay: Sheep Island in Norse, Uineasan: Holy Sun Water of Life, Na h-Eileanan Flannach: Flannan Isles: Fire Islands / Na h-Eileanan Seunta: Shiant Isles: W. of Lewis in the Minch: Eilean Mòr: Great Island, Eilean Tighe: Poet Island, Eilean a Gobha-Garbh: Smith Island, Roaiream, Bròna Cleit, Zetland / Shetland Isles [Yn Sheltyn] & Orkney Isles [Inistore: Golden Islands]: Shetland Poorhouse [1884: W. of Lerwick], Old Monkland Workhouse [Orkney. Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener dies in Orkney in 1916. He was born in Crotter House / Gunsborough Villa, Listowel. County Kerry, Ireland]

England [Great Britain: White Cow / Alban: White Moon / Albion]
Yr Hen Ogledd: Northumbria Concentration Camps
British Tabulating Machine Company: Hollerith ‘Colossus’: University of Manchester / Yorkshire Bank PLC / Yorkshire Penny Bank / Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway
Northumbria: N. England
Corpse Roads: 40 mile Lyke Wake Walk across the N. Yorkshire moors from Osmotherly, N. of Thirsk on the A19, to Ravenscar, a cliff south of Robin Hood’s Bay

1670: Royal Society Stepped Reckoner Machine: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz: Believed by many, including my grandmother, of killing people in the workhouse system. The 1st machine that could execute all 4 basic arithmetical operations. His calculus ratiocinator anticipated aspects of the universal Turing machine. A number of such machines made during his years in Hanover by a craftsman working under Leibniz’s supervision. He invented the binary system & the Book Indexing System used by Library Science. He also wrote an imperial history of the House of Hannover-Brunswick stretching all the way back to Charlemagne. Leibniz is credited along with Isaac Newton with inventing the infinitesimal calculus in the 1670s. He introduced several notations used in calculus to this day, for instance the integral sign representing an elongated S from the Latin word summa & the d used for differentials from the Latin word differentia.

1725: Industrialized Farming: New agricultural culture based on profit-seeking experiments & improvements. Rational, scientific, capital-intensive agriculture established by Empires. Farmers experimented with larger varieties of cattle, too: there are paintings that show these men posing proudly next to immense bulls, which sometimes weighed 2 tons, much larger than animals today. A good example is Robert Bakewell (1725-95), though his English longhorn is scarcely known today. Consider the paintings of John Constable (1776-1837). In the midst of industrializing England, Constable painted pictures of rustic landscapes untouched by metal & steam. 2 centuries later, these pictures remain hugely influential. – Professor Bret Wallach
1782: Earl FitzWilliam receives Malton title from his uncle Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham part of The See of York

1788: Act of William: Sir William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, is known as The Reaper Man. The poor are made to wear badges.

1788: Sir William Peel: Dolben Slave Carrying Act

1815: Corn Laws Sir Robert Peel, William’s son prohibits the importation of grain (called corn) until prices reach starvation level. Founder of the London Metropolitan Police Force named Bobbies after him.

1820: Difference Engine: Charles Babbage. This machine intended to calculate & print simple mathematical tables

1833: Analytical Machine: Built by English mathematician Charles Babbage (1791-1871) under Sir Robert Peel. The machine calculated & killed millions of English people in the English Workhouse system. The analytical engine’s 5 major segments: controller, storage, processor mill (modern CPU), input, output. Data could be output to other punched cards that could be read in again later. The programmer was Lady Ada Byron, daughter of the poet Lord Byron, Countess of Lovelace. Seen in Carl Laemmle’s movie The Bride of Frankenstein

1845: Hon James Lawrence, Tory Lord Mayor of Lerpwl: Liverpool & local booze baron, refused to hold any conference on relief.
...‘thousands die 40 or 50 deep in Liverpool’s pestilent cellars. British merchant ships stuffed tight with quality foodstuffs arrive at Liverpool from Ireland throughout the famine years destined for the belly of the British bourgeoisie,’ – Irish Holocaust

Liberty Gaol (House of Love): Home of the Governor. Prime occupation punishing vagrants. whippings, treadwheel, slavery to Australia. clothes fumigated in sulphur disinfector room, sick bay death disposal, police station in 1956.

’Hush-a-bye baby, on a tree top. When you grow old, your wages will stop. When you have spent the little you made. 1st to the poorhouse &amp: then to the grave.’ – Ripon Museum Trust Registered Charity No. 512913, The Workhouse Museum, Sharow View, Allhallowgate, Ripon HG4 1LE

1941: Director Harold Keen. Hollerith machines called bombes

The Human Button,BBC Radio 4, Dec 2008: Information on the manner in which the United Kingdom could launch its nuclear weapons. Former Chief of Defence Staff & amp; Chief of General Staff, General The Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank: the chief of the defence staff, if he really did think the prime minister had gone mad, would make quite sure that that order was not obeyed... You have to remember that actually prime ministers give direction, they tell the chief of the defence staff what they want, but it’s not prime ministers who actually tell a sailor to press a button in the middle of the Atlantic. The armed forces are loyal, & we live in a democracy, but actually their ultimate authority is the Queen. The Chief of Defence Staff is appointed by the monarch.
The Crown in the United Kingdom, is a term used to describe the power & property of the monarch as head of state. [No distinction was made between the monarch as head of state & the monarch as a person until 1707]. In the United Kingdom & in some countries that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, lands belonging to the state are called Crown lands & are managed by a commissioner appointed by the government. Rents from Crown lands go into the nation’s treasury. The monarch’s personal property does not belong to the Crown, & the monarch may dispose of it or add to it as he or she wishes. The Crown acts on the advice of officials & through officials. When a monarch dies or abdicates, people speak of a demise of the Crown (a passing on of the Crown). Diplomats, government ministers, judges, armed forces officers, & other officials are servants of the Crown.
The powers of the Crown & of Parliament are often similar, & these powers are sometimes connected & used together. The Crown has powers called the royal prerogative. The Crown can take any action necessary to carry out the nation’s laws & to defend the country. The Crown can declare war, make treaties, & appoint diplomats. ...The Crown appoints judges of the Supreme Court (the High Court & the Court of Appeal) & of the crown court, officers of the armed forces, & bishops of the Church of England. The Crown also appoints justices of the peace.
..The Crown decides whether to prosecute people, & it has the power to pardon people who have broken the nation’s laws. It has power to reduce their punishments & to prevent them from punishment. ...At various times, monarchs have issued royal charters to independent societies & organizations to give them certain rights. – World Book Encyclopedia
1£ gold coin = sovereign [100 pence: 1489-1931]
1/4 £ silver coin = crown [25 pence: 1500-present]
1/20 £: shilling [12 pence: -1991]
1/10 £ silver coin = florin (pron. FLAWR-uhn: Florence Italy) [10 pence: 1849-present]
260th £ (100th &pound: 1971;) = penny [1¢]
1/2¢ = ha’penny
960th £ = farthing [1/4¢ lowest value of British currency: 1216-1961]

Infirmaries [Crematorium] Hospital of the Poor ’s Portion [1630], St John’s Children’s Home [Crematorium added 1873], Borough Prisons Specott's Fields, Denison Hill, Horfield, Belle Vue Asylum, Bethel Hospital [1713 Rev S Chapman, 600 starved & forced to spin cotton], Castle Hill in Eye, Doching, Kenninghall, St Augustine’s Asylum for Pauper Lunatics [Killed 505 people a week].

Yr Hen Ogledd: Northumbria Region:
County & Duchy of Northumberland [Deira: Oak]
Alnwick, Ashington [Coal mine], Bedlington [Coal mine], Belford [By the late 500s, the Angles of Northumbria had 2 kingdoms, Bernicia & Deira. In 593 Ethelfrith, King of Bernicia, became ruler of the whole of Northumbria], Bellingham, Berwick-upon-Tweed [Center of North Sea salmon fishing], Castle Ward, Cheviot Hills [Cheviot: breed of sheep with heavy bodies & fine, thick-set wool: boundary between England & Scotland], Glendale, Rothbury, Farne Islands: Group of 25 small islands off the coast of Northumberland, in NE England. They lie opposite the town of Bamburgh & southeast of Lindisfarne (Holy Island). Owned by the National Trust Lindisfarne-Ynys Metcaut [Ruins of St. Aidan’s Abbey founded 635AD & Benedectine priory church founded in 1093. Island 3 miles wide x 2 miles long], Coquet, Inner: Inner Farne [676 AD: Saint Cuthbert set up a Hermitage (World Book Encyclopedia)], Knoxes Reef, E. & W. Wideopens, Megstone, Outer: Staple Island, Brownsman, N. & South Wamses, Big Harcar, Longstone [This island has a lighthouse]
County & Duchy of Cumbria: White Grain [County Cymru: White Grain] Alston, Brampton, Carlisle [County Center], Cockermouth, Longtown, Penrith: Head of Kings, Wigton, Whitehaven Workhouse [Located at Meadowview & not closed down until the 20th century. Whithaven & West Cumberland Infirmary behind the Timber Yard & Railway Engine Works. 1781: Poor people crowded in Mount Pleasant neighborhood under linen manufacturer James Hogarth. Lack of water, sanitation & basic facilities. 1849: Fever outbreak brings inspectors & tenements condemned. 1897: Kelly’s Directory lists a staggering 73 pubs in town. Yellow Earl of Lonsdale (Whitehaven)]Furness Islands Barrow, Belle Isle, Chapel, Folney, Sheep, Walney, Roa: Red, Snab Point, Piel
County Durham [Dur=Door + Ham=Village] / Bernicia / Bryneich [Bryn=Hill + Eich=Water]: Durham [Workhouse & Norman Castle], Barnand Castle [1899: Lord Barnand], Chester-le-Street, Darlington, Easington, Gateshead [1889: Bensham railway station. Crematorium for 1,000+ vagrants], Hartlepool, Houghton-le-Spring, Lanchester, Sedgefield, Stockton, Teesdale, Weardale, Shields
County & Duchy of York / Yorkshire: E Riding [Efrawg: Yew] Eboracum [Latin]-York [1791: Marygate Workhouse: The archbishop of York is 2nd in authority to the archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England], Beverley [1727], Bridlington Workhouse [1743: At Church Green, 1785: Hunmanby: Originally a manor house, 1846: Union Workhouse: Hospital block, mortuary, children starved, Physical, mental & sexual abuse through the 1940s], Driffield [1837: Middlestreet Workhouse, 1866: Bridlington Rd Workhouse: tuberculosis], Howden [1665], Kingston upon Hull / Hull [1299: King Edward I, Humberside. 1615: Charity Hall. Workhouse: Anglican Order of the Holy Cross: 1st Order Sisters of the Society of Saint Francis], Patrington [1806], Pocklington [1777: Market Weighton: cholera outbreak in 1851], Sculcoates [1777], Skirlaugh [?],
County & Duchy of York / Yorkshire: W. Riding [Efrawg: Yew] Barnsley: John Barnes [1736: Monty Python Coalmining sketch], Bradford: Raven [1812: Main center for wool processing. Specially minted workhouse tokens useable at local shops & could be redeemed by shop-keepers at the workhouse or union offices. Sanitorium for tuberculosis, Scattered Homes for children. Leeds cavalry troops quelled 5000+ stone-throwing mob attacking a meeting at the Courthouse. Riot Act read, troops responded with sabres & muskets (71)], Bramley [1777], Barwick-in-Elmet [Gilbert Union], East Carleton Workhouse [Gilbert Union: Guthrie Close], Dewsbury [1777: Now a crematorium], Danum-Doncaster: Water from Heaven [1719: Doncaster Workhouse, Bawtry: 1835: People fed on bone, suet, bread, milk & beer, Barnby Dun, Tickhill Workhouses], Ecclesall Bierlow [1720s: Workhouse Green at Fulwood. 1839: Nether Edge Workhouse: Cherry Tree Hill], Goole [1839], Great Preston [Gilbert Union], Great Ouseburn [1828: Boroughbridge to York Rd. 1930: Well water, heating by open fires, parafin engine for electricity. 1930s: Ground-floor room used for local cinema shows. WWII: Anti-aircraft station. Italian POWs under Scottish regiment], Halifax [1635: Charles I granted a charter to set up a workhouse by Nathaniel Waterhouse], Holbeck [1777], Huddersfield Workhouse [1777: Birkby South of Blacker Ln: Infectious disease, Almondbury: Wheathurst Ln, Golcar : Pikelaw South of Scapegoat Hill, Honley: 1703: Victoria Pl, Thirston, Land donated by Earl of Dartmouth, Kirkheaton: Moorside Rd, Lepton: Fenay Bankside, Lindley: Moor Hill Rd, Linthwaite, Lipville Bank at Upperthong, Lockwood: 1761: Yew Green Ln, Marsden Workhouse, Slaithwaite, Thurstonland Workhouse, Wooldatle Workhouse: Cemetery Rd], Hunslet [Before 1760], Keighley: Church of the Oaks [(pron. kay-lee) 1777: Oakworth Rd: Infirmary, receiving ward, crematorium, bakery], Knaresborough [1737], Leeds Moral & Industrial Training Schools-Now Thackray Museum [1638: Lady Lane: Dying rooms, crematorium], Leeds Bridewell [In the Beatles film, A Hard Day’s Night, Paul’s grandfather (Wilfrid Brambell) reports Ringo’s arrest to the studio by saying The police have the poor lad in the Bridewell - he’ll be pulp by now! after police refer to Ringo as Charlie Peace suggesting this usage refers to the Leeds Bridewell, said to be haunted by the ghost of Charlie Peace, a violent thief & double murderer held there before his trial & execution at Armley Gaol in 1879 (Wikipedia)], N. Bierley [1774], Pateley Bridge [1831 Census], Penisstone [1928: Smallpox], Pontefract Union Workhouse-Headlands Public Assistance Institution [1862: Bead House, Micklegate. Electricity installed 1935. Gas-Mask training 1938], Ripon Workhouse [Ripon Banking: Marquis of Ripon: 1834: John Fielden led a riot in protest workhouse taxes & attacked the Chairman of the Board. Censuses. 1890: Rebuilt: Ablution room, 14 cells for nighttime lock-in., stone-breaking, woodchopping. Coffins ordered in bulk. 1914: Daily Provisions Act meticulously records food given], Fountains Abbey [1132-1540 AD: 2mi SW from Ripon: Ruined Cisterian Abbey dissolved by Henry VIII & sold to London merchant Sir Richard Gresham, father of the founder of the Royal Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham], Rotherham Cottage Workhouse [1617: Earl of Shrewsbury’s run by local property owners called the Feoffees, 1777: Parish workhouses at Rawmarsh & Laughton. 1837: Board of Governors meeting headed by Earl Fitzwilliam finances new workhouse on Alma Rd. 1872: Smallpox outbreak], Saddleworth [1834: Mortuary], Sedburgh [1777: Poor farmed out for £195 annually], Selby [1777], Settle Workhouse [1739: Thomas Salisbury. 1797: Giggleswick Poorhouse became a mental deficiency colony in 1930s], Sheffield [1834], Skipton [1834], W. Tadcaster Workhouse [Tadcaster Post, February 1865: Elizabeth Daniel’s Funeral procession to the churchyard with the Tadcaster Drum & Fife Band had a chimney sweep’s donkey cart followed by a horse drawn cart carrying an effigy of workhouse Matron Catherine Leivers, which was burnt on a bonfire. Crowd of 2000 (71)], Thorne [Pre 1834], Todmorden Children’s Home [German Tod= death, morden=kill, dead. 1777: Workhouses at Erringdon, Heptsonstall (1757), Langfield: Croft Carr, Wadsworth & Stansfield. 1801: Gauxholme, 1877: Last Union in England to provide a workhouse: 250+ Infirmary Dead room State sanctioned murder of the mentally ill] (91), Wakefield [1689], Wharfedale Mortuary [1869], Wetherby [20th cen], Wortley [1777: Laundry Row]County & Duchy of York / Yorkshire: N Riding [Efrawg: Yew] Bainbridge [1777: Abbotside High Quarter, Askrigg, Bainbridge, Burton cum Walden], Bedale Workhouse-Mowbray Grange Sanitorium [1839-1930s], Beverley [1727: Knatchbull’s Act], Easingwold [1758], Guiseborough Workhouse[1777. 1837: Guiseborough Union Workhouse: Board of Guardians Chairman: Sir Robert Dundas MP, stone breaking, coconut fibre beds, inmates shaved, shorn & provided prayer books from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge through 1920s, 1782: Danby, 1782: Hinderwell, 1782: Lythe Workhouse, 1818: Loftus, 1818: Easington], Helmsley [1773], Kirkby Moorside [1773: Used to accomodate Vietnamese refugees in the 1970s (71)], Leyburn [1782], Derventio: White Oak -Malton [1789: Malton Spring Hall: Earl of Malton: crematorium (71)], Middlesbrough [1877], Northallerton Guildhall Poorhouse [1444: Quarter Sessions. Linen Industry: Inmates segregated by class. In 1816 it took 3 days for the workhouse yard to be cleared of rubbish Hastings, 1996. 1802: Brompton & Osmotherley Workhouse. 1856: Sunbeck House Public Assistance Institution: No baths, stone-breaking, vagrant’s cells, starvation on porridge & bread, crematorium (71)], Pickering [1776: Black Hole punishment cell, 1734: Thornton Dale Poorhouse], Reeth Parish & Union Workhouses, Richmond House of Correcton [1780]. Scarborough [1728: Waterhouse Ln. 1858: Scarborough Union: Vagrant’s Wards closed in 1994], Stokesley [1755, 1770: Hutton, 1785: Great Ayton], Thirsk [1737: Run by an undertaker, 1760: Topcliffe, 1770: Sowerby, 1838: Thirsk Union], Whitby Workhouse & House of Correction [1777: Ghost Walk started in 1972 (Zombie Nation)]
County & Duchy of Lancaster / Lancashire [Caerhirfryn: High Palace]: Lancaster [1066: Roger of Poitou: Lancasterian Lords. 1351: Henry IV, 3rd Duke of Lancaster. 1777: Workhouse: 80+ butter churning, infectious hospital], Preston [Co. Center], Ashton [1777], Barrow [1878], Barton [1853], Bolton [1734, 1865-1895: Burial Board. Bodies transfered to St. Leonards Burial Ground], Burnley Workhouse [1777: Coal mining], Bury [1797], Caton, Chorley [1777], Chorlton [1853: 300], Clitheroe [1870: 200+], Fylde [Crematorium], Garstang [1777], Haslingden [1811: Mortuary, steam laundry, lunacy wards], Leigh [1850: 400+], Lunesdale [1872], Neville Hall [1753], Ulverstone [1867], Oldham, Ormskirk [1851], Prescot [1707], Prestwich, Rochdale [1777: 2500+ starved, filth, diarrhea, no medicine], Salford [Dead Room, Post-Mortem Examination Room], Wavertree [1776: Corpses fished daily out of the Mersey. Then the final insult: the bodies would be put on display naked to the public from behind bars that opened on to the street known as the Drowned, House], Toxteth Park [1857: 600+], W. Derby [1731: Segregated, children taken from their parents, fever sheds for the dying], Warrington, Wigan Workhouse [1500: Coal-mining]
Mercia: Mer: Sea + Sig: Reef: Concentration Camps / Midlands
Worcester Inc: Worcester Porcelain / Royal Worcester Pottery / Royal Crown Derby Inc / Royal Staffordshire Pottery
Royal Worcester Pottery: Established 1703 in Worcestershire by Colonal RB Bellars JP

King George III’s Royal Staffordshire Pottery: Josiah Wedgwood. Warwick Workhouse

[Kingdoms of England]Corpse Roads: The traditional medieval death-roads, or corpse-roads, ending at cemeteries. Bedminster-Long Ashton: Corpse road from Aston to Blockley & Stretton to Blockley. Corpse road begins just N. of Cheltenham at St. Michael’s Church, Bishop’s Cleeve, Gloustershire & stops at the Cheltenham workhouse. It then continues to Evesham in Worcestershire

1351: Churchs hold burial rights to hamlets Stretton-on-Fosse & Aston Magna. Bishop of Worcester refuses petition from people of Stretton to allow them to bury their dead at Stretton, by which they would avoid paying the common dues & mortuaries to Blockley parish church – Leyhunter

Gouldney, Smith & Co Bank: Stolen Aztec gold of Guayaquil Gouldney Workhouse (Living Easton 77), Ships Leviathan, Mary Ann, Retribution [Man-Trap, Crouch Iron Torture Device], Success [Coffin Bath, Leg Irons, Punishment Ball, Ring Bolts, Iron Maiden] (Van Stack Collection)

Red Chequer Exchange: Lord Elmbridge & his fitzWarren wife licensed vintners & publicans.

Derby Asylum & Spinning Factory: Prime Minister Lord Derby’s Metropolitan Poor Act

Prison Service Museum:...exhibits include the last set of Gibbet Irons used in England, bone carvings & paintings made by prisoners in their cells & a 19th century sampler embroidered by a female prisoner from her own hair – Genuki. Sir Richard Arkwright, High Sheriff of Derby Shire: When he died in 1792 he left his son Richard the equivalent of £20 million, his son known as the richest non-titled person in Europe

Feudalism: Middle Ages 700 AD-Crusades
Primogeniture: Latin: Right of the 1st-Born: System of inheritance where the oldest child in a family, & often the oldest son, has the sole right to inherit land & possessions from the parents.
Fief: Estate granted by a lord in return for a vassal: Latin military retainer&#8221s loyalty & service. Land is not owned by the vassal. He is a tax collector & labor manager. When the vassal dies, his son takes over the fief. The lord arranges marriages for the daughter(s).
Investiture: Ceremony where a vassal is invested with his fief.
Escheat: Process where a vassal is di-vested of his fief.
Subinfeudation: Vassal hires knights to manage fief
Homage: Feudal ceremony where a man becomes the vassal of a lord. The knight to become a vassal kneels before the lord, places his hands between those of the lord, & acknowledges himself the man (homo in Latin). The lord recognizes him as a vassal, raises him to his feet, & kisses him. After performing homage, the vassal takes an oath of fealty, swearing on the Bible or on holy relics to keep the faith.
Felon: Rebellious vassal
Tenure: Landholding people forfeit land to a lord in return for protection. The lord allows the people to stay on the land as tenants, peasants of the manorial system without independence.
Villein (pronounced VIHL uhn): Agricultural worker bound to a plot of land they do not own. Part of the property & remain on the land if a new lord acquires it. Children of villeins born into the same bondage as their parents. Villeinage became tenantswho paid rent for land & bound to the soil without freedom of movement
Serf: Slave who can be sold apart from the land.
Debt Slavery: Debtor handed over to his creditors to become a slave. Prisons who hold them called debtors’ prisons
Freemason: Stoneworker who is not a slave.
Enclosure: Landless farmers subsistence-cropping strips of land in 1 of 3 or 4 large fields; losing their grazing rights. Agricultural mechanization requires large, enclosed fields in order to be workable. Called mechanized Enclosed Farms
Jethro Tull introduces his mechanical seed drill in 1701 invented in China in the 4th century BCE

Mercia Region: Mer: Sea + Sig: Reef
W England bordering Wales: County Merseyside: Liverpool: Lerpwl: King Lear’s Pool [1768: Walton-on-the-Hill: Forced labor: cotton picking, muslin, boatbuilding, stone-breaking, starvation, filth, 5000 a year recorded dead of typhus, cholera, smallpox. Survivors forced to kill the sick. Public Vaccinator. Rebuilt larger in 1868, demolished in 1931] (Higginbotham 71), Liverpool Assizes [1884: Justice Butts. 1882: Tredegar Irish Ironworkers stoned, houses gutted, furniture thrown out & destroyed according to a police report]County Manchester: Manchester [1776-1855: 1,660+ Infirmary designed by Mills & Murgatroyd: Extension to Victoria Station. ’Debased alike by ignorance & pauperism, they have discovered, with the savage, what is the minimum of the means of life, upon which existence may be prolonged. The paucity of the amount of means & comforts necessary for the mere support of life, is not known by a more civilised population.’ – The Moral & Physical Condition of the Working Classes of Manchester ©1832 by Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth], Jarldom & County of Chester / Cheshire: Chester [Abbots of Chester: Chester Ghostwalk starts at the Chester Visitor Center between May & October for £3 (Zombie Nation)], Altrincham, Birkenhead, Bucklow, Congelton, Ellesmere Workhouse [Listed as a Salop Poor Law Union. Ellesmere Port in Cheshire. Baschurch, Middle, Hordley & Hadnal Chase Inc: 1791 Shell Oil / Lord Edward Clive (75: 8)], Great Boughton, Macclesfield-Maclesfeld: Mac Cel’s Open Country [Dying chutes. People from here called Maxonian. Macclesfield Castle a fortified town house built by the dukes of Buckingham], Nantwich, Runcorn, Tarvin, Wirral, County Staffordshire: NW Central England: W. Midlands Stafford [All wisdom advises us to keep this kingdom as much subordinate & dependent on England as possible; &, holding them from manufacture of wool, & then enforcing them to fetch their cloth from England, how can they depart from us without nakedness & beggary? - Lord Stafford, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in a letter to King Charles I, 1634. King George III’s Royal Staffordshire Pottery: Josiah Wedgwood], Cannock, Cheadle, Leek, Lichfield [Cathedral City. 1691: Sanford Street Prison & Linen Manufacturers: Lord Lichfield], Newcastle-under-Lyme [1838], Penkridge, Seisdon, St Chad [1781: Stowe St], St Michael’s [1740: Greenhill], Stoke-on-Trent [1900s Industrial area called The Potteries. Formed from towns of Burslem, Fenton, Hanley, Longton & Tunstall. Workers produce kaolin: china clay, bricks], Burton-upon-Trent [1777], Stone [1793], Tamworth [Royal residence of the Kingdom of Mercia. 1750: Ladybridge Bank Workhouse, Viscount Weymouth & Francis, Lord Middleton], Uttoxeter [1777], Walsall [Crematorium], W. Bromwich [1837], Wolstanton [1834: Robert Shufflebotham], Wolverhampton [Crematorium], County Salop / Shropshire: Bordering Wales: W. MidlandsAtcham & Shrewsbury Inc [1782 Inmates disinfected, starved & tortured in dungeon before being dumped to a mass grave. Payments paid to the Order of the Holy Cross.] (71), Bridgnorth, Cleobury, Clun, Ludlow / Llwydlo: Raven, Madeley, Oswestry [Cambrian Railways Inc: Oswestry] (284), Shifnal, Wem, Jarldom & County of Worcester / Worcestershire: Bordering Wales: Below Shropshire Worcester [(Pron. WUS tuhr) The oldest workhouse still in existence is the Hospital of St. Oswald in Worcester, dating to circa 990], Beoley Parish Workhouse [1777], Bromsgrove [1723], Claines [Royal Worcester Pottery: Established 1703 in Worcestershire by Colonal RB Bellars JPs], Dodderhill [Masonic Banquets], Droitwich [200-pauper plan to 20th century. Punishment beatings & floggings. Workhouse governor accused of insanity, drunkeness, raping & impregnating the schoolmistress] (71), Dudley [1776:-1855: 842+. census 23, 043 in city. demolished 1989], Kidderminster [1328: Wye Forest on the Severn River annexed to Cleabury Mortimer, the Earl of March. 1600s: Forest managed to provide cordwood for charcoal. 1776: 90+. in the workhouse. Severn Valley Railway ran through the forest to the Stour Valley iron forges], King’s Norton [1834: Workhouse. 1870: Union Workhouse-Selly Oak Hospital constructed by Edward Holmes along with Woodcock Hill Cottage Homes], Martley [1834: 200 pauper plan Master & Matron Batterseas’ public drunkeness & starving of inmates], Ombersley [1861 minute books record the death of Alfred Causier from sever wounds.], Shipston-on-Stour [1834], Stourbridge [1777: 3: Old Swinford - 40, Hales Owen’s coinage for food - 260, Kingswinford - 460, childrens’ block, inmates buried in unmarked graves. census counts 15,000], Tenbury [1836: Treasurer Mr H Whittal, Ludlow branch Commercial Bank of England, Mr Cook & Mr Davies medical officers], Upton-Upon-Severn, County Herefordshire:Bordering Wales: Was merged with Worcester for a while: Hereford [1698. inmates cleaned human hair of the dead. 1907: Master & Matron were Mr & Mrs Harding. Their son, Gilbert Harding, born at the workhouse, later went on to become a well-known radio & TV personality in the 1950s on shows such as Twenty Questions & What’s My Line?], Bromyard [gassed to death], Bowbridge Lane, Grantham Railway, Hexham, Holbeach, Hunslet [inmates chained to the floor], Kington, Ledbury, Leominster, Ross, Weobley, Jarldom & County of Derbyshire: Central England: Derby Asylum & Spinning Factory [Prime Minister Lord Derby. Ghost Walks start from the Heritage Center with 2 routes: City Centre & Friargate. City Centre includes a visit to the tunnels under the Guildhall, the Cathedral & the Police Museum (Zombie Nation)], Matlock [Administrative Center], Ashbourne [Brassington Children ’s Convalescent Home/Cleaver Sanatorium, Alstonfield Workhouse, Lord Bakewell’s Ironbrook Grange], Belper [Lord Babington. 1797: starved with broth & gruel], Chapel-en -le-Frith [1840: Crematorium], Chesterfield, Easton Downend Cottage Homes: Bristol Incorporation for the Poor [Child slavery & extermination set up by Elizabeth Barton. Children funnelled in from Eastville Workhouse where cremations occured or Clifton Workhouse with its man-trap torture device still on display] (77), Glossop, Hayfield [1840: John & Philip Kinder. cell-blocks], Shardlow, Duchy of Nottingham / County Nottinghamshire: Central England: Nottingham [N. Bank of River Trent], Arnold & Basford, Claypole, East Retford, Mansfield, Newark [1797 Eden: ‘...The badge appointed by the Act of King William is worn by paupers in this parish.’] (71), Radford, Thurgarton [Punishment cells] (71), Worksop [pron. wûrk'sup. 1795 Flax spinning] (282), Duchy & County of Rutland: Oakham [Leased from Aristocrat Edith Weston], Uppingham, County Lincolnshire: East Central: Lindum Colonia-Lincoln [Lincoln & Wilford Workhouse], Aylesbury [1730: Northope Gainsborough. 1837: George lkinson. 200+ Royal Land-owner Sur-Names for Northope: Yerburgh, Monson, Dalton (pottery/porcelain), Emberton-Fox (fishing), Cook (slavery), Duckering, Sleightholme] (71),, County Lindsey: East Central: Boston, Bourne, Caistor [Crematorium] (71), Congleton, Dore [Dead house of corpses], Glanford, Grimsby [40 NE of Lincoln. 1200: Saint James Church. 1892: Easthampstead: Duchess of Yarborough] (71), Allerto [1776], Horncastle, Louth, Sleaford, Stamford, Stoneham, Townleys, Spalding, Speke [1742-76], Spilsby [William & Henry Garner], Region Danehills: Jarldom of Leicester / County Leicestershire [Corritania / Caer Lyr: King Lear’s Castle] Central England: Leicester [(Pron. LEHS-tuhr): Simon de Montfort (1208-1265), Earl of Leicester under Edward I. Robert Dudley (1532?-1588), Earl of Leicester under Elizabeth I. Supreme Governor of Low Countries], Appleby, Ashby-de-la-Zouch Castle, Ayleston Meadows [Lord Ayleston: BBC: ITA Independant Television Authority], Barrow-on-Soar Inc [Dying rooms deposited dead through a chute to mass grave outside], Billesdon, Blaby-Glenn Magna, Hinckley [Earl Shilton: Crematorium], Loughborough, Lutterworth, Market Bosworth [Earl Shilton Financial Services LTD], Melton Mowbray [1446], Sapcote, Stathern, Stretton, County Northhamptonshire: S of Leicestershire: Northampton, Brackley, Brixworth, Daventry [Crematorium], Hardingstone [lace-makers], Kettering, Oundle, Peterborough, Potterspury, Thrapston, Towcester, Wellingborough, Jarldom of Warwick / County Warwickshire Midland Triangle Warwick Workhouse [1783 by King George III] (71), Warwick Castle: 13th Century Norman Castle with Jail & Torture Chamber used during the Wars of the Roses, Alcester, Aston Parish Workhouse [1777], Atherstone, Birmingham Parish Workhouse [1733: Litchfield St: Starved on pease porridge: pea soup & gruel. Corn mill located at workhouse. Wool & flax spinning. Birmingham workhouse tokens of 1812], Birmingham Union Workhouse [1848: Infirmary & Children’s Asylum. T-Block cell for boys] (71)], Coventry Inc [1342: Run by Carmelite White Friars (Rossbret Workhouses)], Erdington Workhouse [1734], Erdington Union Workhouse-Highcroft Psychatric Hospital [1866-present: Thomas Colmore Chairman of the Board of Guardians. Infirmary, receiving block. Aston Cottage Homes in 1898 to east. Designed by Franklin Cross & Nichols & modeled after the ones in France, Germany & Switzerland], Marston Green Cottage Homes & Laundry [1878-20th century: Birmingham: Pauper children aged 3 upwards Probationary home, infirmary, swimming baths, bakehouse. After 1930 Colesville Home for Mental Defectives], Foleshill [Punishment Books list: starvation, caning, whipping, forced labor], Meriden, Nuneaton, Solihull, Stratford upon Avon [Workhouse. Ghost Tour meets at the Country Artists Fountain, Waterside, next to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre (Zombie Nation)], Sutton Coldfield Workhouse [1777]Jarldom & County of Hartfordshire / Hertfordshire [Catuvellauni Kingdom: Grain People] SE bordering Essex & London Hertford (pron. Hartford) [Gallows Hill. Edward Seymour, brother of Jane Seymour 3rd wife of Henry VIII made Earl of Hertford by the King in 1537. Guardian of King Edward VI, he took the title Duke of Somerset in the same year. He was arrested & executed by the Duke of Northumberland in 1551], Barnet, Berkhampstead [Tortured & killed by Rev. John Nugent, owner], Buntingford, Hatfield, Hitchin, Royston, Stortford, St Albans, Watford, Welwyn, Jarldom & County of Bedfordshire: John Russell (1486-1555): 1st Earl of Bedford: Bedford [River Ouse: 50 miles N. of London], Ampthill, Ashton, Bradford, Leighton Buzzard, St. Michael ’s Hospital at Braintree, Biggleswade [400+. fever hospital, Dead Room, mass grave. 2 lbs of wax demanded as payment per body. Heard in the rock band 45 Grave’s Wax], St James Workhouse [Guardian discovers woman at gate with dead child], Hendon, Luton [30 miles N. of London. 1722: Poor in Dunstable farmed by a contractor who in 1795 received 3s.6d. a week for each pauper maintained in the workhouse] (71), Saddleworth [57-acre farm site heated by open fires. mortuary], Sheffield Hospital, Stockport, Ulverston [British Crown], Woburn
East Anglia Region Concentration Camps
Eastern England: Includes most of the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, & Cambridgeshire.
[Headington Deathcamp's Infirmary]
Headington Deathcamp’s Infirmary
© Oxfordshire Photographic Archive

“Show me the manner in which a nation cares for its dead, & I will measure with mathematical exactness the tender mercies of its people, their respect for the laws of the land & their loyalty to high ideals. ” - William Gladstone

Duchy & County of Norfolk [Trevenna: Triple Place]: Acle Gilbert Union Workhouse, Alderborough Gilbert Union Workhouse, Aylsham [1777: 80+. 1848: 600+], Bawdeswell [1837], Blofield [1837: Watchtower, crematorium], Booten Gilbert Union Workhouse, Brinton & Melton Constable Inc [1782], Buxton [1720], Depwade Prison [1844: Riot], Docking [1835], Downham [1777: Spinning worsted & jersey], E. & W. Flegg-Norfolk Rural Life Museum [1775], Erpingham-Beckham Palace [1848: Gas ovens of infirmary still seen], Forehoe, Freebridge Lynne [1835: 150+], Gimingham, Great Yarmouth [1797: Starved on bread & suet, crematorium], Guiltcross Home for Mental Defectives [1836: exercise yard, infirmary, inebriate reformatory. WWI: German POWs], Hackford, Henstead [1836: 250+ in valley], King ’s Lynn Inc [1699: 170 +], Lodden & Claverling Inc [1764], Mitford & Launditch Hundreds Inc [1777: Gressenhall: 670+], Norwich [1712: 1,478 The Poor are maintained principally in 2 large Workhouses, 1 formerly a palace of the Duke of Norfolk [Burgh Castle: 1765], & the other a monastery [Norfolk & Norwich Magdalen Workhouse. 1827: Marquis Cholmondeley]. The latter, more especially, is dark & confined, & from the great number of paupers in it (about 700) exhibits rather an uncleanly appearance. straw beds, spinning worsted & cotton, infirmary, starved on bread, beer, an allowance of 4oz. butter to each person instead of 12oz. cheese, would lead to an annual saving of £ cheese was discontinued] (71), Norwich Inc Workhouse [1859: infirmary. bombed in WWII], Oulton Gilbert Union [Heigham Lunatic Asylum. Murderers: Drs Wright, Dalrymple & Crosse. Norfolk County Lunatic Asylum: 1814: Thorpe Lubenham Inc W Warner M.D surgeon disposed of mentally ill], St Faith [Crematorium], Swaffham [1836: 405+], Thetford [1836: 300+], Tunstead & Happing Inc-Smallburgh [burial site], Walsingham-Thursford Castle [1836], Wayland [1836], County Suffolk: Ipswich [1647: Administrative Center. Heath Rd, Ipswich deathcamp financed by the London Corporation. Ancient home of the Iceni], Suffolk County Asylum for Pauper Lunatics [1764], Mildenhall [1834: Thomas Hamner: Speaker of the House of Commons], Bardon Workhouse [1765: Model for Charles Dicken’s Oliver Twist], Bulcamp [1764: 352+], Bury St Edmunds [1836-1884], Dunwich [Capitol of the East Anglia Kingdom. Fishing port said to be a real-life counterpart to Lyonesse. The Dunwich Horror], Hartismere, Haverhill [1779], Horsham, Hoxne [Hoxne, Thredling & Suffolk Inc killing since 1779. Hoxne treasure aquired by British Museum: All archeological artifacts are property of the Crown & are required to go to the British museum (American Numismatic Society)] , Nacton [1756], Newcastle, Oulton [1763: Leased from Lady Sheffield], Plomesgate [1837], Samford [East Anglia Tattingstone House of Industry] (71), Stow at Onehouse [1781], Sudbury [The Manse & The White House Bures: aged men, Melford: women & children], Thingoe [1836], Tynemouth, Duchy of Cambridge / County Cambridgeshire [Camboglanna: Placenta Egg]: Cambridge [(pron. KAYM-brihj)], Caxton, Linton, Newmarket, Whittlesey, Witchford, Wisbech
Saxony Concentration Camps
Barclay, Bevan, Tritton, Ransom, Bouverie & Co PLC: Barclay’s Bank, Birmingham Central Banking Inc / Bradford & Bingley Banking Inc / Royal Devonshire Pottery / Gosport Banking Inc

Subsidiaries: London Provincial & SW Bank LTD, British Linen Bank

Board of Guardians 1902:

Chairman: A.T. Bevan
Medical Officer: A.M. Whitestone
Treasurer W.F. Mercer

John de Brekenoke: Treasurer to King Henry VI & High Sheriff of Buckingham 1440. Received from Edward IV 1458
1446: John Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk: Esquire of the Body to Henry VII
16th cen: Sir Perceval Hunt
1st Viscount John Shute Barrington (1678-1734): His brother is Samuel Shute Barrington, English Governor of Massachusetts & New Hampshire
1720: Lord William Cavendish IV: Duke of Devonshire. Staffordshire Copperlines / Royal Devonshire Pottery
1734: Lord Charles Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, Sir Nathaniel Curzon Bart & Henry Harpur Esq
Lord Ayleston: BBC: ITA Independant Television Authority:
George Newport Sutton is listed as the Collector to the Guardians, Relief & Vaccination Officer No 2 for the East Ashford Workhouse: 1846

Tableware Education & Enforcement Fund– California Public Health Foundation, Berkeley

1694: King Frederick William I Wettin of Poland a.k.a Augustus II the Strong Elector of Saxony (1670-1733) takes chinese firing technique of porcelin [a mixture of china clay: kaolin & china stone: feldspar from granite or basalt fired at 1350 degrees celcisus] from Jingdezhen to Dresden & Meißen in Saxony. It is named European porcelin. He orders all Gypsies over 18 years of age to be hanged & hunted for sport.

1708: Pharmacist Johann Freidrich Böttger & Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhausen discover white porcelin.

1750: The English use calcified bone ash to strengthen the porcelin. The resulting material with 25% to 50% bone ash is called bone china. Bone ash: a white powdery ash left from the burning of bones.– Frank & Janet Hamer, The Potter's Dictionary of Materials & Techniques, A & C Black Publishers, Limited, London, England © 1991: ISBN 0-8122-3112

bone ash is produced from human bones in workhouses

Lughdunum Crematoriums: Raven Fortress / London: Raven Fortress
London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company

Invasion of the Body Snatchers: William Hawkins: Treasurer to the Corporation of Plymouth: Aberplym: 1524-5s. [father-in-law Sir William Winter] Guinea / Sierra Leone / Brazilian slave trade under Henry VIII
Sir William Winter: 1526: Spanish Company: San Lucar de la Barrameda, Seville.
Thomas & Edward Winter: 1600: East India Company Inc, Messrs Worms of London Mortgage Bank, cousins of the Rothschilds. Winterton Inc: plantations: sugar cane, lemon grass, citronella, indigo, coconut, cinnamon, tea, rubber & bananas.
William & James T. Tapscott: Jamaican slaves, slave or the Triangular Trade in Indian workers
George Winter II & John Winter II: 1630: Plymouth Corporation.
William Blathwayte: 1686: Secretary of State to Queen Anne, Clerk of the Privy Council & Commissioner of Trades & Plantation (94)
Lord Aston: Sir Charles Throckmorton Bart & Duchess of Beaufort, Elizabeth Berkeley Somerset: 1719-99 : Barton Regis Bristol Corporation / Corporation for the Poor / London Company of Mercers / Waterford Wedgwood PLC Porcelain
Joseph & James White: Baptist Mills Pottery: 1840 to 1891 Bristol Stone-ware Glaze supplied to Doulton & Co, pipes. Closed down in 1891 due to slave labor conditions
Major George F. Rumsey: Chair of Barton Regis 1898: Chair of the Workhouse Board of Guardians
Francis G White: 1869-1960: Denver Art Pottery which moved to other sites in Denver to allow for expansion c.1911, 1915 & 1921

Danelaw: Duchy & County of Essex: East Seaxe: East Saxony [Trinobantes: Camolodunum] Billericay, Brighlingsea [13th century tower turned into a convalescent home. Phantom monk in white robe & scapula (287)], Chelmsford, Camoludunum-Colchester Inc Workhouse. [1698: Center of the Peasant’s Revolt. Eastside & Westside Ghost Tours available (Zombie Naiton)], Dunmow [The forces of the Earl of Essex slaughtered the entire population of Rathlin Island, County Antrim, Northern Ireland in 1575], Epping [1789: Westminster Bank], Halstead [Earls Haltwhistle], Lexden [1836: Saint Osyth’s Priory], Maldon [Lord D’Arcy & Tolhunt Knights of D’Arcy], Mersea Island, Orsett, Romford, Saffron Walden, Tendring, West Ham, Witham, Ongar [Duke of Norfolk. Separated into classes before death. Infirmary, dead rooms. Closed 1920] (71)

Danelaw: Jarldom & County of Sussex: South Saxony [Atrebates] Underneath Kent: Chichester [Administrative Center of West Sussex: Regni Kings vs Romans. Commius, king of the Atrebates, whose kingdom lay in the area of modern West Sussex. I have often said, & written, it is Famine which must consume; our swords & other endeavours work not that speedy effect which is expected for their overthrow. - English Viceroy Arthur Chichester writing to Elizabeth I’s chief advisor, Nov. 1601], Lewes [Administrative Center of East Sussex], Arundel [1682], Battle, Brighton [Crematorium], Chailey, Cuckfield [1776], Hailsham, Hastings [1066: William the Conqueror. Workhouse: Lord George , Hastings], Horsham, Midhurst, Newhaven, Petworth, Rye, Steyning, Sutton [1791.White slavery to Australia, mass murder], Thakeham, Ticehurst [1835], Uckfield, Westbourne, Westhampnet

Jarldom & County of Wessex: West Saxony
The kingdom of the West Saxons was centered in the areas of Berkshire & Hampshire. In the 900s, the kings of Wessex became kings of all England.
Jarldom of Hampton / County Hampshire: W. of Sussex: English Channel : Aldershot GP, Alresford, Alton, Alverstoke [1801 Bishop of Winchester. burial records available] (71), Andover [In 1845 starving inmates fought over scraps of rotting meat left on bones they were supposed to be crushing into dust for fertilizer. Known as bonecrushing] , Basingstoke [Basingstoke Railway], Bournemouth, Catherington, Christchurch, Droxford, Eastleigh, Fareham, Farnborough [Fever wards], Fordningbridge, Gosport [1770: Workhouse], Hartley Wintey, Havant, Headley, Hursley, Kingsclere, Lymington Infirmary, New Forest, Petersfield, Portsmouth [Hampshire Basin Harbor], Romsey, Ringwood, Southampton [1772. The Borough. legend says a nun committed suicide after killing a workhouse patient with the wrong medicine & that she & the patient haunt the hospital] (253: Mystical), Stockbridge, Whitchurch, New Winchester Infirmary [St. John’s mass graveyard with burial records. Phantasm offers ghost walks], Winslow Inc, County Berks / Berkshire [Bearroc: Red Birch]Berkshire, Abingdon [1416: The Brethren of the Holy Cross who signed with an iron cross on red wax (71)] Aldermaston [1949: AWE: Atomic Weapons Establishment], Bradfield [1776: Aldermaston & Tilehurst. 1835: Wayland Hospital by Kempthorne], Burghfield [1942: Nuclear ROF: Royal Ordinance Factory Burghfield: former Filling Factory, run as an Agency Factory, by Imperial Tobacco, to fill Oerlikon 20 mm ammunition], Cookham, Easthampstead [1760: William Watts Esq, South Hill] (71)], Faringdon Industrial School [1678: Viscount Barrington] (286), Hungerford & Ramsbury [1777. 1992-3 Bosnian refugees from Vukovar housed there. Foreign Secretary Baron Owen is responsible for the 1992 Vance-Owen Peace Plan. Accusations of his being an apologist for genocide lead to his forced resignation in 1995 (71)], Maidenhead, Newbury, Reading: The Oracle [1624: John Kendrick Woolen Draper. 1795: Starving inmates spinning hemp. 1865: Itch Wards: smallpox, typhoid fever, scabies. WWI war hospital. abolished 1929] (71) Reading & Wokingham, Wallingford [1616 Sir Thomas Bennett Human farming of wool & agriculture. stone-breaking in Pit. Parish administration meetings held at pubs], Wantage, Windsor [Dead chambers. Windsor castle located in city], Woking [1858: Convict Prisons 65 acres closed down 1965], Jarldom & County Oxon / Oxfordshire [Rhydychen: Red Alder]Borders Berkshire: Oxford Catacombs [50 miles NW of London. Catacombs underneath Oxford Castle built by William the Conqueror in 1071. Prison closed in 1996 (Oxfordshire Museum Service) Workhouse], Banbury [Ride a cock horse to Banbury Cross: 1684: inmates starving & in rags spinning. transformed into a silk factory with 200 child slaves in 1820. WWI: German POWs], Bicester, Chipping Norton [Chipping means market town. Cotswald limestone hills. Workhouse], Headington [The Laurels located on Gladstone Rd contained an Infirmary to dispose of the dead (71)], Thame, Witney [Edward Bolton], Woodstock [Mortuary chapel. consecrated Memorial Garden], Duchy of Buckingham / County Buckinghamshire: Oxfordshire to W, London to EastBuckingham [Buckingham Workhouse], Aylesbury [Administrative Center], Amersham [1839], Chiltern [3 hundreds: divisions of a county in Buckinghamshire, noted for several nominal or fictitious offices used for a special purpose. A member of Parliament wishing to leave the House applies for the position. By holding it temporarily, he is disqualified from sitting in the House, direct resignation from which is not permissible. expr. accept or apply for the Chiltern Hundreds, to resign as a member of Parliament], Eton Workhouse [People born in Eton have their birth registry in Eton College, in the case of my maternal great-grandfather, who later got listed under Greater London in one census], Newport Pagnell, Wycombe Workhouse, Middlesex: Middle Saxony (Now part of London) Bethnall Green [1777: 1,400+. floors soaked with urine, no ventilation or water, starved on suet pudding, mortuary, post-mortem room, revolving tables, coffin lift], Clerkenwell [1727], Poplar Bastille [1735], St. George’s Hannover Square [1726: 600+, Stone Mortuary, watch tower, small-pox], St Marylebone [1752: Master Francis Parent dismissed for drunkenness, absences, misappropriation of supplies, & son found in bed with female inmate. rat infestation from sewers under adjacent burial ground, fever kills matron & apothecary. 1793: 1,168+ Britain’s war with France increases pauperism. 1846: 2,264+ Irish robbed of money & disinfected. 1856: Richard Ryan dismissed for beating female inmates, 1867: 11,000+ fed on bread & gruel 1914-15: Belgian war refugees, WWII: transit centre for displaced persons. closed 1965] (71), Central Middlesex Hospital [Acton Ln, Park Royal: Ghost of a little girl seen (287)], Stepney [1725: Limehouse, Wapping: Charles Dickins’ Uncommercial Traveler: foul wards house women in every stage of disease, yellow: jaundiced, Ratcliff (71)], Mile-End Old Town [1729: Jews Burial Ground], City of London: Central London [Cockney] St. Pancreas [1788: 1900+ /yr. gangrene, smallpox. 1856: Florence Nightingale], Holborn Orphanage & Prison [inmates sewing lampshades, eagle head gateposts demolished WWI because they’re seen as a German symbol (71)] // Homerton [1699: child labor, starved on bread & beer], Bow Road [1849: 800+], London’s Bridwell / Bridewell Palace [1515: Built on medieval St. Bride’s Inn for Henry VIII for £39,000. Stands on the banks of the River Fleet. Its name has come to be synonymous with police stations & detention facilities in England & Ireland. The name Bridewell adopted for other prisons in London, including the Clerkenwell Bridewell (1615) & Tothill Fields Bridewell in Westminster. The term refers to a city’s main detention facility, usually in close proximity to a courthouse, as in Nottingham, Leeds, Gloucester, Bristol, Dublin & Cork (Wikipedia) 1556: City turns palace into a prison, hospital, & workhouse. 1688: child labor. crematorium. 1808: The Pass Room at Bridewell: Ackermann’s Microcosm of London (1808–1811), drawn by Thomas Rowlandson & Augustus Pugin: For unmarried mothers. 1855: Prison closed], Brookwood Cemetery: 1852: crematorium. London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company. ‘In association with the L&SWR [London & SW. Railway], the London Necropolis ran trains daily to Brookwood (except on days when nobody was to be buried). These trains were segregated by class - even for the coffins - & by religion as well. ... 2 stations were provided, called North & South’ (96)], City of London: Central London: East London: East End:HoSpital Fields [black plague], Tower of London, Saint Philip’s Convent Laundry & Wayfarer’s House [-1945. Dalston: Run by the Anglican First Order Sisters of the Society of Saint Francis who led the Office for the Departed. In 1920 the community inherited the house next door to the convent & opened a home for incurable & bedridden women], Hackney [1728: plague], St George’s in-the-East (71), Outer London East End: Greenwich Institution [1834: 1928+. Iron-gated Isolation hospital. children segregated, starved on bread & molasses, whipped, caned & forced to serve rich food to the Board of Guardians. boils, meningitis, typhus. punishment for eating mulberries from the tree outside, weekend solitary confinement, children transported to Canada] (Olive Leaf: 165), Lesham [1612], Whitechapel St Peter’s Mint [1832: 600+ dead by starvation & cholera], Woolwich [Woolwich Banking PLC Revd Francis Cameron. It bore the inscription The poor ye have always with you.], City of London: Central London: West London: West End [The Strand] Highgate Mental Health Centre & Prison [1596: Consists of: Strand Workhouse, Highgate Cemetary & Archway Crematorium. Messrs. Potter & Sons, 298 Oxford-Street. Starving Women executed for trying to steal food, sexual slavery / prostitution to Australia (134)], Old Bailey Criminal Court [1550: Old Bailey St. Once formed part of a bailey (an area between the inner & outer city walls) in medieval London. Newgate Prisoners on trial; transportation to Australia for prostitution, pawning & wheat theft], Newgate Prison [England’s main criminal prison for 700+ years, torn down in 1902. Originally part of West Gate, entranceway to the city, rebuilt & renamed Newgate in the 1100s. Subterranian cells under the sewers. Rats, typhus. Children as young as 5], St. James Park [Borders St. James’s Palace. Prostitution hub for rich men from West End], St Martin’s [1665: Starved to death & buried in vaults while parish authorities profit from the King’s Head Alehouse. Infirmary located by graveyard with a surgical dissection room, dead house. Destroyed 1871 for London National Gallery], Tuppendens Almshouse [1756. James Brown: Strand Lacemaker], Trafalgar Square [Sunderland Inc. Crematorium], Westminster Workhouse [York St & Marloes Rd. Parliament located in this city], Kensington Vestry [1776: vermin, crawling maggots], Ealing [Amherst Lodge: Former orphanage haunted by nuns (287)], County Suth Righ [Surrey] St Olave-Bermondsey Rotherhithe [1729: 400+ 1897: Ladywell Infirmary. Home of London County Council], Camberwell [1818], Lambeth [London Inner Borough: 1726: Lambeth & Norwood: 270+ weaving, stone-breaking, bathtubs filled with slime, watch tower, prison receiving block, isolation block for children under 8, crematorium], Southwark [1782: Mint St. Typhus, dysentery, scarlet fever, open sewers. 1865 records people by the Thames river boiling bones. 420 inmates inside not having water for a week, starving on tea & bread, forced to care for the dead. Average mortality is 300. 1864: 296. – The Lancet] (71), St Saviour’s, [1732], Surrey Industrial School [Gassed children to death], Wandsworth [1730: Land leased from Earl Spencer. 1776 Parliamentary report listed parish workhouses in Battersea - 70 , Putney - 70, Streatham -30 & Wandsworth -120. 1838: Guardians lease another site from Earl Spencer on the N. side of St John’s Hill (71)] Outer London: Ash, Chertsey, Croydon [Outer Borough, London], Dorking, Eastbourne, Epsom, Farnham Inc [1791: Sir Richard Tichbourne], Firle, Godstone, Hailsham, Hambledon, Kingston-Upon-Hull [Kingston Workhouse], Humberside [Scunthorpe General Hospital. 1975: Nurse Barbara Goodall reported smelling violets & seeing a ghost of Old Frodingham Hospital in 1 of the children's wards in the war memorial wing. After her visitation the child recovers (Mystical)], Reigate, Richmond, Duchy & County of Kent: Clear Water: County Canterbury Morticians [Beadles]: Canterbury Inc. [1771: 14 parishs. children apprenticed to morticians called beadles. guardians minutes are in Canterbury Cathedral], Ashford East [1837: 350+: Sutton Inc: George Newport Sutton], Ashford West [1725: 70+ bleaching Irish linen. 1941: Dunkirk evacuated 15,000 men camped on the lawn], Blean [1835: Windowless Hearne Bastille: 500 rural inmate plan 9-year old girl shut in overnight with a corpse in the mortuary], Birchington, Bridge [1836], Bromley [1844: Built by James Savage. WWI soldiers], Cranbrook [1777], Dartford Heath Asylum [1729: 228+], Dover [1836: 500+. childrens’ block, infirmary. Buckland Hospital: ghost of a young boy seen by Bill Ridgeway, Deputy Mayor of Dover in 1973], Eastry [1782: 500+ . 1871: crematorium, typhus fever, smallpox hospital 1902], Elham [1782: 1346+. infirmary ward, child slavery], Faversham [1777: 100+. expanded to include 500, a century later], Folkestone [Channel Tunnel to France here], Gravesend & Milton [1846: 138+ under Henry & Martha Hodge], Harbledown, Hollingbourne [1902: 400+], Hoo, Maidstone Saint Francis Parish [1825: Edward III under the Franciscan Grey Friars’ Sisters of Providence & Mr. Peskett. cholera, starvation. George Sanders, John Otley, H Pout, Yalding; H W Joy, Staplehurst; C Kennett; E Farley are the 1846 public vaccinators] (75: 12 St. Francis) Haunted by a sobbing ghost woman (253: Mystical)], Malling [1846: 240+], Medway [1723: set up by 2 members of Parliament. inmates pick oakum in His Majesty’s yard, children bound out to: fisherman, black-smiths, carpenters, maids], Orpington [16th cen: Sir Perceval Hunt], Penshurst, Petham Inc, River, Romney Marsh [75. Gov Robert Harrison], Sevenoaks [1844: 381+], Strood [531+. surgical dissections] Sutton [1791: White slavery to Australia, mass murder], Tenterden, Tonbridge-Tunbridge [1777: 130], Whitstable Inc, Isle of Thanet [1846: Milton Regis. 140+ also Archbishop’s Palace: 1690. Kent: Barclay’s Bank], Sheppey Isle [1846: J Cousins Master. 122+ Sheppey, Teynham & Linstead], Duchy of Gloucester / County Gloucestershire: (pron. GLAHS tuhr, gl-OW-stuhr-sheer) Dursley Gloucestershire Inc [Dursley: Many unmarried women came to give birth. The babies did not survive. They are said to be buried in unmarked graves in the hedges by the church], Barton Regis, Cheltenham, Chipping Sodbury [Cotswalds: Sheep Growing area], Cirencester, Clifton, Easton: Baptist Mills Pottery [Gloustershire: 1846: Naked children at Baptist Mills, slave labor, torture, dying chutes], Cotswald [Bodysnatching, corpse theft & human dissection by London Company Surgeons. 7lbs paid for each adult corpse, smalls or children paid by the foot & teeth paid by the piece to make dentures for the rich], Gloucester [Beatrice Webb (1858-1943 née Martha Beatrice Potter) served on the Royal Commission on the Poor Law from 1906 to 1909. In 1913, the Webbs established the New Statesman], Ynys Echru: Flat Holm Island [cholera sanitorium, now uninhabited], Hemel [Hemel & Hemstead Surgeons Inc: demolished. Belgian refugees from W German Occupation (71)], Hempstead [Hemel & Hempstead Surgeons Inc: demolished], Remand Home, Kilburn Orphanage [1860-1920: Separated by class, forced labor as maids, starvation: gruel, tea, suet. Delinquents made to sit cross—legged on the floor with pinafores turned up. Staff told children had venereal disease & to never hug, kiss, or touch them. Hair used as rose manure (Victorian Hangover 254)], Newent, Northleach, Stow-On-the-Wold, Stroud Inc [Anglican chapel, graveyard] , Tetbury, Tewkesbury [haunted graveyard], Thornbury [250 inmates with infirmary], Westbury-on-Severn, Wheatenhurst, Winchcomb, County Wilt / Wiltshire: Cotswald Hills: Gloucestershire to N., Oxfordshire & Berkshire to east, Devon to west, Dorset to south. Wilton, Trowbridge [Administrative Center: Trowbridge Workhouse], Alderbury-Salisbury [Alderbury Workouse. Salisbury Inc. Earl of Salisbury], Amesbury, Bradford-On-Avon, Calne, Cricklade & Wootten Bassett, Chippenham [878 AD: Danes defeat Alfred the Great. Workhouse], Devizes, Westport-Malmesbury, Marlborough, Pewsey [Melksham, Mere Inc Workhouse], Sarum-Salisbury [Clarendon Forest nearby], Swindon [Highworth & Swindon Workhouse. Railway to London], Tisbury [1390: Wardour Castle], Warminster, Westbury, Whorwellsdown. Duchy & County of Somerset: SW: Bristol Channel: Taunton [Administrative Center], Axbridge, Bath, Bristol [Stoke Park Hospital: Main building home of the Duchess of Beaufort. Some believe the lake ghost is the Duchess herself (287)]. Bridgwater, Cadbri: Cadbury, Chard, Clutton, Dulverton [1836], Frome, Caer Wydr: Glass Castle / Glastonbury [Glastonbury Workhouse. 1681: Joseph Glanvil’s Sadducismus Triumphatus: Witch trials], Keynsham, Langport, Shepton Mallet West End Home [1839], Wellington, Wells, Williton, Wincanton, Yeovil [Punishment Books until 1941], County Dorset / Durnovaria: Beaminster [Redhone Hundred], Blandford, Bridport, Cerne [Cerne, Totcombe & Modbury Hundred], Cranbourne Dorchester, Poole [Cogdean Hundred], Purbeck, Shaftsbury, Sherborne, Sturminster, Wareham & Purbeck [978: Corfe Castle is where King Edward the Martyr was killed by his step-mother Elfrida. Turned into a prison, Elizabeth I: Corfe Castle Hundred had Lord Chancellor Sir Christopher Hatton running it until it was destroyed with explosives in the English Civil War of 1646. Immortalized in the Remington New Model Army Conversion Gun], Weymouth, Wimborne & Cranbourne [Wimborne Minster], Duchy & County of Devonshire [Dumnonia / Dyfneint: Abyss: Kingdom of Devon] Alverstoke, Axminster, Barnstaple, Bideford, Crediton, Devonport, Devonshire Royal Hospital [John Carr & Duke of Devonshire], East Stoneshouse, Keresk: Caer Uisc: Exeter: Water Castle [1692 Incorporated by Parliament. fever wards, childrens ward, slow starvation] (71), Holsworthy, Honiton, Kingsbridge, Newton Abbot, Okehampton Castle, Plympton-St. Mary, South Molton, St Thomas, Stonehouse, Stoke Damerel, Stokesley, Tavistock, Tiverton [1698 ’There are more than 90 charities in Tiverton, including alms-houses, endowed schools, scholarships at the universities, loans to poor manufacturers & husbandmen ’] (71), Torrington, Totnes, Jarldom & County of Huntingdon: Cornwall: Huntingdon [Workhouse near Peterborough. Robert Fitzooth, Earl of Huntingdon], St Ives, St Neots, Duchy & County Cornwall [Kernow: Rebirth / West Country] Bodmin, Camborne-Redruth Hospital, Camelford, Falmouth, Helston, Launceston, Liskeard/Llamelon, Penzance [Goluan: Light: Midsummer: ’At these Fires the Cornish attend with lighted torches, tarr’d & pitch’d at the end, & make their perambulations round their Fires, & go from village to village carrying their torches before them; & this is certainly the remains of the Druid superstition, for faces praeferre, to carry lighted torches, was reckoned a kind of Gentilism, & as such particularly prohibited by the Gallick Councils: they were in the eye of the law accensores facularum, & thought to sacrifice to the devil, & to deserve capital punishment’ – Dr William Borlase, 1754, Antiquities of Cornwall], St Austell, St Columb Major, St Germans, Stratton, Truro, Ynysek Syllan: Scilly Isles / Isles of Scilly Atlantic Ocean 25 miles W. of Penn an Wlas: Land’s End, Cornwall. This group of approximately 150 islands has a total area of about 15 1/2 square miles. Only 5 islands are inhabited: Ennor-Zennor-St. Mary’s [Largest island with a Scillonian history museum], Yns Skaw [1100 AD: Tresco Abbey], Brechlek: Speckled Island-St Martin’s [1834: Augustus Smith became lord proprietor of the Isles of Scilly, brought improvements in education to the islands], Bryher [3rd largest island], Aganas-St. Agnes [4th largest island], Skipton [Scilly Isles: A giant graveyard. Legend says if you sail out there the dead will come for you], St. Samson: Summer Island [Cursed], Annet, An Creeban: Crim Rocks, Bryher: Place of Hills, Burnt Island, Gorregan, Great Arthur, Great Ganinick, Guen Hily-Great Ganilly, Green Island, Gugh: Hedge, Guther’s Island, Gweal, Longships, Men an Eskob, Menwalaethan, Merrick, Plumb Island, Puffin Island, Rosevear, Round Island, 7 Stones Reef, Tean, Toll’s Island, Ynys Elidius: St Helen’s, Annet Island [Restricted access], Samson Island [1855: Augustus Smith, Lord Proprietor of Scilly, decided to evict the last 10 residents who lived there & turn the island into a deer park. Remains of the 19th-century houses may still be seen, as may the remains of prehistoric chamber tombs]

Wales: Love [Cymru: White Grain]
Hil-laddwyr [Genocide]

Old English: Waelisc: phonetic transcription of Gaels in dative case
G & W interchange in English & French (Walh / Gaule, Wales / Pays de Galle, wasp / guêpe, ward / garde, etc.)
Compare with walnut, Wallachia & Wallonia

The Fate of Empires Arthur John Hubbard

The man who tells his dreams in private is generally an insufferable bore. The man who has the temerity to offer them to the public is, obviously, one who ought to be killed – and buried securely.

lladdiad: killing [la-dee-da: well la-dee-da ], lladdwr: [lha -dhur] killer, plural lladdwyr [lhadh -wir]
Lladd pawb, lladd pob oed, Lladd yr hyna a’r ieunga ‘rioed: Kill all, kill all ages, kill the oldest & the youngest of all.

Welsh is derived from ancient Celtic. The letter y is always a vowel, & the letter w is usually used as one. The combination dd is pronounced like the th in they. The letter f sounds like the English v, & ff sounds like f. The ll sound is made by placing the tongue in the position for l & then trying to pronounce an h. Corff Bwlch [Corpse Roads]
Saint Andrews Church, Coniston [25 mile route to Ulverston], Grasmere [White Moss, passing Dove Cottage: grid references NY 334063 to 339053. The Coffin Stone], Greystoke, St Bees Church.

Wales: Love [Cymru: White Grain]Gweithdai [Workhouses] North Wales: County Gwynned: White: Inis Môn-Isle of Anglesey [Marquis of Angelsey], Bala, Caernarfon-Caernarvon [1284: Statute of Rhuddlan, Edward I: Placed conquered Welsh lands directly under English control & divided them into counties under the control of English sheriffs. To ensure control over Wales, Edward built a number of powerful castles, including those at Caernarfon & Harlech. In 1301, Edward I gave the title Prince of Wales to his son Edward, who later became Edward II. Since then, nearly all English monarchs have given the title to their oldest son], Dolgellau, Ffestiniog, Pwllheli // Corwen, County Conwy: Conway [1066: William the Conqueror gave lands along the border between Wales & England to Norman barons in order to control the Welsh. These borderlands were called the Marches, & the barons were known as marcher lords. The marcher lords built castles on their lands & gradually expanded their estates. They soon controlled most of central & southern Wales.],County Denbighshire [Sir Ddinbych] Ruthin, County Flintshire [Sir y Fflint] County Wrexham: Wrexham, Mid Wales: County Powys [Prydain / Britain: White Cow] Llandovery, Llanfyllin, Llanidloes, Newtown, Montgomery & Pool Inc [1862: Thomas & Horace Poole. 1000 inmates. Mortuary (71)], // Llanrwst, Machynlleth, Narberth, Pontardawe, St Asaph, Whitchurch (71), East Wales: County Breconshire [Sir Brec: Speckled]West Wales: County Ceredigion [Gorllewin Cymru: Principality of Deheubarth which included Dyffed]: Aberaeron, Aberystwyth, Cardigan, Lampeter, Rhayader, Tregaron // Bedwellty, Builth, Bridgend [1849: Report to the General Board of Health by G.T. Clark on the Sanitation & Water Suipply of Brigend. 1857: Town’s 1st piped water supply (Green Dragon)], Cowbridge, Crickhowell, Emlyn, Gower, Hay [Corpse Road], Hawarden, Haverfordwest, Holywell, Knighton, Llandeilofawr, County Pembrokeshire [Sir Benfro]:Pembroke // Pontypridd, County Carmarthenshire [Sir Gaerfyrddin]: Caerfyrddin: Merlin’s Castle Carmarthen // Chepstow, South Wales: County Caerdyff: Cardiff: Cardiff [Marquess of Bute landowner, coalmining, cholera. 1846: Mr. Evan David Chairman of the Board of Guardians Cardiff Union], County Glamorgan [Gwlad Morgannwg: Kingdom White Sea] Vale of Glamorgan called the gateway to De Cymru: South Wales: Abergavenny [1490: Jasper Tudor Lord of Abergavenny & uncle of King Henry VII], Brecknock, Dunraven Castle-Dyndryfan [Iron-Age 3-sided fortress of the Silures & 1st century Catuvellauni under Caradog-Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus-Cymbeline. 1141-1541: Arnold le Boteler: Butler Family. 1642: Sir Humphrey Wyndham. The Blue Lady of Dunraven. 1963: Demolished. Southerdown Village]County Neath: Solar Yew & Port Talbot: Neath, County Monmouthshire: Monmouth, County Blaeanau Gwent: White Flower: , County Caerphilly: Castle, County Merthyr Tydfil: Merthyr Tydfil [Victorian Slums: Cae-draw & Ynys-gau described as the worst in Europe in the Rammell Report (Green Dragon)], County Newport [Gwynllyw: White Gleam] Newport-Gwynllyw, County Rhondda Cynon Taff: , County Torfaen: Pont-y-Pwl- Pontypool, County Swansea [Abertawe] Llanelli, Swansea [‘These Irish now deserted crucified Ireland for promises of food in a country of brothers, all Celts under the skin; for the Welsh, they were told, were only Irish who had never learned how to swim. They came in droves across the sands of Kenfig & Margam & the industrialists cornered them & signed them on at starvation wages in furnaces of Merthyr to Swansea, Aberdare to Blaenafon: they put their crosses on the books of the company shops for the horrors of truck: they housed themselves 12 to a room & 5 to a bed, naked at times, to make more room. And the iron & copper masters packed them in like herrings in a barrel; the dram–road sub–contractors bedded them in culverts & water pipes, & bricked up bridge–arches for rooms, with tin chimneys going up through the sleepers where the drams rumbled overhead.’ Mr. Boase, a Poor Laws Inspector (Green Dragon)]
Virgin Islands: Virgin Saint Ursula [British West Indies]
The British Virgin Islands
1493: Cristoforo Colombo: Christopher Columbus’ Saint Ursula & her 11,000 maidens.
1550: King Philip II Habsburg of Spain & Queen Mary I of England
1660: Viceroy Marqués de Mancera requests collabration of the Inquisition in to suppress slave insurrectionary moves
1672: England seizes The British Virgin Islands. Denmark establishes a permanent settlement on St. Thomas.
1717: Danish West India Company: Danes seize possession of St. John.
1723-1737: Maroon Wars: Windwood Maroons led by Nanny, the African Queen. Leeward Maroons lead by Cudjoe. They free slaves in Jamaica. Nanny makes a vow on Pumpkin Hill in 1737 to fight the British to the death. When she signs the treaty she is wearing their dead teeth
1763: England seizes the Grenadines from France
1974: Grenada gains independence
1979: St. Vincent gains independence.
1981: War in Grenada: United States commissions 1st Ohio-class submarine carrying 24 Trident missiles: 4,000 mile range.
British West Indies a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. Overseas territories: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Turks & Caicos Islands. Independent: Bahamas, Barbados, Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Trinidad & Tobago.
2 groups of small islands east of Puerto Rico that form part of the Lesser Antilles. British Virgin Islands: Anegada, Jost van Dyke, Tortola, Virgin Gorda Islands, Lesser Antilles’ Leeward Islands: Sheltered from the Wind: British Antilles [Antigua / Santa María La Antiqua: Saint Mary the Old & Barbuda: Bearded, St. Christopher-St Kitts-Nevis, Anguilla: Spanish for Eel, Montserrat: Latin mons serratus: notched mountain], Netherlands Antilles [St. Eustatius, Saba, St. Bonaire, Curaçao, Aruba] , French West Indies [Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, Desirade, St.-Barthelemy, Petite-Terre, Isles de Saints, Saint Martin]. Lesser Antilles’ Windward Islands: All except Martinique under English control: Dominica: Latin for Sunday, Martinique, St. Lucia, Concepción-Grenada [1800: 38 leaders of the slave rebellion executed but Julian Fedon escapes. 1983: Rebels seize government. U.S. troops invade,], St. Vincent, & the Grenadines [1800: Carib leader Chatoyer killed in battle. Caribs deported to the mainland of Central America. Descendants known as the Garafuni. Grenadines: 100 small islands between St. Vincent & Grenada. Carriacou is the largest island of the group. The Grenadines from Carriacou southward & the island of Grenada form the nation of Grenada. The Grenadines from Union Island northward & the island of St. Vincent make up the nation of St. Vincent & the Grenadines]
Bermuda: Juan de Bermudez [British West Indies]
1500: Named after Spanish Conquistador: Conquerer Juan de Bermudez
1609: Somers Islands Colony: English ship The Sea Venture, enroute to Virginia destroyed at sea under Admiral Sir George Somers
1610: King James I awards Bermuda to the Virginia Company of London
English have many slaves. Blockade-running for the Confederacy became profitable during the Civil War. Some made fortunes as privateers. Bermuda site of U.S. naval base established during WWI.
Cayman Islands: Spanish for Alligator Islands [British West Indies]
United States of America: Amerigo Vespucci
Tarrooghyssagh [Death of the Earth: Boarding School] / Carchyr [Imprison]

The Board of Home Missions has informed us that government contracts for educating Indian pupils provide for the ordinary branches of an English education to be taught, & that no books in any Indian language shall be used, or instruction given in that language to Indian pupils. The letter states that this rule will be strictly enforced in all government Indian schools. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs urges, & very forcibly too, that instruction in their vernacular is not only of no use to them but is detrimental to their speedy education & civilization. – Sheldon Jackson, first Commissioner of Education for Alaska, 1888
Spanish Missions [1565-1820]In a belt of North America known as the Spanish Borderlands: Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, & California. French missions in the Great Lakes area, & some villages of Indian converts to Christianity in New England.

Eastern Missions
Jesuits: 1566-1572. Franciscans operated missions in Florida & Georgia for almost 200 years. By 1655, 38 missions in the area. After the founding of Charleston, S.C., in 1670, English settlers enslaved & killed the Indians. By 1708, only a few missions were left, & in 1763, Spain surrendered Florida to England

  • Nombre de Dios: Name of the God [1565: St. Augustine, Florida: Oldest U.S. mission]

Western Missions 1598: Franciscan Spanish Colony in New Mexico. Missions in 50 Pueblo towns. In early 1600’s, friars claimed to have 35,000 mission Indians. 1680’s: Adobe & stone missions in San Antonio area known as the Alamo chain. 1691-1711, Jesuit missionary Father Eusebio Francisco Kino’s expeditions into Arizona. He founded 24 missions. Franciscans came in 1768 & remained to the 1820’s

  • San Esteban Rey de Acoma [1630: Acoma, New Mexico]
  • Nuestra Senora del Carmen: Our Lady of Carmen [1682: Near El Paso]
  • Misión San José [1720: San Antonio: Franciscan Antonio Margil de Jesus. Now San Antonio Missions National Historical Park]
  • Misión San Antonio de Valero a.k.a the Alamo [San Antonio]
  • Misión San Xavier del Bac [1700: Father Eusbebio Francisco Kino: Tohono O’odham lands near Tucson, Arizona]

California Mission System [1769-1834] 21 on the El Camino Real: The Royal Highway now known as Hwy 101: Spanish Missions established 1809 to 1834 used Coast Miwok: People & southern Kashia-Pomo: Red Earth People as a labor source called neophytes After the Mission period local Indian people continued in servitude to Mexican land grant owners throughout their confiscated tribal territories. Lake Sonoma Valley excavations identified as Amacha. Elder Kashia-Pomo remember their grandfathers hid out from oncoming immigrants in the mid-1850s at Amacha. Soldiers took all the people to government lands & burned the village. (121: 1: Gold)

  1. Misión San Diego de Acalá [1769-1862: San Diego]
  2. Misión San Carlos de Borroméo de Carmelo [1770-1836: Carmel. Franciscan Father Junípero Serra buried here. Rumsen Ohlone named Carmeleños by Spaniards]
  3. Misión San Antonio de Padua [1771: Jolon]
  4. Misión San Gabriel Arcángel: Saint Gabriel the Archangel [1771-1834: San Gabriel: Tongva: People of the Earth named Gabrieliño. Kuruvungna Springs, University High School West Los Angeles, burial grounds disturbed by developers & bones broken by archeologists. Puvungna Burial Ground, birthplace of prophet Chingishnish & place of creation, at CSU Long Beach. Developers have repeatedly attempted to build a strip mall since 1992. Blocked by courts after petition by the Tongva for relief (69)]
  5. Misión San Luis Obispo de Tolosa: Saint Louis Bishop of Tolosa [1772: San Luis Obispo. Chumash-Kagismuwas: Coastal Peoples enslaved & killed by Spanish missionaries. Obispeño, Ventureño, Barbareño, Purisimeño & Ineseño, named after the Franciscan missions they were moved to (69)]
  6. Misión San Francisco de Asís a.k.a Mission Dolores: Saint Francis of Asís: [1776-present: San Francisco. 1817: Spaniard Gabriel Moraga with 12 child hostages of Suisuns: People of the South Wind [Wintu] & Chupcans [Bay Miwok] after killing villagers. San Francisco Presidio Commandant José DeArguello sends Lieutenant José Sanchez to attack the Suisunes in the hills behind Benicia. Spaniards gain ground in present-day Fairfield & Suisun, reaching Chief Malica’s village which burst into flames. Remaining tribe survives in hills reemerging under leadership of Chief Sem-Yeto, also known as Chief Solano]
  7. Misión San Juan Capistrano [1776-1812: San Juan Capistrano: Acjachemen renamed Juaneño. Earthquake destroyed most of mission in 1812]
  8. Misión Santa Clara de Asís a.k.a Tamyen Ohlone Village [1777. Santa Clara: 80% die in the missions over next 40 years. 1910: 451 burial mounds damaged. Soil used as road & tennis court fill, yard fertilizer & chicken feed. 2007: Graverobbers called pothunters. Parks District dealing with a self-published guidebook containing driving & hiking instructions to 41 Ohlone, Bay Miwok, & Northern Valley Yokut sites in violation of the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act. New Agers construct shelters, fires on village sites. (69)]
  9. Misión San Buenaventura [1782-1845: Ventura]
  10. Misión Santa Barbara: Saint Barbara [1786-present: Queen of the California Missions (133)]
  11. La Purisíma Concepción: The Pure Conception [1787: Lompoc: Historic monument (133)]
  12. Nuestra Señora de la Soledad: Our Lady of the Sun [1791-1848: Soledad. Chalen Ohlone named Soledad by Spaniards]
  13. Misión Santa Cruz: Saint Cross [1791-1851: Santa Cruz]
  14. Misión San José de Guadelupe [1794-1868: Fremont. Franciscan Spaniards enslave Miwok. Miwok hunted for sport by the rich. Uzumaiti: Valley of the Gaping Mouth: Yosemite Valley Miwok who gave their name to the world’s most famous natural playground, only to be run out by settlers in 1851 don’t exist in the eyes of the federal government. The park bulldozes the last village (121: 1)]
  15. Misión San Juan Bautista: St John the Baptist [1797]
  16. Misión San Fernando Rey del España: Saint Ferdinand King of Spain [1797: San Fernando. Tataviam named Fernañdeno when moved to mission]
  17. Misión San Miguel de Arcángel: Saint Michael the Archangel [1797-1840]
  18. Misión San Luis Rey de Francia: Saint Louis King of France [1798-1846: Oceanside, N. San Diego County in First Military District . Father Fermín Francisco de Lasu, Payomashleykowishum: People of the West tribe named Luiseño by missionaries. San Jacinto: 2004: Guide containing locations of Native American sites in area auctioned to highest bidder. Foot traffic, vandalism, graverobbing, amp; looting follow, according to Bennae Calac, cultural resources director for the Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians in San Jacinto (69)]
  19. Misión Santa Inéz [1804]
  20. Misión San Rafael Arcángel: Saint Raphael Archangel [1817-present: San Rafael. Marin County named after Licatiut Miwok Chief Marin. Mass grave underneath mission. 1880: 36 Indian people at Nicasio, San Rafael. The population was persuaded to leave in the 1880s when Marin County curtailed funds to all Indians (except those at Marshall) who were not living at the Poor Farm, a place for indigent peoples.]
  21. Mission San Francisco de Solano: Saint Francis of the Sun [1823: Sonoma: Sem-Yeto & Suisunes at Mission San Francisco moved into new mission in town of Sonoma, CA. 1837: Smallpox: Chief Solano one of the few natives to receive a vaccination & worked at Rancho Petaluma Adobe. 1847: 75% Sacramento Valley people (El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento-Yolo Counties) die of smallpox. Maidu: Person village of Koloma raided by James Marshall, agent to Sutter who discovers gold. Wintu forced as laborers in gold mining operations. 1850s Auburn & Napa Valley newspaper editors & politicians call for immediate extermination of Northern California Indians. Legislature reimbursed the Eel River Rangers & other volunteer militias to do the job (Sac Bee: Gold)]

1850-1863: Non-whites cannot not testify against whites in California court. California’s legal apprentice system allowed settlers to keep homeless or jobless Indians indentured until they were 30. One Nisenan Maidu: Southern Maidu woman said she & others would blacken their children’s faces to keep them from being kidnapped into sexual slavery. A good-looking Indian girl cost 0, according to the Marysville Appeal

1851-1852: Federal Indian agents negotiate 18 treaties with 402 California tribal leaders. Congress never ratifies the treaties.

1852 California Assembly Report: Indians removed. There is no place within the territory of the United States in which to locate them ... .better, far better, to drive them at once into the ocean, or bury them in the land of their birth – State Sen. J.J. Warner

1871: United States Congress concludes tribes no longer separate, independent governments. This action freed the United States from the need to make treaties.

1880-1970: Boarding Schools: 100s of 1000s children given haircuts, uniforms, non-Indian names. English-only rule: Beaten, latrine duty. [Fingers sliced off per infraction & death not mentioned by the Sacramento Bee]

1900: Census

1911: Congress sends agents to buy 61 rancherias, or mini-reservations.

1920: 383 federally operated Indian schools: day, boarding, contract, mission schools. ’. – Cary Collins, SuAnn M. Reddick

1924: Indian Citizenship Act: Citizenship to every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States / US Border Patrol

Blood Quantum

1930-1939: Repatriation Program: 500,000 U.S. citizens of Mexican American Indian descent forced to leave their country. In California they were placed in detention camps & mistreated by government officials. (133: 111)

1934: IRA: Indian Reorganization Act Termination & Relocation phase. Government non-recognition of 61 tribes. The commissioner of Indian affairs who inaugurated this policy, Dillon Meyer, was principally known as the man responsible for administering Japanese-American concentration camps during World War II. – 5 Views

Kickapoo: Kiwigapawa, Potawatami, Cheyenne: Tsétsêhésestâhese, Sioux: Oyate, Arapahoe: Inuna-Ina, Blackfoot: Siksika, Lumbee, Miwok, Shasta: Achumawi, Wintun, Mono, Maidu, Muwekma, Chumash, Mutsun, Tsnungwe, Chetco, Chinook, Coquille, Klamath, Siuslaw, Samish, Snohomish, Duwamish, Chickahominy, Monacan, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Mataponi, Abenaki, Creek: Muskogee, Catawba, Santee, Edisto, Yuchi, Kaweah, Tuscarora, Montauk, Shinnecock, Tiwa, Kaweah, Meherrin, Hattadare, Paiute, Chippewa: Ojibwe, Ottawa, Nipmuc, Narrangansette Iroquois, Wampanoag, Piscataway, Micmac, Maliseet, Houma, Choctaw, Shawnee: Thawegila, Muncie Lenni Lenape, Miami, Cherokee, Nanticoke, Delaware, Tsimshian.

‘Many restaurants refused to serve Mexican Americans. Public swimming pools, rest rooms, drinking fountains, & theaters were often segregated. Mexican American schoolchildren were often forbidden to speak Spanish in schools & were sometimes punished severely for doing so.&#8217

1990: Native American Graves Protection & Repatriation Act: ‘Requires institutions receiving federal money to return human remains & any artifacts found with them to the tribes that want them. However, the tribes must prove that they have a valid claim to the remains & artifacts’. – World Book Encyclopedia ©1998 Contributors: Alan L. Kolata, Ph.D., Prof. of Anthropology, Univ. of Chicago, Donald L. Fixico, Ph.D., Prof. of History, Western Michigan Univ, Sharlotte Neely, Ph.D., Prof. of Anthropology, Northern Kentucky Univ;

1997: BIA: Bureau of Indian Affairs California serves 55,700; ignoring 200,000 urban Indians & 75,000 indigenous Californians never recognized by the United States government. Nearly half the nation’s 554 federally recognized Indian tribes represented in the Bay Area alone.

2001: “Hispanic Americans are Americans of Spanish-speaking descent. Many are the descendants of Mexican people who lived in the Southwest when it became part of the United States. Almost all others or their ancestors migrated to the United States from Latin America. The 3 largest Hispanic groups in the United States are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, & Cuban Americans. As a group, Hispanic Americans represent a mixture of several ethnic backgrounds, including European, American Indian, &African. Residents of Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens. The U.S. Census Bureau does not count the island’s native residents as part of the U.S. population. ‘ – Homer D. C. Garcia, Ph.D., Vice Provost for Academic Planning, Baylor University, World Book Encyclopedia ©2001
Northern Pacific Railroad:
Jay Cooke, Frederick Billings & Henry Villard:
America’s 2nd Trans-Continental Railroad. Largest government railroad land grant: vast extinguishment of Indian land titles. Engineering parties protected by George Armstrong Custer. Complete line 1883 55 miles W. of Helena, Montana

I have remarked in the past that the size of the buildings at the poor farm are a more reliable measurement of the glory of the Copper Kings than what has been written by the historians. Of course, buildings like the poor farm & its cemetery remain unknown to the historians & the history experts. So it is time that a case is made for this cemetery & the spirits that reside there. No better place to start then this Butte Evening New’s Christmas story nearly a century ago. –Jackie Corr

Chicago & Northwestern Railroad / Captain Frederick Pabst Brewing Co / Powell Ale / IG Farben
Pabst hat sich auf die Spuren des Schicksals von 468 Geiseln begeben, die am 16. April 1944 im niederländischen Beverjk verhaftet und zunächst in das Durchgangslager Amersfort verbracht worden waren – Junge Welt

Constitution of the Republic of Texas
In 1829, the Mexican government abolished slavery in Texas. American slaveowners forced their newly-freed slaves to sign life indenture contracts. – Handbook of Texas

DeHoMag: Card Tabulating Machine: Herman Hollerith: 1886
DeHoMag: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Achtung Gesellshaft founded by Dr. Herman Hollerith (b 1860) as a census tabulating company. Hollerith starts as a 19 year old assistant at the US Census Bureau as part of his education at Columbia University. Part of International Business Machines. The Hollerith name still used in Germany.
1886: The machine uses punch cards and is first used to calculate the dead for the local health departments in Maryland, New York & New Jersey. It is then expanded to cover freight accounting for the New York Central Railroad, actuarial records for Prudential Insurance, & the US Census of 1890.
Between 1890 & 1900 Hollerith leases the machine at 0,000 per customer for the Russian [Czar Nicholas II], Italian, English, French, Austrian & German [Kaiser Wilhelm II] governmental population censuses. In 1910 Hollerith sells to international commodities: arms & weapons producer Charles Flint, The Merchant of Death & Father of Trusts. for 121 million. Flint sells weapons to Chile, Perú, Japan, Russia & bomber airplanes to the Kaiser
1915: Flint merges DeHoMag, International Time Recording Co., Computing Scale Co. & Bundy Manufacturing into IBM: International Business Machines. Thomas J. Wasson [Watson] CEO.
1936: IBM wins the Social Security Act contract from the US Department of Labor
1937: Wasson Chairman of the Carnegie Endowment for Peace, New York University Chair, Federal Reserve Bank Director, Columbia University Trustee. Merit Cross with German Eagle Star from Adolf Hitler at the League of Nations International Chamber of Commerce Meeting in Hamburg.
1940: United States Census, Draft, Pacific, Tunisia, Sicily: IBM MRU: Machine Record Units. Endicott, New York trains 1,300 Allied soldiers. After Pearl Harbor, the United States Census Bureau uses punch-card information to identify people of Japanese Heritage. Executive Order 9066 authorizing internment of Japanese-Americans on the W. coast in Concentration Camps under the WCCA: Wartime Civil Control Association. Evacuations begin in Los Angeles.

The overall dimensions of punched cards used for data processing have remained the same since Herman Hollerith invented the medium: 7 3/8 inches wide by 3 1/4 inches high by .007 inches thick. Prior to 1929, this was a standard size for many US banknotes. Today, these dimensions are set by the EIA standard RS-292 media 1 punched card. This standard is augmented by ANSI X3.21-1967 governing the holes in the card & ANSI X3.26-1980 governing the use of the Hollerith code to encode alphanumeric data on cards. – Edwin Black: IBM & the Holocaust

Urban Indians are often uncounted even in death. When an urban Indian dies, the death certificate rarely lists his or her race correctly, Indian Health Service studies show. California’s urban Indians are unknown, uncountable, an enigma, said Indian Health Service statistician Lorraine McCall. ‘Everybody knows there’s this mystery urban Indian population, but when they go to Congress for funding, they have little hard data. We rarely know who they are, where they are or the status of their health.’ (1997: Sacramento Bee)]

University of Virginia
John Carlisle, Slave Trader

..The census [1930] counted mulattoes, quadroons & octaroons & doled out rights based on quantities of blood. Even the CDIB cards (Certification of Degree of Indian Blood) bear an eerie resemblance to the pass-books used to control non-whites in South Africa. – J.S Dill

Thie ny Moght [Place of Death: Poorhouse] / Ruillick ny Moght [Mass Graves]

We have mental illness. I should stretch & give you a little more medical perspective on the mental illness. A lot of these kids come from bad gene pools. They don’t have stable parents making good decisions, or else most of them would not be in foster care – Dr. Joseph Burkett: Texas Society of Psychiatric Physicians: Houston Chronicle © 2004

Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia 1917: Where they (suffragettes) experienced harsh conditions such as worms in their food, filth, & cockroaches. While in jail, Alice Paul went on a hunger strike, similar to those in which she engaged while a member of the WSPU: Womens’ Social & Political Action Union of Great Britain, in an attempt to win concessions from the government. – Kim Sheron-Martin

Rev. Brace’s Children’s Aide Society
Thie treoghana: Place that abandons the Divine Young: Orphanage

1854–1929: >150,000 orphaned, homeless & neglected children uprooted from the city & sent by Orphan Trains for indentured servitude. Children lined up at predetermined stops to be looked over. In 1927, 12 states: Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Arkansas, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia, Nebraska & Kansas allowed indenture of children turned over to poor farms or county authorities. When official transporting of children ended in 1930, 47 states had been involved (53: 2)

Brooklyn Bureau of Social Services Industrial Home for Destitute Children [hospital wards for 800 children. children fed 2 slices of bread & milk per day], Children’s Day & Night Shelter [1916: NY], Elizabeth Home for Incorrigable Children [1855], Hamburger Home For Young Women [1909], Hartford Children’s Village Orphan Asylum [1883], Heart Home Inc, Louis Wise Services [NYC foster care], Nevada State Orpan’s Home [1870-1920]

Hebrew National Orphan Homes
J. M. Gusky

Cleveland Jewish Orphan Asylum: German Reform Jewish trustee oversaw efforts to Americanize Russian immigrant children Ohio’s extensive system of 60 county orphanages, 50 still in business in 1994, Deborah Nursery [1872: NY death certificates of apnea, asphyxia, pulmonary oedema, & acute intestinal paralysis], Daughters of Miriam Home for the Aged & Orphans [1921: NJ], Daughters of Zion Orphanage [1917], Hebrew Orphan Asylums [CT, GA, MD, OR, SC, Boston, San Francisco, Hudson, Pittsburg, Detroit, Brooklyn. dysentery, bloody croup], Hebrew Jewish Orphanage [1878-1918. NYC & Milwaukee: starvation, poisoning, TB, gangrene, compound skull fractures. Jacob Finklestone undertaker], Hecht Industrial School [1889], Home for Jewish Friendless & Working Girls [IL, NJ, Eerie], Ladies Relief Society of Oakland Home for Aged Women & Children [1871], Marks Nathan Orphan Home [1906: Chicago], National Home for Jewish Children [1907: Denver] (201: Dale Keiger)

Sisters of Mercy: Slauaght [Slavery]
L’Esclavage: Les articles de Vendue: The Articles of Sale


Auctioning off the Poor: people put up for bid at public auction & sold to the lowest bidder. contract got the use of the labor of the pauper for free. a.k.a Articles of Vendue.

New York Foundling Hospital, 590 Ave nue of the Americas, NY, N.Y. 10001/ New York Foundling Home [Mercy Trains, deaths by malnutrition, gangrene, pnemonia, measles]

Indenture form: A legal document that gave the Foundling legal recourse without going to court

Allocation & Maternity Shelter Care, Angel Guardian Home for Little Children, Dana House, Guild of Infant Savior [women went to give birth & their children sold as indentured servants], Baldwin Home for Little Wanderers, Home For Wayward Children [Boston: 1849], New York House of Refuge [bathtubs held 15 or 20 boys at a time. In Philadelphia they crowded 100 children into 5 dormitories with evenly spaced beds], Northeastern Orphan Home / Homewood School [1855-1971], Randall’s Island Hospital, St. Mary’s [Omak, Washington], Sacred Heart School [DeSmet, Idaho], Sister’s Aid Society & Orphans’ Home [1919: MS], Wolff Memorial Home [1933]

WW I: Carchyr [Imprison]
1917: 250,000 German-American males >14 required to register at their local post office, carry their registration card at all times, & report any change of address or employment. April 18, 1918: Female registration. 6,300 arrested. 1000s interrogated. 2,048 incarcerated for the remainder of war in 2 camps, Fort Douglas, Utah for those west of the Mississippi & Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, for those east of the Mississippi. Managed by Enemy Alien Registration Section of the Department of Justice, headed beginning in Dec 1917 by J. Edgar Hoover – Arnold Krammer, Undue Process: The Untold Story of America’s German Alien Internees, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield ©1997 ISBN 0847685187

WWII: M.A.D / Game Theory
Nuclear Weapon: Any weapon that gets its destructive power from the transformation of matter in atoms into energy. All are explosive devices: missiles, bombs, artillery shells, mines, torpedoes. Often called nuclear fission weapons [atomic bombs] & thermonuclear fusion weapons [hydrogen bombs]. Fission bombs exploded at Hiroshima & Nagasaki. Thermonuclear bomb exploded by US in Korean War. Dominates military planning of the world’s most powerful nations since WWII. [eg. Russia (Fission: 1949, Thermonuclear: 1955), China (Thermonuclear: 1967), North Korea, Turkey, CERN: Switzerland (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France [Thermonuclear: 1968], Germany [Deutches Atomprogramm], Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, England), Iran, India, Pakistan, Israel, South Africa, Canada, USA)
Strategic nuclear weapons: Launch attack from great distances on targets in an enemy’s homeland. bombs & missiles: SLBM: submarine-launched ballistic missiles (Russia 1955), ICBM: intercontinental ballistic missiles (Russia 1957), cruise missiles-guided missiles, MIRV: Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles warheads (USA: 1970: banned under STARTII). ABM: Anti-Ballistic Missiles destroy incoming nuclear missiles
Theater nuclear weapons / Tactical nuclear weapons Within a military theater: a geographic area where conventional warfare taking place. Short-range guided missiles, rockets, artillery shells, nuclear mines & torpedoes. The Soviet Union countered NATO’s threat by issuing a statement that any use of nuclear weapons against Soviet forces, tactical or otherwise, was grounds for a full-scale Soviet retaliatory strike. It was generally assumed any combat in Europe would end with apocalyptic conclusions.
Nuclear Fission: Matter is changed into energy when the nuclei (cores) of uranium or plutonium atoms split. Chain reaction forms in which each split nucleus provides the means of splitting other nuclei, leading to explosion. Requires a minimum mass of fissionable material known as the critical mass. A mass too small is subcritical mass.
Nuclear Fusion: Matter is changed into energy when pairs of hydrogen nuclei combine. Requires sun’s temperature achieved by nuclear fission. Lithium 6 deuteride forms helium & tritium that fuse with explosive energy when struck by neutrons.
Particle Beam Weapon / Particle Accelerator / Teleforce / Atom Smasher / Cyclotron / Death Ray: Nikola Tesla: The Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-dispersive Energy through the Natural Media: Bombards stable, nonradioactive atoms with beams of high-speed particles. Collisions produce new radioactive atoms. In videogames Blood II: The Chosen & Fallout: Tesla’s proposal of a teleforce weapon & Command &ampt Conquer Red Alert the destructive possibilities of massive electric arcs created by Tesla coils.
First Strike: Initial nuclear attack. 100,000+ killed immediately in Hiroshima’s flat terrain. 40,000 + killed in Nagasaki’s hilly terrain.
Ground Zero: The point on the ground directly below an explosion.
Shock Wave / Blast Wave: Fireball of dust & gases expands to form a wave which moves rapidly away from the fireball. 400 mph winds move 12 miles 50 seconds after explosion; destroying buildings & killing most everyone within a 6 mile radius.
Flash Burns / Radiation Burns: 30% Hiroshima & Nagasaki deaths. 10 second thermal radiation ignites newspapers & dry leaves & chars wood. Blistering 2nd degree burns in exposed human skin up to 11 miles away.
Mushroom Cloud: Residual nuclear radiation given off >1 minute after the explosion. It strikes particles of rock, soil, water, & other materials making them radioactive.
Fallout Radiation: Radioactive particles that fall back to earth. Kills in 1st 24 hours. In 1961 the U.S. Office of Civilian Defense Mobilization began a public fallout shelter program to identify & stock with supplies buildings & underground areas where people would be protected from the fallout particles of a nuclear explosion. Many public shelters set up in the basements of apartment & office buildings, factories, schools or in windowless central areas in buildings aboveground. Federal funding discontinued in the late 1960s
Radiation Sickness: Large doses of ionizing radiation suffered in reactor accidents such as Chernobyl, radioactive product mishandling, & in 1945 bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japan. >100 rems: roentgen equivalent in man (=rad: radiation absorbed dose): red & white blood cells damaged. >300 rems: death in several weeks, > 1,000 rems: cells lining digestive tract die & intestinal bacteria invade bloodstream. >3,000 rems: brain injured & death can come within hours. National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements urges the general public receive no more than 0.5 rem in any year.
Fission Products: New radioactive atoms produced by nuclear fission. Atomic bomb tests in the 1950’s & 1960’s covered the earth with a fission product called cesium 137, a radioactive isotope of cesium.
Activation Products: Form when pipes & other materials in a nuclear reactor absorb radiation, becoming radioactive.
Nuclear Waste: Used fuel from nuclear power plants known as nuclear waste contains many fission products, such as plutonium 239, strontium 90, & barium 140. Used fuel remains radioactive & dangerous for thousands of years.
Nuclear Reactor “It’s harder to get a petition through this process than it is to build a nuclear reactor – said John Bud Shapard, the BIA official who created the tribal recognition process.
Nuclear Winter: Thermal radiation smoke absorbs sunlight to lower temperature of the earth’s surface; resulting in widespread crop failure. – George W. S. Kuhn, J.D., Research Fellow, Logistics Management Institute.

The Manhatten Project

Hanford Nuclear Power Plant: Richland, Columbia River Basin, SE Washington: The Hanford nuclear site produced plutonium for the atomic bomb [22 kiloton] dropped on Nagasaki [Aug 9, 1945], & today the area is the focus of the largest environmental cleanup in history. It is a landscape of incredible contradictions. Coyotes roam among decommissioned nuclear reactors, salmon spawn in the middle of golf courses, wine grapes grow in the sagebrush & federal cleanup dollars spur rapid urban expansion. Arid Lands takes us into a world of sports fishermen, tattoo artists, housing developers, ecologists & radiation scientists living & working in the area. It tells the story of how people changed the landscape over time, & how the landscape affected their lives

John Von Neumann (1903-1957): The Theory of Games & Economic Behavior 1944 with Oskar Morgenstern. His principal contribution to the atomic bomb was in the concept & design of the explosive lenses needed to compress the plutonium core of the Trinity test device & the Fat Man weapon dropped on Nagasaki. Von Neumann oversaw computations related to the expected size of the bomb blasts, estimated death tolls, & the distance above the ground at which the bombs should be detonated for optimum shock wave propagation & maximum effect. Von Neumann & Klaus Fuchs: Improvement in Methods & Means for Utilizing Nuclear Energy, using a fission bomb to compress fusion fuel to initiate a thermonuclear reaction. (Herken, pp. 171, 374). As President of the Von Neumann Committee for Missiles he developed scenarios of nuclear proliferation, development of intercontinental & submarine missiles with atomic warheads, & the controversial strategic equilibrium called mutual assured destruction (a.k.a the M.A.D. doctrine). Von Neumann proposed spreading colorants on the polar ice caps in order to enhance absorption of solar radiation, thereby raising global temperatures. von Neumann was diagnosed with cancer, possibly caused by exposure to radiation during his witnessing of atomic bomb tests & died under military security

Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962): Compton Effect: Light & radiation composed of tiny particles of energy known as photons or quanta: confirmed by Charles Wilson with his cloud chamber that made the paths of the particles visible. Directed University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory: The Manhatten Project. His book Atomic Quest: A Personal Narrative 1956 gives an account of his involvement with the bomb.

J. Robert Oppenheimer ‘Father of the Atomic Bomb’ (1904-1967): Los Alamos Nuclear Power Plant, New Mexico: Site X of The Manhatten Project: Trinity test where Oppenheimer’s Los Alamos team 1st tested the bomb, Robert Oppenheimer recalled the Bhagavad Gita: If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one. Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds. Oppenheimer diagnosed with throat cancer, radiation treatment by cobalt gamma rays, then chemotherapy. These were not curative, tumor spread to his palate affecting his swallowing, hearing & breathing. Dead by 1967.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: Through an award-winning magazine, our online presence, & the Doomsday Clock, we reach policy leaders & audiences around the world with information & analysis about efforts to address the dangers & prevent catastrophe. With fellowships for students & awards to young journalists, we help educate the next generation. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists was established in 1945 by scientists, engineers, & other experts who had created the atomic bomb as part of the Manhattan Project. – Bulletin of Atomic Scientists Website

American Samoa [Polynesia] The 4 islands that make up Western Samoa are Savaii, Upolu, Manona & Apolina. US Trusteeship until independance. Eastern Samoa is a territory of the United States & called American Samoa. 1772: Jacob Rogeveen. 1899- 1914: German colony. WWI: New Zealand troops took over; it became a mandate of the League of Nations, 1918: Famine.

Mariana Islands: Queen Mary of Spain [Spanish East Indies]
Guam, Pagan, Saipan

1565: Renamed Marianas by Spanish Jesuits. Part of Micronesia: Small Islands, E. of Philippines
1898: Spanish-American War: Ceded to US
1914-1918: League of Nations Mandate to Japan
1947-1994: United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands under USA
Chamorros: descendants of the island’s original inhabitants, other Micronesian islanders, Filipinos. Chamorro official language.
Guam [Agana City destroyed during WW II], Mariana Trench [200 miles SW of Guam near Japan. Deep Sea Ocean Floor 36,198 feet below the surface], Pagan, Agrihan, Anatahan, Rota, Saipan [E, of the Phillipine island of Luzon. League of Nations Mandate gave control to Japan from 1914-1918. Tojo resigned as Japan’s prime minister in July 1944 after the Saipan loss, United Nations Trust Territory], Tinian [1944: US Invades]

Marshall Islands: English Captain John Marshall [Spanish East Indies]

Pacific Islands, called Oceania, d