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This article is about the Disney film based on the novel. For the Disney franchise, see Tarzan (franchise).
Tarzan is a 1999 American animated adventure film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation for Walt Disney Pictures. The 37th Disney animated feature film and the tenth and last released during the Disney Renaissance era, it is based on the story Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs, being the first animated major motion picture version of the story. Directed by Chris Buck and Kevin Lima from a screenplay by Tab Murphy, Bob Tzudiker, and Noni White, the film stars the voices of Tony Goldwyn, Minnie Driver, Glenn Close, and Rosie O'Donnell, with Brian Blessed, Lance Henriksen, Wayne Knight, and Nigel Hawthorne.
Pre-production of Tarzan began in 1995, with Lima selected as director and Buck joining him the same year. Following Murphy's first draft, Tzudiker, White, and Dave Reynolds were brought in to reconstruct the third act and add additional material to the screenplay. English recording artist Phil Collins was recruited to compose and record songs integrated with a score by Mark Mancina. Meanwhile, the production team embarked on a research trip to Uganda and Kenya to study the gorillas. Animation for the film was done in California, Orlando, and Paris, with the pioneering computer animation software system Deep Canvas being predominantly used to create three-dimensional backgrounds.
Tarzan premiered at the El Capitan Theatre on June 12, 1999, and was released in the United States on June 16, 1999. It received a positive reaction from critics, who praised its animation and music. Against a production budget of 0 million (then the most expensive animated film ever made until Disney's Treasure Planet in 2002), the film grossed 8.2 million worldwide, becoming the fifth-highest film release in 1999, the second-highest animation release of 1999 behind Toy Story 2, and the first Disney animated feature to open at first place at the North American box office since Pocahontas (1995). It won the Academy Award for Best Original Song (“You’ll Be in My Heart” by Collins). The film has led to many derived works, such as a Broadway adaptation, a television series, and two direct-to-video sequels: Tarzan & Jane (2002) and Tarzan II (2005).
In the early 1890s, an English couple and their infant son escape from a shipwreck, and end up near an uncharted rainforest off the Congolese coast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The couple build themselves a treehouse from the ship's wreckage, but soon afterwards, they are killed by a female leopard named Sabor. After losing her own son to Sabor, a female gorilla named Kala hears the cries of the orphaned infant, and finds him in the treehouse. Kala encounters Sabor, and escapes with the infant in her possession. Kala takes the infant back to her troop to raise as her own, an action of which her mate, Kerchak, the leader disapproves. Kala raises the human child, naming him Tarzan.
At age five, Tarzan begins to befriend other animals, including his adoptive cousin and Kala and Kerchak's niece Terk and a paranoid male elephant named Tantor; but he is treated differently due to his different physique, so he makes great efforts to improve himself. As a young adult, Tarzan manages to kill Sabor with a spear he crafted, gaining Kerchak's reluctant respect.
The gorillas' peaceful life is interrupted by the arrival of a team of English explorers, consisting of Professor Porter, his daughter Jane, and their tour guide, a hunter named Clayton. The explorers are looking to study gorillas. Jane accidentally becomes separated from the group and is chased by a mandrill troop, with Tarzan saving her. Tarzan realizes that Jane is human, just like he is. Jane leads Tarzan back to their camp, where Porter and Clayton garner interest in him. Porter views Tarzan as an opportunity for scientific advancement, while Clayton desires to persuade Tarzan to lead him to the gorillas. Despite Kerchak's warnings to stay away from the humans, Tarzan continues to return to the camp, where Porter, Clayton, and Jane teach him how to speak English as well as what the human world is like. As time passes, Tarzan and Jane begin to fall in love. Still, Tarzan refuses to lead the explorers to the gorillas because of Kerchak.
The explorers' ship soon returns to retrieve them. Jane asks Tarzan to return with them to England, but Tarzan asks Jane to stay with him when Jane says that it is unlikely that they will ever return. Clayton convinces Tarzan that Jane will stay with him forever if he leads them to the gorillas. Tarzan agrees and leads the trio to the nesting grounds, while Terk and Tantor lure Kerchak away to prevent him from attacking the humans. Porter and Jane are excited to mingle with the gorillas, but when Kerchak returns and sees the humans, he attacks them. Tarzan holds Kerchak at bay while the humans are able to escape. Kerchak accuses Tarzan of betraying the troop. Kala takes Tarzan to the treehouse, where she first found him, shows him his true past, and says that she wants him to feel satisfied whatever he decides. In the end, Tarzan puts on a suit that once belonged to his father, signifying his decision to go to England, though he assures a tearful Kala that no matter what, she will always be his true mother.
When Tarzan boards the ship with Jane and Porter the next day, they are all ambushed by Clayton and his traitorous band of stowaway thugs. Clayton hopes and plans to seize the gorillas, now that he knows where the nesting grounds are, and locks Tarzan, Jane, and Porter away to prevent them from interfering. Tarzan manages to escape with the support of Terk and Tantor and returns to the jungle to save the gorillas. Clayton mortally shoots Kerchak and attempts to leave. Tarzan gives chase and battles Clayton across the treetops. Although Tarzan spares Clayton's life and destroys his gun, Clayton tries to kill him with his machete. Tarzan then traps Clayton with vines, but Clayton attempts to free himself and slashes all of the vines. In the process, Clayton falls from the tree when a vine is tangled around his neck, accidentally hanging himself. Kerchak then reconciles with Tarzan, affirming him as his son, and dies from his wounds.
The next day, Porter and Jane prepare to leave on the ship, but Tarzan remains behind with the gorilla troop. As the ship departs, Porter encourages his daughter to stay with Tarzan, and Jane jumps overboard to meet Tarzan with Porter shortly following her. The Porters reunite with Tarzan, and embark on their new life together.
- Tony Goldwyn as Tarzan, a twenty-year-old man raised by mountain gorillas who rediscovers his human roots. Glen Keane served as the supervising animator for Tarzan as an adult, while John Ripa animated Tarzan as an infant and child. John Ripa studied the movements of young chimpanzees to use for young Tarzan's animation. Brian Blessed provided the Tarzan yell, while Goldwyn provided Tarzan's speaking voice.
- Minnie Driver as Jane Porter, the eccentric, beautiful, kindhearted and intelligent daughter of Professor Porter. She is the first of the group to encounter Tarzan, and becomes his love interest. Ken Duncan served as the supervising animator for Jane. Many of Driver's mannerisms and characteristics were incorporated into Jane's animation. The scene where Jane describes meeting Tarzan for the first time to her father and Clayton was improvised by Driver, resulting in Ken Duncan animating one of the longest animated scenes on record. The scene took 7 weeks to animate and 73 feet of film.
- Glenn Close as Kala, Tarzan's adoptive mother, who found and raised him after losing her biological son to Sabor. She is also Kerchak's mate. Russ Edmonds served as the supervising animator for Kala.
- Lance Henriksen as Kerchak, Kala's mate and the leader of the gorilla troop who struggles to accept Tarzan. Bruce W. Smith served as the supervising animator for Kerchak.
- Brian Blessed as William Clayton, an intelligent and suave - yet arrogant and treacherous - hunter, who guides the Porters on their quest. Randy Haycock served as the supervising animator for Clayton, basing his design on Clark Gable and other film stars of the 1930s and 40s.
- Nigel Hawthorne as Professor Archimedes Q. Porter, an eccentric, short-statured scientist and Jane's father. Dave Burgess served as the supervising animator for Porter. This was Hawthorne's final voice acting role before his death in 2001.
- Rosie O'Donnell as Terk (short for Terkina, a feminization of Terkoz merged with Teeka), Tarzan's best friend, a wisecracking tomboy gorilla with a Brooklyn accent. She is also Kala and Kerchak's niece, making her and Tarzan adoptive cousins. Michael Surrey served as the supervising animator for Terk.
- Wayne Knight as Tantor, a paranoid and submissive elephant, and Tarzan and Terk's close friend. Sergio Pablos served as the supervising animator for Tantor.
- Taylor Dempsey as young Tantor.
Disney's Tarzan was the first Tarzan film to be animated.Thomas Schumacher, the President of Feature Animation, expressed surprise that there weren't any previous attempts to animate a Tarzan film, saying "Here is a book that cries out to be animated. Yet we're the first filmmakers to have ever taken Tarzan from page to screen and presented the character as Burroughs intended." He noted that in animated form, Tarzan is able to connect to the animals on a deeper level than he can in live action versions.
Following work on A Goofy Movie in late 1994, Kevin Lima was approached to direct Tarzan by studio chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg who desired to have the film animated at a Canadian-based satellite television animation studio, in which Lima was reluctant to do because of the animation complexities being done by inexperienced animators. Following Katzenberg's resignation from the Walt Disney Company, Lima was again contacted about the project by Michael Eisner, who decided to have the film produced through the Feature Animation division by which Lima signed on. Following this, Lima decided to read Tarzan of the Apes where he began to visualize the theme of two hands being held up against each other. That image became an important symbol of the relationships between characters in the film, and a metaphor of Tarzan's search for identity. "I was looking for something that would underscore Tarzan's sense of being alike, yet different from his ape family," Lima said, "The image of touching hands was first conceived as an idea for how Tarzan realizes he and Jane are physically the same." Following his two-month study of the book, Lima approached his friend, Chris Buck, who had just wrapped up work as a supervising animator on Pocahontas, to ask if he would be interested in serving as co-director. Buck was initially skeptical, but accepted after hearing Lima's ideas for the film. By April 1995, the Los Angeles Times reported that the film was in its preliminary stages with Lima and Buck directing after Disney had obtained the story rights from the estate of Edgar Rice Burroughs.
Tab Murphy, who had just finished work on The Hunchback of Notre Dame, was attracted to the theme of man-versus-nature in Tarzan, and began developing a treatment in January 1995. For the third act, Murphy suggested that Tarzan should leave for England, as he did in the book, but the directors felt that it was incompatible with their central theme of what defines a family. In order to keep Tarzan in the jungle, the third act needed to be restructured by redefining the role of the villain and inventing a way to endanger the gorillas. In this departure from Burrough's novel, a villain named Clayton was created to serve as a guide for Professor Archimedes Q. Porter and his daughter, Jane. In addition to this, Kerchak was re-characterized from a savage silverback into the protector of the gorilla tribe.
In January 1997, husband-and-wife screenwriting duo Bob Tzudiker and Noni White were hired to help refocus and add humor to the script as a way to balance the emotional weight of the film. Comedy writer Dave Reynolds was also brought on to write humorous dialogue for the film. "I was initially hired on for six weeks of rewriting and punch-up," Reynolds said, "A year and a half later, I finished. Either they liked my work, or I was very bad at time management." One challenge the writers faced was how Tarzan should learn about his past. "When Kala takes Tarzan back to the tree house, she is essentially telling him that he was adopted," Bonnie Arnold, the producer for Tarzan, said, "This is necessitated by him encountering humans and recognizing he is one of them." As a way to explore the feelings in that scene, Arnold brought in adoptive parents to talk with the story team. Another issue was the inherent and overt racism in the original Edgar Rice Burrough's Tarzan. The writers consciously chose to not include any African characters in order to avoid this topic.
Brendan Fraser auditioned twice for the title character before portraying the lead role in George of the Jungle.Tony Goldwyn auditioned for the title role as well, and according to co-director Kevin Lima, Goldwyn landed it because of "the animal sense" in his readings, along with some "killer baboon imitations." For the signature Tarzan yell, Lima and Buck desired the traditional yell, although Goldwyn faced difficulties with providing the yell stating "It's really hard to do, physically." Co-star Brian Blessed ultimately provided the yell. Terk was originally written as a male gorilla, but following Rosie O'Donnell's audition, Terk was re-characterized as a female. Furthermore, Woody Allen was initially cast as the neurotic elephant Tantor. However, Katzenberg persuaded Allen to leave the project for DreamWorks Pictures' Antz and in exchange, the studio would distribute his next four films. Agreeing to the deal, Allen departed from Tarzan in 1996 and was replaced by Wayne Knight.
The animators were split into two teams, one in Paris and one in Burbank. The 6000 mile distance and difference in time zones posed challenges for collaboration, especially for scenes with Tarzan and Jane. Glen Keane was the supervising animator for Tarzan at the Paris studio, while Ken Duncan was the supervising animator for Jane at the studio in Burbank. To make coordinating scenes with multiple characters easier, the animators used a system called a "scene machine" that could send rough drawings between the two animation studios. Meanwhile, following production on Mulan, two hundred animators at the Feature Animation Florida satellite studio provided character animation and special effects animation where the filmmakers had to discuss their work through daily video conferences among the three studios.
Keane was inspired to make Tarzan "surf" through the trees because of his son's interest in extreme sports, and he began working on a test scene. The directors expressed concern that Tarzan would be made into a "surfer dude", but when Keane revealed the test animation to them they liked it enough to use it in the film during the "Son of Man" sequence, with movements inspired by skateboarder Tony Hawk. Although Keane initially thought that Tarzan would be easy to animate because he only wears a loincloth, he realized that he would need a fully working human musculature while still being able to move like an animal. To figure out Tarzan's movements, the Paris animation team studied different animals in order to transpose their movements onto him. They also consulted with a professor on anatomy. This resulted in Tarzan being the first Disney character to accurately display working muscles.
To prepare for animating the gorillas, the animation team attended lectures on primates, made trips to zoos, and studied nature documentaries, with a group of animators also witnessing a gorilla dissection to learn about their musculature. In 1996, the animation team went on a two-week safari in Kenya to take reference photographs and observe the animals. On the trip, they visited Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda to view mountain gorillas in the wild, and get inspiration for the setting. In 2000, Chris Buck repeated the journey accompanied by journalists to promote the film's home video release.
To create the sweeping 3D backgrounds, Tarzan's production team developed a 3D painting and rendering technique known as Deep Canvas (a term coined by artist/engineer Eric Daniels). This technique allows artists to produce CGI background that looks like a traditional painting, according to art director Daniel St. Pierre. (The software keeps track of brushstrokes applied in 3D space.) For this advancement, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded the creators of Deep Canvas a Technical Achievement Award in 2003. After Tarzan, Deep Canvas was used for a number of sequences in Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001), particularly large panoramic shots of the island and several action sequences. Expanded to support moving objects as part of the background, Deep Canvas was used to create about 75 percent of the environments in Disney's next major animated action film, Treasure Planet (2002).
Main article: Tarzan (1999 film soundtrack)
In 1995, Phil Collins was initially brought onto the project as a songwriter following a recommendation by Disney music executive Chris Montan. Following his success with the 1988 film Buster, Collins did not mind providing songs for Tarzan. Early into production, directors Kevin Lima and Chris Buck decided not to follow Disney's musical tradition by having the characters sing. "I did not want Tarzan to sing," Lima stated, "I just couldn't see this half-naked man sitting on a branch breaking out in song. I thought it would be ridiculous." Instead, Collins would perform the songs in the film serving as the narrator. The choice of Collins, a popular and well established adult contemporary artist, led to comparisons with Elton John's earlier music for The Lion King.Tarzan was dubbed in thirty-five languages—the most for any Disney movie at the time, and Collins recorded his songs in French, Italian, German, and Spanish for the dubbed versions of the film's soundtrack. According to Collins, most of the songs he wrote for Tarzan came from improvisation sessions and his reactions while reading the treatment. Three of the songs he wrote, "Son of Man," "Trashin' the Camp," and "Strangers Like Me," were based on his initial impressions after he read the source material. The other two songs were "You'll Be in My Heart," a lullaby sung to Tarzan by Kala (voiced by Glenn Close), and "Two Worlds," a song Collins wrote to serve as the anthem for Tarzan.
The instrumental scoring for the film was composed by Mark Mancina, who had previously produced music for The Lion King, and the musical of the same name. Mancina and Collins worked closely to create music that would complement the film's setting, and used many obscure instruments from Mancina's personal collection in the score. "The idea of score and song arrangement came together as one entity, as Phil and I worked in tandem to create what's heard in the film," Mancina said.
On June 12, 1999, the film premiered at the El Capitan Theater with the cast and filmmakers as attendees followed by a forty-minute concert with Phil Collins performing songs from the film. On July 23, 1999, Disney launched a digital projection release of Tarzan released only in three theatrical venues including Walt Disney World's Pleasure Island multiplex for three weeks. Although Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace and An Ideal Husband were given earlier digital projection releases despite being shot on photographic film, Tarzan was notable for being the first major feature release to have been produced, mastered, and projected digitally.
Disney Consumer Products released a series of toys, books, and stuffed animals for Tarzan, partnering with Mattel to produce a line of plush toys and action figures. Mattel also produced the Rad Repeatin' Tarzan action figure, but discontinued it after complaints regarding the toy's onanistic arm motions. Continuing its advertising alliance with McDonald's, its promotional campaign began on the film's opening day with several toys accompanied with Happy Meals and soda straws that replicated the Tarzan yell. Disney also worked with Nestle to create Tarzan themed candies, including a banana-flavored chocolate bar. In early 2000, Disney partnered again with McDonald's to release a set of eight Happy Meal toys as a tie-in for the film's home video. They also offered Tarzan themed food options, such as banana sundaes and jungle burgers.
On February 1, 2000, the film was released on VHS and DVD. The DVD version contained bonus material, including the "Strangers Like Me" music video, the making of "Trashin' the Camp" featuring Collins and 'N Sync, and an interactive trivia game. A 2-Disc Collector's Edition was released on April 18, 2000. It included an audio commentary track recorded by the filmmakers, behind-the-scenes footage, and supplements that detailed the legacy of Tarzan and the film's development. Both editions were retired on January 31, 2002 and put in the Disney Vault. On October 15, 2005, Disney released the Tarzan Special Edition on DVD. Tarzan's first Blu-ray edition was released throughout Europe in early 2012, and on August 12, 2014 Disney released the Tarzan Special Edition on Blu-ray, DVD, and Digital HD.
Pre-release tracking indicated that Tarzan was appealing to all four major demographics noticeably for the first time for a Disney animated film since the release of The Lion King. The film's limited release was on June 16, 1999, and the wide release followed on June 18, 1999, in 3,005 screens. During the weekend of June 18–21, Tarzan grossed .1 million ranking first on its opening weekend notably grossing higher than Mulan and A Bug's Life in their respective box office weekends, and ranked second in Disney animated box office openings behind The Lion King, which earned .9 million. By August 1999, the domestic gross was projected to approach 0 million, whereas in the following month, Disney executives expected the film to gross between 0 million to 0 million worldwide. Ultimately, the film closed its box office run with 8,191,819 worldwide.
Rotten Tomatoes reported that 88% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 104 reviews, with an average score of 7.6/10. The critical consensus reads that "Disney's Tarzan takes the well-known story to a new level with spirited animation, a brisk pace, and some thrilling action set-pieces."Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 from top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated a score of 79 based on 27 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
Entertainment Weekly compared the film's advancement in visual effects to that of The Matrix, stating that it had "the neatest computer-generated background work since Keanu Reeves did the backstroke in slow motion." They elaborate by describing how the characters moved seamlessly through the backgrounds themselves, giving the film a unique three-dimensional feel that far surpassed the quality of previous live-action attempts.Roger Ebert gave the film 4 stars, and he had similar comments about the film, describing it as representing "another attempt by Disney to push the envelope of animation", with scenes that "move through space with a freedom undreamed of in older animated films, and unattainable by any live-action process." Awarding the film three stars, James Berardinelli wrote: "From a purely visual standpoint, this may be the most impressive of all of Disney's traditionally animated features. The backdrops are lush, the characters are well realized, and the action sequences are dizzying, with frequent changes of perspectives and camera angles. No conventional animated film has been this ambitious before."Desson Howe, writing for The Washington Post, claimed the film "isn't up there with Aladdin, The Lion King and The Little Mermaid, but it's easily above the riffraff ranks of Hercules and Pocahontas."Todd McCarthy of Variety proved to be less amused by the animation, claiming it was "richly detailed and colorfully conceived, but the computer animation and graphics are often intermingled and combined in ways that are more distracting in their differences than helpful in their vividness."
Lisa Schwarzbaum, who graded the film an A-, applauded the film as "a thrilling saga about a natural man, untainted by the complications of 'civilized' life, who can anticipate changes in the air by sniffing the wind — swings because the Disney team, having sniffed the wind, went out on a limb and kept things simple." Peter Stack of the San Francisco Chronicle admired the film for tackling "meanings of family relationships and ideas about society, guardianship and compassion" and "cunning and greed and the ultimate evil", as well as remaining faithful to Burroughs's original novel.Kenneth Turan of Los Angeles Times wrote that the "story unfolds with dangers as well as warm humor; a jungle jam session called 'Trashin' the Camp' is especially hard to resist. We may have seen it all before, but when it's done up like this, experiencing it all over again is a pleasure." In similarity, Janet Maslin, reviewing for The New York Times, opined that "Tarzan initially looks and sounds like more of the same, to the point where Phil Collins is singing the words 'trust your heart' by the third line of his opening song. But it proves to be one of the more exotic blooms in the Disney hothouse, what with voluptuous flora, hordes of fauna, charming characters and excitingly kinetic animation that gracefully incorporates computer-generated motion."
The Radio Times review was not positive, stating the film "falls way short of Disney's best output" and featured "weak comic relief". The review concluded: "Lacking the epic sweep of Mulan or The Lion King, and laced with feeble background songs from Phil Collins (inexplicably awarded an Oscar), this King of the Swingers may be merchandise-friendly, but it's no jungle VIP." Michael Wilmington of the Chicago Tribune, while giving the film three stars, wrote that Tarzan "lacks that special pizazz that the string of Disney cartoon features from The Little Mermaid through The Lion King all had". He found faults in the film's politically correct storyline, lack of romantic tension between Tarzan and Jane, and the songs by Phil Collins, comparing them unfavorably with Elton John's "showstoppers" for The Lion King. He wrote "depriving the characters of big numbers weakens the movie".
Ty Burr of Entertainment Weekly gave the soundtrack a B-, stating that it was awkwardly split between Collins's songs and the traditional score, was burdened by too many alternate versions of the tracks, and in some instances bore similarities to the scores of The Lion King and Star Wars.
Tarzan was also nominated for 11 Annie Awards, winning one in the category for Technical Achievement in the Field of Animation. The award was given to Eric Daniels, who developed the Deep Canvas animation process for the film.Phil Collins was nominated for a Kids Choice Award for his song "Two Worlds", but lost to Will Smith's song "Wild Wild West." Rosie O'Donnell, the host of the 2000 Kids Choice Awards, was nominated for her voicework as Tarzan's best friend, Terk. She won the award for Favorite Voice From an Animated Movie, beating out both Tim Allen and Tom Hanks, the voices of Buzz Lightyear and Woody from Toy Story 2.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
Main article: Tarzan (Disney franchise)
A spin-off animated series named The Legend of Tarzan ran from 2001 to 2003. The series picks up where the film left off, with Tarzan adjusting to his new role as leader of the apes following Kerchak's death, and Jane (whom he has since married) adjusting to life in the jungle. In July 1999, Disney announced that they were planning a sequel for Tarzan. In 2002, Tarzan & Jane was released as a direct-to-video sequel, with Michael T. Weiss replacing Goldwyn as the voice of Tarzan. Tarzan II, a direct-to-video follow-up, was released in 2005.
A Broadway musical produced by Disney Theatrical, also titled Tarzan, began previews on March 24, 2006. It had an official opening night on May 10 of the same year. After running for over a year on Broadway, the show closed on July 8, 2007.
Five Tarzan video games have been released on various platforms. Tarzan's home is also featured as a playable world in the 2002 game Kingdom Hearts, and in the 2013 HD remake Kingdom Hearts HD 1.5 Remix, in which Goldwyn and Blessed reprised their roles.
- ^ Tarzan is mentioned as being eighteen years old in the movie, with the main story taking place in 1882, therefore Tarzan would've been born in 1864, and the shipwreck occurring in 1865 at the latest. However, The Legend of Tarzan indicates that this film is set in 1911 as Tarzan and Jane celebrate their one-year anniversary in 1912, the year Tarzan of the Apes was first published.
- ^ The movie has clear Victorian elements, and the Porters tell Tarzan that on returning to England he will be a celebrity who everyone from Charles Darwin to Rudyard Kipling and Queen Victoria will want to meet. Charles Darwin's death occurred in 1882 and Victoria died in 1901, which is a clear ten years before the supposed events of the book, although by Burroughs's own admission on the first page of the book, the books' story elements were changed on the account that the story was told to him and that the story may have been true. However, Kipling did not publish his first collection of poems until 1886, which was four years after Darwin's death in 1882. Aside from the Kipling reference, however, the elements are remarkably consistent; the penny-farthing bike is a type of bicycle with a large front wheel and a much smaller rear wheel that was popular in the 1880s. The first Penny-farthing was invented in 1871 by British engineer, James Starley. The magic lantern technology was mostly developed in the 17th century and commonly used for entertainment purposes. It was increasingly applied to educational purposes during the 19th century before being replaced by slide projectors. Most tellingly, the comet that Jane and Porter show Tarzan through a telescope pins the date of the main story down to 1882. Two of the magic lantern plates show the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower, which weren't completed until 1886 and 1889 respectively.
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