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AS M E B PVC . I I I . 3- 20 1 7
SE C TI O N I I I
Rules for Construction of N u cl ear Faci l i ty C om pon e n ts
201 7
ASME Bo i l e r a n d Pr e s s u r e Ve s s e l C o d e
An I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o d e D i vi si on 3
Containment Systems for Transpor tation and Storage of Spent N u clear Fuel and H igh-Level Radioactive M aterial
Markings such as “ASME,” “ASME Standard,” or any other marking including “ASME,” ASME logos, or the Certification Mark shall not be used on any item that is not constructed in accordance with all of the applicable requirements of the Code or Standard. Use of ASME’s name, logos, or Certification Mark requires formal ASME certification; if no certification program is available, such ASME markings may not be used. (For Certification and Accreditation Programs, see https://www.asme.org/shop/certification accreditation.)  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Items produced by parties not formally certified by ASME may not be described, either explicitly or implicitly, as ASME certified or approved in any code forms or other document.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AN I N TERN ATI ON AL CODE
2017 ASM E Boi ler & Pressu re Vessel Cod e 2 017 Ed i ti on
J u ly 1, 2 017
III RU LES FOR CON STRU CTI ON OF N U CLEAR FACI LI TY COM PON EN TS
Di vi si on 3 Con tai n m en t System s for Tran sportati on an d Storag e of Spen t N u clear Fu el an d H i g h -Level Rad i oacti ve M ateri al ASM E Boi ler an d Pressu re Vessel Com m i ttee
on Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
Two Park Avenue • New York, NY • 1 001 6 USA
Date of Issuance: July 1, 2017
This international code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards and it is an American National Standard. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. ASME does not “ approve,” “rate,” or “endorse ” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility. Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard. ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. The endnotes and preamble in this document (if any) are part of this American National Standard.
ASME collective membership mark
Certification Mark
The above ASME symbol is registered in the U.S. Patent Office. ASME ” is the trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-3934 Printed in the United States of America Adopted by the Council of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1914; latest edition 2017. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990
Copyright © 2017 by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS All rights reserved
TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statement of Policy on the Use of the Certification Mark and Code Authorization in Advertising . . . . . . . . . . Statement of Policy on the Use of ASME Marking to Identify Manufactured Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of Section III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Changes in Record Order Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross-Referencing and Stylistic Changes in the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xv xvii xix xix xx xxiii xlii xlv l li
...................................................
1
Article WA-1000
Scope of Division 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature of These Rules and Containment Systems to Which They Are Applicable . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limits of These Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of Code Editions and Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Article WA-2000
Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 3 3 3 4
Article WA-3000
Responsibilities and Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibilities Vs. Legal Liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding and Subcontracting of Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibilities of an N3 Certificate Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Categories of the N3 Certificate Holder s Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Obtaining a Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compliance With This Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fabrication Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibility for Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N3 Certificate Holder s Responsibility for Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibilities of an NPT Certificate Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Categories of an NPT Certificate Holder s Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Obtaining a Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compliance With This Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibility for Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation of Quality Assurance Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Subsection WA
WA-1100 WA-1110 WA-1120 WA-1130 WA-1140 WA-1150 WA-1200 WA-1210 WA-1220 WA-1230 WA-2100 WA-2110 WA-2120 WA-2130 WA-3100 WA-3110 WA-3120 WA-3130 WA-3300 WA-3320 WA-3330 WA-3340 WA-3350 WA-3360 WA-3370 WA-3380 WA-3390 WA-3400 WA-3420 WA-3430 WA-3440 WA-3450 WA-3460
General Requirements



iii
WA-3470 WA-3800 WA-3810 WA-3820
Data Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope and Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 10 10 11
Article WA-4000
WA-4100 WA-4110 WA-4120 WA-4130
Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope and Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Establishment and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 12 12 12 12
Article WA-5000
Authorized Inspection
................................................... Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance of Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access for Inspection Agency Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Duties of Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Inspection Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Categories of Inspector s Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Work, Design Specifications, Design Reports, and Fabrication Specifications Quality Assurance Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualification Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials, Parts, and Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examinations and Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibilities of the Authorized Inspection Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16
WA-5100 WA-5110 WA-5120 WA-5130 WA-5200 WA-5210 WA-5220 WA-5230 WA-5240 WA-5250 WA-5260 WA-5270 WA-5280 WA-5290 WA-5300

Article WA-7000
Reference Standards
.................................................... General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17 17
Article WA-8000
Certificates of Authorization, Nameplates, Certification Mark, and Data Reports
Authorization to Perform Code Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection Agreement Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Assurance Program Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application for Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation for Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Issuance of Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renewal of Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nameplates and Stamping With Certification Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nameplates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nameplates for Certification Mark With NPT Designator Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removable Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22
Article WA-9000
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29 29 29
WA-7100
WA-8100 WA-8110 WA-8120 WA-8130 WA-8140 WA-8150 WA-8160 WA-8170 WA-8180 WA-8200 WA-8210 WA-8220 WA-8230 WA-8300 WA-8310 WA-8330 WA-8400 WA-8410 WA-9100 WA-9200
iv
....................................
31
Article WB-1000
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limits of Rules for Class TC Transportation Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boundaries of Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31 31 31 31
Article WB-2000
................................................................ General Requirements for Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Principal Terms Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Containment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deterioration of Material in Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment to Enhance Impact Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures for Heat Treatment of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Not Performing a Containment Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Test Coupons and Specimens for Ferritic Steel Material and Ductile Cast Iron Heat Treatment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure for Obtaining Test Coupons and Specimens for Quenched and Tempered Material and for Ductile Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fracture Toughness Requirements for Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material to Be Toughness Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Requirements and Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of Toughness Tests Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration of Instruments and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storage and Handling of Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Containment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Containment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination After Quenching and Tempering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Forgings and Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products and Fittings . . . Examination and Repair of Cast Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Bolts, Studs, and Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Organization s Quality System Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation and Maintenance of Quality System Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensional Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 35
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loading Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Design Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Limits for Other Than Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Limits for Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzles or Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Welded Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56 56 56 57 57 61 61 64 74 75 76
Subsection WB
WB-1100 WB-1120 WB-1130
WB-2100 WB-2110 WB-2120 WB-2130 WB-2140 WB-2150 WB-2160 WB-2170 WB-2180 WB-2190 WB-2200 WB-2210 WB-2220
WB-2300 WB-2310 WB-2320 WB-2330 WB-2340 WB-2350 WB-2360 WB-2400 WB-2410 WB-2420 WB-2430 WB-2440 WB-2500 WB-2510 WB-2520 WB-2530 WB-2540 WB-2550 WB-2570 WB-2580 WB-2600 WB-2610 WB-2700 Article WB-3000
WB-3100 WB-3110 WB-3120 WB-3130 WB-3200 WB-3210 WB-3220 WB-3230 WB-3240 WB-3250
Class TC Transportation Containments
Material

v
36 37 37 37 38 40 41 41 41 41 41 42 45 45 45 46 46 47 49 52 53 55 55 55
WB-3260 WB-3700
Special Containment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79 79
WB-4100 WB-4110 WB-4120 WB-4130 WB-4200 WB-4210 WB-4220 WB-4230 WB-4240 WB-4300 WB-4310 WB-4320 WB-4330 WB-4400 WB-4410 WB-4420 WB-4430 WB-4450 WB-4600 WB-4610 WB-4620 WB-4630 WB-4700 WB-4710 WB-4720
Article WB-4000
Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification of Materials and Fabrication by Certificate Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming, Fitting, and Aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cutting, Forming, and Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting and Aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Weld Joints in Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Qualifications, Records, and Identifying Stamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements for Welding Procedure Qualification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules Governing Making, Examining, and Repairing Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precautions to Be Taken Before Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules for Making Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding of Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Weld Metal Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Preheat Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment of Welds Other Than the Final Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolting and Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolting Flanged Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 85 87 92 92 92 94 97 97 97 98 99 101 101 101 111 111 111 111
Article WB-5000
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Requirements for Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures, Qualifications, and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time of Examination of Welds and Weld Metal Cladding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Weld Edge Preparation Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Adjacent Base Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Examination of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category A Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category B Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category C Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category D Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet, Partial Penetration, Socket, and Attachment Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiographic Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ultrasonic Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Particle Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Penetrant Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Examination of Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination After Hydrostatic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualifications and Certification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel Qualification, Certification, and Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
112 112 112 112 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 116 117 117 117 118
Article WB-6000
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
119 119 119
WB-5100 WB-5110 WB-5120 WB-5130 WB-5140 WB-5200 WB-5210 WB-5220 WB-5230 WB-5240 WB-5260 WB-5270 WB-5300 WB-5320 WB-5330 WB-5340 WB-5350 WB-5400 WB-5410 WB-5500 WB-5510 WB-5520 WB-5530 WB-6100 WB-6110
vi
WB-6120 WB-6130 WB-6200 WB-6210 WB-6220 WB-6300 WB-6310 WB-6320 WB-6400 WB-6410 WB-6600 WB-6610 WB-6620 WB-6700 WB-6710
Testing of Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation for Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Test Pressure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Test Pressure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................ Special Test Pressure Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Containments Designed for External Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing of Combination Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helium Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
119 119 120 120 120 120 120 120 121 121 121 121 121 121 121
Article WB-8000
Nameplates, Stamping With Certification Mark, and Reports
................ General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
122 122
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123
WC-1100 WC-1120 WC-1130
Article WC-1000
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limits of Rules for Class SC Storage Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boundaries of Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
123 123 123 123
Article WC-2000
Material
................................................................ General Requirements for Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Principal Terms Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Containment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deterioration of Material in Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment to Enhance Impact Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures for Heat Treatment of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attachment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Test Coupons and Specimens for Ferritic Steel Material and Ductile Cast Iron Heat Treatment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure for Obtaining Test Coupons and Specimens for Quenched and Tempered Material and for Ductile Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fracture Toughness Requirements for Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material to Be Impact Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Requirements and Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of Impact Tests Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration of Instruments and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storage and Handling of Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Containment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Containment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Forgings and Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125 125 125 125 126 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 127
WB-8100
Subsection WC
WC-2100 WC-2110 WC-2120 WC-2130 WC-2140 WC-2150 WC-2160 WC-2170 WC-2180 WC-2190 WC-2200 WC-2210 WC-2220
WC-2300 WC-2310 WC-2320 WC-2330 WC-2340 WC-2350 WC-2360 WC-2400 WC-2410 WC-2420 WC-2430 WC-2440 WC-2500 WC-2510 WC-2530 WC-2540
Class SC Storage Containments
vii
128 129 129 130 131 132 133 133 133 133 134 135 137 137 137 137 139
WC-2550
Examination and Repair of Seamless and Welded (Without Filler Metal) Tubular Products and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Tubular Products and Fittings Welded With Filler Metal Examination and Repair of Cast Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Bolts, Studs, and Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Organizations Quality System Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation and Maintenance of Quality System Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensional Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
140 142 143 144 145 145 145
WC-3100 WC-3110 WC-3120 WC-3130 WC-3200 WC-3210 WC-3220 WC-3230 WC-3250 WC-3260 WC-3700
Article WC-3000
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loading Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Design Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Rules for Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Openings and Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Welded Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Containment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146 146 146 147 147 150 150 153 160 161 164 165
Article WC-4000
Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
166 166 166 166 167 167 167 168 171 172 175 175 180 181 183 183 183 184 187 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 189 199 199 199 200
Article WC-5000
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
201 201 201 201
WC-2560 WC-2570 WC-2580 WC-2600 WC-2610 WC-2700
WC-4100 WC-4110 WC-4120 WC-4130 WC-4200 WC-4210 WC-4220 WC-4230 WC-4260 WC-4300 WC-4310 WC-4320 WC-4330 WC-4400 WC-4410 WC-4420 WC-4430 WC-4450 WC-4500 WC-4510 WC-4520 WC-4530 WC-4540 WC-4600 WC-4610 WC-4620 WC-4630 WC-4700 WC-4710 WC-4720
WC-5100 WC-5110 WC-5120

General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification of Materials and Fabrication by Certificate Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming, Cutting, and Aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cutting, Forming, and Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting and Aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Weld Joints in Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Qualifications, Records, and Identifying Stamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements for Welding Procedure Qualification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules Governing Making, Examining, and Repairing Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precautions to Be Taken Before Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules for Making Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding of Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Weld Metal Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazing Qualification Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting and Aligning of Parts to Be Brazed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Brazed Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Preheat Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment of Welds Other Than the Final Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolting and Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolting Flanged Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements for Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures, Qualifications, and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time of Examination of Welds and Weld Metal Cladding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
WC-5130 WC-5140 WC-5200 WC-5210 WC-5220 WC-5230 WC-5240 WC-5250 WC-5260 WC-5270 WC-5300 WC-5320 WC-5330 WC-5340 WC-5350 WC-5360 WC-5400 WC-5410 WC-5500 WC-5510 WC-5520 WC-5530
Examination of Weld Edge Preparation Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Adjacent Base Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Examination of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category A Longitudinal Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category B Circumferential Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category C Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category D Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Containment Closure Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet, Partial Penetration, Socket, and Attachment Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Welds and Brazed Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiographic Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ultrasonic Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Particle Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Penetrant Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual Acceptance Standards for Brazed Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Examination of Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination After Pressure Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualifications and Certification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel Qualification, Certification, and Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
203 203 203 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 205 205 205 205 205 206 206 206 206 206 206 207
Article WC-6000
Testing
................................................................. General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing of Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation for Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Test Pressure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic Test Pressure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................ Special Test Pressure Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Containments Designed for External Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Testing of Combination Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helium Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Containment Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
208 208 208 208 208 209 209 209 209 209 209 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 211
Article WC-8000
Nameplates, Stamping With Certification Mark, and Reports
................ General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
212 212
.....................................
213
WD-1100 WD-1110 WD-1120 WD-1130
Article WD-1000
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope and General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limits of Rules for Class ISS Internal Support Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boundaries of Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
213 213 213 213 213
Article WD-2000
Material
................................................................ General Requirements for Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Principal Terms Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material for Internal Support Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
215 215 215 215 216
WC-6100 WC-6110 WC-6120 WC-6130 WC-6200 WC-6210 WC-6220 WC-6300 WC-6310 WC-6320 WC-6400 WC-6410 WC-6600 WC-6610 WC-6620 WC-6700 WC-6710 WC-6720 WC-8100
Subsection WD
WD-2100 WD-2110 WD-2120 WD-2130
Class ISS Internal Support Structures
ix
WD-2140 WD-2150 WD-2160 WD-2170 WD-2180 WD-2190 WD-2200 WD-2210 WD-2220
Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deterioration of Material in Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment to Enhance Impact Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures for Heat Treatment of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temporary Attachment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Test Coupons and Specimens for Ferritic Steel Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure for Obtaining Test Coupons and Specimens for Quenched and Tempered Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fracture Toughness Requirements for Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material to Be Impact Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Requirements and Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of Impact Tests Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration of Instruments and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storage and Handling of Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Internal Support Structure Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Internal Support Structure Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination After Quenching and Tempering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Forgings and Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination and Repair of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products and Fittings . . . Examination of Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Organizations Quality System Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation and Maintenance of Quality System Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216 216 216 216 216 216 216 216
231 231 231 232 232 233 233
WD-3300 WD-3310
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements for Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loading Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Design Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Rules for Plate- and Shell-Type Internal Support Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design by Analysis Requirements for Plate- and Shell-Type Internal Support Structure Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Requirements for Plate- and Shell-Type Internal Support Structure Bolted Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Requirements for Plate- and Shell-Type Internal Support Structure Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Rules for Linear-Type Internal Support Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Article WD-4000
Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
255 255 255 255 255 256 256 257
WD-2300 WD-2310 WD-2320 WD-2330 WD-2340 WD-2350 WD-2360 WD-2400 WD-2410 WD-2420 WD-2430 WD-2440 WD-2500 WD-2510 WD-2520 WD-2530 WD-2540 WD-2550 WD-2580 WD-2600 WD-2610 Article WD-3000
WD-3100 WD-3110 WD-3120 WD-3130 WD-3200 WD-3210 WD-3220 WD-3230 WD-3240
WD-4100 WD-4110 WD-4120 WD-4130 WD-4200 WD-4210 WD-4230

General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification of Material and Fabrication by Certificate Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming, Fitting, and Aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cutting, Forming, and Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting and Aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
217 218 218 218 219 220 221 221 221 221 221 222 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 229 230 230
236 247 251 254 254
WD-4300 WD-4310 WD-4320 WD-4330 WD-4400 WD-4410 WD-4420 WD-4430 WD-4440 WD-4450 WD-4500 WD-4600 WD-4610 WD-4620 WD-4630 WD-4650 WD-4700 WD-4710 WD-4720
Welding Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Qualifications, Records, and Identifying Stamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements for Welding Procedure Qualification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules Governing Making, Examining, and Repairing Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precautions to Be Taken Before Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules for Making Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding of Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Requirements for Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Weld Metal Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Preheat and Interpass Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment of Welds Other Than the Final Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . Heat Treatment After Bending or Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolting and Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
257 257 258 258 261 261 261 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 269 269 269 269 269
Article WD-5000
Examination
271 271 271 271 271 272 272 272
WD-5230 WD-5260 WD-5270 WD-5300 WD-5320 WD-5330 WD-5340 WD-5350 WD-5360 WD-5500 WD-5510 WD-5520 WD-5530
............................................................ General Requirements for Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures, Qualifications, and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time of Examination of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Weld Edge Preparation Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examination of Adjacent Base Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Examination of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permissible Examination Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Radiography or Ultrasonic and Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Surface Visual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiographic Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ultrasonic Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Particle Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Penetrant Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual Examination Acceptance Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualifications and Certification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel Qualification, Certification, and Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Article WD-8000
Nameplates, Stamping With Certification Mark, and Report
................. General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
277 277
Form of Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Delta Ferrite Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial Propagation of Sound in Tube Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories and Limits of Stress Intensity for Design Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories and Limits of Stress Intensity for Normal Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories and Limits of Stress Intensity for Accident Loadings for Elastic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welded Joint Locations Typical of Categories A, B, C, and D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21 45 50 67 68
WD-5100 WD-5110 WD-5120 WD-5130 WD-5140 WD-5200 WD-5210 WD-5220
WD-8100
FI GU RES
WA-8212-1 WB-2433.1-1 WB-2552.1-1 WB-3221-1 WB-3222-1 WB-3224.1-1 WB-3251-1 WB-3252-1
xi
273 273 273 273 274 274 274 274 274 275 275 275 275 276
72 76 77
WB-3261-1 WB-4221.1-1 WB-4221.2(a)-1 WB-4221.2(a)-2 WB-4233(a)-1 WB-4243-1 WB-4243-2 WB-4244(a)-1 WB-4244(b)-1 WB-4244(c)-1 WB-4244(d)-1 WB-4427-1 WB-4433-1 WB-4622.9(c)(8)-1 WB-4622.9(c)(8)-2 WB-4622.9(f)-1 WB-4622.11(c)(6)-1 WC-2433.1-1 WC-3224.6-1 WC-3225-1 WC-3225-2 WC-3225-3 WC-3232.2-1 WC-3251-1 WC-3251-2 WC-3261-1 WC-4221.1-1 WC-4221.2(a)-1 WC-4221.2(a)-2 WC-4233-1 WC-4265-1 WC-4265-2 WC-4265-3 WC-4266(a)-1 WC-4266(b)-1 WC-4266(c)-1 WC-4266(d)-1 WC-4266(e)-1 WC-4427-1 WC-4433-1 WC-4433-2 WC-4622.10(c)(7)-1 WC-4622.10(c)(7)-2 WC-4622.10(f)-1 WC-4622.12(c)(6)-1 WD-1131-1 WD-2433.1-1 WD-3221-1 WD-3222-1 WD-3224-1
Categories A and B Joints Between Sections of Unequal Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Difference in Cross ‐ Sectional Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Permissible Deviation e From a True Circular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum ARC Length for Determining Plus or Minus Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Butt Weld Alignment and Mismatch Tolerances for Unequal I.D. and O.D. When Items Are Welded From One Side and Fairing Is Not Performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptable Full Penetration Weld Details for Category C Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Flat Heads With Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzles Attached by Full Penetration Butt Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzles Attached by Full Penetration Corner Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deposited Weld Metal Used as Reinforcement of Openings for Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzles Attached by Partial Penetration Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet Weld Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Attachment Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Bead Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualification Test Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement of Dissimilar Metal Welds or Buttering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Delta Ferrite Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Curves for Torispherical Heads and 2:1 Ellipsoidal Heads for Use With WC-3224.8 and WC-3224.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Flat Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Acceptable Types of Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attachment of Flat Heads to Containment Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chart for Determining the Value of F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welded Joint Locations Typical of Categories A, B, C, and D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Categories A and B Joints Between Sections of Unequal Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Difference in Cross ‐ Sectional Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Permissible Deviation e From a True Circular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum ARC Length for Determining Plus or Minus Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Butt Weld Alignment and Mismatch Tolerances for Unequal I.D. and O.D. When Items Are Welded From One Side and Fairing Is Not Performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptable Full Penetration Weld Details for Category C Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Partial Penetration Weld Detail for Category C Flat Head Closure Joints . . . . Typical Flat Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzles Attached by Full Penetration Butt Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full Penetration Corner-Welded Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deposited Weld Metal Used as Reinforcement of Openings for Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . Fittings With Internal Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Penetration Weld Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet and Socket Weld Details and Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Types of Attachment Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Bead Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualification Test Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement of Dissimilar Metal Welds or Buttering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jurisdictional Boundary Between the Internal Support Structure and the Containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Delta Ferrite Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories and Limits of Stress Intensities for Design Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories and Limits of Stress Intensities for Normal Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories and Limits of Stress Intensities for Off-Normal Loadings . . . . . . . . xii
80 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 93 94 99 100 105 106 107 110 138 155 157 158 159 161 162 163 165 169 170 171 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 179 180 185 186 187 194 195 196 198 214 225 238 239 243
WD-4427-1 WD-4441-1 TABLES
WA-4134.17-1 WA-4134.17-2 WA-7100-1 WA-7100-2 WA-8100-1 WB-2331.2-1 WB-2331.2-2 WB-2332(a)-1 WB-2333-1 WB-2432.1-1 WB-2432.2-1 WB-3133.4-1 WB-3217-1 WB-4232-1 WB-4622.1-1 WB-4622.4(c)-1 WB-4622.7(b)-1 WB-5111-1 WC-2311(a)-1 WC-2332.1-1 WC-2332.1-2 WC-2332.3-1 WC-2432.1-1 WC-2432.2-1 WC-3133.4-1 WC-3217-1 WC-3262-1 WC-4232(a)-1 WC-4524-1 WC-4622.1-1 WC-4622.4(c)-1 WC-4622.7(b)-1 WC-5111-1 WD-2331(a)-1 WD-2333-1 WD-2432.1-1 WD-2432.2-1 WD-3217-1 WD-3229.2-1 WD-3234-1 WD-3234.1(d)-1 WD-3234.2-1 WD-3234.3(a)-1 WD-3234.4-1 WD-3235.4-1 WD-3235.5-1 WD-3235.6-1 WD-3240-1 WD-4622.1-1
Fillet Weld Details and Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Inlay and Overlay Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
263 264
Lifetime Quality Assurance Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonpermanent Quality Assurance Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensional Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standards and Specifications Referenced in Division 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authorizations and Certification Mark Issued by the Society for the Construction of Transportation and Storage Components and Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required LST‐ R TN D T Values for Ferritic Steel Material for Containment Material . . . . . Required Fracture Toughness Values for Ferritic Steel Material for Containments Having a Specified Yield Strength of 50 ksi (350 000 kPa) or Less at 100°F (38°C) . . . . . . . . . . Required C v Values for Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required C v Values for Bolting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sampling of Welding Materials for Chemical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Analysis for Welding Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of Spherical Radius Factor, K1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Stress Intensity in Containments for Some Typical Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Allowable Offset in Final Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Holding Temperatures and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exemptions to Mandatory PWHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thickness, IQI Designations, Essential Holes, and Wire Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exemptions From Impact Testing Under WC-2311(a)(7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required C v Lateral Expansion Values for Containment Material Other Than Bolting . . . Required C v Energy Values for Containment Material Other Than Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . Required C v Values for Bolting Material Tested in Accordance With WC-2332.3 . . . . . . . Sampling of Welding Materials for Chemical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Material Chemical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of Spherical Radius Factor, K1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Intensity k Factors for Design and Operating Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Reduction Factors and Examinations for Closure Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Allowable Offset in Final Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Design Temperatures for Brazing Filler Metal, °F (°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Holding Temperatures and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exemptions to Mandatory PWHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thickness, IQI Designations, Essential Holes, and Wire Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required C v Values for Internal Support Structure Material With 2 in. (50 mm) Maximum Thickness (Other Than Bolting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required C v Values for Bolting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sampling of Welding Materials for Chemical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Material Chemical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Stress Intensities for Some Typical Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of K for Various Boundary Conditions and a /b Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Limit Factors for Bolt Design by Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Slip Coefficient Versus Surface Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Sizes of Bolt Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minimum Edge Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Increment C1 for Minimum Spacing Between Oversized and Slotted Holes . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Loading Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permissible Welded Joints and Design Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) of Welds . . . . . . . . . . .
13 13 17 18
xiii
19 39 39 40 40 43 44 59 65 86 102 102 103 113 130 131 132 132 136 137 149 152 165 172 189 190 191 192 202 219 220 224 224 237 247 248 249 250 250 251 251 252 252 253 266
WD-4622.4(c)-1 WD-4622.7(b)-1 WD-5111-1
FORMS N-7 N-8 N-9 N-11
Alternative Holding Temperatures and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exemptions to Mandatory PWHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thickness, IQI Designations, Essential Holes, and Wire Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
267 268 272
Nuclear Containments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For Class SC or TC Closure Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shop Fabricated Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certificate Holder s Data Report for Internal Support Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23 25 26 28
.................................................................................
279
ENDNOTES

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LI ST OF SECTI ON S
SECTIONS
I
Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
II
Materials • Part A — Ferrous Material Specifications • Part B — Nonferrous Material Specifications • Part C — Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals • Part D — Properties (Customary) • Part D — Properties (Metric)
III
Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components Subsection NCA — General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2 • Appendices • Division 1 – Subsection NB — Class 1 Components – Subsection NC — Class 2 Components – Subsection ND — Class 3 Components – Subsection NE — Class MC Components – Subsection NF — Supports – Subsection NG — Core Support Structures • Division 2 — Code for Concrete Containments • Division 3 — Containment Systems for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material • Division 5 — High Temperature Reactors •
IV
Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
V
Nondestructive Examination
VI
Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VII
Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels • Division 1 • Division 2 — Alternative Rules • Division 3 — Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels IX
Welding, Brazing, and Fusing Qualifications
X
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI
Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
XII
Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks
The 2015 Edition of Section III was the last edition in which Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH, Class 1 Components in Elevated Temwas published. The requirements located within Subsection NH were moved to Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B for the elevated temperature construction of Class A components.
perature Service,
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ð 17Þ
I N TERPRETATI ON S
Interpretations are issued in real time in ASME ’ s Interpretations Database at http://go.asme.org/Interpretations. Historical BPVC interpretations may also be found in the Database. CODE CASES
The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code committees meet regularly to consider proposed additions and revisions to the Code and to formulate Cases to clarify the intent of existing requirements or provide, when the need is urgent, rules for materials or constructions not covered by existing Code rules. Those Cases that have been adopted will appear in the appropriate 2017 Code Cases book: “ Boilers and Pressure Vessels ” or “ Nuclear Components.” Supplements will be sent or made available automatically to the purchasers of the Code Cases books up to the publication of the 2019 Code.
xvi
FOREWORD In 1911, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers established the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee to formulate standard rules for the construction of steam boilers and other pressure vessels. In 2009, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee was superseded by the following committees: (a) Committee on Power Boilers (I) (b) Committee on Materials (II) (c) Committee on Construction of Nuclear Facility Components (III) (d) Committee on Heating Boilers (IV) (e) Committee on Nondestructive Examination (V) (f) Committee on Pressure Vessels (VIII) (g) Committee on Welding, Brazing, and Fusing (IX) (h) Committee on Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (X) (i) Committee on Nuclear Inservice Inspection (XI) (j) Committee on Transport Tanks (XII) (k) Technical Oversight Management Committee (TOMC) Where reference is made to “ the Committee ” in this Foreword, each of these committees is included individually and collectively. The Committee ’ s function is to establish rules of safety relating only to pressure integrity, which govern the construction of boilers, pressure vessels, transport tanks, and nuclear components, and the inservice inspection of nuclear components and transport tanks. The Committee also interprets these rules when questions arise regarding their intent. The technical consistency of the Sections of the Code and coordination of standards development activities of the Committees is supported and guided by the Technical Oversight Management Committee. This Code does not address other safety issues relating to the construction of boilers, pressure vessels, transport tanks, or nuclear components, or the inservice inspection of nuclear components or transport tanks. Users of the Code should refer to the pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other relevant documents for safety issues other than those relating to pressure integrity. Except for Sections XI and XII, and with a few other exceptions, the rules do not, of practical necessity, reflect the likelihood and consequences of deterioration in service related to specific service fluids or external operating environments. In formulating the rules, the Committee considers the needs of users, manufacturers, and inspectors of pressure vessels. The objective of the rules is to afford reasonably certain protection of life and property, and to provide a margin for deterioration in service to give a reasonably long, safe period of usefulness. Advancements in design and materials and evidence of experience have been recognized. This Code contains mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and nonmandatory guidance for construction activities and inservice inspection and testing activities. The Code does not address all aspects of these activities and those aspects that are not specifically addressed should not be considered prohibited. The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace education, experience, and the use of engineering judgment. The phrase engineering judgment refers to technical judgments made by knowledgeable engineers experienced in the application of the Code. Engineering judgments must be consistent with Code philosophy, and such judgments must never be used to overrule mandatory requirements or specific prohibitions of the Code. The Committee recognizes that tools and techniques used for design and analysis change as technology progresses and expects engineers to use good judgment in the application of these tools. The designer is responsible for complying with Code rules and demonstrating compliance with Code equations when such equations are mandatory. The Code neither requires nor prohibits the use of computers for the design or analysis of components constructed to the
The information contained in this Foreword is not part of this American National Standard (ANS) and has not been processed in accordance with ANSI's requirements for an ANS. Therefore, this Foreword may contain material that has not been subjected to public review or a consensus process. In addition, it does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Code. Construction , as used in this Foreword, is an all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification, and pressure relief.
xvii
requirements of the Code. However, designers and engineers using computer programs for design or analysis are cautioned that they are responsible for all technical assumptions inherent in the programs they use and the application of these programs to their design. The rules established by the Committee are not to be interpreted as approving, recommending, or endorsing any proprietary or specific design, or as limiting in any way the manufacturer s freedom to choose any method of design or any form of construction that conforms to the Code rules. The Committee meets regularly to consider revisions of the rules, new rules as dictated by technological development, Code Cases, and requests for interpretations. Only the Committee has the authority to provide official interpretations of this Code. Requests for revisions, new rules, Code Cases, or interpretations shall be addressed to the Secretary in writing and shall give full particulars in order to receive consideration and action (see Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees). Proposed revisions to the Code resulting from inquiries will be presented to the Committee for appropriate action. The action of the Committee becomes effective only after confirmation by ballot of the Committee and approval by ASME. Proposed revisions to the Code approved by the Committee are submitted to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and published at http://go.asme.org/BPVCPublicReview to invite comments from all interested persons. After public review and final approval by ASME, revisions are published at regular intervals in Editions of the Code. The Committee does not rule on whether a component shall or shall not be constructed to the provisions of the Code. The scope of each Section has been established to identify the components and parameters considered by the Committee in formulating the Code rules. Questions or issues regarding compliance of a specific component with the Code rules are to be directed to the ASME Certificate Holder (Manufacturer). Inquiries concerning the interpretation of the Code are to be directed to the Committee. ASME is to be notified should questions arise concerning improper use of an ASME Certification Mark. When required by context in this Section, the singular shall be interpreted as the plural, and vice versa, and the feminine, masculine, or neuter gender shall be treated as such other gender as appropriate. ’
xviii
STATEM EN T OF POLI CY ON TH E U SE OF TH E CERTI FI CATI ON M ARK AN D CODE AU TH ORI ZATI ON I N ADVERTI SI N G
ASME has established procedures to authorize qualified organizations to perform various activities in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. It is the aim of the Society to provide recognition of organizations so authorized. An organization holding authorization to perform various activities in accordance with the requirements of the Code may state this capability in its advertising literature. Organizations that are authorized to use the Certification Mark for marking items or constructions that have been constructed and inspected in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are issued Certificates of Authorization. It is the aim of the Society to maintain the standing of the Certification Mark for the benefit of the users, the enforcement jurisdictions, and the holders of the Certification Mark who comply with all requirements. Based on these objectives, the following policy has been established on the usage in advertising of facsimiles of the Certification Mark, Certificates of Authorization, and reference to Code construction. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers does not “ approve,” “certify,” “rate,” or “ endorse ” any item, construction, or activity and there shall be no statements or implications that might so indicate. An organization holding the Certification Mark and/or a Certificate of Authorization may state in advertising literature that items, constructions, or activities “ are built (produced or performed) or activities conducted in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,” or “ meet the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.” An ASME corporate logo shall not be used by any organization other than ASME. The Certification Mark shall be used only for stamping and nameplates as specifically provided in the Code. However, facsimiles may be used for the purpose of fostering the use of such construction. Such usage may be by an association or a society, or by a holder of the Certification Mark who may also use the facsimile in advertising to show that clearly specified items will carry the Certification Mark. General usage is permitted only when all of a manufacturer’ s items are constructed under the rules.
STATEM EN T OF POLI CY ON TH E U SE OF ASM E M ARKI N G TO I DEN TI FY M AN U FACTU RED I TEM S
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of boilers, pressure vessels, and nuclear components. This includes requirements for materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, and stamping. Items constructed in accordance with all of the applicable rules of the Code are identified with the official Certification Mark described in the governing Section of the Code. Markings such as “ASME,” “ASME Standard,” or any other marking including “ASME ” or the Certification Mark shall not be used on any item that is not constructed in accordance with all of the applicable requirements of the Code. Items shall not be described on ASME Data Report Forms nor on similar forms referring to ASME that tend to imply that all Code requirements have been met when, in fact, they have not been. Data Report Forms covering items not fully complying with ASME requirements should not refer to ASME or they should clearly identify all exceptions to the ASME requirements.
xix
ð 17Þ
SU BM I TTAL OF TECH N I CAL I N QU I RI ES TO TH E BOI LER AN D PRESSU RE VESSEL STAN DARDS COM M I TTEES
1
I N TRODU CTI ON
(a) The following information provides guidance to Code users for submitting technical inquiries to the applicable Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Standards Committee (hereinafter referred to as the Committee). See the guidelines on approval of new materials under the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in Section II, Part D for requirements for requests that involve adding new materials to the Code. See the guidelines on approval of new welding and brazing materials in Section II, Part C for requirements for requests that involve adding new welding and brazing materials (“ consumables ” ) to the Code. Technical inquiries can include requests for revisions or additions to the Code requirements, requests for Code Cases, or requests for Code Interpretations, as described below: (1 ) Code Revisions. Code revisions are considered to accommodate technological developments, to address administrative requirements, to incorporate Code Cases, or to clarify Code intent. (2) Code Cases. Code Cases represent alternatives or additions to existing Code requirements. Code Cases are written as a Question and Reply, and are usually intended to be incorporated into the Code at a later date. When used, Code Cases prescribe mandatory requirements in the same sense as the text of the Code. However, users are cautioned that not all regulators, jurisdictions, or Owners automatically accept Code Cases. The most common applications for Code Cases are as follows: (-a) to permit early implementation of an approved Code revision based on an urgent need (-b) to permit use of a new material for Code construction (-c) to gain experience with new materials or alternative requirements prior to incorporation directly into the Code (3) Code Interpretations
(-a) Code Interpretations provide clarification of the meaning of existing requirements in the Code and are presented in Inquiry and Reply format. Interpretations do not introduce new requirements. (-b) If existing Code text does not fully convey the meaning that was intended, or conveys conflicting requirements, and revision of the requirements is required to support the Interpretation, an Intent Interpretation will be issued in parallel with a revision to the Code. (b) Code requirements, Code Cases, and Code Interpretations established by the Committee are not to be considered as approving, recommending, certifying, or endorsing any proprietary or specific design, or as limiting in any way the freedom of manufacturers, constructors, or Owners to choose any method of design or any form of construction that conforms to the Code requirements. (c) Inquiries that do not comply with the following guidance or that do not provide sufficient information for the Committee ’ s full understanding may result in the request being returned to the Inquirer with no action.
2
I N QU I RY FORM AT
Submittals to the Committee should include the following information: Specify one of the following: (1 ) request for revision of present Code requirements (2) request for new or additional Code requirements (3) request for Code Case (4) request for Code Interpretation (b) Background. The Inquirer should provide the information needed for the Committee ’ s understanding of the Inquiry, being sure to include reference to the applicable Code Section, Division, Edition, Addenda (if applicable), paragraphs, figures, and tables. Preferably, the Inquirer should provide a copy of, or relevant extracts from, the specific referenced portions of the Code. (a) Purpose.
xx
(c) Presentations. The Inquirer may desire to attend or be asked to attend a meeting of the Committee to make a formal presentation or to answer questions from the Committee members with regard to the Inquiry. Attendance at a BPV Standards Committee meeting shall be at the expense of the Inquirer. The Inquirer’ s attendance or lack of attendance at a meeting will not be used by the Committee as a basis for acceptance or rejection of the Inquiry by the Committee. However, if the Inquirer’ s request is unclear, attendance by the Inquirer or a representative may be necessary for the Committee to understand the request sufficiently to be able to provide an Interpretation. If the Inquirer desires to make a presentation at a Committee meeting, the Inquirer should provide advance notice to the Committee Secretary, to ensure time will be allotted for the presentation in the meeting agenda. The Inquirer should consider the need for additional audiovisual equipment that might not otherwise be provided by the Committee. With sufficient advance notice to the Committee Secretary, such equipment may be made available.
3
CODE REVI SI ON S OR ADDI TI ON S
Requests for Code revisions or additions should include the following information: For requested revisions, the Inquirer should identify those requirements of the Code that they believe should be revised, and should submit a copy of, or relevant extracts from, the appropriate requirements as they appear in the Code, marked up with the requested revision. For requested additions to the Code, the Inquirer should provide the recommended wording and should clearly indicate where they believe the additions should be located in the Code requirements. (b) Statement of Need. The Inquirer should provide a brief explanation of the need for the revision or addition. (c) Background Information. The Inquirer should provide background information to support the revision or addition, including any data or changes in technology that form the basis for the request, that will allow the Committee to adequately evaluate the requested revision or addition. Sketches, tables, figures, and graphs should be submitted, as appropriate. The Inquirer should identify any pertinent portions of the Code that would be affected by the revision or addition and any portions of the Code that reference the requested revised or added paragraphs. (a) Requested Revisions or Additions.
4
CODE CASES
Requests for Code Cases should be accompanied by a statement of need and background information similar to that described in 3(b) and 3(c), respectively, for Code revisions or additions. The urgency of the Code Case (e.g., project underway or imminent, new procedure) should be described. In addition, it is important that the request is in connection with equipment that will bear the Certification Mark, with the exception of Section XI applications. The proposed Code Case should identify the Code Section and Division, and should be written as a Question and a Reply, in the same format as existing Code Cases. Requests for Code Cases should also indicate the applicable Code Editions and Addenda (if applicable) to which the requested Code Case applies. 5
CODE I N TERPRETATI ON S
(a) Requests for Code Interpretations should be accompanied by the following information: (1 ) Inquiry. The Inquirer should propose a condensed and precise Inquiry, omitting superfluous
background information and, when possible, composing the Inquiry in such a way that a “ yes ” or a “ no ” Reply, with brief limitations or conditions, if needed, can be provided by the Committee. The proposed question should be technically and editorially correct. (2) Reply. The Inquirer should propose a Reply that clearly and concisely answers the proposed Inquiry question. Preferably, the Reply should be “yes ” or “ no,” with brief limitations or conditions, if needed. (3) Background Information. The Inquirer should provide any need or background information, such as described in 3(b) and 3(c), respectively, for Code revisions or additions, that will assist the Committee in understanding the proposed Inquiry and Reply. If the Inquirer believes a revision of the Code requirements would be helpful to support the Interpretation, the Inquirer may propose such a revision for consideration by the Committee. In most cases, such a proposal is not necessary. (b) Requests for Code Interpretations should be limited to an Interpretation of a particular requirement in the Code or in a Code Case. Except with regard to interpreting a specific Code requirement, the Committee is not permitted to consider consulting-type requests such as the following: (1 ) a review of calculations, design drawings, welding qualifications, or descriptions of equipment or parts to determine compliance with Code requirements xxi
(2) a request for assistance in performing any Code-prescribed functions relating to, but not limited to, material selection, designs, calculations, fabrication, inspection, pressure testing, or installation (3) a request seeking the rationale for Code requirements
6
SU BM I TTALS
(a) Submittal. Requests for Code Interpretation should preferably be submitted through the online Interpretation Submittal Form. The form is accessible at http://go.asme.org/InterpretationRequest. Upon submittal of the form, the Inquirer will receive an automatic e-mail confirming receipt. If the Inquirer is unable to use the online form, the Inquirer may mail the request to the following address:
Secretary ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee Two Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5990 All other Inquiries should be mailed to the Secretary of the BPV Committee at the address above. Inquiries are unlikely to receive a response if they are not written in clear, legible English. They must also include the name of the Inquirer and the company they represent or are employed by, if applicable, and the Inquirer s address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address, if available. (b) Response. The Secretary of the appropriate Committee will provide a written response, via letter or e-mail, as appropriate, to the Inquirer, upon completion of the requested action by the Committee. Inquirers may track the status of their Interpretation Request at http://go.asme.org/Interpretations. ’
xxii
PERSONNEL ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees, Subgroups, and Working Groups January 1, 2017
CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
TECHNICAL OVERSIGHT MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE (TOMC)
T. P. Pastor, Chair S. C. Roberts , Vice Chair J. S. Brzuszkiewicz , Staff Secretary R. W. Barnes R. J. Basile T. L. Bedeaux D. L. Berger D. A. Canonico A. Chaudouet D. B. DeMichael R. P. Deubler P. D. Edwards J. G. Feldstein R. E. Gimple T. E. Hansen G. W. Hembree
D. A. Douin — Ohio , Secretary M. J. Adams — Ontario, Canada J. T. Amato — Minnesota W. Anderson — Mississippi R. D. Austin — Arizona R. J. Brockman — Missouri J. H. Burpee — Maine M. Byrum — Alabama C. B. Cantrell — Nebraska S. Chapman — Tennessee D. C. Cook — California B. J. Crawford — Georgia E. L. Creaser — New Brunswick, Canada J. J. Dacanay — Hawaii C. Dautrich — North Carolina R. Delury — Manitoba, Canada P. L. Dodge — Nova Scotia, Canada D. Eastman — Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada J. J. Esch — Delaware A. G. Frazier — Florida T. J. Granneman II — Oklahoma D. R. Hannon — Arkansas E. G. Hilton — Virginia C. Jackson — City of Detroit, Michigan M. L. Jordan — Kentucky E. Kawa, Jr. — Massachusetts A. Khssassi — Quebec, Canada J. Klug — City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin K. J. Kraft — Maryland K. S. Lane — Alaska L. C. Leet — City of Seattle, Washington
J. F. Henry R. S. Hill III G. G. Karcher W. M. Lundy G. C. Park M. D. Rana R. F. Reedy, Sr. B. W. Roberts F. J. Schaaf, Jr. B. F. Shelley W. J. Sperko D. Srnic R. W. Swayne C. Withers J. E. Batey, Contributing Member
HONORARY MEMBERS (MAIN COMMITTEE)
F. P. Barton T. M. Cullen G. E. Feigel O. F. Hedden M. H. Jawad A. J. Justin
W. G. Knecht J. LeCoff T. G. McCarty G. C. Millman R. A. Moen R. F. Reedy, Sr.
ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE
T. P. Pastor, Chair S. C. Roberts , Vice Chair J. S. Brzuszkiewicz , Staff Secretary R. W. Barnes T. L. Bedeaux D. L. Berger G. W. Hembree
J. LeSage, Jr. — Louisiana A. M. Lorimor — South Dakota M. Mailman — Northwest Territories, Canada D. E. Mallory — New Hampshire W. McGivney — City of New York, New York S. V. Nelson — Colorado A. K. Oda — Washington M. Poehlmann — Alberta, Canada J. F. Porcella — West Virginia C. F. Reyes — City of Los Angeles, California M. J. Ryan — City of Chicago, Illinois D. Sandfoss — Nevada M. H. Sansone — New York A. S. Scholl — British Columbia, Canada T. S. Seime — North Dakota C. S. Selinger — Saskatchewan, Canada J. E. Sharier — Ohio N. Smith — Pennsylvania R. Spiker — North Carolina D. J. Stenrose — Michigan R. J. Stimson II — Kansas R. K. Sturm — Utah S. R. Townsend — Prince Edward Island, Canada R. D. Troutt — Texas M. C. Vogel — Illinois T. Waldbillig — Wisconsin M. Washington — New Jersey
J. F. Henry R. S. Hill III G. C. Park M. D. Rana B. F. Shelley W. J. Sperko
INTERNATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW GROUP
V. Felix Y.-G. Kim S. H. Leong W. Lin O. F. Manafa
MARINE CONFERENCE GROUP
H. N. Patel , Chair J. S. Brzuszkiewicz , Staff Secretary J. G. Hungerbuhler, Jr.
G. Pallichadath N. Prokopuk J. D. Reynolds
xxiii
C. Minu T. S. G. Narayannen Y.-W. Park A. R. R. Nogales P. Williamson
ð
17Þ
COMMITTEE ON POWER BOILERS (BPV I)
D. L. Berger, Chair R. E. McLaughlin , Vice Chair U. D Urso , Staff Secretary J. L. Arnold D. A. Canonico K. K. Coleman P. D. Edwards J. G. Feldstein G. W. Galanes T. E. Hansen J. F. Henry J. S. Hunter G. B. Komora W. L. Lowry F. Massi L. Moedinger P. A. Molvie ’
Subgroup on Materials (BPV I)
Y. Oishi E. M. Ortman J. T. Pillow M. Slater J. M. Tanzosh D. E. Tompkins D. E. Tuttle J. Vattappilly R. V. Wielgoszinski F. Zeller Y. Li , Delegate H. Michael , Delegate B. W. Roberts , Contributing
G. W. Galanes , Chair J. F. Henry, Vice Chair M. Lewis , Secretary S. H. Bowes D. A. Canonico K. K. Coleman K. L. Hayes J. S. Hunter O. X. Li
Subgroup on Solar Boilers (BPV I)
E. M. Ortman , Chair R. E. Hearne , Secretary H. A. Fonzi, Jr. G. W. Galanes J. S. Hunter
Member
Contributing
Member
Germany International Working Group (BPV I)
H. Michael , Chair H. P. Schmitz , Secretary M. Bremicker P. Chavdarov B. Daume J. Fleischfresser E. Helmholdt R. Kauer S. Krebs
T. E. Hansen C. T. McDaris R. E. McLaughlin R. J. Newell Y. Oishi J. T. Pillow R. V. Wielgoszinski
T. Ludwig R. A. Meyers F. Miunske P. Paluszkiewicz H. Schroeder A. Spangenberg M. Sykora J. Henrichsmeyer,
Contributing
Member
India International Working Group (BPV I)
Subgroup on General Requirements and Piping (BPV I)
E. M. Ortman , Chair D. Tompkins , Vice Chair F. Massi , Secretary P. Becker D. L. Berger P. D. Edwards G. W. Galanes T. E. Hansen M. Lemmons W. L. Lowry
P. Jennings D. J. Koza F. Massi S. V. Torkildson ,
P. A. Molvie L. S. Tsai M. Wadkinson C. F. Jeerings , Contributing Member S. V. Torkildson , Contributing
Subgroup on Fabrication and Examination (BPV I)
J. L. Arnold, Chair P. Becker D. L. Berger S. Fincher G. W. Galanes P. F. Gilston J. Hainsworth
Member
Member
D. N. French , Honorary Member T. C. McGough , Honorary Member R. L. Williams , Honorary Member
Subgroup on Design (BPV I)
J. Vattappilly, Chair D. I. Anderson, Secretary D. Dewees H. A. Fonzi, Jr. J. P. Glaspie G. B. Komora
F. Masuyama D. W. Rahoi J. M. Tanzosh J. Vattappilly F. Zeller M. Gold , Contributing Member B. W. Roberts , Contributing
U. Revisanakaran , Chair A. J. Patil , Vice Chair H. Dalal , Secretary K. Asokkumar M. R. Kalahasthi I. Kalyanasundaram A. R. Patil
R. E. McLaughlin B. J. Mollitor J. T. Pillow D. E. Tuttle M. Wadkinson R. V. Wielgoszinski C. F. Jeerings , Contributing Member S. V. Torkildson , Contributing
G. V. S. Rao M. G. Rao N. Satheesan G. U. Shanker D. Shrivastava S. Venkataramana
Member Contributing Member
R. Uebel ,
Task Group on Modernization of BPVC Section I Subgroup on Locomotive Boilers (BPV I)
L. Moedinger, Chair S. M. Butler, Secretary P. Boschan J. R. Braun R. C. Franzen, Jr. G. W. Galanes D. W. Griner
D. I. Anderson, Chair U. D Urso , Staff Secretary J. L. Arnold D. Dewees G. W. Galanes J. P. Glaspie T. E. Hansen J. F. Henry
S. D. Jackson M. A. Janssen S. A. Lee G. M. Ray R. B. Stone M. W. Westland

xxiv
R. E. McLaughlin P. A. Molvie E. M. Ortman J. T. Pillow B. W. Roberts D. E. Tuttle J. Vattappilly
COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS (BPV II)
J. F. Henry, Chair J. F. Grubb , Vice Chair C. E. O Brien , Staff Secretary F. Abe A. Appleton J. Cameron D. A. Canonico A. Chaudouet D. B. Denis J. R. Foulds D. W. Gandy M. H. Gilkey J. A. Hall K. M. Hottle M. Ishikawa O. X. Li F. Masuyama R. K. Nanstad K. E. Orie D. W. Rahoi E. Shapiro M. J. Slater R. C. Sutherlin R. W. Swindeman ’
Subgroup on International Material Specifications (BPV II)
J. M. Tanzosh R. G. Young F. Zeller O. Oldani , Delegate H. D. Bushfield , Contributing
A. Chaudouet, Chair A. R. Nywening, Vice Chair T. F. Miskell , Secretary D. A. Canonico H. Chen A. F. Garbolevsky D. O. Henry
Member
M. Gold , Contributing Member W. Hoffelner, Contributing Member M. Katcher, Contributing Member M. L. Nayyar, Contributing Member E. G. Nisbett, Contributing Member D. T. Peters , Contributing Member B. W. Roberts , Contributing
M. Ishikawa O. X. Li W. M. Lundy E. Upitis F. Zeller O. Oldani , Delegate H. Lorenz , Contributing Member
Subgroup on Nonferrous Alloys (BPV II)
R. C. Sutherlin , Chair M. H. Gilkey, Vice Chair J. Calland D. B. Denis J. F. Grubb T. Hartman A. Heino M. Katcher J. A. McMaster L. Paul
Member
E. Thomas , Contributing Member E. Upitis , Contributing Member T. M. Cullen , Honorary Member W. D. Edsall , Honorary Member G. C. Hsu , Honorary Member R. A. Moen , Honorary Member C. E. Spaeder, Jr. , Honorary
D. W. Rahoi W. Ren J. Robertson E. Shapiro M. H. Skillingberg J. Weritz R. Wright S. Yem D. T. Peters , Contributing Member
Member
A. W. Zeuthen ,
Honorary Member
Subgroup on Physical Properties (BPV II)
J. F. Grubb , Chair D. B. Denis , Vice Chair E. Shapiro
H. D. Bushfield ,
Contributing
Member
Executive Committee (BPV II)
J. F. Henry, Chair C. E. O Brien , Staff Secretary A. Appleton A. Chaudouet J. R. Foulds M. Gold ’
J. F. Grubb R. W. Mikitka B. W. Roberts M. J. Slater R. C. Sutherlin R. W. Swindeman
Subgroup on Strength, Ferrous Alloys (BPV II)
M. J. Slater, Chair S. W. Knowles , Secretary F. Abe D. A. Canonico A. Di Rienzo J. R. Foulds J. A. Hall J. F. Henry K. Kimura F. Masuyama T. Ono
Subgroup on External Pressure (BPV II)
R. W. Mikitka, Chair D. L. Kurle , Vice Chair J. A. A. Morrow, Secretary L. F. Campbell H. Chen D. S. Griffin J. F. Grubb S. Guzey
J. R. Harris III M. H. Jawad C. R. Thomas M. Wadkinson M. Katcher, Contributing Member C. H. Sturgeon , Contributing
Member
Subgroup on Strength of Weldments (BPV II & BPV IX)
W. F. Newell, Jr. , S. H. Bowes K. K. Coleman M. Denault P. D. Flenner J. R. Foulds D. W. Gandy M. Ghahremani K. L. Hayes
Member
Subgroup on Ferrous Specifications (BPV II)
A. Appleton , Chair K. M. Hottle , Vice Chair P. Wittenbach , Secretary H. Chen B. M. Dingman M. J. Dosdourian O. Elkadim J. D. Fritz M. Gold T. Graham J. M. Grocki J. F. Grubb J. Gundlach
M. Ortolani D. W. Rahoi M. S. Shelton R. W. Swindeman J. M. Tanzosh R. G. Young F. Zeller M. Gold , Contributing Member M. Nair, Contributing Member B. W. Roberts , Contributing
C. Hyde D. S. Janikowski L. J. Lavezzi S. G. Lee W. C. Mack A. S. Melilli K. E. Orie J. Shick E. Upitis J. D. Wilson R. Zawierucha E. G. Nisbett, Contributing Member
Chair
J. F. Henry E. Liebl J. Penso D. W. Rahoi B. W. Roberts W. J. Sperko J. P. Swezy, Jr. J. M. Tanzosh M. Gold , Contributing Member
Working Group on Materials Database (BPV II)
R. W. Swindeman , Chair C. E. O Brien , Staff Secretary F. Abe J. R. Foulds J. F. Henry M. J. Slater R. C. Sutherlin D. Andrei , Contributing Member ’
xxv
J. L. Arnold, Contributing Member J. Grimes , Contributing Member W. Hoffelner, Contributing Member T. Lazar, Contributing Member D. T. Peters , Contributing Member W. Ren , Contributing Member B. W. Roberts , Contributing Member
Working Group on Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels (BPV II)
J. F. Henry, Chair J. A. Siefert, Secretary F. Abe S. H. Bowes D. A. Canonico K. K. Coleman P. D. Flenner J. R. Foulds G. W. Galanes M. Gold F. Masuyama T. Melfi
Executive Committee (BPV III)
W. F. Newell, Jr. M. Ortolani J. Parker W. J. Sperko R. W. Swindeman J. M. Tanzosh R. H. Worthington R. G. Young F. Zeller G. Cumino , Contributing Member B. W. Roberts , Contributing
R. S. Hill III , Chair A. Byk, Staff Secretary T. M. Adams C. W. Bruny P. R. Donavin R. M. Jessee R. B. Keating R. P. McIntyre
Subcommittee on Design (BPV III)
Member
P. R. Donavin , Chair D. E. Matthews , Vice Chair G. L. Hollinger, Secretary T. M. Adams R. L. Bratton C. W. Bruny R. P. Deubler R. I. Jetter C. Jonker R. B. Keating K. A. Manoly R. J. Masterson
Working Group on Data Analysis (BPV II)
J. F. Grubb , Chair F. Abe J. R. Foulds M. Gold J. F. Henry M. Katcher F. Masuyama
W. Ren M. Subanovic M. J. Swindeman R. W. Swindeman B. W. Roberts , Contributing Member
China International Working Group (BPV II)
B. Shou , Chair A. T. Xu , Secretary W. Fang Q. C. Feng S. Huo F. Kong H. Li J. Li S. Li Z. Rongcan S. Tan C. Wang J. Wang Q.-J. Wang
M. N. Mitchell W. J. O Donnell, Sr. E. L. Pleins S. Sham J. P. Tucker W. F. Weitze K. Wright T. Yamazaki J. Yang R. S. Hill III , Contributing Member M. H. Jawad , Contributing Member ’
Subgroup on Component Design (SC-D) (BPV III)
X. Wang F. Yang G. Yang H.-C. Yang R. Ye L. Yin D. Zhang H. Zhang X.-H. Zhang Yingkai Zhang Yong Zhang Q. Zhao S. Zhao J. Zou
T. M. Adams , Chair R. B. Keating, Vice Chair S. Pellet, Secretary G. A. Antaki S. Asada J. F. Ball C. Basavaraju R. P. Deubler P. Hirschberg O.-S. Kim R. Klein H. Kobayashi K. A. Manoly R. J. Masterson D. E. Matthews J. C. Minichiello D. K. Morton
COMMITTEE ON CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FACILITY COMPONENTS (BPV III)
R. S. Hill III , Chair R. B. Keating, Vice Chair J. C. Minichiello , Vice Chair A. Byk, Staff Secretary T. M. Adams A. Appleton R. W. Barnes W. H. Borter C. W. Bruny T. D. Burchell R. P. Deubler A. C. Eberhardt R. M. Jessee R. I. Jetter C. C. Kim G. H. Koo V. Kostarev K. A. Manoly D. E. Matthews R. P. McIntyre M. N. Mitchell
J. C. Minichiello M. Morishita D. K. Morton J. A. Munshi C. A. Sanna S. Sham W. K. Sowder, Jr.
M. Morishita D. K. Morton T. Nagata R. F. Reedy, Sr. I. Saito S. Sham C. T. Smith W. K. Sowder, Jr. W. J. Sperko J. P. Tucker K. R. Wichman C. S. Withers Y. H. Choi , Delegate T. Ius , Delegate H.-T. Wang, Delegate M. Zhou, Contributing Member E. B. Branch, Honorary Member G. D. Cooper, Honorary Member D. F. Landers , Honorary Member R. A. Moen , Honorary Member C. J. Pieper, Honorary Member
T. M. Musto T. Nagata A. N. Nguyen E. L. Pleins I. Saito G. C. Slagis J. R. Stinson G. Z. Tokarski J. P. Tucker P. Vock C. Wilson J. Yang C. W. Bruny, Contributing Member A. A. Dermenjian , Contributing Member
K. R. Wichman ,
Honorary Member
Working Group on Core Support Structures (SG-CD) (BPV III)
J. Yang, Chair J. F. Kielb , Secretary L. C. Hartless D. Keck T. Liszkai H. S. Mehta
M. Nakajima M. D. Snyder A. Tsirigotis R. Vollmer R. Z. Ziegler J. T. Land, Contributing Member
Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containment Systems (SG-CD) (BPV III)
D. K. Morton , Chair D. J. Ammerman G. Bjorkman V. Broz S. Horowitz D. W. Lewis J. C. Minichiello
xxvi
E. L. Pleins C. J. Temus X. Zhai I. D. McInnes , Contributing Member H. P. Shrivastava, Contributing Member
Working Group on HDPE Design of Components (SG-CD) (BPV III)
Working Group on Valves (SG-CD) (BPV III)
P. Krishnaswamy K. A. Manoly M. Martin J. C. Minichiello D. P. Munson F. J. Schaaf, Jr. R. Stakenborghs H. E. Svetlik
T. M. Musto , Chair J. Ossmann , Secretary T. M. Adams T. A. Bacon M. Brandes D. Burwell S. Choi J. R. Hebeisen
P. Vock, Chair S. Jones , Secretary M. C. Buckley R. Farrell G. A. Jolly J. Klein T. Lippucci
C. A. Mizer J. O Callaghan H. O Brien K. E. Reid II J. Sulley I. H. Tseng J. P. Tucker ’

Working Group on Vessels (SG-CD) (BPV III) Working Group on Piping (SG-CD) (BPV III)
G. A. Antaki , Chair G. Z. Tokarski , Secretary T. M. Adams T. A. Bacon C. Basavaraju J. Catalano F. Claeys C. M. Faidy R. G. Gilada N. M. Graham M. A. Gray R. J. Gurdal R. W. Haupt A. Hirano P. Hirschberg M. Kassar J. Kawahata
R. B. Keating V. Kostarev D. Lieb T. B. Littleton Y. Liu J. F. McCabe J. C. Minichiello I.-K. Nam M. S. Sills G. C. Slagis N. C. Sutherland C.-I. Wu A. N. Nguyen , Contributing Member N. J. Shah, Contributing Member E. A. Wais , Contributing Member E. C. Rodabaugh , Honorary Member
Working Group on Pressure Relief (SG-CD) (BPV III)
A. L. Szeglin D. G. Thibault I. H. Tseng
J. F. Ball , Chair K. R. May D. Miller
D. E. Matthews , Chair C. Wilson , Secretary C. Basavaraju J. V. Gregg, Jr. M. Kassar R. B. Keating D. Keck J. Kim O.-S. Kim T. Mitsuhashi M. Nair
T. J. Schriefer M. C. Scott P. K. Shah J. Shupert C. Turylo D. Vlaicu W. F. Weitze T. Yamazaki R. Z. Ziegler A. Kalnins , Contributing Member
Subgroup on Design Methods (SC-D) (BPV III)
C. W. Bruny, Chair S. McKillop , Secretary K. Avrithi W. Culp P. R. Donavin J. V. Gregg, Jr. H. T. Harrison III K. Hsu C. Jonker M. Kassar
D. Keck M. N. Mitchell W. J. O Donnell, Sr. P. J. O Regan W. D. Reinhardt P. Smith S. D. Snow W. F. Weitze K. Wright ’

Working Group on Design Methodology (SG-DM) (BPV III)
S. D. Snow, Chair C. F. Heberling II , K. Avrithi C. Basavaraju D. L. Caldwell D. Dewees C. M. Faidy R. Farrell H. T. Harrison III P. Hirschberg M. Kassar R. B. Keating J. Kim H. Kobayashi T. Liszkai
Working Group on Pumps (SG-CD) (BPV III)
R. Klein , Chair D. Chowdhury, Secretary P. W. Behnke R. E. Cornman, Jr. X. Di M. D. Eftychiou A. Fraser C. Gabhart R. Ghanbari
M. Higuchi R. Ladefian W. Lienau K. J. Noel R. A. Patrick J. Sulley R. Udo A. G. Washburn
Working Group on Supports (SG-CD) (BPV III)
J. R. Stinson , Chair U. S. Bandyopadhyay, K. Avrithi T. H. Baker F. J. Birch R. P. Deubler N. M. Graham R. J. Masterson
Secretary
S. Pellet I. Saito H. P. Srivastava C. Stirzel G. Z. Tokarski P. Wiseman C.-I. Wu
Secretary
J. F. McCabe S. McKillop S. Ranganath W. D. Reinhardt D. H. Roarty P. K. Shah R. Vollmer S. Wang W. F. Weitze J. Wen T. M. Wiger K. Wright J. Yang R. D. Blevins , Contributing Member M. R. Breach, Contributing Member
Working Group on Environmental Effects (SG-DM) (BPV III)
C. Jonker, Chair B. D. Frew, Secretary W. Culp P. J. Dobson
xxvii
J. Kim J. E. Nestell M. Osterfoss T. J. Schriefer
Working Group on Environmental Fatigue Evaluation Methods (SG-DM) (BPV III)
K. Wright, Chair M. A. Gray, Vice Chair W. F. Weitze , Secretary T. M. Adams S. Asada K. Avrithi R. C. Cipolla T. M. Damiani C. M. Faidy T. D. Gilman
S. R. Gosselin Y. He P. Hirschberg H. S. Mehta T. Metais J.-S. Park D. H. Roarty I. Saito D. Vlaicu R. Z. Ziegler
Subgroup on Elevated Temperature Design (SC-D) (BPV III)
S. Sham, Chair T. Asayama C. Becht IV F. W. Brust P. Carter B. F. Hantz A. B. Hull M. H. Jawad R. I. Jetter
G. H. Koo S. Majumdar J. E. Nestell W. J. O'Donnell, Sr. R. W. Swindeman D. S. Griffin , Contributing Member W. J. Koves , Contributing Member D. L. Marriott, Contributing Member
Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria (SG-ETD) (BPV III)
Working Group on Fatigue Strength (SG-DM) (BPV III)
P. R. Donavin , Chair M. S. Shelton , Secretary T. M. Damiani D. Dewees C. M. Faidy S. R. Gosselin R. J. Gurdal C. F. Heberling II C. E. Hinnant P. Hirschberg K. Hsu
S. H. Kleinsmith S. Majumdar S. N. Malik S. Mohanty D. H. Roarty A. Tsirigotis K. Wright H. H. Ziada W. J. O'Donnell, Sr. ,
R. W. Swindeman , Chair R. Wright, Secretary J. R. Foulds C. J. Johns K. Kimura T. Le M. Li
Working Group on Analysis Methods (SG-ETD) (BPV III) Contributing
Member
P. Carter, Chair M. J. Swindeman , M. R. Breach M. E. Cohen R. I. Jetter
Working Group on Graphite and Composites Design (SG-DM) (BPV III)
M. N. Mitchell , Chair M. W. Davies , Vice Chair T. D. Burchell , Secretary A. Appleton S. R. Cadell S.-H. Chi W. J. Geringer
S. T. Gonczy M. G. Jenkins Y. Katoh J. Ossmann M. Roemmler S. Yu G. L. Zeng
Working Group on Probabilistic Methods in Design (SG-DM) (BPV III)
M. Golliet, Chair T. Asayama K. Avrithi D. O. Henry R. S. Hill III
D. Maitra S. N. Malik J. E. Nestell W. Ren B. W. Roberts M. Sengupta S. Sham
M. Morishita P. J. O'Regan N. A. Palm I. Saito
Secretary
T. Krishnamurthy T. Le S. Sham D. K. Williams
Working Group on Creep-Fatigue and Negligible Creep (SG-ETD) (BPV III)
T. Asayama, F. W. Brust P. Carter R. I. Jetter G. H. Koo
Chair
T. Le B.-L. Lyow S. N. Malik H. Qian S. Sham
Working Group on Elevated Temperature Construction (SG-ETD) (BPV III)
M. H. Jawad , Chair A. Mann , Secretary D. I. Anderson R. G. Brown D. Dewees B. F. Hantz R. I. Jetter S. Krishnamurthy T. Le
M. N. Mitchell B. J. Mollitor C. Nadarajah P. Prueter M. J. Swindeman J. P. Glaspie , Contributing Member D. L. Marriott, Contributing Member
Special Working Group on Computational Modeling for Explicit Dynamics (SG-DM) (BPV III)
G. Bjorkman , Chair D. J. Ammerman , Vice Chair V. Broz , Secretary M. R. Breach J. M. Jordan S. Kuehner D. Molitoris
W. D. Reinhardt P. Y.-K. Shih S. D. Snow C.-F. Tso M. C. Yaksh U. Zencker
Working Group on High Temperature Flaw Evaluation (SG-ETD) (BPV III)
F. W. Brust, N. Broom P. Carter T. Le S. N. Malik
xxviii
Chair
H. Qian D. L. Rudland P. J. Rush D.-J. Shim S. X. Xu
Special Working Group on Inelastic Analysis Methods (SG-ETD) (BPV III)
S. Sham , Chair S. X. Xu, Secretary R. W. Barnes J. A. Blanco B. R. Ganta
Subgroup on Materials, Fabrication, and Examination (BPV III)
R. M. Jessee , Chair B. D. Frew, Vice Chair S. Hunter, Secretary W. H. Borter T. D. Burchell G. R. Cannell P. J. Coco M. W. Davies R. H. Davis D. B. Denis G. B. Georgiev S. E. Gingrich M. Golliet J. Grimm L. S. Harbison
T. Hassan G. H. Koo B.-L. Lyow M. J. Swindeman G. L. Zeng
Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV III)
R. P. McIntyre , Chair L. M. Plante , Secretary V. Apostolescu A. Appleton S. Bell J. R. Berry J. DeKleine J. V. Gardiner J. W. Highlands E. V. Imbro K. A. Kavanagh Y.-S. Kim
E. C. Renaud J. Rogers D. J. Roszman C. T. Smith W. K. Sowder, Jr. R. Spuhl G. E. Szabatura D. M. Vickery C. S. Withers H. Michael , Delegate G. L. Hollinger, Contributing

Working Group on Graphite and Composite Materials (SG-MFE) (BPV III)
Member
T. D. Burchell , Chair M. W. Davies , Vice Chair M. N. Mitchell , Secretary A. Appleton R. L. Bratton S. R. Cadell S.-H. Chi A. Covac S. W. Doms S. F. Duffy
Working Group on Duties and Responsibilities (SG-GR) (BPV III)
J. V. Gardiner, Chair G. L. Hollinger, Secretary D. Arrigo S. Bell J. R. Berry P. J. Coco M. Cusick J. DeKleine N. DeSantis
J. Johnston, Jr. C. C. Kim M. Lashley T. Melfi H. Murakami J. Ossmann J. E. O Sullivan M. C. Scott W. J. Sperko J. R. Stinson J. F. Strunk R. Wright S. Yee H. Michael , Delegate R. W. Barnes , Contributing Member
Y. Diaz-Castillo K. A. Kavanagh J. M. Lyons L. M. Plante D. J. Roszman B. S. Sandhu E. M. Steuck J. L. Williams
W. J. Geringer S. T. Gonzcy M. G. Jenkins Y. Katoh J. Ossmann M. Roemmler N. Salstrom T. Shibata S. Yu G. L. Zeng
Working Group on HDPE Materials (SG-MFE) (BPV III) Working Group on Quality Assurance, Certification, and Stamping (SG-GR) (BPV III)
C. T. Smith , Chair C. S. Withers , Secretary V. Apostolescu A. Appleton O. Elkadim S. M. Goodwin J. Grimm J. W. Highlands Y.-S. Kim B. McGlone R. P. McIntyre
M. Golliet, Chair M. A. Martin , Secretary W. H. Borter G. Brouette M. C. Buckley J. Hakii J. Johnston, Jr. P. Krishnaswamy
D. T. Meisch R. B. Patel E. C. Renaud T. Rezk J. Rogers W. K. Sowder, Jr. R. Spuhl J. F. Strunk G. E. Szabatura D. M. Vickery C. A. Spletter, Contributing Member
Joint ACI-ASME Committee on Concrete Components for Nuclear Service (BPV III)
J. A. Munshi , Chair J. McLean , Vice Chair A. Byk, Staff Secretary K. Verderber, Staff Secretary C. J. Bang L. J. Colarusso A. C. Eberhardt F. Farzam P. S. Ghosal B. D. Hovis T. C. Inman C. Jones O. Jovall N.-H. Lee
Special Working Group on General Requirements Consolidation (SG-GR) (BPV III)
J. V. Gardiner, Chair C. T. Smith , Vice Chair S. Bell M. Cusick Y. Diaz-Castillo J. Grimm J. M. Lyons B. McGlone R. Patel E. C. Renaud T. Rezk
D. P. Munson T. M. Musto S. Patterson S. Schuessler R. Stakenborghs M. Troughton B. Hauger, Contributing Member
J. Rogers D. J. Roszman B. S. Sandhu G. J. Solovey R. Spuhl G. E. Szabatura J. L. Williams C. S. Withers S. F. Harrison , Contributing Member
xxix
N. Orbovic C. T. Smith J. F. Strunk T. Tonyan S. Wang T. J. Ahl , Contributing Member J. F. Artuso , Contributing Member J.-B. Domage , Contributing Member J. Gutierrez , Contributing Member T. Kang, Contributing Member T. Muraki , Contributing Member B. B. Scott, Contributing Member M. R. Senecal , Contributing Member
Working Group on In-Vessel Components (BPV III-4)
Working Group on Design (BPV III-2)
N.-H. Lee , Chair M. Allam S. Bae L. J. Colarusso A. C. Eberhardt F. Farzam P. S. Ghosal B. D. Hovis T. C. Inman C. Jones O. Jovall
J. A. Munshi T. Muraki S. Wang M. Diaz , Contributing Member S. Diaz , Contributing Member A. Istar, Contributing Member B. R. Laskewitz , Contributing
M. Kalsey,
Member B. B. Scott, Contributing Member Z. Shang, Contributing Member M. Sircar, Contributing Member
S. Lee ,
Y. Carin
Working Group on Magnets (BPV III-4)
Working Group on Materials, Fabrication, and Examination (BPV III-2)
P. S. Ghosal , Chair T. Tonyan , Vice Chair M. Allam C. J. Bang J.-B. Domage A. C. Eberhardt C. Jones T. Kang
Chair
K. Kim ,
Chair
Vice Chair
Working Group on Materials (BPV III-4)
M. Porton ,
N. Lee C. T. Smith J. F. Strunk D. Ufuk J. F. Artuso , Contributing Member J. Gutierrez , Contributing Member B. B. Scott, Contributing Member Z. Shang, Contributing Member
Chair
P. Mummery
Working Group on Vacuum Vessels (BPV III-4)
I. Kimihiro , Chair L. C. Cadwallader
B. R. Doshi
Special Working Group on Modernization (BPV III-2)
J. McLean , Chair N. Orbovic , Vice Chair A. Adediran O. Jovall C. T. Smith M. A. Ugalde
S. Wang S. Diaz , Contributing Member J.-B. Domage , Contributing Member F. Lin, Contributing Member N. Stoeva, Contributing Member
Subgroup on High Temperature Reactors (BPV III)
M. Morishita , Chair R. I. Jetter, Vice Chair S. Sham, Secretary N. Broom T. D. Burchell M. W. Davies S. Downey
Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material (BPV III)
D. K. Morton , Chair D. J. Ammerman , Vice Chair G. R. Cannell , Secretary G. Bjorkman V. Broz S. Horowitz D. W. Lewis E. L. Pleins R. H. Smith G. J. Solovey
C. J. Temus W. H. Borter, Contributing Member R. S. Hill III , Contributing Member P. E. McConnell , Contributing Member
A. B. Meichler,
Working Group on High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (BPV III-5)
Contributing
Member
J. E. Nestell , Chair M. Sengupta, Secretary N. Broom T. D. Burchell M. W. Davies R. S. Hill III E. V. Imbro R. I. Jetter Y. W. Kim
T. Saegusa, Contributing Member N. M. Simpson , Contributing Member
Subgroup on Fusion Energy Devices (BPV III)
W. K. Sowder, Jr. , Chair D. Andrei, Staff Secretary D. J. Roszman , Secretary L. C. Cadwallader B. R. Doshi M. Higuchi G. Holtmeier M. Kalsey K. A. Kavanagh K. Kim I. Kimihiro S. Lee
G. Li X. Li P. Mokaria T. R. Muldoon M. Porton F. J. Schaaf, Jr. P. Smith Y. Song M. Trosen C. Waldon I. J. Zatz R. W. Barnes , Contributing Member
Chair
T. Le T. R. Lupold S. N. Malik D. L. Marriott D. K. Morton S. Sham G. L. Zeng X. Li , Contributing Member L. Shi , Contributing Member
Working Group on High Temperature Liquid-Cooled Reactors (BPV III-5)
S. Sham, Chair T. Asayama, Secretary M. Arcaro R. W. Barnes P. Carter M. E. Cohen A. B. Hull
Working Group on General Requirements (BPV III-4)
D. J. Roszman ,
G. H. Koo D. K. Morton J. E. Nestell G. L. Zeng X. Li , Contributing Member L. Shi , Contributing Member
W. K. Sowder, Jr.
xxx
R. I. Jetter G. H. Koo T. Le S. Majumdar M. Morishita J. E. Nestell G. Wu , Contributing Member
Argentina International Working Group (BPV III)
O. Martinez , Staff Secretary A. Acrogliano W. Agrelo G. O. Anteri M. Anticoli C. A. Araya J. P. Balbiani A. A. Betervide D. O. Bordato G. Bourguigne M. L. Cappella A. Claus R. G. Cocco A. Coleff A. J. Dall Osto L. M. De Barberis D. P. Delfino D. N. Dell Erba F. G. Diez A. Dominguez S. A. Echeverria J. Fernández E. P. Fresquet ’

India International Working Group (BPV III)
B. Basu, Chair G. Mathivanan , Vice Chair C. A. Sanna, Staff Secretary S. B. Parkash, Secretary A. D. Bagdare V. Bhasin
M. M. Gamizo A. Gomez I. M. Guerreiro I. A. Knorr M. F. Liendo L. R. Miño J. Monte R. L. Morard A. E. Pastor E. Pizzichini A. Politi J. L. Racamato H. C. Sanzi G. J. Scian G. G. Sebastian M. E. Szarko P. N. Torano A. Turrin O. A. Verastegui M. D. Vigliano P. Yamamoto M. Zunino
Korea International Working Group (BPV III)
G. H. Koo , Chair S. S. Hwang, Vice Chair O.-S. Kim, Secretary H. S. Byun G.-S. Choi S. Choi J. Y. Hong N.-S. Huh J.-K. Hwang C. Jang I. I. Jeong H. J. Kim J. Kim J.-S. Kim K. Kim M.-W. Kim Y.-B. Kim Y.-S. Kim
China International Working Group (BPV III)
J. Yan , Chair W. Tang, Vice Chair C. A. Sanna, Staff Secretary Y. He , Secretary L. Guo Y. Jing D. Kang Y. Li B. Liang H. Lin S. Liu W. Liu J. Ma K. Mao W. Pei
S. Kovalai D. Kulkarni M. Ponnusamy R. N. Sen K. R. Shah A. Sundararajan
G. Sun Z. Sun G. Tang L. Ting Y. Tu Y. Wang H. Wu X. Wu S. Xue Z. Yin G. Zhang W. Zhang W. Zhao Y. Zhong Z. Zhong
D. Kwon B. Lee D. Lee Sanghoon Lee Sangil Lee S.-G. Lee H. Lim I.-K. Nam B. Noh C.-K. Oh C. Park H. Park J.-S. Park T. Shin S. Song J. S. Yang O. Yoo
Special Working Group on Editing and Review (BPV III)
D. E. Matthews , R. L. Bratton R. P. Deubler A. C. Eberhardt J. C. Minichiello
Chair
D. K. Morton L. M. Plante R. F. Reedy, Sr. C. Wilson
Special Working Group on HDPE Stakeholders (BPV III)
D. Burwell , Chair S. Patterson , Secretary T. M. Adams M. Brandes S. Bruce S. Choi C. M. Faidy M. Golliet J. Grimes R. M. Jessee J. Johnston, Jr.
Germany International Working Group (BPV III)
C. Huttner, Chair H.-R. Bath, Secretary B. Arndt M. Bauer G. Daum R. Doring L. Gerstner G. Haenle K.-H. Herter R. E. Hueggenberg E. Iacopetta U. Jendrich D. Koelbl G. Kramarz
C. Krumb W. Mayinger D. Moehring D. Ostermann G. Roos J. Rudolph C. A. Sanna H. Schau R. Trieglaff P. Völlmecke J. Wendt F. Wille M. Winter N. Wirtz
D. Keller M. Lashley K. A. Manoly D. P. Munson T. M. Musto J. E. O Sullivan V. Rohatgi F. J. Schaaf, Jr. R. Stakenborghs M. Troughton ’
Special Working Group on Honors and Awards (BPV III)
R. M. Jessee , Chair A. Appleton R. W. Barnes
xxxi
D. E. Matthews J. C. Minichiello
Special Working Group on Industry Experience for New Plants (BPV III & BPV XI)
J. T. Lindberg, Chair E. L. Pleins , Chair J. Ossmann , Secretary T. L. Chan H. L. Gustin P. J. Hennessey D. O. Henry J. Honcharik E. V. Imbro C. G. Kim
Subgroup on Cast Boilers (BPV IV)
J. P. Chicoine , Chair T. L. Bedeaux, Vice Chair J. M. Downs
O.-S. Kim Y.-S. Kim K. Matsunaga D. E. Matthews R. E. McLaughlin D. W. Sandusky T. Tsuruta R. M. Wilson S. M. Yee
J. A. Hall J. L. Kleiss
Subgroup on Materials (BPV IV)
M. Wadkinson , J. Calland J. M. Downs
Chair
J. A. Hall A. Heino B. J. Iske
Subgroup on Water Heaters (BPV IV)
C. T. Smith, Chair A. Byk, Staff Secretary T. D. Burchell S. W. Cameron R. L. Crane
R. S. Hill III M. N. Mitchell R. F. Reedy, Sr. C. A. Sanna
Subgroup on Welded Boilers (BPV IV)
P. A. Molvie , Chair L. Badziagowski T. L. Bedeaux B. Calderon J. Calland C. Dinic
Special Working Group on New Plant Construction Issues (BPV III)
E. L. Pleins , Chair M. C. Scott, Secretary A. Byk A. Cardillo P. J. Coco J. Honcharik E. V. Imbro O.-S Kim
M. Kris J. C. Minichiello D. W. Sandusky R. R. Stevenson R. Troficanto M. L. Wilson J. Yan
COMMITTEE ON NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (BPV V)
K. Matsunaga D. E. Matthews B. McGlone A. T. Roberts III R. R. Stevenson M. L. Wilson
COMMITTEE ON HEATING BOILERS (BPV IV)
J. A. Hall , Chair T. L. Bedeaux, Vice Chair G. Moino , Staff Secretary B. Calderon J. Calland J. P. Chicoine J. M. Downs B. J. Iske J. Klug P. A. Molvie
F. B. Kovacs , Chair G. W. Hembree , Vice Chair J. S. Brzuszkiewicz , Staff Secretary J. E. Batey B. Caccamise
Chair
N. Y. Faransso N. A. Finney S. A. Johnson A. B. Nagel
Subgroup on General Requirements/Personnel Qualifications and Inquiries (BPV V)
Member
Alternate
C. Emslander, Chair J. W. Houf, Vice Chair S. J. Akrin J. E. Batey N. Carter N. Y. Faransso N. A. Finney G. W. Hembree
Subgroup on Care and Operation of Heating Boilers (BPV IV)
M. Wadkinson , T. L. Bedeaux J. Calland J. M. Downs
R. W. Kruzic C. May A. B. Nagel T. L. Plasek F. J. Sattler P. B. Shaw G. M. Gatti , Delegate X. Guiping, Delegate A. S. Birks , Contributing Member J. Bennett, Alternate H. C. Graber, Honorary Member O. F. Hedden , Honorary Member J. R. MacKay, Honorary Member T. G. McCarty, Honorary Member
Executive Committee (BPV V)
G. Scribner R. D. Troutt M. Wadkinson R. V. Wielgoszinski H. Michael , Delegate D. Picart, Delegate A. Heino , Contributing Member S. V. Voorhees , Contributing J. L. Kleiss ,
J. L. Kleiss R. E. Olson G. Scribner R. D. Troutt M. Wadkinson R. V. Wielgoszinski
G. W. Hembree , Chair F. B. Kovacs , Vice Chair J. S. Brzuszkiewicz , Staff Secretary S. J. Akrin J. E. Batey P. L. Brown M. A. Burns B. Caccamise C. Emslander N. Y. Faransso N. A. Finney A. F. Garbolevsky J. F. Halley J. W. Houf S. A. Johnson
Special Working Group on Regulatory Interface (BPV III)
E. V. Imbro , Chair P. Malouines , Secretary S. Bell A. Cardillo P. J. Coco J. Grimm J. Honcharik
R. E. Olson M. A. Taylor T. E. Trant R. D. Troutt
J. Calland , Chair L. Badziagowski J. P. Chicoine C. Dinic B. J. Iske
Special Working Group on International Meetings (BPV III)
J. A. Hall P. A. Molvie C. Lasarte , Contributing Member
xxxii
S. A. Johnson F. B. Kovacs D. I. Morris A. B. Nagel A. S. Birks , Contributing Member J. P. Swezy, Jr. , Contributing Member
Special Working Group on NDE Resource Support (SG-GR/PQ & I) (BPV V)
N. A. Finney, D. Adkins J. Anderson D. Bajula J. Bennett C. T. Brown T. Clausing J. L. Garner K. Hayes
Chair
R. Kelso C. Magruder J. W. Mefford, Jr. K. Page D. Tompkins D. Van Allen T. Vidimos R. Ward M. Wolf
Subgroup on Surface Examination Methods (BPV V)
S. A. Johnson , Chair J. Halley, Vice Chair S. J. Akrin J. E. Batey P. L. Brown B. Caccamise N. Carter N. Y. Faransso N. Farenbaugh N. A. Finney
G. W. Hembree R. W. Kruzic B. D. Laite C. May L. E. Mullins A. B. Nagel F. J. Sattler P. B. Shaw G. M. Gatti , Delegate A. S. Birks , Contributing Member
Subgroup on Volumetric Methods (BPV V)
A. B. Nagel , Chair N. A. Finney, Vice Chair S. J. Akrin J. E. Batey P. L. Brown B. Caccamise J. M. Davis N. Y. Faransso A. F. Garbolevsky J. F. Halley R. W. Hardy
G. W. Hembree S. A. Johnson F. B. Kovacs R. W. Kruzic C. May L. E. Mullins T. L. Plasek F. J. Sattler C. Vorwald G. M. Gatti , Delegate
Working Group on Acoustic Emissions (SG-VM) (BPV V)
N. Y. Faransso , Chair J. E. Batey, Vice Chair
S. R. Doctor R. K. Miller
Working Group on Guided Wave Ultrasonic Testing (SG-VM) (BPV V)
N. Y. Faransso , Chair J. E. Batey, Vice Chair D. Alleyne N. Amir J. F. Halley
S. A. Johnson G. M. Light P. Mudge M. J. Quarry J. Vanvelsor
Italy International Working Group (BPV V)
P. L. Dinelli , Chair A. Veroni , Secretary R. Bertolotti F. Bresciani G. Campos N. Caputo M. Colombo F. Ferrarese E. Ferrari
M. A. Grimoldi G. Luoni O. Oldani P. Pedersoli A. Tintori M. Zambon G. Gobbi , Contributing Member G. Pontiggia, Contributing Member
COMMITTEE ON PRESSURE VESSELS (BPV VIII)
R. J. Basile , Chair S. C. Roberts , Vice Chair E. Lawson , Staff Secretary S. J. Rossi , Staff Secretary G. Aurioles, Sr. J. Cameron A. Chaudouet D. B. DeMichael J. P. Glaspie J. F. Grubb L. E. Hayden, Jr. G. G. Karcher D. L. Kurle K. T. Lau M. D. Lower R. Mahadeen R. W. Mikitka U. R. Miller B. R. Morelock T. P. Pastor D. T. Peters M. J. Pischke M. D. Rana
G. B. Rawls, Jr. F. L. Richter C. D. Rodery E. Soltow J. C. Sowinski D. B. Stewart D. A. Swanson J. P. Swezy, Jr. S. Terada E. Upitis R. Duan , Delegate P. A. McGowan , Delegate H. Michael , Delegate K. Oyamada, Delegate M. E. Papponetti , Delegate X. Tang, Delegate M. Gold , Contributing Member W. S. Jacobs , Contributing Member K. Mokhtarian , Contributing Member
C. C. Neely, Contributing Member K. K. Tam , Honorary Member
Working Group on Radiography (SG-VM) (BPV V)
B. Caccamise , Chair F. B. Kovacs , Vice Chair S. J. Akrin J. E. Batey P. L. Brown C. Emslander N. Y. Faransso A. F. Garbolevsky R. W. Hardy
G. W. Hembree S. A. Johnson R. W. Kruzic B. D. Laite C. May R. J. Mills A. B. Nagel T. L. Plasek B. White
Working Group on Ultrasonics (SG-VM) (BPV V)
N. A. Finney, Chair J. F. Halley, Vice Chair B. Caccamise J. M. Davis C. Emslander N. Y. Faransso P. T. Hayes S. A. Johnson
R. W. Kruzic B. D. Laite C. May L. E. Mullins A. B. Nagel F. J. Sattler C. Vorwald
Subgroup on Design (BPV VIII)
D. A. Swanson , Chair J. C. Sowinski, Vice Chair M. Faulkner, Secretary G. Aurioles, Sr. S. R. Babka O. A. Barsky R. J. Basile M. R. Breach F. L. Brown D. Chandiramani B. F. Hantz C. E. Hinnant C. S. Hinson M. H. Jawad D. L. Kurle M. D. Lower R. W. Mikitka U. R. Miller T. P. Pastor
xxxiii
M. D. Rana G. B. Rawls, Jr. S. C. Roberts C. D. Rodery T. G. Seipp D. Srnic S. Terada J. Vattappilly R. A. Whipple K. Xu K. Oyamada, Delegate M. E. Papponetti , Delegate W. S. Jacobs , Contributing Member P. K. Lam, Contributing Member K. Mokhtarian , Contributing Member
S. C. Shah , Contributing Member K. K. Tam , Contributing Member
Working Group on Design-By-Analysis (BPV VIII)
B. F. Hantz , Chair T. W. Norton , Secretary R. G. Brown D. Dewees R. D. Dixon Z. Gu C. F. Heberling II C. E. Hinnant R. Jain M. H. Jawad
Task Group on U-2(g) (BPV VIII)
S. Krishnamurthy A. Mann G. A. Miller C. Nadarajah P. Prueter M. D. Rana T. G. Seipp M. A. Shah S. Terada D. Arnett, Contributing Member
G. Aurioles, Sr. S. R. Babka R. J. Basile D. K. Chandiramani R. Mahadeen U. R. Miller T. W. Norton T. P. Pastor
Subgroup on Heat Transfer Equipment (BPV VIII)
Subgroup on Fabrication and Examination (BPV VIII)
J. P. Swezy, Jr. , Chair D. I. Morris , Vice Chair E. A. Whittle , Vice Chair B. R. Morelock, Secretary N. Carter S. Flynn S. Heater O. Mulet M. J. Pischke M. J. Rice C. D. Rodery
B. F. Shelley P. L. Sturgill E. Upitis K. Oyamada, Delegate W. J. Bees , Contributing Member L. F. Campbell, Contributing Member
R. F. Reedy, Sr. S. C. Roberts M. A. Shah D. Srnic D. A. Swanson J. P. Swezy, Jr. R. Uebel K. K. Tam , Contributing Member
W. S. Jacobs , Contributing Member J. Lee , Contributing Member R. Uebel , Contributing Member
G. Aurioles, Sr. , Chair S. R. Babka, Vice Chair P. Matkovics , Secretary D. Angstadt M. Bahadori J. H. Barbee O. A. Barsky L. Bower A. Chaudouet M. D. Clark S. Jeyakumar G. G. Karcher D. L. Kurle R. Mahadeen S. Mayeux
U. R. Miller D. Srnic A. M. Voytko R. P. Wiberg I. G. Campbell ,
Contributing
Member
I. Garcia, Contributing Member J. Mauritz , Contributing Member T. W. Norton , Contributing Member F. Osweiller, Contributing Member J. Pasek, Contributing Member R. Tiwari , Contributing Member S. Yokell , Contributing Member S. M. Caldwell , Honorary Member
Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV VIII)
M. D. Lower, Chair J. P. Glaspie , Vice Chair F. L. Richter, Secretary R. J. Basile D. T. Davis D. B. DeMichael M. Faulkner F. Hamtak L. E. Hayden, Jr.
K. T. Lau T. P. Pastor S. C. Roberts J. C. Sowinski P. Speranza D. B. Stewart D. A. Swanson R. Uebel C. C. Neely, Contributing Member
Task Group on Plate Heat Exchangers (BPV VIII)
P. Matkovics , S. R. Babka K. Devlin S. Flynn J. F. Grubb F. Hamtak
Chair
R. Mahadeen D. I. Morris M. J. Pischke C. M. Romero E. Soltow D. Srnic
Task Group on Subsea Applications (BPV VIII)
F. Kirkemo C. Lan N. McKie S. K. Parimi M. Sarzynski Y. Wada D. T. Peters , Contributing Member
R. Cordes , Chair L. P. Antalffy R. C. Biel P. Bunch J. Ellens S. Harbert X. Kaculi K. Karpanan
Task Group on UG-20(f) (BPV VIII)
S. Krishnamurthy, T. Anderson K. Bagnoli R. P. Deubler B. F. Hantz
Chair
B. R. Macejko J. Penso M. Prager M. D. Rana
Subgroup on High Pressure Vessels (BPV VIII)
D. T. Peters , Chair G. M. Mital , Vice Chair A. P. Maslowski , Staff Secretary L. P. Antalffy R. C. Biel P. N. Chaku R. Cordes R. D. Dixon L. Fridlund R. T. Hallman A. H. Honza J. A. Kapp J. Keltjens A. K. Khare N. McKie S. C. Mordre G. T. Nelson
xxxiv
E. A. Rodriguez E. D. Roll K. C. Simpson, Jr. J. R. Sims D. L. Stang F. W. Tatar S. Terada J. L. Traud R. Wink K.-J. Young R. M. Hoshman , Contributing Member
D. J. Burns , Honorary Member D. M. Fryer, Honorary Member G. J. Mraz, Honorary Member E. H. Perez , Honorary Member
Subgroup on Materials (BPV VIII)
J. Cameron , Chair P. G. Wittenbach , Vice Chair K. Xu , Secretary A. Di Rienzo J. D. Fritz J. F. Grubb M. Kowalczyk W. M. Lundy J. Penso
Italy International Working Group (BPV VIII)
D. W. Rahoi R. C. Sutherlin E. Upitis G. S. Dixit, Contributing Member M. Gold , Contributing Member M. Katcher, Contributing Member J. A. McMaster, Contributing
G. Pontiggia, Chair A. Veroni , Secretary B. G. Alborali P. Angelini R. Boatti A. Camanni P. Conti P. L. Dinelli F. Finco
Member
E. G. Nisbett, Contributing Member
Subgroup on Toughness (BPV II & BPV VIII)
D. L. Kurle , Chair K. Xu , Vice Chair N. Carter W. S. Jacobs K. E. Orie M. D. Rana F. L. Richter K. Subramanian D. A. Swanson
Special Working Group on Bolted Flanged Joints (BPV VIII)
J. P. Swezy, Jr. S. Terada E. Upitis J. Vattappilly K. Oyamada, Delegate K. Mokhtarian , Contributing
R. W. Mikitka, W. Brown H. Chen W. J. Koves
Contributing Member
J. R. Payne G. B. Rawls, Jr. M. S. Shelton
Working Group on Design (BPV VIII Div. 3)
E. D. Roll , Chair C. Becht V R. C. Biel R. Cordes R. D. Dixon L. Fridlund R. T. Hallman K. Karpanan J. Keltjens N. McKie G. M. Mital S. C. Mordre G. T. Nelson D. T. Peters
C. W. Cary E. Soltow A. A. Stupica
China International Working Group (BPV VIII)
X. Chen , Chair B. Shou , Vice Chair Z. Fan, Secretary Y. Chen Z. Chen J. Cui R. Duan W. Guo B. Han J. Hu Q. Hu H. Hui
Chair
Member
C. C. Neely,
Subgroup on Graphite Pressure Equipment (BPV VIII)
A. Viet, Chair G. C. Becherer F. L. Brown
M. Guglielmetti P. Mantovani M. Massobrio L. Moracchioli C. Sangaletti S. Sarti A. Teli I. Venier G. Gobbi , Contributing Member
D. Luo Y. Luo C. Miao X. Qian B. Wang F. Xu F. Xuan K. Zhang Y. Zhang S. Zhao J. Zheng G. Zhu
K. C. Simpson J. R. Sims D. L. Stang K. Subramanian S. Terada J. L. Traud R. Wink Y. Xu F. Kirkemo , Contributing Member D. J. Burns , Honorary Member D. M. Fryer, Honorary Member G. J. Mraz , Honorary Member E. H. Perez , Honorary Member
Working Group on Materials (BPV VIII Div. 3)
F. W. Tatar, Chair L. P. Antalffy P. N. Chaku
J. A. Kapp A. K. Khare
Task Group on Impulsively Loaded Vessels (BPV VIII)
E. A. Rodriguez , G. A. Antaki J. K. Asahina D. D. Barker A. M. Clayton J. E. Didlake, Jr. T. A. Duffey B. L. Haroldsen K. Hayashi D. Hilding K. W. King R. Kitamura
Germany International Working Group (BPV VIII)
P. Chavdarov, Chair A. Spangenberg, Vice Chair H. P. Schmitz , Secretary B. Daume A. Emrich J. Fleischfresser A. Gastberg R. Helmholdt R. Kauer
D. Koelbl S. Krebs T. Ludwig R. A. Meyers H. Michael P. Paluszkiewicz H. Schroeder M. Sykora
xxxv
Chair
R. A. Leishear P. O. Leslie F. Ohlson C. Romero N. Rushton J. H. Stofleth Q. Dong, Contributing Member H.-P. Schildberg, Contributing Member
J. E. Shepherd ,
Contributing Member M. Yip , Contributing Member
Subgroup on Interpretations (BPV VIII)
U. R. Miller, Chair E. Lawson , Staff Secretary G. Aurioles, Sr. R. J. Basile J. Cameron R. D. Dixon M. Kowalczyk D. L. Kurle M. D. Lower R. Mahadeen G. M. Mital
Subgroup on Plastic Fusing (BPV IX)
D. I. Morris D. T. Peters S. C. Roberts C. D. Rodery D. B. Stewart P. L. Sturgill D. A. Swanson J. P. Swezy, Jr. J. Vattappilly P. G. Wittenbach T. P. Pastor, Contributing Member
E. W. Woelfel , Chair D. Burwell M. Ghahremani K. L. Hayes R. M. Jessee J. Johnston, Jr.
W. J. Sperko M. J. Stanko P. L. Sturgill J. P. Swezy, Jr. P. L. Van Fosson E. W. Woelfel A. Roza, Delegate M. Consonni , Contributing Member S. A. Jones , Contributing Member A. S. Olivares , Contributing Member
S. Raghunathan,
Contributing
Member
R. K. Brown, Jr. , Honorary Member M. L. Carpenter, Honorary Member B. R. Newmark, Honorary Member S. D. Reynolds, Jr. , Honorary
M. J. Rice , Chair J. S. Lee , Vice Chair M. Bernasek M. A. Boring D. A. Bowers R. B. Corbit P. D. Flenner L. S. Harbison K. L. Hayes W. M. Lundy T. Melfi W. F. Newell, Jr. B. R. Newton S. Raghunathan
A. F. Garbolevsky N. Mohr A. R. Nywening J. P. Swezy, Jr.
R. M. Jessee D. Mobley D. K. Peetz J. Pillow H. B. Porter J. P. Swezy, Jr. K. R. Willens E. W. Woelfel E. Molina, Delegate B. R. Newmark, Honorary Member Subgroup on Materials (BPV IX)
M. Bernasek, Chair T. Anderson J. L. Arnold E. Cutlip S. S. Fiore S. E. Gingrich L. S. Harbison R. M. Jessee T. Melfi
Contributing
Member
M. Consonni , Contributing Member M. Degan , Contributing Member
Italy International Working Group (BPV IX)
Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV IX)
P. L. Sturgill , Chair E. W. Beckman J. P. Bell D. A. Bowers G. Chandler P. R. Evans S. Flynn P. Gilston F. Hamtak A. Howard
E. G. Reichelt M. B. Sims W. J. Sperko S. A. Sprague P. L. Sturgill J. P. Swezy, Jr. P. L. Van Fosson T. C. Wiesner A. D. Wilson D. Chandiramani ,
Member
Subgroup on Brazing (BPV IX)
M. J. Pischke , Chair E. W. Beckman L. F. Campbell M. L. Carpenter

Subgroup on Welding Qualifications (BPV IX)
COMMITTEE ON WELDING, BRAZING, AND FUSING (BPV IX)
D. A. Bowers , Chair M. J. Pischke , Vice Chair S. J. Rossi , Staff Secretary M. Bernasek M. A. Boring J. G. Feldstein P. D. Flenner S. E. Gingrich K. L. Hayes R. M. Jessee J. S. Lee W. M. Lundy T. Melfi W. F. Newell, Jr. D. K. Peetz E. G. Reichelt M. J. Rice M. B. Sims
J. E. O Sullivan E. G. Reichelt M. J. Rice S. Schuessler M. Troughton J. Wright
M. J. Pischke A. Roza C. E. Sainz W. J. Sperko M. J. Stanko P. L. Sturgill J. Warren C. Zanfir
A. Camanni , Chair A. Veroni , Secretary P. Angelini R. Boatti P. L. Dinelli F. Ferrarese A. Ghidini E. Lazzari L. Lotti
N. Maestri M. Mandina M. Massobrio L. Moracchioli G. Pontiggia S. Verderame A. Volpi G. Gobbi , Contributing Member
COMMITTEE ON FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC PRESSURE VESSELS (BPV X)
D. Eisberg, Chair B. F. Shelley, Vice Chair P. D. Stumpf, Staff Secretary A. L. Beckwith D. Bentley F. L. Brown J. L. Bustillos B. R. Colley T. W. Cowley I. L. Dinovo M. R. Gorman B. Hebb M. J. Hendrix
xxxvi
D. H. Hodgkinson L. E. Hunt D. L. Keeler B. M. Linnemann D. H. McCauley N. L. Newhouse D. J. Painter A. A. Pollock G. Ramirez J. R. Richter D. O. Yancey, Jr. P. H. Ziehl
COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR INSERVICE INSPECTION (BPV XI)
G. C. Park, Chair S. D. Kulat, Vice Chair R. W. Swayne , Vice Chair L. Powers , Staff Secretary V. L. Armentrout J. F. Ball W. H. Bamford S. B. Brown T. L. Chan R. C. Cipolla D. R. Cordes D. D. Davis R. L. Dyle E. V. Farrell, Jr. M. J. Ferlisi P. D. Fisher E. B. Gerlach T. J. Griesbach J. Hakii D. O. Henry W. C. Holston D. W. Lamond D. R. Lee G. A. Lofthus E. J. Maloney G. Navratil
China International Working Group (BPV XI)
S. A. Norman J. E. O Sullivan R. K. Rhyne A. T. Roberts III D. A. Scarth F. J. Schaaf, Jr. J. C. Spanner, Jr. D. J. Tilly D. E. Waskey J. G. Weicks H. D. Chung, Delegate C. Ye , Delegate R. E. Gimple , Contributing Member R. D. Kerr, Contributing Member B. R. Newton , Contributing Member R. A. West, Contributing Member R. A. Yonekawa, Contributing ’
J. H. Liu , Chair Y. Nie , Vice Chair C. Ye , Vice Chair M. W. Zhou , Secretary J. F. Cai D. X. Chen H. Chen H. D. Chen Y. B. Guo Y. Hou D. M. Kang S. W. Li X. Y. Liang S. X. Lin L. Q. Liu
Member
M. L. Benson , Alternate J. T. Lindberg, Alternate R. O. McGill, Alternate C. J. Wirtz , Alternate C. D. Cowfer, Honorary Member F. E. Gregor, Honorary Member O. F. Hedden , Honorary Member P. C. Riccardella, Honorary Member
Y. Liu W. N. Pei C. L. Peng G. X. Tang Q. Wang Q. W. Wang Z. S. Wang L. Wei F. Xu Z. Y. Xu Q. Yin K. Zhang X. L. Zhang Y. Zhang Z. M. Zhong
Germany International Working Group (BPV XI)
U. Jendrich H. Schau H.-J. Scholtka X. Schuler J. Wendt
H.-R. Bath R. Doring B. Erhard M. Hagenbruch B. Hoffmann E. Iacopetta
Special Working Group on Editing and Review (BPV XI)
R. W. Swayne , C. E. Moyer K. R. Rao
Chair
J. E. Staffiera D. J. Tilly C. J. Wirtz
Task Group on Inspectability (BPV XI) Executive Committee (BPV XI)
S. D. Kulat, Chair G. C. Park, Vice Chair L. Powers , Staff Secretary W. H. Bamford R. L. Dyle M. J. Ferlisi E. B. Gerlach
W. C. Holston D. W. Lamond J. T. Lindberg R. K. Rhyne J. C. Spanner, Jr. R. W. Swayne M. L. Benson , Alternate
J. T. Lindberg, Chair M. J. Ferlisi , Secretary W. H. Bamford A. Cardillo D. R. Cordes D. O. Henry E. Henry J. Honcharik J. Howard R. Klein C. Latiolais
D. Lieb G. A. Lofthus D. E. Matthews P. J. O Regan J. Ossmann R. Rishel S. A. Sabo P. Sullivan C. Thomas J. Tucker ’
Task Group on ISI of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Containment Systems (BPV XI)
Argentina International Working Group (BPV XI)
O. Martinez , Staff Secretary D. A. Cipolla A. Claus D. Costa D. P. Delfino D. N. Dell Erba A. Dominguez S. A. Echeverria E. P. Fresquet M. M. Gamizo I. M. Guerreiro M. F. Liendo F. Llorente ’
R. J. Lopez M. Magliocchi L. R. Miño J. Monte M. D. Pereda A. Politi C. G. Real F. M. Schroeter G. J. Scian M. J. Solari P. N. Torano O. A. Verastegui P. Yamamoto
K. Hunter, Chair A. Alleshwaram , Secretary D. J. Ammerman W. H. Borter J. Broussard S. Brown C. R. Bryan T. Carraher D. Dunn N. Fales R. C. Folley B. Gutherman S. Horowitz M. W. Joseph H. Jung M. Liu
xxxvii
R. M. Meyer B. L. Montgomery M. Moran T. Nuoffer M. Orihuela R. Pace E. L. Pleins R. Sindelar H. Smith J. C. Spanner, Jr. C. J. Temus G. White X. J. Zhai P.-S. Lam , Alternate J. Wise , Alternate
Subgroup on Evaluation Standards (SG-ES) (BPV XI)
W. H. Bamford , Chair N. A. Palm, Secretary H. D. Chung R. C. Cipolla R. L. Dyle C. M. Faidy B. R. Ganta T. J. Griesbach K. Hasegawa K. Hojo D. N. Hopkins K. Koyama D. R. Lee
Y. S. Li R. O. McGill H. S. Mehta K. Miyazaki R. Pace J. C. Poehler S. Ranganath D. A. Scarth T. V. Vo K. R. Wichman S. X. Xu M. L. Benson , Alternate T. Hardin , Alternate
Task Group on Evaluation of Beyond Design Basis Events (SG-ES) (BPV XI)
R. Pace , Chair K. E. Woods , Secretary G. A. Antaki P. R. Donavin R. G. Gilada T. J. Griesbach H. L. Gustin M. Hayashi K. Hojo
S. A. Kleinsmith H. S. Mehta D. V. Sommerville T. V. Vo K. R. Wichman G. M. Wilkowski S. X. Xu T. Weaver, Contributing Member
Task Group on Evaluation Procedures for Degraded Buried Pipe (WG-PFE) (BPV XI)
R. O. McGill , Chair S. X. Xu , Secretary G. A. Antaki R. C. Cipolla K. Hasegawa K. M. Hoffman
G. A. A. Miessi M. Moenssens D. P. Munson R. Pace P. J. Rush D. A. Scarth
Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (SG-ES) (BPV XI)
N. A. Palm, Chair A. E. Freed , Secretary V. Marthandam , Secretary K. R. Baker W. H. Bamford M. Brumovsky T. L. Dickson R. L. Dyle S. R. Gosselin T. J. Griesbach M. Hayashi S. A. Kleinsmith H. Kobayashi H. S. Mehta
A. D. Odell R. Pace J. C. Poehler S. Ranganath W. L. Server D. V. Sommerville C. A. Tomes A. Udyawar T. V. Vo D. P. Weakland K. E. Woods H. Q. Xu T. Hardin , Alternate
Working Group on Pipe Flaw Evaluation (SG-ES) (BPV XI) Working Group on Flaw Evaluation (SG-ES) (BPV XI)
R. C. Cipolla, Chair S. X. Xu , Secretary W. H. Bamford M. L. Benson B. Bezensek M. Brumovsky H. D. Chung T. E. Demers C. M. Faidy B. R. Ganta R. G. Gilada H. L. Gustin F. D. Hayes P. H. Hoang K. Hojo D. N. Hopkins Y. Kim K. Koyama V. Lacroix
D. R. Lee Y. S. Li M. Liu H. S. Mehta G. A. A. Miessi K. Miyazaki R. K. Qashu S. Ranganath P. J. Rush D. A. Scarth W. L. Server D.-J. Shim A. Udyawar T. V. Vo B. Wasiluk K. R. Wichman G. M. Wilkowski D. L. Rudland , Alternate
D. A. Scarth, Chair G. M. Wilkowski , Secretary K. Azuma W. H. Bamford M. L. Benson M. Brumovsky F. W. Brust H. D. Chung R. C. Cipolla N. G. Cofie J. M. Davis T. E. Demers C. M. Faidy B. R. Ganta S. R. Gosselin C. E. Guzman-Leong K. Hasegawa P. H. Hoang K. Hojo D. N. Hopkins
D. N. Hopkins K. Kashima K. Koyama D. R. Lee H. S. Mehta K. Miyazaki S. Ranganath T. V. Vo
Alternate
Subgroup on Nondestructive Examination (SG-NDE) (BPV XI)
Task Group on Crack Growth Reference Curves (BPV XI)
D. A. Scarth, Chair H. I. Gustin , Secretary W. H. Bamford M. L. Benson F. W. Brust R. C. Cipolla R. L. Dyle K. Hasegawa
E. J. Houston R. Janowiak S. Kalyanam K. Kashima V. Lacroix Y. S. Li R. O. McGill H. S. Mehta G. A. A. Miessi K. Miyazaki S. H. Pellet H. Rathbun P. J. Rush D.-J. Shim A. Udyawar T. V. Vo B. Wasiluk S. X. Xu A. Alleshwaram ,
J. C. Spanner, Jr. , Chair D. R. Cordes , Secretary T. L. Chan S. E. Cumblidge F. E. Dohmen K. J. Hacker J. Harrison D. O. Henry
xxxviii
J. T. Lindberg G. A. Lofthus G. R. Perkins S. A. Sabo F. J. Schaaf, Jr. R. V. Swain C. J. Wirtz C. A. Nove , Alternate
Task Group on Repair by Carbon Fiber Composites (WGN-MRR) (BPV XI)
Working Group on Personnel Qualification and Surface Visual and Eddy Current Examination (SG-NDE) (BPV XI)
J. T. Lindberg, Chair J. E. Aycock, Secretary C. Brown , Secretary S. E. Cumblidge A. Diaz N. Farenbaugh
J. E. O'Sullivan , B. Davenport M. Golliet L. S. Gordon M. P. Marohl N. Meyer R. P. Ojdrovic D. Peguero A. Pridmore
D. O. Henry J. W. Houf C. Shinsky J. C. Spanner, Jr. J. T. Timm C. J. Wirtz
Working Group on Procedure Qualification and Volumetric Examination (SG-NDE) (BPV XI)
G. A. Lofthus , Chair J. Harrison , Secretary G. R. Perkins , Secretary M. T. Anderson M. Briley A. Bushmire D. R. Cordes M. Dennis S. R. Doctor
S. B. Brown , Chair A. B. Meichler, Secretary O. Bhatty R. Clow R. R. Croft E. V. Farrell, Jr. E. B. Gerlach
F. E. Dohmen K. J. Hacker D. A. Kull C. A. Nove D. Nowakowski S. A. Sabo R. V. Swain S. J. Todd D. K. Zimmerman
D. W. Lamond , Chair G Navratil , Secretary J. M. Agold V. L. Armentrout J. M. Boughman S. B. Brown S. T. Chesworth D. D. Davis H. Q. Do M. J. Ferlisi
J. E. O Sullivan S. Schuessler R. R. Stevenson R. W. Swayne D. J. Tilly D. E. Waskey J. G. Weicks P. Raynaud , Alternate ’
M. Kris S. L. McCracken D. B. Meredith B. R. Newton J. E. O Sullivan D. Segletes J. G. Weicks ’
H. Malikowski M. A. Pyne P. Raynaud R. R. Stevenson R. W. Swayne R. Turner
Subgroup on Water-Cooled Systems (SG-WCS) (BPV XI)
K. W. Hall P. J. Hennessey K. Hoffman S. D. Kulat T. Nomura T. Nuoffer G. C. Park H. M. Stephens, Jr. M. J. Homiack, Alternate
Task Group on High Strength Nickel Alloys Issues (SG-WCS) (BPV XI)
Working Group on Welding and Special Repair Processes (SG-RRA) (BPV XI)
D. E. Waskey, Chair D. J. Tilly, Secretary D. Barborak S. J. Findlan P. D. Fisher M. L. Hall K. J. Karwoski C. C. Kim
P. Raynaud C. W. Rowley V. Roy J. Sealey N. Stoeva M. F. Uddin J. Wen T. Jimenez , Alternate G. M. Lupia, Alternate
Working Group on Design and Programs (SG-RRA) (BPV XI)
Subgroup on Repair/Replacement Activities (SG-RRA) (BPV XI)
E. B. Gerlach, Chair E. V. Farrell, Jr. , Secretary J. F. Ball S. B. Brown R. Clow P. D. Fisher K. J. Karwoski S. L. McCracken B. R. Newton
Chair
R. L. Dyle , Chair B. L. Montgomery, W. H. Bamford P. R. Donavin K. Hoffman K. Koyama C. Lohse
Secretary
H. Malikowski S. E. Marlette G. C. Park G. R. Poling J. M. Shuping J. C. Spanner, Jr. D. P. Weakland
Working Group on Containment (SG-WCS) (BPV XI)
H. M. Stephens, Jr. , Chair S. G. Brown , Secretary P. S. Ghosal H. T. Hill R. D. Hough B. Lehman
J. McIntyre J. A. Munshi M. Sircar S. Walden , Alternate T. J. Herrity, Alternate
Working Group on Inspection of Systems and Components (SG-WCS) (BPV XI) Working Group on Nonmetals Repair/Replacement Activities (SG-RRA) (BPV XI)
J. E. O'Sullivan , Chair S. Schuessler, Secretary J. Johnston, Jr. M. Lashley M. P. Marohl
T. M. Musto S. Patterson A. Pridmore P. Raynaud F. J. Schaaf, Jr.
M. J. Ferlisi , Chair N. Granback, Secretary J. M. Agold R. W. Blyde C. Cueto-Felgueroso H. Q. Do K. W. Hall K. M. Hoffman
xxxix
S. D. Kulat A. Lee G. J. Navratil T. Nomura J. C. Nygaard R. Rishel J. C. Younger
COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORT TANKS (BPV XII)
Working Group on Pressure Testing (SG-WCS) (BPV XI)
J. M. Boughman , Chair S. A. Norman , Secretary T. Anselmi Y.-K. Chung M. J. Homiack
M. D. Rana, Chair N. J. Paulick, Vice Chair R. Lucas , Staff Secretary A. N. Antoniou P. Chilukuri W. L. Garfield G. G. Karcher
A. E. Keyser D. W. Lamond J. K. McClanahan B. L. Montgomery C. Thomas
M. Pitts T. A. Rogers S. Staniszewski A. P. Varghese J. A. Byers , Contributing Member R. Meyers , Contributing Member M. R. Ward, Contributing Member
Task Group on Buried Components Inspection and Testing (WG-PT) (BPV XI)
D. W. Lamond , Chair J. M. Boughman , Secretary M. Moenssens , Secretary T. Anselmi
B. Davenport A. Hiser J. Ossmann
Executive Committee (BPV XII)
N. J. Paulick, Chair R. Lucas , Staff Secretary M. Pitts
M. D. Rana S. Staniszewski A. P. Varghese
Working Group on Risk-Informed Activities (SG-WCS) (BPV XI)
M. A. Pyne , Chair S. T. Chesworth , Secretary J. M. Agold C. Cueto-Felgueroso R. Haessler J. Hakii K. W. Hall M. J. Homiack S. D. Kulat
D. W. Lamond R. K. Mattu A. McNeill III G. J. Navratil P. J. O Regan N. A. Palm D. Vetter J. C. Younger
Subgroup on Design and Materials (BPV XII)
A. P. Varghese , Chair R. C. Sallash, Secretary D. K. Chandiramani P. Chilukuri Y. Doron R. D. Hayworth G. G. Karcher S. L. McWilliams N. J. Paulick M. D. Rana

Working Group on General Requirements (BPV XI)
R. K. Rhyne , Chair C. E. Moyer, Secretary J. F. Ball T. L. Chan
T. A. Rogers S. Staniszewski K. Xu A. T. Duggleby, Contributing Member
T. J. Hitchcock,
Contributing
Member
M. R. Ward, Contributing Member J. Zheng, Contributing Member
P. J. Hennessey E. J. Maloney R. K. Mattu T. Nuoffer Subgroup on Fabrication, Inspection, and Continued Service (BPV XII)
M. Pitts , Chair P. Chilukuri , Secretary R. D. Hayworth K. Mansker G. McRae O. Mulet T. A. Rogers M. Rudek R. C. Sallash
Special Working Group on Reliability and Integrity Management Program (BPV XI)
F. J. Schaaf, Jr. , Chair A. T. Roberts III , Secretary N. Broom S. R. Doctor S. Downey J. D. Fletcher J. T. Fong T. Graham N. Granback J. Grimm
D. M. Jones A. L. Krinzman D. R. Lee R. K. Miller M. N. Mitchell R. Morrill T. Roney R. W. Swayne S. Takaya
L. Selensky S. Staniszewski S. E. Benet, Contributing Member J. A. Byers , Contributing Member A. S. Olivares , Contributing Member
L. H. Strouse , Contributing Member S. V. Voorhees , Contributing Member
Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV XII)
S. Staniszewski , Chair B. F. Pittel , Secretary A. N. Antoniou Y. Doron J. L. Freiler W. L. Garfield O. Mulet M. Pitts T. Rummel R. C. Sallash L. Selensky
JSME/ASME Joint Task Group for System-Based Code (SWG-RIM) (BPV XI)
T. Asayama, Chair S. R. Doctor K. Dozaki S. R. Gosselin M. Hayashi D. M. Jones Y. Kamishima A. L. Krinzman
D. R. Lee H. Machida M. Morishita A. T. Roberts III F. J. Schaaf, Jr. S. Takaya D. Watanabe
xl
P. Chilukuri , Contributing Member K. L. Gilmore , Contributing Member T. J. Hitchcock, Contributing Member
G. McRae , Contributing Member S. L. McWilliams , Contributing Member
T. A. Rogers , Contributing Member D. G. Shelton , Contributing Member L. H. Strouse , Contributing Member M. R. Ward, Contributing Member
Subcommittee on Safety Valve Requirements (SC-SVR)
Subgroup on Nonmandatory Appendices (BPV XII)
N. J. Paulick, Chair S. Staniszewski , Secretary P. Chilukuri R. D. Hayworth K. Mansker S. L. McWilliams N. J. Paulick M. Pitts T. A. Rogers R. C. Sallash
D. B. DeMichael , Chair C. E. O Brien , Staff Secretary J. F. Ball J. Burgess S. Cammeresi J. A. Cox R. D. Danzy J. P. Glaspie S. F. Harrison
D. G. Shelton S. E. Benet, Contributing Member D. D. Brusewitz , Contributing

Member
T. J. Hitchcock,
Contributing
Member
A. P. Varghese ,
Contributing
Member
M. R. Ward ,
W. F. Hart D. Miller B. K. Nutter T. Patel M. Poehlmann Z. Wang J. A. West S. R. Irvin, Sr. , Alternate
Contributing Member
COMMITTEE ON OVERPRESSURE PROTECTION (BPV XIII)
D. B. DeMichael , Chair C. E. O Brien , Staff Secretary J. F. Ball J. Burgess S. Cammeresi J. A. Cox R. D. Danzy J. P. Glaspie ’
S. F. Harrison W. F. Hart D. Miller B. K. Nutter T. Patel M. Poehlmann Z. Wang J. A. West
Subgroup on Design (SC-SVR)
D. Miller, Chair C. E. Beair B. Joergensen B. J. Mollitor
COMMITTEE ON BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT (CBPVCA)
P. D. Edwards , Chair L. E. McDonald , Vice Chair K. I. Baron , Staff Secretary M. Vazquez , Staff Secretary J. P. Chicoine D. C. Cook T. E. Hansen K. T. Lau D. Miller B. R. Morelock J. D. O Leary G. Scribner B. C. Turczynski D. E. Tuttle R. Uebel E. A. Whittle R. V. Wielgoszinski ’
T. Patel J. A. West R. D. Danzy,
Contributing Member
Subgroup on General Requirements (SC-SVR)
D. Cheetham, Contributing Member T. P. Beirne , Alternate J. B. Carr, Alternate J. W. Dickson , Alternate J. M. Downs , Alternate B. J. Hackett, Alternate B. L. Krasiun , Alternate D. W. Linaweaver, Alternate P. F. Martin , Alternate I. Powell , Alternate R. Rockwood , Alternate L. Skarin , Alternate R. D. Troutt, Alternate S. V. Voorhees , Alternate P. Williams , Alternate A. J. Spencer, Honorary Member
J. P. Glaspie B. F. Pittel M. Poehlmann D. E. Tuttle J. White
J. F. Ball , Chair G. Brazier J. Burgess D. B. DeMichael S. T. French
Subgroup on Testing (SC-SVR)
W. F. Hart, Chair T. P. Beirne J. E. Britt J. Buehrer S. Cammeresi J. A. Cox J. W. Dickson
A. Donaldson G. D. Goodson B. K. Nutter C. Sharpe Z. Wang A. Wilson S. R. Irvin, Sr. , Alternate
COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR CERTIFICATION (CNC)
R. R. Stevenson , Chair J. DeKleine , Vice Chair E. Suarez , Staff Secretary G. Gobbi S. M. Goodwin J. W. Highlands K. A. Huber J. C. Krane M. A. Lockwood R. P. McIntyre L. M. Plante H. B. Prasse T. E. Quaka C. T. Smith C. Turylo D. M. Vickery E. A. Whittle C. S. Withers
S. F. Harrison ,
Contributing
Member
S. Andrews , Alternate D. Arrigo , Alternate J. Ball , Alternate P. J. Coco , Alternate P. D. Edwards , Alternate D. P. Gobbi, Alternate K. M. Hottle , Alternate K. A. Kavanagh , Alternate P. Krane , Alternate D. Nenstiel , Alternate M. Paris , Alternate G. Szabatura, Alternate A. Torosyan , Alternate S. V. Voorhees , Alternate S. Yang, Alternate
U.S. Technical Advisory Group ISO/TC 185 Safety Relief Valves
T. J. Bevilacqua, Chair C. E. O Brien , Staff Secretary J. F. Ball G. Brazier D. B. DeMichael ’
xli
D. Miller B. K. Nutter T. Patel J. A. West
ORG AN I ZATI ON OF SECTI ON I I I
ð 17Þ
1
G EN ERAL
Section III consists of Division 1, Division 2, Division 3, and Division 5. These Divisions are broken down into Subsections and are designated by capital letters preceded by the letter “ N ” for Division 1, by the letter “ C ” for Division 2, by the letter “ W” for Division 3, and by the letter “H ” for Division 5. Each Subsection is published separately, with the exception of those listed for Divisions 2, 3, and 5. • Subsection NCA — General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2 • Appendices • Division 1 – Subsection NB — Class 1 Components – Subsection NC — Class 2 Components – Subsection ND — Class 3 Components – Subsection NE — Class MC Components – Subsection NF — Supports – Subsection NG — Core Support Structures • Division 2 — Code for Concrete Containments – Subsection CC — Concrete Containments • Division 3 — Containment Systems for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material – Subsection WA — General Requirements for Division 3 – Subsection WB — Class TC Transportation Containments – Subsection WC — Class SC Storage Containments – Subsection WD — Class ISS Internal Support Structures • Division 5 — High Temperature Reactors – Subsection HA — General Requirements Subpart A — Metallic Materials Subpart B — Graphite Materials Subpart C — Composite Materials – Subsection HB — Class A Metallic Pressure Boundary Components Subpart A — Low Temperature Service Subpart B — Elevated Temperature Service – Subsection HC — Class B Metallic Pressure Boundary Components Subpart A — Low Temperature Service Subpart B — Elevated Temperature Service – Subsection HF — Class A and B Metallic Supports Subpart A — Low Temperature Service – Subsection HG — Class A Metallic Core Support Structures Subpart A — Low Temperature Service Subpart B — Elevated Temperature Service – Subsection HH — Class A Nonmetallic Core Support Structures Subpart A — Graphite Materials Subpart B — Composite Materials 2
SU BSECTI ON S
Subsections are divided into Articles, subarticles, paragraphs, and, where necessary, subparagraphs and subsubparagraphs.
The 2015 Edition of Section III was the last edition in which Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH, Class 1 Components in Elevated Temwas published. The requirements located within Subsection NH were moved to Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B for the elevated temperature construction of Class A components. perature Service ,
xlii
3
ARTI CLES
Articles are designated by the applicable letters indicated above for the Subsections followed by Arabic numbers, such as NB-1000. Where possible, Articles dealing with the same topics are given the same number in each Subsection, except NCA, in accordance with the following general scheme: Article Number Title 1000 Introduction or Scope 2000 Material 3000 Design 4000 Fabrication and Installation 5000 Examination 6000 Testing 7000 Overpressure Protection 8000 Nameplates, Stamping With Certification Mark, and Reports The numbering of Articles and the material contained in the Articles may not, however, be consecutive. Due to the fact that the complete outline may cover phases not applicable to a particular Subsection or Article, the rules have been prepared with some gaps in the numbering. 4
SU BARTI CLES
Subarticles are numbered in units of 100, such as NB-1100. 5
SU BSU BARTI CLES
Subsubarticles are numbered in units of 10, such as NB-2130, and generally have no text. When a number such as NB-1110 is followed by text, it is considered a paragraph. 6
PARAG RAPH S
Paragraphs are numbered in units of 1, such as NB-2121. 7
SU BPARAG RAPH S
Subparagraphs, when they are major subdivisions of a paragraph, are designated by adding a decimal followed by one or more digits to the paragraph number, such as NB-1132.1. When they are minor subdivisions of a paragraph, subparagraphs may be designated by lowercase letters in parentheses, such as NB-2121(a). 8
SU BSU BPARAG RAPH S
Subsubparagraphs are designated by adding lowercase letters in parentheses to the major subparagraph numbers, such as NB-1132.1(a). When further subdivisions of minor subparagraphs are necessary, subsubparagraphs are designated by adding Arabic numerals in parentheses to the subparagraph designation, such as NB-2121(a)(1). 9
REFEREN CES
References used within Section III generally fall into one of the following four categories: (a) References to Other Portions ofSection III. When a reference is made to another Article, subarticle, or paragraph, all numbers subsidiary to that reference shall be included. For example, reference to Article NB-3000 includes all material in Article NB-3000; reference to NB-3100 includes all material in subarticle NB-3100; reference to NB-3110 includes all paragraphs, NB-3111 through NB-3113. (b) References to Other Sections. Other Sections referred to in Section III are the following: (1 ) Section II, Materials. When a requirement for a material, or for the examination or testing of a material, is to be in accordance with a specification such as SA-105, SA-370, or SB-160, the reference is to material specifications in Section II. These references begin with the letter “S.” xliii
(2) Section V, Nondestructive Examination.
tructive examination of material or welds.
Section V references begin with the letter “T ” and relate to the nondes-
(3) Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications.
ing and brazing requirements.
Section IX references begin with the letter “Q” and relate to weld-
(4) Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection ofNuclear Power Plant Components.
vice inspection, the rules of Section XI shall apply.
When a reference is made to inser-
(c) Reference to Specifications and Standards Other Than Published in Code Sections (1 ) Specifications for examination methods and acceptance standards to be used in connection with them are published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). At the time of publication of Section III, some such specifications were not included in Section II of this Code. A reference to ASTM E94 refers to the specification so designated by and published by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. (2) Dimensional standards covering products such as valves, flanges, and fittings are sponsored and published by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and approved by the American National Standards Institute. When a product is to conform to such a standard, for example ASME B16.5, the standard is approved by the American National Standards Institute. The applicable year of issue is that suffixed to its numerical designation in Table NCA-7100-1, for example ASME B16.5-2003. Standards published by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers are available from ASME (https://www.asme.org/). (3) Dimensional and other types of standards covering products such as valves, flanges, and fittings are also published by the Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry and are known as Standard Practices. When a product is required by these rules to conform to a Standard Practice, for example MSS SP-100, the Standard Practice referred to is published by the Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc. (MSS), 127 Park Street, NE, Vienna, VA 22180. The applicable year of issue of such a Standard Practice is that suffixed to its numerical designation in Table NCA-7100-1, for example MSS SP-89-2003. (4) Specifications for welding and brazing materials are published by the American Welding Society (AWS), 8669 Doral Boulevard, Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166. Specifications of this type are incorporated in Section II and are identified by the AWS designation with the prefix “SF,” for example SFA-5.1. (5) Standards applicable to the design and construction of tanks and flanges are published by the American Petroleum Institute and have designations such as API-605. When documents so designated are referred to in Section III, for example API-605 – 1988, they are standards published by the American Petroleum Institute and are listed in Table NCA7100-1. (d) References to Appendices. Section III uses two types of appendices that are designated as either Section III Appendices or Subsection Appendices. Either of these appendices is further designated as either Mandatory or Nonmandatory for use. Mandatory Appendices are referred to in the Section III rules and contain requirements that must be followed in construction. Nonmandatory Appendices provide additional information or guidance when using Section III. (1 ) Section III Appendices are contained in a separate book titled “Appendices.” These appendices have the potential for multiple subsection applicability. Mandatory Appendices are designated by a Roman numeral followed, when appropriate, by Arabic numerals to indicate various articles, subarticles, and paragraphs of the appendix, such as II-1500 or XIII-1210. Nonmandatory Appendices are designated by a capital letter followed, when appropriate, by Arabic numerals to indicate various articles, subarticles, and paragraphs of the appendix, such as D-1200 or Y-1440. (2) Subsection Appendices are specifically applicable to just one subsection and are contained within that subsection. Subsection-specific mandatory and nonmandatory appendices are numbered in the same manner as Section III Appendices, but with a subsection identifier (e.g., NF, NH, D2, etc.) preceding either the Roman numeral or the capital letter for a unique designation. For example, NF-II-1100 or NF-A-1200 would be part of a Subsection NF mandatory or nonmandatory appendix, respectively. For Subsection CC, D2-IV-1120 or D2-D-1330 would be part of a Subsection CC mandatory or nonmandatory appendix, respectively. (3) It is the intent of this Section that the information provided in both Mandatory and Nonmandatory Appendices may be used to meet the rules of any Division or Subsection. In case of conflict between Appendix rules and Division/ Subsection rules, the requirements contained in the Division/Subsection shall govern. Additional guidance on Appendix usage is provided in the front matter of Section III Appendices.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) was formerly known as the American Standards Association. Standards approved by the Association were designated by the prefix “ASA” followed by the number of the standard and the year of publication. More recently, the American National Standards Institute was known as the United States of America Standards Institute. Standards were designated by the prefix “ USAS ” followed by the number of the standard and the year of publication. While the letters of the prefix have changed with the name of the organization, the numbers of the standards have remained unchanged.
xliv
SUMMARY OF CHANGES Errata to the BPV Code may be posted on the ASME Web site to provide corrections to incorrectly published items, or to correct typographical or grammatical errors in the BPV Code. Such Errata shall be used on the date posted. Information regarding Special Notices and Errata is published by ASME at http://go.asme.org/BPVCerrata. Changes given below are identified on the pages by a margin note, (17) , placed next to the affected area. The Record Numbers listed below are explained in more detail in “ List of Changes in Record Number Order” following this Summary of Changes. Page
Location
Change (Record Number)
xv
List of Sections
Updated
xx
S ub mittal o f Techni cal Inquiries to the Boiler a n d P re s s u re Ve s s e l Standards Committees
Revised in its entirety (1 3-2222)
xxiii
Personnel
Updated
xlii
Organization of Section III
(1 ) (2) (3)
1
WA-1110
(1 ) (2)
1
WA-1130
Subparagraph (b) revised (1 3-1 594,
1
WA-1140
Title and subparas. (a), (b), (d), and (d)(1) through (d)(3) revised
2
WA-1210
Revised (1 3-1 594)
2
WA-1221
Revised (1 3-1 594)
2
WA-1230
Revised (1 3-1 594)
3
Article WA-2000
Title revised (1 3-1 594)
3
WA-2100
WA-2 1 1 0 , WA-2 1 2 1 , WA-2 1 2 2 , WA-2 1 2 3 (e) , WA-2 1 2 3 .4, WA-2124, and WA-2130 revised (1 3-1 594) (2) Fo rm e r e n d n o te 4 i n co rp o r ate d i n to WA- 2 1 2 1 (c) a n d WA-2123(c) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548) (3) Former endnote 5 incorporated into WA-2123.4(b) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
5
WA-3110
Revised (1 3-1 594)
5
WA-3111
Revised (1 3-1 594)
5
WA-3112
Revised (1 3-1 594)
5
WA-3113
In subpara. (a), first sentence revised (1 3-1 594)
6
WA-3123
Revised in its entirety (1 4-21 59)
6
WA-3124
Added (1 4-21 59)
In “1 General,” title of Section III, Division 3 revised (1 3-1 594) In “1 General,” for Section III, Division 3, Subsection WD added In “ 1 General,” entry for Subsection NH deleted and footnote editorially revised (4) In “ 9 References,” subparas. (a) and (d)(1) revised (1 6-1 48) Title and paragraphs revised (1 3-1 594) Former endnote 2 deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548) 1 5-2548)
(1 3-1 594)
(1 )
xlv
Page
Location
Change (Record Number)
7
WA-3320
Subparagraphs (d) and (f) revised (1 3-1 594)
7
WA-3330
Revised (1 3-1 594)
7
WA-3340
Revised (1 3-1 594)
7
WA-3351
WA - 3 3 5 1 . 1 , WA- 3 3 5 1 . 2 ( d ) , WA- 3 3 5 1 . 2 ( g ) , WA - 3 3 5 1 . 2 ( h ) , WA-3 3 5 1 .2 (i) , WA-3 3 5 1 .3 , and WA-3 3 5 1 .4 revised (1 3-1 594, 1 5-209)
8
WA-3352.1
Subparagraphs (a), (b), (d), and (e) revised (1 3-1 594)
8
WA-3356
Revised in its entirety (1 3-1 594, 1 5-209)
9
WA-3357
Subparagraph (c) revised (1 3-1 594)
9
WA-3361
(1 ) WA-3361.1, WA-3361.2, and WA-3361.4 revised (1 3-1 594) (2) WA-3361.3 revised (1 3-1 594, 1 5-209)
10
WA-3461
Revised (1 3-1 594)
10
WA-3800
(1 ) WA-3810 and WA-3812 revised (1 3-1 594, 1 6-2075) (2) WA-3811(b) and WA-3820 revised (1 6-2075)
12
WA-4110
In subpara. (a), first sentence revised (1 3-1 594)
12
WA-4120
(1 ) New subpara. (b) added (1 5-226) (2) Former subpara. (b) redesignated as (c) and (d) (1 5-226)
13
Table WA-4134.17-1
Revised (1 3-1 594)
13
Table WA-4134.17-2
Revised (1 3-1 594)
14
WA-5122
Revised (1 3-1 594)
14
WA-5125
Subparagraph (a) revised (1 3-1 594)
14
WA-5210
Subparagraph (b) revised (1 3-1 594)
15
WA-5230
Subparagraph (c) revised (1 5-209)
16
WA-5262
Subparagraph (c) revised (1 3-1 594)
17
Article WA-7000
Revised in its entirety (1 3-1 594)
19
Table WA-8100-1
Revised (1 3-1 594)
20
WA-8150
WA-8151, WA-8152, and WA-8154 revised (1 3-1 594)
20
WA-8161
In subpara. (b), last sentence revised (1 3-1 594, 1 5-209)
20
WA-8211
Subparagraphs (a) and (a)(5) revised (1 3-1 594)
21
Figure WA-8212-1
Revised (1 3-1 594, 1 6-961 )
21
WA-8220
(1 ) Subparagraph (b) revised (1 3-1 594) (2) Subparagraph (c) added (1 6-961 )
21
WA-8230
Second sentence revised (1 3-1 594)
21
WA-8300
(1 ) WA-8310(b) revised (1 3-1 594) (2) In WA-8311, first paragraph and subpara. (b) revised (1 3-1 594)
23
Form N-7
Revised (1 3-1 594)
25
Form N-8
Revised (1 3-1 594)
26
Form N-9
Revised (1 3-1 594)
28
Form N-11
Added (1 3-1 594) xlvi
Page
Location
Change (Record Number)
29
WA-9200
Definitions of component, containment, containment closure weld, disposal, energy-limited dynamic event, internal support structure, qualified source material, regulatory authority, source material, storage, and transportation revised (1 3-1 594, 1 6-2075) (2) Definition of Certification Mark deleted (1 3-1 594) (3) Definitions of Class ISS, Containment Systems, and Lowest Service Temperature (LST) added (1 3-1 594, 1 5-2548)
31
WB-1100
Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised (1 3-1 594,
31
WB-1120
(1 ) (2)
33
WB-2122
First sentence revised (1 6-2075)
34
WB-2123
Last line revised (1 6-2075)
34
WB-2150
First sentence revised (1 6-2075)
35
WB-2211
(1 ) (2)
36
WB-2222.2
Fraction “1/2 ” corrected by errata to “ 1/4” (1 3-1 40)
36
WB-2222.3
Fraction “1/2 ” corrected by errata to “ 1/4” (1 3-1 40)
36
WB-2223.1
Fraction “1/2 ” corrected by errata to “ 1/4” (1 3-1 40)
38
WB-2321.3
Revised and former endnote 9 deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
38
WB-2321.4
Revised and former endnote 9 deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
38
WB-2331.1
Subparagraph (a) revised (1 5-2548)
39
WB-2331.2
Subparagraph (a) revised (1 5-2548)
39
WB-2332
Subparagraphs (a)(1) and (b) revised (1 5-2548)
40
WB-2333
Revised (1 5-2548)
41
WB-2360
Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised (1 6-2075)
42
WB-2431.1
Former endnote 8 incorporated into subpara. (c) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
43
WB-2432.1
Former endnote 12 incorporated into subpara. (c) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
49
WB-2551
Former endnote 13 incorporated into subpara. (a) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
53
WB-2581
Revised (1 4-1 396)
53
WB-2582
Revised (1 4-1 396)
55
WB-2610
Subparagraph (b) revised (1 6-2075)
56
WB-3113
Former endnote 15 deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
59
Table WB-3133.4-1
Reformatted editorially
63
WB-3215
Former endnote 18 added after last paragraph as in-text Note and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
66
WB-3222.4
First sentence revised (1 6-336)
(1 )
1 6-1 48, 1 6-1 537)
Title revised (1 4-1 895) Former subparagraph (a) deleted and former subpara. (c) redesignated as (a) and revised (1 4-1 895)
Title revised (1 5-2548) Former endnote 8 incorporated into paragraph and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
xlvii
Page
Location
Change (Record Number)
69
WB-3222.6
Fo rm er en dn o te 1 9 ad d ed as i n - te xt N o te an d de l e te d fro m Endnotes (1 5-2548)
69
WB-3222.9
Former endnote 21 incorporated into subpara. (d) (3) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
71
WB-3222.11
In subpara. (a) , former endnote 2 2 added as in-text Note below nomenclature y ’ and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
71
WB-3224.1
Subparagraphs (c) and (e) revised (1 5-2529)
73
WB-3224.2
Revised (1 5-2529)
75
WB-3234
Subparagraph (a) revised (1 5-2529)
76
WB-3251.1
Former endnote 23 deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
81
WB-4121.1
Revised (1 6-21 06)
83
WB-4221.1
Revised (1 3-542)
84
WB-4221.3
Last two lines revised (1 5-209)
84
WB-4222.1
Revised (1 3-542)
87
WB-4243
Former endnote 24 incorporated into subpara. (c) (1) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
97
WB-4335.2(e)(1)
Revised (1 5-2548)
99
Figure WB-4427-1
Editorially updated
101
WB-4622.1
Former endnote 8 incorporated into paragraph and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
123
WC-1100
(1 ) In subpara. (a), last line revised (1 3-1 594) (2) In subpara. (b), first sentence revised (1 6-1 48, 1 6-1 537)
123
WC-1120
(1 ) Title revised (1 4-1 895) (2) F o r m e r s u b p a r a . ( a ) d e l e te d a n d fo r m e r s u b p a r a . ( c ) redesignated as (a) and revised (1 4-1 895)
125
WC-2122
In first paragraph, first sentence revised (1 6-2075)
126
WC-2124
In first paragraph, first sentence revised (1 6-2075)
126
WC-2125
Former endnote 3 1 added as second paragraph and deleted from Endnotes (1 6-2075)
127
WC-2150
First sentence revised (1 6-2075)
127
WC-2211
Former endnote 8 added to the end of the paragraph and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
129
WC-2311
Subparagraphs (a)(7), (a)(8), and (b) revised (1 5-2548)
130
WC-2321.3
Revised (1 5-2548)
131
WC-2331
Subparagraphs (a) (1 ) and (a) (2 ) revised and former endnote 3 3 deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
131
WC-2332
(1 ) Title and WC-2332.3 revised (1 5-2548) (2) Former endnote 3 5 incorporated into the first paragraph of
WC - 2 3 3 2 . 1 a n d WC - 2 3 3 2 . 2 a n d d e l e te d fr o m E n d n o te s (1 5-2548) (3) WC-2332.3 revised (1 5-2548)
xlviii
Page
Location
Change (Record Number)
133
WC-2360
References to NCA revised (1 6-2075)
135
WC-2431.1
Former endnote 8 incorporated into subpara. (c) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
136
WC-2432.1
Former endnote 12 incorporated into subpara. (c) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
141
WC-2552
Former endnote 13 added as new paragraph and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
144
WC-2582
Revised (1 4-1 396)
149
Table WC-3133.4-1
Reformatted editorially
150
WC-3211.1
In subpara. (a), first sentence revised (1 3-1 594)
151
WC-3216.3
In subparas. (a)(2) and (c), references to Section III Appendices revised (1 6-1 48)
152
Table WC-3217-1
Notes (3) and (4) revised (1 5-2529,
152
WC-3217.2
Last line and endnote 19 (formerly 36) revised (1 6-1 48)
153
WC-3219.1
Reference to Section III Appendices revised (1 6-1 48)
153
WC-3219.1.2
Revised in its entirety (1 6-1 48)
154
WC-3224.6
Reference to Section III Appendices revised (1 6-1 48)
154
WC-3224.8
Reference to Section III Appendices revised (1 6-1 48)
156
WC-3224.9
Reference to Section III Appendices revised (1 6-1 48)
157
Figure WC-3225-1
In the callout for sketches (a), (b), and (c), “0.2 ” corrected by errata to “ 0.20 ” (1 7-335)
158
Figure WC-3225-2
In the callout for sketches (b) through (e), “ 0.2 ” corrected by errata to “ 0.20 ” (1 7-335)
159
Figure WC-3225-3
In the callout for sketches (a) , (b) , and (d) through (g) , “ 0.2 ” corrected by errata to “ 0.20 ” (1 7-335)
156
WC-3225.2
Former endnote 3 9 added as subpara. (c) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
161
WC-3251.1
Reference to endnote 23 deleted (1 5-2548)
166
WC-4121.1
Cross-reference revised (1 6-21 06)
167
WC-4130
Subparagraph (d) revised (1 3-1 594)
168
WC-4221.1
Revised (1 3-542)
169
WC-4222.1
Revised (1 3-542)
174
WC-4265
Former endnote 24 incorporated into subpara. (d)(1) and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
182
WC-4335.2
Subparagraphs (b)(1) and (c)(1) revised (1 5-2548)
189
WC-4622.1
Former endnote 8 incorporated into paragraph and deleted from Endnotes (1 5-2548)
213
Subsection WD
Added (1 3-1 593,
xlix
1 6-1 48)
1 4-1 895, 1 6-960, 1 6-21 06)
LI ST OF CH AN G ES I N RECORD ORDER N U M BER
Record Number 13-140 13-542 13-1593 13-1594 13-2222 14-1396 14-1895 14-2159 15-209 15-226 15-2529 15-2548 16-148 16-336 16-960
16-961 16-1537 16-2075 16-2106 17-335
Change Errata corrections. See Summary of Changes for details. Revised WB/WC-4221.1 and WB/WC-4222.1 to clearly establish the equations for U.S. Customary and SI units, to be consistent across BPVC Divisions and book Sections. Added new Subsection WD. Revised the Organization of Section III to address the incorporation of a new proposed Subsection WD that addresses internal support structures. Revised the front guidance on interpretations in its entirety. Revised WB-2581, WB-2582, and WC-2582 Visual Examination and added references to ASTM F788 and ASTM F812. Revised to eliminate statements regarding whether components shall be constructed to Division 3 rules, also revised to make WB/WC/WD-1000 more consistent. Revised WA-3123 and added WA-3124 to allow approval of subcontracted calibration and testing services by acceptance of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) approved laboratories. Revised the term “ Registered Professional Engineer” to “ Certifying Engineer” and added requirements to be consistent with changes in Mandatory Appendix XXIII. Revised WA-4120(b) to clarify applicability of NQA-1 definitions. Updated cross references as a result of revision of Nonmandatory Appendix F as a Mandatory Appendix. Updated Subsections WA/WB/WC, as well as the Division 3-related Nonmandatory Appendix EE, to incorporate and delete some endnotes into the text. Revised numerous sections of text related to incorporation of revised Mandatory Appendix XIII. Revised WB-3222.4 to evaluate normal loads. Revised Table WD-2331(a)-1 so that the maximum thickness matches that established in WD-2331 and WD-2332. Clarified Table WD-2331(a)-1 column heads as being applicable to all material (not just pipe or shells) by deleting “ wall,” and added an additional stress limit to WD-3229.2(c) to address those situations when buckling is not a limiting issue. Revised WA-8220 to add alternative nameplate requirements and revised Figure WA-8212-1, removing date info since this is not mentioned in the WA requirements. Revised WB/WC-1100(b) for clarity. Made numerous revisions in WA-3810, WA-3811, WA-3812, and WA-3820 to change references to NCA-385X to NCA-425X, based on the proposed revisions identified in Record 16-341. Revised WB/WC/WD-4121.1 to align the phrasing of Division 1 with Divisions 2 and 3 for consistency. Errata corrections. See Summary of Changes for details.
l
CROSS-REFEREN CI N G AN D STYLI STI C CH AN G ES I N TH E BOI LER AN D PRESSU RE VESSEL CODE
There have been structural and stylistic changes to BPVC, starting with the 2011 Addenda, that should be noted to aid navigating the contents. The following is an overview of the changes:
Su bparag raph Breakd own s/N ested Li sts H i erarch y
• • • • • •
First-level breakdowns are designated as (a), (b), (c), etc., as in the past. Second-level breakdowns are designated as (1), (2), (3), etc., as in the past. Third-level breakdowns are now designated as (-a), (-b), (-c), etc. Fourth-level breakdowns are now designated as (-1), (-2), (-3), etc. Fifth-level breakdowns are now designated as (+a), (+b), (+c), etc. Sixth-level breakdowns are now designated as (+1), (+2), etc.
Footn otes
With the exception of those included in the front matter (roman-numbered pages), all footnotes are treated as endnotes. The endnotes are referenced in numeric order and appear at the end of each BPVC section/subsection.
Su bm i ttal of Tech n i cal I n q u i ri es to th e Boi ler an d Pressu re Vessel Stan d ard s Com m i ttees
Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees has been moved to the front matter. This information now appears in all Boiler Code Sections (except for Code Case books).
Cross-Referen ces
It is our intention to establish cross-reference link functionality in the current edition and moving forward. To facilitate this, cross-reference style has changed. Cross-references within a subsection or subarticle will not include the designator/identifier of that subsection/subarticle. Examples follow: • (Sub-)Paragraph Cross-References. The cross-references to subparagraph breakdowns will follow the hierarchy of the designators under which the breakdown appears. – If subparagraph (-a) appears in X.1(c)(1) and is referenced in X.1(c)(1), it will be referenced as (-a). – If subparagraph (-a) appears in X.1(c)(1) but is referenced in X.1(c)(2), it will be referenced as (1)(-a). – If subparagraph (-a) appears in X.1(c)(1) but is referenced in X.1(e)(1), it will be referenced as (c)(1)(-a). – If subparagraph (-a) appears in X.1(c)(1) but is referenced in X.2(c)(2), it will be referenced as X.1(c)(1)(-a). • Equation Cross-References. The cross-references to equations will follow the same logic. For example, if eq. (1) appears in X.1(a)(1) but is referenced in X.1(b), it will be referenced as eq. (a)(1)(1). If eq. (1) appears in X.1(a)(1) but is referenced in a different subsection/subarticle/paragraph, it will be referenced as eq. X.1(a)(1)(1).
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I NTE N TI O NALLY LE FT B LANK
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
SU BSECTI ON WA G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
ARTI CLE WA-1000 SCOPE OF DI VI SI ON 3
WA-1100
ð 17Þ
WA-1110
(b) The rules are intended to be applicable to any item that serves a containment or internal support structure function.
SCOPE N ATU RE OF TH ESE RU LES AN D CON TAI N M EN T SYSTEM S TO WH I CH TH EY ARE APPLI CABLE
(a) The rules of Division 3
contain the requirements for the construction of individual components (and parts where appropriate) that comprise Containment Systems (Article WA-9000). Division 3 Containment Systems are used for the transportation and/or storage, including disposal, 1 of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive material. (b) As used in Division 3, Containment Systems may be comprised of one or more components, such as containments and internal support structures. Containment System components for which Division 3 provides rules are as follows: (1 ) the transportation containment (Subsection WB — Class TC) (2) the storage containment (Subsection WC — Class SC) (3) the internal support structure (Subsection WD — Class ISS) WA-1120
WA-1140
(a) The Design Specification shall establish the Code Edition. (b) The Certificate Holder shall construct the components or parts under the provisions of a Quality Assurance Program which has been accepted by the Society. The Quality Assurance Program shall be updated to meet the requirements of the latest Division 3 Edition within 6 months of issuance. (c) Code Cases are permissible and may be used beginning with the date of approval by the ASME Council. Only Code Cases that are specifically identified as being applicable to this Division may be used. Code Cases may only be used by mutual consent of the parties involved. (d) Materials produced and certified in accordance with Code Editions and Addenda, if applicable, other than the one specified in the Design Specification may be used, provided all of the following requirements are satisfied. (1 ) The material (WA-1220) meets the applicable requirements of a material specification permitted by WB-2121, WC-2121, or WD-2121, as appropriate, of the Edition specified for construction. (2) The material meets all the requirements of Article WB-2000, Article WC-2000, or Article WD-2000, as appropriate, of the Edition specified for construction. (3) The material was produced under the provisions of a Quality System Program which had been accepted by the Society or qualified by a party other than the Society (NCA‐ 3820), in accordance with the requirements of the latest Edition and Addenda, if applicable, issued at the time the material was produced. Material exempted from portions of the provisions of NCA ‐ 3800 by WB-2610, WC-2610, or WD-2610, as appropriate, may be used, provided the requirements of (1) and (2) above are met.
DEFI N I TI O N S
Definitions of key terms used in this Division are included in Article WA-9000. ð 17Þ
WA-1130
U SE OF CODE EDI TI ON S AN D CASES
LI M I TS OF TH ESE RU LES
(a) The rules of this Division provide requirements for new construction including consideration of mechanical and thermal stresses due to cyclic operation. They do not cover deterioration which may occur in service as a result of radiation effects, corrosion, erosion, or instability of the material. These effects shall be addressed in the Design Specification by requiring appropriate measures to be included in the design.
1
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WA- 1150
U N I TS OF M EASU RE
Either U.S. Customary or SI units may be used for compliance with all requirements of this edition, but one system shall be used consistently throughout for all phases of construction. Either the U.S. Customary units or SI units that are listed in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXIV shall be used consistently for all phases of construction (e.g., materials, design, fabrication, and reports). Since values in the two systems are not exact equivalents, each system shall be used independently of the other without mixing U.S. Customary units and SI units. When SI units are selected, U.S. Customary values in referenced specifications that do not contain SI units shall be converted to SI values to at least three significant figures for use in calculations and other aspects of construction. With the publication of the 2004 Edition, Section II, Part D is published as two separate publications. One publication contains values only in U.S. Customary units and the other contains values only in SI units. The selection of the version to use is dependent on the set of units selected for construction. WA-12 00
ð 17Þ
WA- 12 10
WA- 12 20
M ATERI ALS
WA- 12 21
M etalli c M ateri als
ð 17Þ
Metallic materials shall be manufactured to an SA, SB, or SFA Specification, 2 or any other material specification permitted by WB-2121, WC-2121, or WD-2121, as appropriate. Such material shall be manufactured, identified, and certified in accordance with the requirements of this Division. Tubular products and fittings welded with filler metal shall meet the requirements of Section III, Division 1, Class 1. WA- 12 22
M ateri al, ASTM Speci fi cati on
Materials produced under an ASTM designation may be accepted as complying with the corresponding ASME Specification, provided the ASME Specification is designated as being identical with the ASTM Specification for the grade, class, or type produced and provided that the material is confirmed as complying with the ASTM Specification by a Certified Material Test Report, when permitted by NCA‐ 3862.1(a), or Certificate of Compliance from the Material Manufacturer. WA- 12 23
Weld i n g M ateri al, AWS Speci fi cati on
Welding material produced under an AWS designation may be accepted as complying with the corresponding ASME Specification, provided the latter Specification is indicated to be identical with the AWS Specification and provided the welding material is confirmed as complying with the AWS Specification by a Certified Material Test Report or Certification from the Material Manufacturer.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS VALVES
Valves may form part of the Class TC or Class SC containment boundary. If valves are included in the containm en t, th ey s hall b e de s igne d an d co n s tructed in accordance with Section III, Division 1, Class 1 for transportation containments, or Class 1 or Class 2 for storage containments.
WA- 12 30
PARTS
The Design Specification and Design Documents for parts shall meet the requirements of WA-3350. If the fabrication of such parts is subcontracted to others, the subco ntracto r s hall p o s s es s a vali d and ap p ro p ri ate Certificate of Authorization for Section III, Division 3 construction.
2
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA-2000
ð 17Þ
DESI G N BASI S
ð 17Þ
WA-2 100 WA-2 110
Normal loadings result from normal conditions. Off‐ normal loadings result from off‐ normal conditions [applicable only to storage uses (Subsections WC and/or WD)]. (d) Accident loadings result from accident conditions. (e) Test loadings include pressure and leak tests required by Article WB-6000 or Article WC-6000 of this Division. Design Loadings for components shall be in accordance with (a), (b), and (c) below and the additional requirements of this Division. (a) Design Pressure. The specified internal and external Design Pressure shall not be less than the maximum difference in pressure between the inside and outside of the item, or between any two chambers of a combination unit, which exists under the most severe loadings for which the Level A Service Limits are applicable. It shall include allowances for pressure surges and static pressure heads. Pressure loads are not applicable to internal support structures per Article WD-3000. (b) Design Temperature . The specified Design Temperature shall not be less than the expected maximum metal temperature through the thickness of the part under consideration for which Level A Service Limits are specified. Where a component is heated by internal heat generation the effects of such heat input shall be considered in establishing the Design Temperature. (c) Design Mech anical Loads. The Design Mechanical Loads identified in the Design Specification shall include the weight of the component(s), contents, and other items such as operating equipment, impact limiting devices, shielding, insulation, and linings, as applicable. When the Design Specification or applicable Subsection of this Division requires computation to demonstrate compliance with specified Service Limits, the Design Specification shall provide information from which the operating loadings can be identified (pressure, temperature, mechanical loads, cycles, etc.). The Design Specification shall designate the appropriate Service Limit (WA-2123.4) to be associated with each operating loading or combination of loadings. (b) (c)
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS SCO PE
Rules for the design of components or parts used for tran s p o rtati o n an d s to rage as de fi ne d i n Arti cl e WA-1 0 00 are provided in Article WB-3 000 , Article WC-3000, or Article WD-3000. The N3 Certificate Holder shall be responsible for establishing a Design Specification that identifies design and safety criteria for the design of the component or part in accordance with the appropriate rules of this Division. WA-2 12 0
DESI G N BASI S
WA-2 12 1
Con si d erati on of Operati n g Con d i ti on s
(a) Transportation or storage components (WA-1110) are subject to operating and test conditions (when specified) that are required to be considered in the design in order to satisfy applicable safety criteria. (b) Operating conditions for transportation or storage components are classified as either normal, off-normal [applicable only to storage uses (Subsections WC and/ or WD), or accident conditions. Each condition shall be defined in the Design Specification. (c) The selection of operating conditions, and the determination of their significance to the design and operability or functionality of the component, are beyond the scope of this Division. Appropriate guidance for the selection of operating conditions may be derived from safety criteria documents from the regulatory and enforcement authorities having jurisdiction. WA-2 12 2
Con si d erati on of Test Con d i ti on s
Components shall be subject to a test, when required by Article WB-6000 or Article WC-6000. The stress produced in the component during testing shall not exceed the limits provided in WB-3225 or WC-3218, as appropriate. (b) Other tests may be specified in the Design Specification. Stresses produced in the component by such a test shall not exceed the test limits specified in the Design Specification. (a)
WA-2 12 3
Establi sh m en t of Load i n g s, Stresses,
W A- 2 1 2 3 . 1
D e s i g n L o ad i n g s .
WA- 2 1 2 3 . 2
O p e rati n g Lo ad i n g s.
WA-2123. 3
Test Load i n g s.
Test loadings include pressure tests required by this Division. (b) Loads due to other types of tests as may be required by the Design Specification.
an d Li m i ts
(a)
(a) The Design Specification shall identify the loadings and combination of loadings and the applicable Service Limits for the stresses resulting from those loadings.
3
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WA- 2123. 4
repair, which may require removal of the component from service. The selection of this limit shall be reviewed for compatibility with established safety criteria. (c) Alternative Service Limits. Components may be designed using more restrictive Service Limits than specified in the Design Specification. For example, Level C Service Limits may be used when Level D Service Limits have been specified.
Desi g n , Servi ce, an d Test Li m i ts.
(a) Design Limits. The limits for Design Loadings shall meet the requirements of the appropriate Subsection of this Division. (b) Service Limits. The Design Specification shall designate Service Limits as defined in (1) through (3). Level B Service Limits are not used in this Division. (1 ) Level A Service Limits. Level A Service Limits are those sets of limits that must be satisfied for all normal loadings identified in the Design Specification to which the component may be subjected in the performance of its specified function. The component must withstand these loadings without damage requiring repair. (2) Level C Service Lim its . Level C Service Limits, which are applicable only to storage uses (Subsections WC and/or WD), are those sets of limits that must be satisfied for all off‐ normal loadings identified in the Design Specification for which these Service Limits are designated. These sets of limits permit large deformations in areas of structural discontinuity, which may necessitate removal of the component from service for inspection or repair of damage to the component. The selection of this limit shall be reviewed for compatibility with established safety criteria. (3) Level D Service Limits. Level D Service Limits are those sets of limits that must be satisfied for all accident loadings identified in the Design Specification for which these Service Limits are designated. These sets of limits permit gross general deformation with some consequential loss of dimensional stability and damage requiring
(d) Test Limits (1 ) The limits
for Test Loadings shall meet the requirements of the appropriate Subsection of this Division. (2) The selection of limits for other tests shall be included in the Design Specification. WA- 2124
Acceptan ce Cri teri a
(a) Components shall comply with the design rules established for design, operating, and test conditions in the appropriate Subsection of this Division. (b) Design documentation shall be completed in accordance with the requirements of the Subsection applicable to the component. WA- 2130
SPECI AL REQU I REM EN TS
Contractual arrangements between the Owner and the N3 Certificate Holder (WA-3111) that specify requirements in addition to, or more restrictive than, those specified by the rules of this Division may be applied, provided such requirements do not negate any rules of this Division. Such special contractual requirements are beyond the scope of this Division and shall not apply as conditional requirements for Code construction.
4
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA-3000 RESPON SI BI LI TI ES AN D DU TI ES
WA-3100
ð 17Þ
WA-3 110
WA-3 113
G EN ERAL
(a) The NPT Certificate Holder is the organization that fabricates components and/or parts in accordance with the requirements of the Fabrication Specification. The NPT Certificate Holder obtains an N type Certificate of Authorization issued by the Society, completes the appropriate Data Report Form, and applies a Certification Mark to the items they fabricate as required by this Division. (b) N3 Certificate Holders may perform the duties of an NPT Certificate Holder provided these activities are within the scope of their Certificate of Authorization.
RESPON SI BI LI TI ES VS. LEG AL LI ABI LI TI ES
The parties identified in WA-3 11 1 , WA-3 1 12 , and WA-3113 are involved in the construction of transportation and storage components or items that come under the jurisdiction of this Division. Each party has specific duties and responsibilities as set forth in this Article. The responsibilities relate only to Code compliance and are not to be construed as involving contractual or legal liabilities. A single organization may perform one or more of the roles assigned to each party provided all the requirements of this Division are met. ð 17Þ
WA-3 111

N 3 Certi fi cate H old er
N3 Certificate Holder is the organization that obtains a Certificate of Authorization issued by the Society. The N3 Certificate Holder prepares a Design Specification (WA-3351), determines the loads applied to the component, designs the component, demonstrates the adequacy of the design of the component, and issues a Design Report and other documents required by this Division. (b) If there are site-specific design criteria that must be met to satisfy the requirements of this Division, then it is the responsibility of the N3 Certificate Holder to obtain these criteria for inclusion into the Design Documents required by this Division. (c) The N3 Certificate Holder is responsible for the preparation and certification of the Fabrication Specification and its issuance to the component fabricator. (d) The N3 Certificate Holder has the overall responsibility for the construction of the component in accordance with the requirements of this Division. In addition to obtaining a Certificate of Authorization from the Society, the N3 Certificate Holder completes the appropriate Data Report Form and applies the Certification Mark to completed components as required by this Division. WA-3 112
WA-3 12 0
AU TH ORI ZATI ON
WA-3 12 1
Types of Au th ori zati on
Table WA-8100-1 lists the types of certificates issued by the Society and indicates the responsibilities of each Certificate Holder.
(a) The
ð 17Þ
N PT Certi fi cate H old er
WA-3 12 2
Su bcon tracted Servi ces
(a) Services may be subcontracted that are both within and beyond the scope of this Division. There are no requirements for the subcontracting of services beyond the scope of this Division. Services covered by this Division may either be of a type for which the Society issues Certificates, or may be of the type for which the Society does not issue a Certificate. Subcontracts for activities for which Certificates are required shall be made only to Certificate Holders. The Certificate Holder may subcontract to another organization the surveying and auditing of his subcontractors and Material Organizations, but must retain the responsibility for these activities and for the qualification of these subcontractors and Material Organizations. (b) An N3 Certificate Holder may subcontract the fabrication of parts to a Section III, Division 1 Class 1 NPT Certificate Holder provided the scope of work is included in the scope of the subcontractor s N type Certificate of Authorization. (c) The Certificate Holder shall describe in his Quality Assurance Manual the manner in which he controls and accepts the responsibility for the subcontracted activities that are not required by this Division to be subcontracted to a Certificate Holder. ’
O wn er
The Owner, as used in this Division, is the organization that assumes title to the transportation or storage component upon delivery by the Certificate Holder. 5

ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ð 17Þ
WA- 312 3
Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC), Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) , provided the requirements of (a) through (d) are met. (a) A documented review of the supplier s accreditation shall be performed and shall include verification (1 ) that the accreditation is to ISO/IEC 17025:2005, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories, from an accredited body recognized by the ILAC MRA (2) that the published scope of accreditation for the testing laboratory covers the needed testing services including test methodology and tolerances/uncertainties (b) The procurement documents shall specify (1 ) that the service must be provided in accordance with the accredited ISO/IEC 17025:2005 program and scope of accreditation (2) that the service supplier shall not subcontract the service to any other supplier (3) that the Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier must be notified of any condition that adversely impacts the laboratory s ability to maintain the scope of accreditation (4) additional technical and quality requirements, as necessary, based on a review of the procured scope of services, including but not limited to, tolerances, accuracies, ranges, and industry standards (c) At receipt inspection, the Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier shall be responsible for validating that the supplier s documentation certifies (1 ) that the subcontracted testing was performed in accordance with the supplier s ISO/IEC 17025:2005 program and scope of accreditation (2) conformance to the procurement document s requirements (d) This activity shall be documented in the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program, Material Organization s Quality System Program Manual, or approved supplier s quality program.
Su bcon tracted Cali brati on Servi ces
As an alternative to survey and audit of suppliers of subcontracted calibration services, a Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier may accept accreditation by accrediting bodies recognized by the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC), Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA), provided the requirements of (a) through (d) are met. (a) A documented review of the supplier s accreditation shall be performed and shall include verification (1 ) that the accreditation is to ISO/IEC 17025:2005, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories, from an accredited body recognized by the ILAC MRA (2) that the published scope of accreditation for the calibration laboratory covers the needed measurement parameters, ranges, and uncertainties (b) The procurement documents shall specify (1 ) that the service must be provided in accordance with the accredited ISO/IEC 17025:2005 program and scope of accreditation (2) that the calibration certificate/report shall include identification of the laboratory equipment/standards used (3) that the calibration certificate/report shall include as found calibration data when calibrated items are found to be out of tolerance (4) that the service supplier shall not subcontract the service to any other supplier (5) that the Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier must be notified of any condition that adversely impacts the laboratory s ability to maintain the scope of accreditation (6) additional technical and quality requirements, as necessary, based on a review of the procured scope of services, including but not limited to, tolerances, accuracies, ranges, and industry standards. (c) At receipt inspection, the Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier shall be responsible for validating that the supplier s documentation certifies (1 ) that the subcontracted calibration was performed in accordance with the supplier s ISO/IEC 17025:2005 program and scope of accreditation (2) conformance to the procurement document s requirements (d) This activity shall be documented in the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program, Material Organization s Quality System Program Manual, or approved supplier s quality program.














WA- 313 0
WA- 313 1




WA- 3124
Weld i n g Du ri n g Con stru cti on
This Division requires that all welding during construction be done only by an organization holding the N type Certificate of Authorization appropriate to the scope of welding to be performed. A Certificate Holder may engage individuals by contract for their services as welders or welding operators at the location shown on the Certificate, provided the conditions of (a) through (f) below are met. This is an acceptable method of complying with Section IX requirements concerning responsibility for welding. (a) The work performed by such welders and welding operators is within the scope of the Certificate.

ð 17Þ
WELDI N G AN D SU BCON TRACTI N G O F WELDI N G

Su bcon tracted Testi n g Servi ces
As an alternative to survey and audit of suppliers of subcontracted services, a Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier may accept accreditation by accrediting bodies recognized by the International 6
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) The conditions governing the use of such welders and welding operators are contained in the Quality Assurance Manual of the Certificate Holder. The Quality Assurance Program (WA-3372 and WA-3460) shall include a requirement for direct supervision and direct technical control of the welders and welding operators by the Certificate Holder during such welding operations, and this program shall be acceptable to the Certificate Holder s Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-5121) performing the inspections. (c) The welding procedures have been properly qualified by the Certificate Holder, and Code responsibility for such procedures is retained by the Certificate Holder. (d) Welders and welding operators are qualified by the Certificate Holder to perform such procedures. (e) The Certificate Holder shall have contractual control of the welding operation, including authority to assign or remove welders and welding operators at his discretion. (f) The Certificate Holder shall be responsible for Code compliance of the completed item including stamping with the Certification Mark and providing the completed appropriate Data Report Form.
(k) making available the Certified Design Specification a n d d o c u m e n ta ti o n o f r e vi e w to th e I n s p e c to r (WA-3358); (l) making available to the Inspector the Certified Design Report and other documents required by this Division and those requested by the Inspector to assure compliance with Code requirements; (m) obtaining an agreement with an Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-8130); (n) establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program (WA-4130): (1 ) documenting a Quality Ass urance Pro gram (WA-3372); (2) filing the Quality Assurance Program (WA-3373); (3) qualification of Material Organizations and suppliers of subcontracted services (WA-3371); (o) review of Certified Material Test Reports and Certifi cate s o f C o m p l i an ce fo r mate ri al s u s e d b y hi m (WA-1220); (p) documentation of the review and approval of materials used by him [WA-1140(d)]; (q) preparation, accumulation, control, and protection of required records while in his custody [WA-4134(b)]; (r) Data Reports (WA-3380); (s) subcontracting (WA-3122) for materials, design, fabrication, examination, testing, and inspection. The N3 Certificate Holder shall retain overall responsibility, including certification and stamping; (t) review of the Design Report (WA-3357).

WA-3300
RESPON SI BI LI TI ES OF AN N 3 CERTI FI CATE H OLDER
ð 17Þ
WA-3 320
CATEG ORI ES OF TH E N 3 CERTI FI CATE H OLDER’ S RESPON SI BI LI TI ES
The N3 Certificate Holder s responsibilities include the following: (a) o b taining an N 3 C ertificate o f Autho rizatio n (WA-3330); (b) compliance with this Division (WA-3340); (c) achievement of structural integrity (WA-3340); (d) establishing the Code Editions and Code Cases to be used in the Design Specification, and determining they are acceptable to the regulatory and jurisdictional authorities (WA-1140); (e) developing and certifying a Design Specification (WA-3351); (f) evaluating the loads applied to components; (g) provision of a Design Report (WA-3350) including: (1 ) stress analysis for parts (WA-3353) (2) reconciliation of Design Drawing changes with the Design Report (WA-3355) (3) certification of the Design Report (WA-3356); (h) preparing and certifying the Fabrication Specification (WA-3360); (i) providing the Certified Fabrication Specification to the fabricator (WA-3361.4); (j) providing and correlating the Certified Design Specification, Certified Design Report and Certified Fabrication Specification to the Owner;
WA-3 330

O BTAI N I N G A CERTI FI CATE
ð 17Þ
An N3 Certificate (WA-8100) shall be obtained for construction of components intended to be in compliance with the requirements of this Division and to be stamped with a Certification Mark with N3 Designator. The N3 Certificate Holder may do all the work of an NPT Certificate Holder, provided that the scope of work is included in this Certificate. WA-3 340
CO M PLI AN CE WI TH TH I S DI VI SI O N
ð 17Þ
The N3 Certificate Holder has the responsibility for assuring that the construction of a component to be stamped with the Certification Mark with N3 Designator meets all the requirements of this Division. WA-3 350
DESI G N DOCU M EN TS
WA-3 351
Desi g n Speci fi cati on s
It is the responsibility of the N3 Certificate Holder to prepare, certify and issue the Design Specification for a component. The N3 Certificate Holder shall also be responsible for the correlation of all Design Specifications. Separate Design Specifications are not required for parts that form part of a component when they are included in the Design Specification for the component (WA-1230). WA- 3 3 51 . 1
7
Pro vi si o n an d Co rre lati o n .
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WA-3351.2 Contents of Design Specifications. The Design Specifications shall contain sufficient detail to provide a complete basis for design and construction in accordance with this Division. Such requirements shall not result in design or construction that fails to conform with the rules of this Division. All Design Specifications shall include (a) through (i) below. (a) the functions and boundaries of the items covered (WA-3351.3); (b) the design requirements (Article WA-2000); (c) the environmental conditions, including radiation; (d) the Code classification(s) (TC, SC, both TC and SC, or ISS) of the components covered; (e) material requirements including imp act tes t requirements; (f) examination and testing requirements for containment closure welds; (g) the effective Code Edition and Code Cases to be used for construction; (h) the maximum allowable leakage rate; and (i) mechanical loads, such as drop and handling, that must be considered in the design. WA-3351.3 Boundaries of Jurisdiction. In order to define the boundaries of components with respect to adjacent components and other structures, the Design Specifications shall include the boundary of the component as given i n WB - 1 1 3 0 , WC - 1 1 3 0 , o r WD - 1 1 3 0 , as appropriate. WA-3351.4 Certification of the Design Specifications. The Design Specifications shall be certified to be correct and complete and to be in compliance with the requirements of WA-3351 by one or more Certifying Engineers, competent in the applicable field of design and related transportation or storage component requirements and qualified in accordance with the requirements of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXIII. WA-3351.5 Availability of the Design Specification. The N3 Certificate Holder shall make a copy of the completed Design Specification available to the Inspector and the Owner.
(c) The Design Drawings shall be in agreement with the Design Report before it is certified (WA-3356) and shall be identified and described in the Design Report. (d) When the design includes parts, including piping that is to be purchased from an NPT Certificate Holder or valves that are to be purchased from a Division 1 N Certificate Holder, the N3 Certificate Holder shall incorporate the Design Documents for the purchased items into the Design Documents of the component. (e) The N3 Certificate Holder shall demonstrate the adequacy of the design of any item comprising the boundary of the component to meet the requirements of the Design Specification and this Division. This demonstration shall be included in the Design Report for the component.
WA-3353 Design Output Documents for Parts When the N3 Certificate Holder purchases parts from an NPT Certificate Holder, it is the responsibility of the N3 Certificate Holder to provide or cause to be provided the calculations for the parts and to incorporate them into the Design Output Documents.
WA-3355 Modification of Document and Reconciliation With Design Report Any modification of any document used for design from the corresponding document used for design analysis, shall be reconciled with the Design Report by the person or organization responsible for the design. A revision or addenda to the Design Report shall be prepared and certified (WA-3356) to indicate the basis on which this has been accomplished. All such revised documentation shall be filed with the completed Design Report.
WA-3356 Certification of Design Report (a) The Design Report shall be certified to be correct and complete and to be in accordance with the requirements of WA-3352 by one or more Certifying Engineers competent in the applicable field of design and related transportation or storage component requirements and qualified in accordance with the requirements of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXIII. The Design Report shall be certified only after all design requirements of this Division have been met. Such Certifying Engineers shall be other than the individuals certifying the Design Specification (WA-3351.4), and they are not required by these rules to be independent of the organization holding the Certificate. (b) It is the intent of this Division that the certification of the Design Report shall in no way relieve the N3 Certificate Holder of the responsibility for ensuring that the design of the component meets the conditions stated in the Design Specification and this Division.
WA-3352 Requirements for Design Documents ð
17Þ
WA-3352.1 Design Documents. (a) The Design Report and the Design Drawings used for construction are the primary Design Documents. The design shown by the Design Drawings shall comply with the Design Specification and the rules of this Division and shall be in agreement with the other Design Documents. The Design Report shall demonstrate the adequacy o f the des ign with regard to the s tructural integrity of the component. (b) The N3 Certificate Holder may subcontract stress analysis or complete design of all or a portion of a component. However, the N3 Certificate Holder is responsible for the design of the component and for the Design Documents. 8
ð
17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ð 17Þ
WA-3 357
W A- 3 3 6 1 . 4
Revi ew of Desi g n Report
(a) A review of the Design Report shall be made by the N3 Certificate Holder certifying the Design Specification to determine that all the design and loading conditions identified in the Design Specification have been considered, and that the acceptance criteria established in the Design Specification and this Division have been met. This review shall be made by individuals who did not prepare the Certified Design Report. (b) Documentation shall be provided to the Owner to indicate that the review required by (a) above has been completed. (c) A copy of the documentation required by (b) above shall be attached to, and become part of, the Design Report. WA-3 358
WA-3361. 5
WA-3 370
ð 17Þ
WA-3 361
Provi si on s of th e Fabri cati on
WA-3 371
It is the responsibility of the N3 Certificate Holder to prepare, certify, and issue the Fabrication Specification for components. The N3 Certificate Holder shall be responsible for the correlation of all Data Reports for the component. Separate Fabrication Specifications are not required for parts when they are included in the Fabrication Specification for the component. WA- 3 3 61 . 2
Scope of Respon si bi li ti es
The N3 Certificate Holder shall be responsible for surveying, qualifying, and auditing suppliers of subcontracted services (WA-3122), including nondestructive examination contractors and Material Organizations. Material Organizations holding Quality System Certificates (Materials), and Certificate Holders whose scope includes the supply or manufacture of materials, need not be surveyed or audited for work or material covered by the scope of their Certificate. Subcontractors holding an appropriate Certificate of Authorization need not be surveyed nor audited for work within the scope of the subcontractor s Certificate. An N3 Certificate Holder may qualify vendors of subcontracted services (WA-3122) other than those requiring a Certificate of Authorization for another Certificate Holder doing work for that N3 Certificate Holder. The qualification documentation shall be supplied to the other Certificate Holder prior to their use of the subcontracted service.
Speci fi cati on WA- 3 361. 1
RESPON SI BI LI TY FOR QU ALI TY ASSU RAN CE
The N3 Certificate Holder shall make a copy of the completed Certified Design Report, including documentation of the review when required (WA-3357), and drawings used for construction available to the Inspector. FABRI CATI ON SPECI FI CATI O N
Avai labi li ty of th e Fabri cati on Speci fi ca-
The N3 Certificate Holder shall make a copy of the completed Fabrication Specification used for fabrication available to the Inspector and the Owner.
ti on .
Avai labi li ty of Desi g n Reports
WA-3 360
F i l i n g t h e F ab ri cat i o n S p e ci fi cat i o n .
Fabrication Specification in its entirety shall become the principal document governing fabrication and shall be available at the location of fabrication during the complete fabrication process.

Respon si bi li ty.
Con te n ts o f th e Fab ri cati o n Sp e ci fi ca-
The Fabrication Specification shall be based upon the Design Specification and the Design Output Documents, and shall contain sufficient detail, including forming and fabrication tolerances, to provide a complete basis for fabrication in accordance with this Division. Fabrication Specifications for components shall include the examination and testing requirements for closure welds. Such requirements shall not result in fabrication that fails to conform with the Design Specification, Design Documents and the rules of this Division. ti on .
WA- 33 61. 3
WA-3 372
Docu m en tati on of Qu ali ty Assu ran ce Prog ram
The N3 Certificate Holder shall be responsible for documenting its Quality Assurance Program (WA-4134).
WA-3 373
Fi li n g of Qu ali ty Assu ran ce M an u al
The N3 Certificate Holder shall file with the Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-5121) copies of the Quality Assurance Manual. The N3 Certificate Holder shall keep a copy on file available to the Inspector (WA-5123).
Certi fi cati on of th e Fab ri cati on Speci fi -
The Fabrication Specification shall be certified to be correct and complete and to be in compliance with the requirements of WA-3361.2 by one or more Certifying Engineers, competent in the requirements of this Division and the field of Division 3 component fabrication and qualified in accordance with the requirements of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXIII. Such Registered Professional Engineers are not required to be independent of the organization preparing the Fabrication Specification. cati o n .
WA-3 380
DATA REPO RTS
The N3 Certificate Holder shall certify compliance with this Division by signing the appropriate Data Report and application of the Certification Mark (Article WA-8000). 9
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WA- 339 0
WA- 3450
N 3 CERTI FI CATE H OLDER ’ S
The N3 Certificate Holder shall be responsible for maintaining the records identified in Tables WA-4134.17-1 and WA-4134.17-2 during construction. Upon completion of construction, these records shall be transferred to the Owner. WA-3400
WA- 3451
RESPON SI BI LI TI ES OF AN N PT
CATEG O RI ES OF AN N PT CERTI FI CATE H OLDER ’ S RESPO N SI BI LI TI ES
The responsibilities of an NPT Certificate Holder include the following: (a) obtaining an NPT Certificate (WA-3430); (b) compliance with this Division (WA-3440); (c) qualification of Material Organizations and suppliers of subcontracted services (WA-3451); (d) establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program (WA-3460); (e) d o cu m e n ti n g a Qu a l i ty As s u ra n ce P ro gra m (WA-3460); (f) filing the Quality Assurance Manual (WA-3461); (g) Data Reports (WA-3470); (h) obtaining an agreement with an Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-8130); (i) fabricating parts assigned to him in accordance with the Fabrication Specification(s) and this Division; (j) p re p ari n g fab ri cati o n p ro ce du re s an d s h o p drawings; (k) making available to the Inspector the documents specified by this Division and those requested by him to assure compliance with Code requirements; (l) review of Certified Material Test Reports and Certifi cate s o f C o m p l i ance fo r m ate rial s u s e d b y h i m (WA-1220); (m) preparation, accumulation, control, and protection of required records while in his custody [WA-4134(b) and NCA 4134.17]; (n) documentation of review and approval of material used by him as permitted by WA-1140(d).

WA- 346 0
The NPT Certificate Holder shall be responsible for documenting its quality assurance program. WA- 3461
Fi li n g of Qu ali ty Assu ran ce Prog ram
ð 17Þ
The NPT Certificate Holder shall file with the Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-5121) copies of the Quality Assurance Manual. The NPT Certificate Holder shall keep a copy on file and available to the Inspector (WA-5123). WA- 3470
DATA REPORT
The NPT Certificate Holder shall certify compliance with this Division by signing the appropriate Data Report Form and applying the appropriate stamping (Article WA-8000). WA-3800 WA- 3810
M ETALLI C M ATERI AL SCOPE AN D APPLI CABI LI TY
The requirements of WA-3800 provide for various entities known as Certificate Holders, Material Organizatio ns (N C A 3 8 2 0 ) , and ap p ro ve d s up p liers (NCA-4255.3). These entities are involved in the performance of operations, processes, and services related to the procurement, manufacture and supply of material, source material, and unqualified source material, as defined in the Glossary (NCA 9200).
OBTAI N I N G A CERTI FI CATE

An NPT Certificate (WA-8100), listing Division 3 in its scope, shall be obtained for the fabrication of any item intended to be in compliance with the requirements of this Division and to be stamped with a Certification Mark with NPT Designator. WA- 3440
DOCU M EN TATI ON O F QU ALI TY ASSU RAN CE PROG RAM

WA- 343 0
Scope of Respon si bi li ti es
(a) The NPT Certificate Holder shall be responsible for surveying, qualifying, and auditing suppliers of subcontracted services (WA-3122) including nondestructive examination contractors and M aterial Organizations. Material Organizations holding Quality System Certificate (Materials), and Certificate Holders whose scope includes the supply or manufacture of materials, need not be surveyed or audited for work or material covered by the scope of their Certificate. Subcontractors holding an appropriate Certificate of Authorization need not be surveyed nor audited for work within the scope of the subcontractor s Certificate. (b) An NPT Certificate Holder may qualify vendors of subcontracted services other than those requiring a Certificate for another Certificate Holder doing work for that NPT Certificate Holder. The qualification documentation shall be supplied to the other Certificate Holder prior to their use of the subcontracted service.
CERTI FI CATE H OLDER WA- 342 0
RESPON SI BI LI TY FOR QU ALI TY ASSU RAN CE
RESPON SI BI LI TY FOR RECORDS

COM PLI AN CE WI TH TH I S DI VI SI ON
WA- 3811
Li m i tati on s
The following limitations apply to approved suppliers: Approved suppliers shall not approve other suppliers of materials or services that affect materials.
The NPT Certificate Holder shall have all work performed in accordance with the applicable requirements of this Division.
(a)
10
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Approved suppliers may adopt a limited scope quality system program as approved by the Certificate Holder or Material Organization [NCA-4255.3(b)]. WA-3 812
(a) Certified Material Test Reports or Certificates of Compliance shall meet the requirements of NCA‐ 3862.1. (b) For construction of components meeting the requirements of this Division, material identification and marking shall meet the requirements of NCA-4256.3.
Exclu si on s
Material falling within the small products exclusion of WB-2610, WC-2610, or WD-2610, as appropriate or material that is allowed by this Section to be furnished with a Certificate of Compliance, is exempted from the requirements of WA-3800, except:
WA-3 82 0
M ATERI AL ORG AN I ZATI ON S
A Material Organization shall be certified or qualified in accordance with NCA ‐ 3820 through NCA-3842.2, and NCA-4250 through NCA-4259.2. Material Certification shall be in accordance with NCA‐ 3860.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA- 4000 QU ALI TY ASSU RAN CE
WA-4100
ð 17Þ
WA- 4110
(d) For the following terms, which are defined in both NQA-1 and Article WA-9000 or Article NCA-9000, the definitions in Article WA-9000 or Article NCA-9000 shall apply, as determined by (b). (1 ) item (2) Owner (3) quality assurance (4) repair (5) rework (6) service (7) use ‐ as ‐ is (8) nonconformance
REQU I REM EN TS SCO PE AN D APPLI CABI LI TY
(a) This Article sets forth the requirements for planning, managing, and conducting Quality Assurance Programs for controlling the quality of activities performed under this Division and the rules governing the evaluation of such Programs prior to the issuance of Certificates for construction of Division 3 components. The Quality Assurance requirements for Material Organizations are provided in WA-3800. Certificate Holders are advised to consult other regulations for quality assurance requirements governing activities beyond the scope of this Division. (b) N3 and NPT Certificate Holders shall comply with the requirements of ASME NQA-1, “ Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications,” Part I, 3 as m o di fi e d an d s u p p l e m e n te d i n WA- 4 1 2 0 (d) and WA-4134. ð 17Þ
WA- 412 0
WA- 4130
ESTABLI SH M EN T AN D I M PLEM EN TATI ON
WA- 4131
M ateri al O rg an i zati on s
The requirements of NCA‐ 3800 and WA-3800 apply. WA- 4134
Di vi si on 3 Certi fi cate H old ers
(a) Provisions of NCA‐ 4134 apply to N3 and NPT Certificate Holders. (b) Fo r this D ivis io n, Tab les WA- 41 3 4. 1 7 - 1 and WA- 4 1 3 4 . 1 7 - 2 s h a l l b e u s e d i n p l a c e o f T a b l e s NCA‐ 4134.17 ‐ 1 and NCA‐ 4134.17 ‐ 2 to identify lifetime and nonpermanent records.
DEFI N I TI ON S
definitions in Article WA-9000 shall apply. definitions in Article NCA-9000 shall apply unless defined in Article WA-9000 (c) The terms and definitions of NQA-1 shall apply unless defined in Article WA-9000 or Article NCA-9000. (a) The (b) The
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Table WA-4134.17-1 Lifetime Quality Assurance Records Record
Record
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
9. 10.
7. 8.
Index to lifetime records (NCA‐ 4134.17) Code Data Reports (WA-8400) Design Specification (WA-3300) Design Documents (WA-3300) As ‐ built drawings (WA-3300) Certified Material Test Reports (CMTR) and documentation providing traceability to location used, if required (WB-4100, WC-4100, WD-4100) Heat treatment records [Note (1)] Final hydrostatic and pneumatic test results (Article WB-6000, Article WC-6000)
11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
ð
17Þ
ð
17Þ
Final nondestructive examination reports Repair records when required by Code (Article WB-4000, Article WC-4000, Article WD-4000) Weld procedures Audit and survey reports (NCA‐ 4134.18) Process sheets, travelers, or checklists Joint‐ welder identification records when such records are used in lieu of physical marking of welds (WB-4300, WC-4300, WD-4300) Fabrication Specification (WA-3300) Casting Plan (WB-2126, WC-2126)
GENERAL NOTE: Nonconformance reports that affect those records listed shall be incorporated into the record or be retained with the records. NOTE: (1) Either heat treatment charts or certified summaries of time and temperature data may be provided. These data may be included as part of the CMTR.
Table WA-4134.17-2 Nonpermanent Quality Assurance Records Record
Retention Period
1. QA Program Manual 2. Design procurement and QA procedures (NCA‐ 4134.5) 3. NDE procedures (WB-5112, WC-5112, WD-5112) 4. Personnel qualification records (WB-5520, WC-5520, WD-5520 and WB-4322, WC-4322, WD-4322) 5. Purchase orders 6. Final radiographs not covered in Table WA-4134.17-1 7. Calibration records (NCA‐ 4134.12)
3 yr after superseded or invalidated 3 yr after superseded or invalidated 10 yr after superseded or invalidated 3 yr after superseded or invalidated 10 yr after superseded or invalidated 10 yr after completion Until recalibrated
GENERAL NOTE: Nonconformance reports that affect those records listed and are not incorporated into the record shall be retained for the retention period applicable to the record the nonconformance report affects.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA-5 000 AU TH ORI ZED I N SPECTI ON
WA-5100 WA- 5110
Certificate Holder is actively engaged in Section III work. The Supervisor shall be available, as needed, for consultation and support of the local inspection staff. The Supervisor shall maintain supervisory control over one or more Authorized Nuclear Inspectors and shall perform all of the functions and maintain the records required of him in ASME QAI 1. (b) The portion of a Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program that involves Material Organization activities [NCA 3820(c)] shall be audited by the Supervisor at least once each year.
I N TRODU CTI ON APPLI CABI LI TY
This Article provides the requirements for inspection by the Authorized Inspection Agency. WA- 512 0
PERFORM AN CE OF I N SPECTI ON
WA- 512 1
Au th ori zed I n specti on Ag en cy


(a) The Authorized Inspection Agency shall be accredited by the Society in accordance with the provisions set forth in ASME QAI 1. (b) The Authorized Inspection Agency shall notify the Society when it enters into an agreement with a Certificate Holder, or whenever an existing agreement is terminated.


ð 17Þ
WA- 512 2
WA- 5130
WA- 5131
(a) The Certificate Holder shall arrange for the Inspection Agency Personnel to have free access at all times to those locations where Code activities, including those concerned with supply or manufacture of materials, are being performed on an item, when so requested. The Certificate Holder shall keep the Inspector informed of the progress of the work and shall notify him reasonably in advance when the item will be ready for any required tests or inspections. (b) The Certificate Holder shall provide personnel to accompany the Authorized Nuclear Inspector Supervisor during his required audits.
Au th ori zed N u clear I n spector
The Autho rized I nspectio n Agency shall employ Authorized Nuclear Inspection Supervisors, qualified in accordance with ASME QAI 1, to supervise the Inspectors. ‐
Au th ori zed N u clear I n spector
The Authorized Inspection Agency shall also employ Authorized Nuclear Inspectors qualified in accordance with the latest revision of ASME QAI 1, to perform inspections required by this Division. The inspections required by this Division shall be performed by an Authorized Nuclear Inspector. Any reference to Inspector throughout this Division shall mean Authorized Nuclear Inspector. The Authorized Nuclear Inspector shall not be in the employ of a Certificate Holder. ‐
ð 17Þ
WA- 512 5
Access to th e Certi fi cate H old er’ s Faci li ti es
Su pervi sor
WA- 512 3
ACCESS FOR I N SPECTI ON AG EN CY PERSON N EL
WA-52 00 WA- 52 10
DU TI ES OF I N SPECTOR
ð 17Þ
G EN ERAL I N SPECTI ON DU TI ES
(a) The Inspector who performs the detailed inspections in compliance with this Division shall witness or otherwise verify all examinations and make all inspections required by this Division. The Inspector shall also make any other inspections and witness or verify (including making measurements) any other examinations and additional investigations which, in the Inspector s judgment, are necessary to ascertain whether the item being inspected has been constructed (WA-1110) in compliance with the rules of this Division. Parts, including piping subassemblies, shall be in accordance with the accepted documents (WA-3300). (b) The duties of the Inspector shall not be interpreted by virtue of these rules to extend to any construction requirements beyond those of this Division that may be set
Du ti es of Au th ori zed N u clear I n spector Su pervi sors
(a) Supervisors, in conjunction with Inspectors employed by the same Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-5121), shall participate in the Society s review of the applicant s Quality Assurance Program (WA-8160). In those cases where the Supervisor performs the functions of the Inspector, he may represent both during the review of the Program. A Supervisor designated by the Authorized Inspection Agency shall review and accept any proposed modifications to Quality Assurance Manuals before they are put into effect. The Authorized Nuclear Inspector Supervisor shall audit the Inspector s performance at least twice per year at locations where the ’



14
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
forth in the Fabrication Specifications (WA-3360). However, such requirements shall not result in construction which fails to conform with the requirements of this Division. WA-52 20
WA-5242
M on i tori n g of Qu ali ty Assu ran ce Prog ram s
The Inspector shall monitor the performance of the Certificate Holder for conformity to the requirements of their Quality Assurance Program accepted by the Society. The Inspector shall verify that all changes to the Quality Assurance Manual have been accepted by the Authorized Inspection Agency before they are put into effect.
CATEG ORI ES OF I N SPECTOR ’ S DU TI ES
The duties of the Inspector shall include but not necessarily be limited to those given in (a) through (i) below. (a) verifying the s co p e of wo rk to b e performed [WA-5230(a)]; (b) monitoring of the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance P ro gram i ncluding s ub co n tracted activi tie s (WA-5240); (c) reviewing of the Certificate Holder s qualification records (WA-5250); (d) verifying materials (WA-5260); (e) witnessing or verifying in process fabrication, nondestructive examination, and tests (WA-5270); (f) witnessing final testing (WA-5280); (g) reviewing and signing Data Reports (WA-5290); (h) reviewing drawings and inspecting in accordance with them; (i) performing all other duties specifically required in ASME QAI 1.
WA-5243
Process Con trol Ch eckli st
The Inspector shall indicate on the Certificate Holder s process sheets or checklist his concurrence that compliance has been attained at each point stipulated by him (WA-5241). ’


WA-52 51
Revi ew of Qu ali fi cati on Record s
WA-52 53
Weld i n g Proced u res
The Inspector shall assure himself that the welding procedures employed in fabrication have been qualified under the provisions of this Division. The Certificate Holder shall submit evidence to the Inspector that these requirements have been met. When there is a specific reason to question the welding procedure, the Inspector may require requalification as a requirement for the procedure to be used on work subject to his inspection.

WA-52 30
QU ALI FI CATI O N RECORDS
The Inspector shall review the qualification records of the Certificate Holder.

ð 17Þ
WA-52 50
SCO PE OF WORK, DESI G N SPECI FI CATI O N S, DESI G N REPORTS, AN D FABRI CATI ON SPECI FI CATI ON S
WA-52 54
The Inspector shall verify that the scope stated in the N type Certificate of Authorization includes the work to be performed. (b) The Inspector shall verify that the Design Specification, Design Reports, and Fabrication Specifications, when required, are on file and that they have been properly certified in accordance with WA-33 51.4, WA-3 356, and WA-3361.3. (c) The Inspector shall not be held responsible for the scope or adequacy of the Design Specifications, for the completeness or accuracy of the Design Report or calculations or for the qualification of Certifying Engineers certifying documents in compliance with the requirements of this Division. (a)
Weld ers an d Weld i n g Operators
The Inspector shall assure himself that all welding is performed by welders or welding operators qualified under the provisions of this Division. The Certificate Holder shall make available to the Inspector a certified copy of the record of performance qualification tests of each welder and welding operator as evidence that these requirements have been met. When there is a specific reason to question the ability of the welder or the welding operator to make welds that meet the requirements of the specification, the Inspector may require requalification before the welder or welding operator is permitted to continue welding on work subject to his inspection. The Inspector shall also assure himself that each welder and welding operator has been assigned an identifying symbol and that such symbols are regularly and consistently applied when required by this Division.

WA-5240
QU ALI TY ASSU RAN CE PROG RAM S
WA-5241
Sti pu lati on of I n specti on s Pri or to
WA-52 55
I ssu an ce of Process Sh eets or Con trols
The Inspector shall assure himself that the examination and testing procedures required by this Division have been qualified. When there is a specific reason to question whether the examination or testing procedure requirements are being met, the Inspector may require requalification of the procedure.
Prior to the issuance of process sheets or controls required by NCA 4134.9, the Certificate Holder shall review them and the applicable drawings with the Inspector, who shall then stipulate the inspections he intends to make in order to fulfill the requirements of WA-5210. ‐
15
Exam i n ati on Proced u res
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WA- 52 56
N on d estru cti ve Exam i n ati on
WA- 5280
Person n el
The Inspector shall witness final tests required by this Division and examinations performed during such tests by the Certificate Holder.
The Inspector has the duty to verify the qualification and certification of nondestructive examination personnel employed by the Certificate Holder and has the duty to monitor the nondestructive examination activities and require requalification of any personnel when there is reason to question the performance of that person. In addition, the Inspector shall monitor the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program as it relates to the nondestructive examination activities of Material Organizations, and NDE subcontractors that the Certificate Holder qualified.
WA- 529 0
DATA REPO RTS
The appropriate Data Reports prepared by the Certificate Holder shall be reviewed and signed by the Inspector only after they have been certified by a responsible representative of the Certificate Holder and after he has satisfied himself that all requirements of this Division have been met and that each Data Report certified is a correct record.

WA- 5260
FI N AL TESTS
M ATERI ALS, PARTS, AN D H EAT TREATM EN T
WA-5300 WA- 5261
AU TH ORI ZED I N SPECTI ON
The Inspector shall assure himself that all materials used comply with all applicable requirements of this Division. The Certificate Holder shall make available to the Inspector certified reports of the results of all tests performed in accordance with (a) and (b) below: (a) the material specifications; (b) the requirements in the applicable materials Articles of this Division, including certified reports of the results of all required tes ts and examinatio ns performed. ð 17Þ
WA- 5262
AG EN CY
The responsibilities of the Authorized Inspection Agency shall include but not necessarily be limited to those given in (a) through (j) below. (a) Maintain a staff of Authorized Nuclear Inspectors a n d Au th o r i z e d N u c l e a r I n s p e c to r S u p e r vi s o r s (WA-5122 and WA-5123). (b) Make agreements with Certificate Holders for inspection service (WA-5121 and WA-8130). Notify the Soci ety wh en e ve r s uch agree me nts are term in ate d (WA-5121). (c) Provide for participation in the Society s review of the applicant s Quality Assurance Program (WA-5125). (d) Provide for the review and acceptance of any proposed modifications to Quality Assurance Manuals before they are put into effect (WA-5125). (e) Review and accept the Certificate Holder s method of securing the nameplate to components to which, because of size or other considerations, the nameplate cannot be directly attached [WA-8220(b)]. (f) Review and accept the Certificate Holder s alternative method of identification, including the unique method of marking of components to which, because of size or other considerations, nameplates cannot be directly attached [WA-8220(b)]. (g) Review and accept the Certificate Holder s alternative method of marking of parts (WA-8230). (h) Review and accept the Certificate Holder s procedures for alternative stamping requirements (WA-8311). (i) Determine by agreement with the Certificate Holder the sequence for stamping and the completion of the Code Data Report [WA-8310(c)]. (j) And all other duties specifically required in ASME QAI 1.
Di m en si on al Ch eck
The Inspector shall satisfy himself: that the item is being constructed within the tolerance required by the Design Specification, Design Drawings, and Fabrication Specifications, and this Division; (b) that head and shell sections conform to the prescribed shape and meet the thickness requirements; (c) that fittings and attachments to be welded to the component fit properly to the surface of that component. If required by the Inspector, the Certificate Holder shall make available accurately formed templates for his use.

(a)
WA- 5263
RESPON SI BI LI TI ES OF TH E
I n specti on of M ateri als for Com pli an ce



Ch eck of H eat Treatm en t Practi ce
The Inspector shall satisfy himself that all heat treatment operations required by this Division are correctly performed and that the temperature readings and gradients conform to the requirements.


WA- 52 70
EXAM I N ATI ON S AN D TESTS
The Inspector shall witness in process fabrication nondestructive examinations and destructive tests, when feasible; alternatively, he shall check the examination and test records to determine the acceptability of the items involved. ‐

16
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA-7000
ð 17Þ
REFEREN CE STAN DARDS
WA-7100
The standards and specifications referenced in the text of each Subsection are listed in Table WA-7100-2. Where reference is made within Division 3 to requirements, that are part of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, they are not included in this Table.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
Dimensions of standard products shall comply with the dimensional standards listed in Table WA-7100-1 when the standard is referenced in the Division 3 Subsection. However, compliance with these standards does not replace or eliminate the requirements for stress analysis when called for by Article WB-3000, Article WC-3000, or Article WD-3000 for a specific component.
Table WA-7100-1 Di m en si on al Stan d ard s
Section III Referenced Edition
Other Acceptable Editions
2004 2004
2000, 1996, 1985 1985 (R1994)
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Factory‐ Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings Forged Fittings, Socket‐ Welding and Threaded Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges: Ring‐ Joint Spiral Wound and Jacketed Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges Buttwelding Ends Large Diameter Steel Flanges Wrought and Fabricated Butt-Welding Fittings for Low Pressure, Corrosion Resistant Applications
2009 2007 2009 2007
2003, 1998, 1988, 1981 2001, 1993, 1986, 1981 2001, 1996, 1980 2000, 1998, 1984
2005 1997 2006 2008
1992 1986 1998 1991 (R1996)(R2001), 1982 (R1986), 1982
Square, Hex, Heavy Hex, and Askew Head Bolts and Hex, Heavy Hex, Hex Flange, Lobed Head and Lag Screws Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series)
2010
1999, 1981
1987 (R1999)
1987, 1972 (R1983)
2003
1998, 1986, 1982
Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form) Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)
2003 (R2008) 1983 (R2006)
1989, 1982 1983 (R1992)
Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch)
1976 (R2008)
1976 (R1981) (R1982) (R1991) (R1998)
Standard ID Pipes and Tubes
ASME B36.10M ASME B36.19M
Published Title
Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe Stainless Steel Pipe
Fittings, Flanges, and Gaskets
ASME B16.5 ASME B16.9 [Note (1)] ASME B16.11 ASME B16.20 ASME B16.21 ASME B16.25 ASME B16.47 MSS SP ‐ 43 Bolting
ASME B18.2.1 [Note (2)] ASME/ANSI B18.2.2 [Note (2)] ASME B18.3 [Note (2)] Threads
ASME B1.1 [Note (2)] ANSI/ASME B1.20.1 [Note (2)] ANSI B1.20.3 [Note (2)]
Socket Cap, Shoulder, and Set Screws, Hex and Spine Keys (Inch Series)
NOTES: (1) Analysis per ASME B16.9, para. 2.2, is acceptable only for caps and reducers. (2) These standards are referenced for dimensional purposes only. Any manufacturing or inspection requirements contained in item are not mandatory. The SA or SB Material Specification specifies the applicable manufacturing and inspection requirements.
17
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Table WA-7100-2 Standards and Specifications Referenced in Division 3 Standard ID
Published Title
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME NQA‐ 1 ASME QAI ‐ 1
Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications Qualifications for Authorized Inspection
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
SNT‐ TC ‐ 1A
Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM E23 ASTM E185
ASTM E186 ASTM E208 ASTM E280 ASTM E399 ASTM E446 ASTM E604 ASTM E1820 ASTM F788 ASTM F812
Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light‐ Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy‐ Walled (2 to 4 1/2 − in.) [(51 to 114 − mm)] Steel Castings Standard Test Method for Conducting Drop ‐ Weight Test to Determine Nil ‐ Ductility Transition Temperature of Ferritic Steels Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy‐ Walled (41/2 to 12 ‐ in.) [(114 to 305 − mm)] Steel Castings Standard Test Method for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings up to 2 in. (51 mm) in Thickness Standard Test Method for Dynamic Tear Testing of Metallic Materials Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness Standard Specification for Surface Discontinuities of Bolts, Screws, and Studs, Inch and Metric Series Standard Specification for Surface Discontinuities of Nuts, Inch and Metric Series
American Welding Society (AWS)
AWS A4.2
Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic and Duplex Ferritic ‐ Austenitic Stainless Steel
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI N14.5
Leakage Test on Packages for Transportation
Section III Referenced Edition
2008, 2009a Latest 2011 2002a 2010 67, 73, 75, 79 1991 68, 72, 75 1983, 1990 72, 75, or 78 1983 2001 2013 2012 1991
1997, 2014
18
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA-8000 CERTI FI CATES OF AU TH ORI ZATI ON , N AM EPLATES, CERTI FI CATI ON M ARK, AN D DATA REPORTS
WA-8100
(b) The Society may, at any time, make regulations concerning the issuance and use of Certificates and the Certification Mark as it deems appropriate, and all regulations s hall b eco me b inding up o n the ho lders o f a valid Certificate.
AU TH ORI ZATI ON TO PERFORM CODE ACTI VI TI ES
WA-8110
G EN ERAL
Certificates of Authorization to use the official Certification Mark in Table WA-8100-1 to certify work in this Division will be granted by the Society for a 3-yr period pursuant to the provisions set forth in this Article. WA-812 0
WA-8130
I N SPECTI ON AG REEM EN T REQU I RED
Certificate Holders shall possess an agreement with an ASME accredited Authorized Inspection Agency to provide inspection and audit services. The agreement with the Authorized Inspection Agency shall be made prior to application for a survey. Certificate Holders shall notify the Society whenever their agreements with an Authorized Inspection Agency are cancelled or changed to another Authorized Inspection Agency.
SCOPE OF AU TH ORI ZATI ON
(a) The Certificate of Authorization (WA-3120) will identify the facility covered and state the scope of activities for which authorization is granted. The Society may, at its discretion, limit or extend the scope of an authorization to any types or classes of items or to a specific location.
ð 17Þ
Table WA- 8100-1 Au th ori zati on s an d Certi fi cati on M ark I ssu ed by th e Soci ety for th e Con stru cti on of Tran sportati on an d Storag e Com pon en ts an d Parts
Type of Organization (Code Division)
N3 or NPT (Div. 3)
N3 or NPT (Div. 3)
NPT (Div. 1) N (Div. 1)
Scope
Division 1
Transportation containments Storage containments Internal support structures Parts

Field closure welds

Division 3
… …
Tubular products welded with filler Class 1 for transportation containments, metal Class 1 or 2 for storage containments Line valves Class 1 for transportation containments, Class 1 or 2 for storage containments
Notes
N‐7 N‐7 N-11 N‐9
(1) (1)
N‐8
(1)

NM ‐ 1
(3)

NPV‐ 1
(4)
Class TC Class SC Class ISS Class TC, SC, or ISS Class TC or SC

Data Report Form

(1), (2)
NOTES: (1) Completed Data Reports for closure welds of containments shall be forwarded to the Owner. (2) Data reports for parts shall be forwarded in duplicate to the Certificate Holder of the finished component. (3) Material (WA-1220) shall be documented on a Certified Material Test Report or a Certificate of Compliance in accordance with Article WB-2000, Article WC-2000, or Article WD-2000, as appropriate.. (4) Line valves shall meet the requirements of Division 1 in their entirety.
19
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WA- 8140
WA- 816 0
QU ALI TY ASSU RAN CE PRO G RAM REQU I REM EN TS
WA- 816 1
It is a requirement that a Certificate Holder have a Quality Assurance Program (Article WA-4000) that has been evaluated and accepted by the Society. ð 17Þ
WA- 8150
(a) Applicants for a new or renewed N3 or NPT Certificate of Authorization for construction require a survey of their facilities. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the applicant s Quality Assurance Manual and the implementation of the Quality Assurance Program. (b) The extent of the survey will be determined by the Society based on a review of the applicant s intended scope of Code activities described in the application. The acceptance by the Society of the Quality Assurance Program shall not be interpreted to mean endorsement of technical capability to perform design work such as system design or stress analysis. Such capability is implied for the specific component involved by the certification of Design Reports ( WA-3 3 5 6) b y a Certifying Engineer. (c) Authorization to certify a Data Report or apply a Certification Mark to an item will be granted only after a survey by the Society has satisfactorily demonstrated the adequacy and implementation of the Quality Assurance Program.
APPLI CATI ON FOR AU TH O RI ZATI ON


Fi eld Operati on s
The N3 or NPT Certificate of Authorization may be extended to include field operations such as the completion or repair of components and parts constructed under that authorization. Except as permitted in WA-8152, the Society requires a survey of each field site to assure that the Quality Assurance Program described in the Manual is implemented and enforced. WA- 8152
ð 17Þ
Evalu ati on for Certi fi cate of Au th ori zati on
An Organization desiring a Certificate of Authorization shall apply to the Society upon forms issued by the Society describing the scope of Code activities to be performed. WA- 8151
EVALU ATI O N FOR AU TH ORI ZATI O N
Fi eld Operati on s for Con tai n m en t Closu re Weld s
The N3 or NPT Certificates may be extended to field locations for making final closure welds to loaded spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive material containments without a site survey by the Society, provided (a) the control of materials, special processes, examinations, inspections, tests, and certification at field locations shall be described in the Certificate Holders Quality Assurance Manual, including involvement of the Inspector; (b) the Certificate Holders Quality Assurance Program has been reviewed and accepted by the Authorized Inspection Agency to confirm (a) above prior to any welding at field locations; (c) unique identifiers are permanently marked on each of the containment parts that are to be assembled together; (d) the welds are to be made in accordance with the requirements of the Fabrication Specification; and (e) the Data Report for each containment includes the unique identifiers of (c) above. WA- 8153
WA- 8170
Each Certificate Holder shall have agreed that each Certificate and Certification Mark (if one is issued) is at all times the property of the Society, that it will be used according to the rules and regulations of this Division, and that the Certificate and Certification M ark will be promptly returned to the Society upon demand, or when the Certificate Holder discontinues the scope of Code activities covered by his Certificate. The holder of a Certification Mark shall not permit any other party to use its Certificate or Certification Mark. The Society reserves the absolute right to cancel or refuse to renew such authorization, returning fees paid for the prorated unexpired term. WA- 8180
REN EWAL O F AU TH O RI ZATI ON
Not later than 6 months prior to the date of expiration of any Certificate, the Certificate Holder shall apply for a renewal of such authorization and the issuance of a new Certificate.
Sh op Assem bly
Shop assembly of components, or components to piping or other items, may be by N type Certificate Holders if such activities are included within the scope of their N type Certificate of Authorization.
WA-82 00

N AM EPLATES AN D STAM PI N G WI TH CERTI FI CATI ON M ARK

WA- 8154
I SSU AN CE OF AU TH ORI ZATI ON
WA- 8210
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
WA- 8211
N am eplates
(a) Each component or part to which a Certification Mark is applied shall have a nameplate, except as otherwise permitted by this subarticle. Marking shall be as required by (1) through (5) below.
Cod e Acti vi ti es Pri or to Certi fi cati on
Code activities performed prior to issuance of an N3 or NPT Certificate of Authorization shall be subject to the acceptance of the Inspector. 20
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(1 ) the applicable official Certification Mark, as shown in Table WA-8100-1; (2) Class of construction and Designator; (3) the statement “ Certified by” ; (4) Certificate Holder’ s name; (5) Serial number and, if applicable, National Board number and/or Canadian registration number. (b) Valves fabricated by a Division 1 Certificate Holder shall be stamped in accordance with Article NCA‐ 8000. WA-82 12
Agency. The use of this alternative method of identification, including the method of marking, shall be reviewed by and found acceptable to the Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-5121) prior to implementation by the Certificate Holder. (c) For internal support structures, if because of size, geometric constraints, or other considerations the nameplate cannot be directly attached to the component, an alternative method of identification may be used. The alternative method is to be acceptable to the Authorized Inspection Agency and includes application of a unique identification mark to the component that will serve to identify the component with the appropriate Data Report. The marking shall be of a visible, permanent type and not detrimental to the component. That type, method, and manner of marking shall be described in the Certificate Holder's Quality Assurance Program or Procedure. The use of this alternative method of marking shall be reviewed by and found acceptable to the Authorized Inspection Agency (WA-5121) prior to the implementation by the Certificate Holder.
Stam pi n g Wi th th e Certi fi cati on M ark
The Certification Mark shall be stamped on a nameplate attached to an item, except as otherwise permitted by this subarticle. The arrangement of markings shall be as shown in Figure WA-8212-1. The data shall be in characters not less than 3/3 2 in. (2.5 mm) high. The selected method shall not result in any harmful contamination or sharp discontinuities. Stamping directly on items, when used, shall be done with blunt‐ nosed continuous or blunt‐ nose interrupted dot die stamps. WA-82 13
Attach m en t of N am eplates
(a) The nameplate shall be attached by a method that will not affect the structural integrity of the item. (b) If the nameplate is marked before it is attached, the Certificate Holder shall assure that the nameplate with the correct marking has been attached and the Inspector shall verify that this has been done. ð 17Þ
WA-82 2 0
WA-82 30
Parts shall have a separate nameplate equivalent to that required for completed items when the size and use of the item will accommodate such a nameplate. When the size or use of the item will not permit the installation of a nameplate, the marking shall consist of suitable identification of the item until it has been incorporated into the finished component or other Certification Mark with NPT Designator item. This alternative method of marking shall be reviewed with and found acceptable to the Authorized Inspection Agency before being used by the Certificate Holder.
(a) The markings required by WA-8210 shall be applied to a separate nameplate attached to the item. The nameplate shall be of a visible, permanent type and not detrimental to the item. The type, method, and manner of marking shall be described in the Certificate Holder’ s Quality Assurance Program or Procedure. (b) If, because of size or other considerations, the nameplates cannot be directly attached to the component or part, the Certificate Holder may secure the nameplate in a manner acceptable to the Authorized Inspection
WA-8300 WA-8310
CERTI FI CATI ON M ARK G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
(a) The Certification Mark shall be applied by the Certificate Holder only with authorization of the Inspector. In any case, the Certification Mark shall not be applied until completion of the required examination and testing, except as permitted in WA-8311. (b) Table WA-8100-1 provides Certification Mark requirements as related to type of certificates, scope of work, and class of construction. The class of construction shall be indicated by the letters TC, SC, TC and SC, or ISS stamped below and outside the official Certification Mark. For construction of components, parts, or welds to be certified as meeting a Section III Edition or Addenda before the 2011 Addenda, the ASME Certification Mark is equivalent to and may be used in lieu of the N3 or NPT Stamp shown in the Section III Edition and Addenda used for construction.
Fi g u re WA- 8212 -1 Form of Stam pi n g
Certified by (Designator) (Class)
ð 17Þ
M ARK WI TH N PT DESI G N ATOR I TEM S
N AM EPLATES
ð 17Þ
N AM EPLATES FOR CERTI FI CATI ON
(Name of Certificate Holder) (Serial number)
21
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(c) The completed Code Data Report certifies that the Inspector has inspected the item and authorized the application of the Certification Mark. The sequence for stamping and the completion of the Code Data Report shall be determined by agreement between the Authorized Inspection Agency and the Certificate Holder. WA- 8311
WA- 833 0
REM OVABLE I TEM S
Removable items that form part of a containment boundary shall have unique markings identifiable to an individual component.
Altern ati ve Stam pi n g Req u i rem en ts
WA-8400
For containments where final closure welds are not completed until after spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive materials are loaded into the containment, the organization assuming overall responsibility for the containment may apply the Certification Mark with N3 Designator prior to completion of the final closure welds, provided (a) unique identifiers are permanently marked on each of the containment parts that are to be assembled together; (b) the Data Report for each component includes the assigned unique identifiers; and (c) the procedure for controlling, and the use of, the unique identifiers shall be included in the Certificate Holders Quality Assurance Program and accepted by the Certificate Holders Authorized Inspection Agency prior to use.
WA- 8410
DATA REPORTS G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
The appropriate Data Report, 4 as specified in Table WA-8100-1, shall be filled out by the Certificate Holder and shall be signed by the Certificate Holder and the Inspector for each item (except as provided elsewhere in this Article) to be marked with a Certification Mark. Any quantity to which units apply shall be entered on the Manufacturer s Data Report with the chosen units. ’
WA- 8412
Avai labi li ty of Data Reports
All Data Reports and referenced supporting material shall be available to the Inspector, Owner, and enforcement, or regulatory authority having jurisdiction.
22
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
FORM N-7 NUCLEAR CONTAINMENTS As Required by the Provisions of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3
Pg. 1 of
1 . Manufactured and certified by 2. Manufactured for 3. Transport and/or Storage 4. Type
(name and address)
(horizontal or vertical)
5. ASME Code, Section III, Division 3 6. Shell
8. Heads
[(c) material spec. no.]
Location (top, bottom, ends)
Thickness
(joint eff. %)
; girth
(tensile strength)
[(a) material spec. no.]
[length (overall)]
(type)
(HT)
(RT or UT)
(joint eff. %)
(tensile strength)
[(d) material spec. no.]
Conical Apex Angle
Elliptical Ratio
Knuckle Radius
(Code Case no.)
[(b) material spec. no.]
(tensile strength)
Crown Radius
(year built)
(diameter ID)
(nominal thickness)
(RT or UT)
(HT)
(National Bd. no.)
(class)
(tensile strength)
(type)
(CRN)
(edition)
(material spec. no.)
7. Seams Long
(Certificate Holder’s serial no.)
(Containment serial no.)
(tensile strength)
Hemispherical Radius
Flat Diameter
Side to Pressure (convex or concave)
(a) (b) (c) (d)
If removable, bolts used; 9. Design pressure
. If quick opening closure or other fastening, describe in detail at
. Min. pressure-test temp.
He leak test 1 0. Supports
. Pneu., hydro., or comb. test pressure
[maximim acc. leak rate (from fab. spec.)] (yes or no)
Lugs
(quantity)
Legs
(quantity)
Other
Attached
(describe)
(where and how)
1 1 . Nozzles Purpose
Quantity
Diameter or Size
How Attached
Type
1 2. Parts supplied by others (Data Reports attached). (a) Part (b) Serial No.
Material
(c) CRN No.
1 3. For containments list identifying markings of matching items to be joined in the field by welding. to be welded to 1 4. Remarks
(closure plates, heads)
(07/1 7)
23
Thickness
Reinforcement Material
(d) National Bd. No.
(shell assembly)
Location
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
)
FORM N-7 (Back — Pg. 2 of
Certificate Holder’s Serial No. CERTIFICATION OF DESIGN
Design Specification on file at Design Specification certified by Design Report on file at Design Report certified by Fabrication Specification on file at Fabrication Specification certified by
P.E. State or Prov.
Reg. No.
P.E. State or Prov.
Reg. No.
P.E. State or Prov.
Reg. No.
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE FOR OVERALL RESPONSIBILITY
Following completion of the above, the Certificate of Authorization Holder accepting overall responsibility for this Division 3 containment shall complete the following statement: We certify that the statements made by this report are correct and that construction of the items described in this Data Report conforms to the rules of the construction of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. N3 Certificate of Authorization No. Expires Date N3 Certificate Holder Signed (authorized representative)
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION
I , th e u n dersigned, h ol di ng a val id com m issi on i ssu ed by th e N ation al Board of Boi l er and Pressu re Vessel I n spectors and em pl oyed by have compared the statements described on this Data Report with those described in the attached Certificate Holdof er's Data Reports and to the best of my knowledge and belief, the described items have been constructed in accordance with the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. By signing this certificate neither the inspector nor his employer makes any warranty, expressed or implied, concerning the items described in this Data Report. Furthermore, neither the inspector nor his employer shall be liable in any manner for any personal injury or property damage or a loss of any kind arising from or connected with this inspection. Date
Signed
Commission
(Authorized Nuclear Inspector)
[National Board Number and Endorsement]
CERTIFICATE OF SHOP COMPLIANCE
We certify that the statements made in this report are correct and that this nuclear containment conforms to the rules for construction of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. Certificate of Authorization Type and No. Expires Date Name Signed (authorized representative)
(N3 Certificate Holder)
CERTIFICATE OF SHOP INSPECTION
I , th e u ndersigned, h ol ding a val i d com m i ssion i ssued by th e N ational Board of Boi l er and Pressu re Vessel I nspectors and em pl oyed by of have inspected the component described in this Data Report on , and state that to the best of my knowledge and belief, the Certificate Holder has constructed this component in accordance with the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. By signing this certificate neither the inspector nor his employer makes any warranty, expressed or implied, concerning the component described in this Data Report. Furthermore, neither the inspector nor his employer shall be liable in any manner for any personal injury or property damage or a loss of any kind arising from or connected with this inspection. Date
Signed
Commission
(Authorized Nuclear Inspector)
(07/1 7)
24
[National Board Number and Endorsement]
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
FORM N-8 FOR CLASS SC OR TC CLOSURE WELDS As Required by the Provisions of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3 1 . Welds made by
ð 17Þ
(name and address of certificate holder)
2. Welds made for
(owner’s name and address)
3. Location of installation
(name and address)
4. Welds were made in accordance with Fabrication Specification No. Revision 5. Containment Serial No.
Date National Bd. No.
Year Built
CRN No.
Identification Markings of Items to be Joined Welded to
(heads, covers)
(shell assy.)
6. ASME Code, Section III, Division 3
,
(editions)
(class)
(Code Case no.)
7. Testing: Hydro., pneu., or comb. pressure test at He leak test
of Welds
(max. acceptable leak rate)
8. Remarks:
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
We certify that the statements made in this report are correct and that these closure welds conform to the rules of construction of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3, and the Fabrication Specification listed on this Data Report. Certificate of Authorization Type and No. Expires Date Name Signed (Certificate Holder)
(authorized representative)
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION
I, th e u ndersigned, h ol ding a val id comm ission issued by th e N ational Board of Boiler and Pressu re Vessel Inspectors and em ployed by , and state that to the of have inspected these items described in this Data Report on best of my knowledge and belief, the Certificate Holder has fabricated these parts in accordance with the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. Each part listed has been authorized for stamping on the date shown above. By signing this certificate neither the inspector nor his employer makes any warranty, expressed or implied, concerning the equipment described in this Data Report. Furthermore, neither the inspector nor his employer shall be liable in any manner for any personal injury or property damage or loss of any kind arising from or connected with this inspection. Date
Signed
Commission
(Authorized Nuclear Inspector)
(07/1 7)
25
[National Board Number and Endorsement]
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
FORM N-9 SHOP FABRICATED PARTS As Required by the Provisions of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3
ð 17Þ
1 . Manufactured and certified by
Pg. 1 of
(name and address of N Certificate Holder)
2. Manufactured for
(name and address of Purchaser)
3. Transport and/or Storage 4. Type
(Serial no.)
(horizontal or vertical)
5. ASME Code, Section III, Division 3 6. Shell
(edition)
(material spec. no.)
7. Seams Long 8. Heads
(joint eff. %)
(Code Case no.)
(diameter ID)
(nominal thickness)
(RT or UT)
(HT)
(year built)
(class)
(tensile strength)
(type)
(National Bd. no.)
(CRN)
(Certificate Holder’s serial no.)
; girth
(type)
[length (overall)] (HT)
(RT or UT)
(joint eff. %)
[(a) material spec. no.]
(tensile strength)
[(b) material spec. no.]
(tensile strength)
[(c) material spec. no.]
(tensile strength)
[(d) material spec. no.]
(tensile strength)
Location (top, bottom, ends)
Thickness
Crown Radius
Corrosion Allowance
Knuckle Radius
Elliptical Ratio
Conical Apex Angle
Hemispherical Radius
Flat Diameter
Side to Pressure (convex or concave)
(a) (b) (c) (d)
If removable, bolts used 9. Design pressure
. If quick opening closure or other fastening, describe in detail at
. Min. pressure-test temp.
He leak test 1 0. Supports
. Pneu., hydro., or comb. test pressure
[maximum acc. leak rate (from fab. spec.)] (yes or no)
Lugs
(quantity)
Legs
(quantity)
Other
Attached
(describe)
(where and how)
1 1 . Nozzles Purpose
Quantity
Diameter or Size
How Attached
Type
1 2. Parts supplied by others (Data Reports attached). (a) Part (b) Serial No.
Material
(c) CRN No.
1 3. For components list identifying markings of matching items to be joined in the field by welding. to be welding to (closure plates, heads)
1 4. List of Drawings (with last revision and date)
1 5. Remarks
(07/1 7)
26
Thickness
Reinforcement Material
(d) National Bd. No.
(shell assembly)
Location
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
)
FORM N-9 (Back — Pg. 2 of
Certificate Holder’s Serial No. 1 6. Fabrication specification used for the manufacture of this item revision no. prepared by Certified by P.E. State or Prov.
Reg. No.
CERTIFICATE OF SHOP COMPLIANCE
We certify that the statements made by this report are correct and that this (these) conforms to the rules of the construction of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3 Certificate of Authorization Type and No. Date Name (NPT Certificate Holder)
Expires Signed
(authorized representative)
CERTIFICATE OF SHOP INSPECTION
I , th e u ndersigned, h ol ding a val id com m ission issu ed by th e N ational Board of Boil er and Pressu re Vessel I nspectors and em pl oyed by , and state that to the of have inspected these items described in this Data Report on best of my knowledge and belief, the Certificate Holder has fabricated these parts in accordance with the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. Each part listed has been authorized for stamping on the date shown above. By signing this certificate, neither the inspector nor his employer makes any warranty, expressed or implied, concerning the equipment described in this Data Report. Furthermore, neither the inspector nor his employer shall be liable in any manner for any personal injury or property damage or a loss of any kind arising from or connected with this inspection. Date
Signed
Commission
(Authorized Nuclear Inspector)
(07/1 7)
27
[National Board Number and Endorsement]
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
FORM N-1 1 CERTIFICATE HOLDER’S DATA REPORT FOR INTERNAL SUPPORT STRUCTURES As Required by the Provisions of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3 Pg. 1 of
ð 17Þ
1 . Manufactured and certified by
(name and address of Certificate Holder)
2. Manufactured for
(name and address of Purchaser)
3. Applicable Installation(s)
(specific identifiers)
4. Type
(C.H.’s serial no.)
(Transportation, storage, or both)
5. ASME Code, Section III, Division 3
(edition)
6. Manufactured in accordance with specification
(National Bd. no.)
(drawing no.)
(CRN)
(class)
(Code Case no.)
Rev.
(Fabrication Specification)
(year built)
Date
7. List of Drawings (with last revision and date)
8. Remarks
CERTIFICATION OF DESIGN AND FABRICATION
P.E. State P.E. State P.E. State
Design Specification certified by Design Report certified by Fabrication Specification certified by
Reg. no. Reg. no. Reg. no.
CERTIFICATE OF INTERNAL SUPPORT STRUCTURES
The undersigned, having a valid Certification of Authorization, certify that the construction of the internal support structure will not adversely affect the integrity of the containment. N3 Certificate of Authorization No. Expires Date
Name
Signed
(Certificate Holder)
(authorized representative)
CERTIFICATE OF SHOP COMPLIANCE
We certify that the statements made in this report are correct and that this internal support structure conforms to the rules of construction of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. Certificate of Authorization Type and No. Expires Date
Name
Signed
(Certificate Holder)
(authorized representative)
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION
I, the undersigned, holding a valid commission issued by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors and employed by have inspected the internal support structure described in this Data Report on , and state that to the best of my knowledge and belief, the Certificate Holder has constructed this item in accordance with the ASME Code, Section III, Division 3. By signing this certificate neither the inspector nor his employer makes any warranty, expressed or implied, concerning the item described in this Data Report. Furthermore, neither the inspector nor his employer shall be liable in any manner for any personal injury or property damage or a loss of any kind arising from or connected with this inspection. Date
Signed
(Authorized Nuclear Inspector)
Commission
[National Board Number and Endorsement]
Supplemental sheets in the form of lists, sketches, or drawings may be used provided: (1 ) size is 8 1 /2 ? 1 1 ; (2) information in items 1 through 4 on this Data Report is included on each sheet; and (3) each sheet is numbered and the number of sheets is recorded at the top of this form.
(07/1 7)
28
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WA-9 000 G LOSSARY
WA-9100
Containment Systems:
a collective term for one or more components whose construction requirements are addressed by Division 3. Division 3 does not require nor prohibit any Containment System component to be used in co nj unctio n with ano ther C o ntainment S ys tem component.
I N TRODU CTI ON
This Article defines selected terms used in this Division. The definitions in this Glossary shall prevail should a conflict exist with definitions found elsewhere in this Division or other documents referenced in this Division. Unless defined below, the definitions of Article NCA ‐ 9000 shall apply. ð 17Þ
WA-92 00
Design Documents:
documents used to establish the design requirements, which include those criteria, parameters, bases, or other design requirements upon which detailed final design is based. For this Division, these include the Design Specifications and any other documents referenced by them. Additionally, Design Documents are the output of the above and provide the technical description of the item; these include Certified Design Reports, drawings, calculations, and Fabrication Specifications.
DEFI N I TI ON S
Authorized Nuclear Inspector: an Authorized Nuclear Inspector is an employee of an Authorized Inspection Agency who has qualifications for and has been properly qualified for Division 3. Authorized Nuclear Inspector Supervisor:
an Authorized Nuclear Inspector Supervisor is an employee of an Authorized Inspection Agency who has been assigned by that agency to oversee and direct the work of one or more Authorized Nuclear Inspectors and who has qualifications for and has been properly qualified for Division 3.
Design Specification (Division 3) :
a document prepared by the N3 Certificate Holder which provides a complete basis for design in accordance with this Division. disposal:
the permanent placement of spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive material in a repository.
Class ISS: the Division 3 classification assigned to internal support structures.
energy-limited dynamic event:
a time-dependent, nonrepeating event characterized by an impact or other mechanical loading with a known level of energy content.
Class SC: the Division 3 classification assigned to storage containments.
examination :
Code Class: the classification, specified in the Design Specification, which establishes the rules for design and construction of items.
specific actions by qualified personnel using qualified procedures to verify that items and fabrication processes are in conformance with specified requirements. This term, when used in conjunction with qualification of personnel to perform quality‐ related activities, shall mean a written examination.
component:
Fabrication Specification :
Class TC:
the Division 3 classification assigned to transportation containments.
a containment or internal support structure that is designed, constructed, and stamped in accordance with the rules of Division 3.
a document, or set of documents, prepared by the N3 Certificate Holder that establishes the requirements for fabrication.
construction (as used in Division 3) :
an all ‐ inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination, testing, inspection, and certification required in the manufacture of an item.
Inspector: the Authorized Nuclear Inspector as defined in WA-5123. in tern al support structure : a component used within transportation or storage containments that performs a combination of structural and configuration control and other functions as described by the Design Specification (e.g., heat transfer and criticality).
contain m ent: an enclosure that serves as a barrier for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive material within a prescribed volume for transportation or storage. containment closure weld: a weld made to close the containment after spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive material has been loaded into the containment.
item : a product constructed under a Certificate of Authorization (WA-3120) or material (WA-1220).
29
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Lowest Service Temperature (LST) : the lowest temperature that the metal may experience in service as detailed in the Design Specification.
source material: metallic products used by a Material Organization or Certificate Holder in a product form convers i o n p r o c e s s i n t h e m a n u fa c t u r e o f m a t e r i a l [NCA-4251.2(a)(1)] , or in a qualification process based on test and examination to the requirements of the material specification [NCA-4255.5(a)(2) and (3)]. Source material may be qualified or unqualified.
m aterial: for Section III, Division 3, metallic materials manufactured to an SA, SB, SFA, or any other material specification permitted by this Division.
special process:
a process, the results of which are highly dependent on the control of the process or skill of the operator, or both.
modification : a change to an item made necessary by, or resulting in, a change in design requirements. N3 Certificate Holder (Division 3) : the organization that causes a Design Specification, Design Report, and Fabrication Specification to be developed. This organization assumes responsibility for Code compliance with respect to materials, design, fabrication, examination, testing, inspection, certification, and stamping of items constructed to the requirements of this Division.
storage: the interim placement of spent fuel or high-level radioactive material in a Section III, Division 3, Class SC containment in accordance with specified requirements. supplier: any individual or organization that furnishes materials or services in accordance with a procurement document. survey:
a documented evaluation of an organization s ability to perform Code activities as verified by a determination of the adequacy of the organization s quality program and by a review of the implementation of that program at the location of the work.
Owner: the organization that takes legal ownership of a Division 3 component.


qualified source material:
metallic products produced by an approved supplier, Material Organization, or Certificate Holder in accordance with the requirements of WA-3800, or the output of the qualification process requirements of NCA-4255.5.
testing :
an element of verification for the determination of the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical, chemical, environmental, or operating conditions.
quality control: measurement of the characteristics of an item or process to determine conformance to specified requirements.
traceability:
the ability to verify the history, location, or ap p l i cati o n o f an i te m b y m e an s o f re co rd e d identification.
Quality System Certificate : a Certificate issued by the Society that permits an organization to perform specified Material Organization activities in accordance with Code requirements.
transportation :
the conveyance of spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive material over public access routes in a Section III, Division 3, Class TC containment in accordance with specified requirements.
regulatory authority:
a Federal Government Agency, such as the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, empowered to issue and enforce regulations concerning the design and construction of components used for transportation and/or storage of spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive material.
use ‐ as‐ is:
sh op drawin gs : drawings which describe fabrication details, physical dimensions, arrangements, and any significant engineering features needed to establish conformance to the Fabrication Specification, and this Division.
verification : a review to ensure that activities have been performed and documented in accordance with applicable requirements.
unqualified source material:
source material not produced by a Certificate Holder, Material Organization, or approved supplier in accordance with the requirements of WA-3800. only applicable requirements of this Division have been met.
30
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
SU BSECTI ON WB CLASS TC TRAN SPORTATI ON CON TAI N M EN TS
ARTI CLE WB- 1000 I N TRODU CTI ON
ð 17Þ
WB-1100
WB-113 2
SCOPE
Attach m en ts
Subsection WB contains rules for the material, design, fabrication, examination, testing, marking, stamping, and preparation of reports by the Certificate Holder for Class TC transportation containments for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive material. (b) The rules of Subsection WB cover the strength and containment integrity of items where their failure could breach the containment boundary. The rules cover load stresses but do not cover deterioration which may occur in service as a result of corrosion, radiation effects, or instability of containment materials. WA-1130 further limits the rules of this Subsection. (a)
ð 17Þ
WB-112 0
WB- 1132. 1
LI M I TS OF RU LES FOR CLASS TC
(a) Subsection WB does not contain rules to cover all details of construction of Class TC containments. Where complete details are not provided in this Subsection, it is intended that the N3 Certificate Holder, subject to review by the Inspector (Article WA-5000), shall provide the details of construction which will be consistent with those provided by the rules of this Subsection. (b) Valves, classified as part of the containment by the Design Specification, shall be classified as Class 1 and shall meet the requirements of Division 1 in lieu of all other requirements of this Division.
BO U N DARI ES OF J U RI SDI CTI ON
WB-113 1
Bou n d ary of Con tai n m en ts
Attach m en ts.
An attachment is an element in contact with or connected to the inside or outside of a containment, which may perform a containment function, and either a structural or nonstructural function. (b) Attachments that do not perform a containment function include items such as stiffeners or containment opening reinforcement. (c) Attachments with a noncontainment function include items in the containment support load path such as support and shear lugs, brackets, trunnions and skirts. (d) Attachments with a structural function (structural attachments) perform a containment function or are in the containment support load path. (e) Attachments with a nonstructural function (nonstructural attachments) do not perform a containment function nor are they in the containment support load path. Nonstructural attachments include items such as nameplates and lifting lugs. (a)
TRAN SPORTATI ON CO N TAI N M EN TS
WB-113 0
Bou n d ary Between a Con tai n m en t an d
The jurisdictional boundary between a containment and an attachment defined in the Design Specification shall not be any closer to the containment than as defined in (a) through (g) below. (a) Attachments forged with the containment or weld buildup on the containment surface shall be considered part of the containment. (b) Attachments, welds, and fasteners having a containm e n t fu n c ti o n s h a l l b e c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f th e containment. (c) Except as provided in (d) and (e) below, the boundary between a containment and an attachment not having a containment function shall be at the surface of the containment. WB- 1132 . 2
The Design Specification shall define the boundary of a containment. The containment includes the vessel and any penetrations attached to the vessel. 31
J u ri s d i cti o n al B o u n d ary.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(d) The first connecting weld of a structural attachment that does not perform a containment function to a containment shall be considered part of the containment. (e) The first connecting weld of a welded nonstructural attachment to a containment shall be considered part of the attachment.
(f) Mechanical fasteners used to connect an attachment that does not perform a containment function to the containment shall be considered part of the attachment. (g) The boundary may be located further from the containment portion of the containment than as defined in (a) through (f) above when specified in the Design Specification.
32
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WB-2000 M ATERI AL
WB-2100
apply to the product form in which the material is used. As an additional control, only the following materials shall be used: (1 ) materials whose P-Numbers are listed in Table WB-4622.1-1 (2) ductile cast iron castings per specifications SA-874 or SA/JIS G5504 (b) The requirements of this Article do not apply to seals and gaskets. (c) Material for instrument line fittings, NPS 1 (DN 25) and less, may be of material made to specifications other than those listed in Section II, Part D, Tables 2A and 2B, provided that the material is determined to be adequate for the service conditions by the containment designer. (d) Welding material used in the manufacture of items shall comply with an SFA specification in Section II, Part C, except as otherwise permitted in Section IX, and shall also comply with the applicable requirements of this Article. The requirements of this Article do not apply to material used as backing rings or backing strips in welded joints.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FOR M ATERI AL
WB-2 110
SCOPE O F PRI N CI PAL TERM S EM PLOYED
(a) The term material as used in this Subsection is defined in Article WA-9000. The term Material Organization is defined in Article NCA‐ 9000. (b) The term containment material as used in this Subsection applies to items such as containment shells and heads; reinforcement around openings and penetrations such as leak testing and drainage ports, and structural reinforcements required by design to maintain structural integrity. (c) The requirements of this Article make reference to the term thickness t. For the purpose intended, the following definitions of nominal thickness apply. (1 ) plate: the thickness is the dimension of the short transverse direction. (2) forgings: the thickness is the dimension defined as follows: (-a) hollow forgings: the nominal thickness is measured between the inside and outside surfaces (radial thickness) (-b) disk forgings (axial length less than the outside diameter): the nominal thickness is the axial length (-c) flat ring forgings (axial length less than the radial thickness): for axial length ≤ 2 in. (50 mm), the axial length is the nominal thickness. For axial length > 2 in. (50 mm), the radial thickness is the nominal thickness. (-d) rectangular solid forgings: the least rectangular dimension is the nominal thickness (3) castings: thickness for fracture toughness testing and heat treatment purposes is defined as the wall thickness of the containment. WB-2 12 0
CON TAI N M EN T M ATERI AL
WB-2 12 1
Perm i tted M ateri al Speci fi cati on s
WB-2 12 2
Speci al Req u i rem en ts Con fli cti n g Wi th Perm i tted M ateri al Speci fi cati on s
Special requirements stipulated in this Article shall apply in lieu of the requirements of the material specification wherever the special requirements conflict with the material specification requirements (NCA‐ 4256). Where the special requirements include an examination, test, or treatment which is also required by the material specification, the examination, test, or treatment need be performed only once. Required nondestructive examinations shall be performed as specified for each product form in WB-2500. Any examination, repair, test, or treatment required by the material specification or by this Article may be performed by the Material Organization or the Certificate Holder as provided in WB-4121. Any hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure test required by a material specification need not be performed, provided the material is identified as not having been pressure tested and it is subsequently pressure tested as part of the containment pressure test in accordance with WB-6100, except where the location of the material in the component or the installation would prevent performing any nondestructive examination required by the material specification to be performed subsequent to the hydrostatic or pneumatic test.
(a) Containment material and material welded thereto, except as permitted in WB-4435, and except for welding and hard surfacing metals and cladding which is 10% or less of the thickness of the base material (WB-3122), shall conform to the requirements of one of the specifications for material given in Section II, Part D, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4, including all applicable footnotes in the table, and to all of the special requirements of this Article which
33
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(a) The stress rupture test of SA-453 and SA-638 for Grade 660 (UNS S66286) is not required for design temperatures of 800°F (427°C) and below. ð 17Þ
WB-2 12 3
WB-2 126
The containment body shall be cast by a single pouring controlled by a casting plan to ensure reproducibility. The casting plan shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser and shall become a lifetime quality assurance record in accordance with WA-4134.
Si ze Ran g es
Material outside the limits of size or thickness given in any specification in Section II may be used if the material is in compliance with the other requirements of the specification and no size limitation is given in the rules for construction. In those specifications in which chemical composition or mechanical properties are indicated to vary with size or thickness, any material outside the specification range shall be required to conform to the composition and mechanical properties shown for the nearest specified range (NCA‐ 4256). WB-2 124
WB-2 12 7
Ad d i ti on al Req u i rem en ts Wh en Strai n -Based Acceptan ce Cri teri a H ave Been I m plem en ted
In order to satisfy the strain-based acceptance criteria of WB-3700 regarding sufficient ductility, all material specified to be used in the construction of the containment and implementing the strain-based acceptance crite ri a s h al l m e e t th e re q u i re m e n ts o f S e cti o n I I I Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix FF, FF-1122, and FF-1140(a) or FF-1140(b). Assurance of satisfying these requirements shall be documented in the final Design Report. Per Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix FF, FF-1140(a), when temperature-dependent material test data are not available, the Certified Material Test Report(s) shall include reduction of area values in order to have the necessary data to ensure sufficient material ductility. This requirement is only necessary when strainbased acceptance criteria have been employed in the design of the containment.
Fabri cated H u bbed Flan g es
Fabricated hubbed flanges shall be in accordance with the following: (a) Hubbed flanges may be machined from a hot rolled or forged billet. The axis of the finished flange shall be parallel to the long axis of the original billet. (This is not intended to imply that the axis of the finished flange and the original billet must be concentric.) (b) Hubbed flanges, except as permitted in (a) above, shall not be machined from plate or bar stock material unless the material has been formed into a ring, and further provided that: (1 ) in a ring formed from plate, the original plate surfaces are parallel to the axis of the finished flange (this is not intended to imply that the original plate surface must be present in the finished flange); (2) the joints in the ring are welded butt joints that conform to the requirements of this Division. Thickness to be used to determine postweld heat treatment and radiography requirements shall be the lesser of t , or (A − B )/2, where these symbols are as defined in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XI, XI-3130. (c) The back of the flange and the outer surface of the hub shall be examined by the magnetic particle method or the liquid penetrant method in accordance with WB-2540 to ensure that these surfaces are free from defects. WB-2 12 5
Du cti le Cast I ron for Con tai n m en t
WB-2 13 0
CERTI FI CATI O N O F M ATERI AL
All material used in construction of containments shall be certified as required in NCA‐ 3860. Certified Material Test Reports are required for containment material except as provided by NCA‐ 3860. A Certificate of Compliance may be provided in lieu of a Certified Material Test Report for all other material. Copies of all Certified Material Test Reports and Certificates of Compliance applicable to material used in a component shall be furnished with the material. WB-2 140
WELDI N G M ATERI AL
For the requirements governing the material to be used for welding, see WB-2400.
Bolti n g M ateri al
(a) Material
for bolts and studs shall conform to the requirements of one of the specifications listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. Material for nuts shall conform to SA-194 or to the requirements of one of the specifications for nuts or bolting listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. (b) The use of washers is optional. When used, they shall be made of wrought material with mechanical properties compatible with the nuts with which they are to be employed.
WB-2 150
M ATERI AL I DEN TI FI CATI ON
The identification of containment material and materials welded thereto shall meet the requirements of NCA‐ 4256. Material for small items shall be controlled during manufacture and installation of a component so that they are identifiable as acceptable material at all times. Welding material shall be controlled during the repair of material and the manufacture and installation so that they are identifiable as acceptable until the material is actually consumed in the process (WB-4122). 34
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-2 16 0
heat treated in the same manner as the containment, except that test coupons and specimens for P ‐ No. 1 material with a nominal thickness of 2 in. (50 mm) or less are not required to be so heat treated. The Certificate Holder shall provide the Material Organization with the temperature and heating and cooling rate to be used. In the case of postweld heat treatment, the total time at temperature or temperatures for the test material shall be at least 80% of the total time at temperature or temperatures during actual postweld heat treatment of the material, and the total time at temperature or temperatures for the test material, coupon, or specimen may be performed in a single cycle. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens..
DETERI ORATI ON OF M ATERI AL I N SERVI CE
Consideration of deterioration of material caused by service is generally outside the scope of this Subsection. It is the responsibility of the N3 Certificate Holder to select material suitable for the conditions stated in the Design Specifications (WA-3351), with specific attention being given to the effects of service conditions upon the properties of the material. Any special requirement shall be specified in the Design Specifications (WA-3351 and WB-3120). When so specified, the check analysis shall be made in accordance with the base metal specification and in acco rdance with WB - 2 42 0 fo r the welding material. WB-2 170
H EAT TREATM EN T TO EN H AN CE I M PACT PRO PERTI ES
Carbon steels and low alloy steels may be heat treated by quenching and tempering to enhance their impact properties. Postweld heat treatment of the component at a temperature of not less than 1,100°F (595°C) may be considered to be the tempering phase of the heat treatment. WB-2 180
WB-2 2 12
Where ferritic steel material is subjected to quenching from the austenitizing temperature, the test coupons representing that material shall be cooled at a rate similar to and no faster than the main body of the material except in the case of certain forgings (WB-2223.2). This rule shall apply to coupons taken directly from the material as well as to separate test coupons representing the material, and one of the general procedures described in WB-2212.2 or one of the specific procedures described in WB-2220 shall be used for each product form. WB- 2212. 1
PROCEDU RES FOR H EAT TREATM EN T OF M ATERI AL
When heat treating temperature or time is required by the material specification and the rules of this Subsection, the heat treating shall be performed in temperature ‐ surveyed and temperature ‐ calibrated furnaces or shall be performed with thermocouples in contact with the material or attached to blocks in contact with the material. Heat treating shall be performed under furnace loading conditions such that the heat treatment is in accordance with the material specification and the rules of this Subsection. WB-2 19 0
WB- 22 12. 2
M ATERI AL N OT PERFORM I N G A
M aterial not performing a containment function welded at or within 2 t of the containment shall comply with the requirements of WB-4430. M ATERI AL TEST COU PON S AN D SPECI M EN S FOR FERRI TI C STEEL M ATERI AL AN D DU CTI LE CAST I RON
ð 17Þ
WB-2 2 10
H EAT TREATM EN T REQU I REM EN TS
WB-2 2 11
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for
Cooli n g Rates.
One of the general procedures stipulated in (a), (b), and (c) below may be applied to quenched and tempered material or test coupons representing the material, provided the specimens are taken relative to the surface of the product in accordance with WB-2220. Further specific details of the methods to be used shall be the obligation of the Material Organization and the Certificate Holder. (a) Any procedure may be used which can be demonstrated to produce a cooling rate in the test material which matches the cooling rate of the main body of the product at the region midway between midthickness and the surface (1/4t ) and no nearer any heat-treated edge than a distance equal to the nominal thickness t being quenched within 25°F (14°C) and 20 sec at all temperatures after co o ling b egins fro m the aus teni tizing temperature. (b) If cooling rate data for the material and cooling rate control devices for the test specimens are available, the test specimens may be heat treated in the device to represent the material, provided that the provisions of (a) above are met.
CO N TAI N M EN T FU N CTI O N
WB-22 00
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for Qu en ch ed an d Tem pered M ateri al
Ferri ti c M ateri al
Where ferritic steel material is subjected to heat treatment during fabrication of a containment, the material used for the tensile and impact test specimens shall be 35
G en eral Proced u res.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the material at least 1/4 t deep and t from any edge of the product. Unless cooling rates applicable to the bulk pieces o r p ro duct are simulated in acco rdance with WB -2 2 1 2 .2 (b) , the dimensions of the coupon shall be not less than 3 t × 3 t × t , where t is the nominal material thickness.
(c) When any of the specific procedures described in WB-2220 are used, faster cooling rates at the edges may be compensated for by: (1 ) taki n g th e te s t s p e ci m e n s a t l e as t t fro m a quenched edge, where t equals the material thickness; (2) attaching a steel pad at least t wide by a partial penetration weld (which completely seals the buffered surface) to the edge where specimens are to be removed; or (3) using thermal barriers or insulation at the edge where specimens are to be removed. It shall be demonstrated (and this information shall be included in the Certified Material Test Report) that the cooling rates are equivalent to (a) or (b) above. WB-2 2 13
WB-2 2 2 3
WB- 2 2 2 3 . 1 Locati on o f Cou pon s. Coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4 t from any surface and with the midlength of the specimens at least t from any second surface, where t is the maximum heat-treated thickness. A thermal buffer as described in WB-2 2 1 2 .2 (c) may be used to achieve these conditions, unless cooling rates applicable to the bulk forgings are simulated as otherwise provided in WB-2212.2.
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for Du cti le Cast I ron
The tensile and impact coupon shall receive the same heat treatment as the casting. WB-2 2 2 0
WB - 2 2 2 3 . 2 Very Th i ck o r Co m p le x Fo rg i n g s. Test coupons for forgings that are very thick or complex and other forgings that are contour shaped or machined to essentially the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment may be removed from prolongations or other stock provided on the product. The Certificate Holder shall specify the surfaces of the finished product subj ected to high tensile stresses in service. The coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at a distance below the nearest heat-treated surface, equivalent at least to the greatest distance that the indicated high tensile stress surface will be from the nearest surface during heat treatment, and with the midlength of the specimens a minimum of twice this distance from a second heat-treated surface. In any case, the longitudinal axes of the specimens shall not be nearer than 3 /4 in. (19 mm) to any heat-treated surface and the midl e n g th o f th e s p e c i m e n s s h a l l b e a t l e a s t 1 1/2 i n . (38 mm) from any second heat-treated surface.
PROCEDU RE FO R O BTAI N I N G TEST COU PO N S AN D SPECI M EN S FO R QU EN CH ED AN D TEM PERED M ATERI AL AN D FOR DU CTI LE CAST I RON
WB-2 2 2 1
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
The procedure for obtaining test coupons and specimens for quenched and tempered material is related to the product form. Coupon and specimen location and the number of tension test specimens shall be in accordance with the material specifications, except as required by the following paragraphs. References to dimensions signify nominal values. WB-2 2 2 2
Plates
WB- 2 2 2 2 . 1 N u m b e r of Ten si o n Test Co u p on s. The number of tension test coupons required shall be in acco rd an ce wi th th e m a te ri al s p e ci fi cati o n a n d wi th SA-2 0 , except that from carbon steel plates weighing 42 ,0 0 0 lb (1 9 0 0 0 kg) and over and alloy steel plates weighing 40,000 lb (18 000 kg) and over, two tension test coupons shall be taken, one representing the top end of the plate and one representing the bottom end of the plate.
ð 17Þ
WB - 2 2 2 2 . 2
WB- 2 2 2 3 . 3
WB - 2 2 2 2 . 3
C o u p o n s F ro m S e p a ra t e l y P ro d u ce d
Test coupons representing forgings from one heat and one heat treatment lot may be taken from a separately forged piece under the conditions given in (a) through (e) below. (a) The separate test forging shall be of the same heat of material and shall be subj ected to substantially the same reduction and working as the production forging it represents. (b) The separate test forging shall be heat treated in the same furnace charge and under the same conditions as the production forging. (c) The separate test forging shall be of the same nominal thickness as the production forging. (d) Test coupons for simple forgings shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at the region midway between midthickness and the surface, and with the midlength of the specimens no nearer any heattreated edge than a distance equal to the forging thicknes s , excep t when the thicknes s – length ratio o f the Test Forg i n g s.
O ri e n tati o n an d Lo cati o n o f Co u p o n s.
Coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4 t from a rolled surface and with the midlength of the specimen at least t from any heat-treated edge, where t is the nominal thickness of the material. ð 17Þ
Forg i n g s
Re q u i re m e n ts fo r Se p arate Te s t Co u -
Where a separate test coupon is used to represent the component material, it shall be of sufficient size to ensure that the cooling rate of the region from which the test coupons are removed represents the cooling rate of pon s.
36
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
production forging does not permit, in which case a production forging shall be used as the test forging and the midlength of the specimens shall be at the midlength of the test forging. (e) Test coupons for complex forgings shall be taken in accordance with WB-2223.2.
WB-2300
REQU I REM EN TS FOR M ATERI AL
WB-2 2 24
Locati on of Cou pon s
Tu bu lar Prod u cts an d Fi tti n g s
Coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4t from the inside or outside surface and with the midlength of the specimens at least t from a heat-treated end, where t is the nominal wall thickness of the tubular product. WB- 2 2 2 5 . 1
Locati on of Cou po n s.
WB - 2 2 2 5 . 2
M ATERI AL TO BE TOU G H N ESS TESTED
WB-2 311
M ateri al for Wh i ch Tou g h n ess Testi n g
(a) Containment material and material welded thereto shall be toughness tested in accordance with the requirements of this subarticle, except that the material listed in (1) through (7) below is not to be toughness tested as a requirement of this Subsection: (1 ) material with a nominal section thickness of 3 /16 in. (5 mm) and less where the thicknesses shall be taken as defined in (-a) through (-c) below: (-a) for containments, use the nominal thickness of the shell or head, as applicable; (-b) for items welded to containments, use the lesser of the containment shell thickness to which the item is welded or the maximum radial thickness of the item exclusive of integral shell butt welding projections; (-c) for flat heads or flanges, use the maximum shell thickness associated with the butt welding hub; (2) bolting, including studs, nuts, and bolts, with a nominal size of 1 in. (25 mm) and less; 2 (3) bars with a nominal cross ‐ sectional area of 1 in. 2 (650 mm ) and less; (4) all thicknesses of material for fittings with an NPS 6 (DN 150) diameter and smaller; (5) material for fittings with all pipe connections of 5 /8 in. (16 mm) nominal wall thickness and less; (6) austenitic stainless steels, including precipitation hardened austenitic Grade 660 (UNS S66286); (7) nonferrous material. (b) Drop weight tests are not required for precipitation hardening steels listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 2A. The other requirements of WB-2332 apply for these steels. For nominal wall thicknesses greater than 2 1/2 in. (64 mm), the required Charpy V‐ notch values shall be 40 mils (1.02 mm) lateral expansion.
Test Speci m en s for Forg i n g s.
(a) Bars. Coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4t from the outside or rolled surface and with the midlength of the specimens at least t from a heat-treated end, where t is either the bar diameter or thickness. (b) Bolting . For bolting materials, tests shall be made of either full ‐ size bolts or test coupons as required by the base specification. The gage length of the tension specimens and the area under the notch of Charpy specimens shall be at least one diameter or thickness from the heattreated end.
WB-2 2 25
WB-2 310
I s Req u i red
When test specimens for forgings are to be taken under the applicable specification, the Inspector shall have the option of witnessing the selection, placing an identifying stamping on them, and witnessing the testing of these specimens. WB- 2223. 4
FRACTU RE TOU G H N ESS
Se p arate ly Pro d u ce d Co u p o n s Re p re -
Separately produced test coupons repres e nti ng fi tti ngs m ay b e us e d. When s e p aratel y p ro duced co up o ns are us ed, the requirements o f WB-2223.3 shall be met. sen ti n g Fi tti n g s.
WB-2 32 0
I M PACT TEST PROCEDU RES
WB-2 32 1
Types of Tests
The drop weight test, when required, shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E208. Specimen types P ‐ 1, P ‐ 2, or P ‐ 3 may be used. The results, orientation, and location of all tests performed to meet the requirements of WB-2330 shall be reported in the Certified Material Test Report. The Charpy V‐ notch test (C v), when required, shall be performed in accordance with SA-370. Specimens shall be in accordance with SA-370, Figure 11, Type A. A test shall consist of a set of three full ‐ size 0.394 in. × 0.394 in. (10 mm × 10 mm) specimens. The lateral expansion and absorbed energy, as applicable, and the test temperature, as well as WB- 2321. 1
WB-2 2 26
Ten si le Test Speci m en Locati on for Du cti le Cast I ron
Tensile specimens shall be taken from each containment casting or its excess length part that has the same or equivalent solidification property. The location shall be near the center of the thickness and shall be at a distance from the end of the excess length part that is not less than one-half of the maximum casting thickness. The excess length part shall be at least the same thickness as the maximum casting thickness.
WB-2321. 2
37
Drop Wei g h t Tests.
C h a rp y V- N o tch
Tests.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the orientation and location of all tests performed to meet the requirements of WB-2330 shall be reported in the Certified Material Test Report. ð 17Þ
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(4) Specimens for all plate material, including that used for pipe, tube, and fittings, shall be oriented in a direction normal to the principal rolling direction, other than thickness direction. (5) Specimens for cast material shall have their axes oriented the same as the axes of the tensile specimens (WB-2226). (6) The plane of the toughness test specimen notch shall be normal to the surface of the material. However, for ductile cast iron, the fracture toughness specimen orientation shall be L-R, as identified in ASTM E399, Fig. 1 (Crack Plane Identifications for Cylindrical Bars and Tubes). (b) Specimens for drop weight tests may have their axes oriented in any direction. The orientation used shall be reported in the Certified Material Test Report.
Fracture toughness tests, when required, shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E399. The tests shall be performed at the lowest service temperature (LST). A test shall consist of two test specimens. WB- 232 1. 3
F ra c t u re T o u g h n e s s T e s t s .
The dynamic tear tests, when required, shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E604. The tests shall be performed at the LST. A test shall consist of two test specimens. WB - 2 3 2 1 . 4
WB-2 32 2
D yn am i c Te ar Te s t.
Test Speci m en s
WB-2322. 1
Locati on of Test Speci m en s.
(a) Toughness test specimens for quenched and tempered material shall be removed from the locations in each product form specified in WB-2220 for tensile test specimens. For material in other heat-treated conditions, toughness test specimens shall be removed from the locations specified for tensile test specimens in the material specification. For all material, the number of tests shall be in accordance with WB-2340. For bolting, the C v toughness test specimen shall be taken with the longitudinal axis of the specimen located at least one ‐ half radius or 1 in. (25 mm) below the surface plus the machining allowance per side, whichever is less. The fracture plane of the specimens shall be at least one diameter or thickness from the heat-treated end. When the studs, nuts, or bolts are not of sufficient length, the midlength of the specimen shall be at the midlength of the studs, nuts, or bolts. The studs, nuts, or bolts selected to provide test coupon material shall be identical with respect to the quenched contour and size except for length, which shall equal or exceed the length of the represented studs, nuts, or bolts. (b) For fracture toughness requirements, toughness test specimens for ductile cast iron shall be taken from each containment casting or its excess length part. The location shall be the same as that for the tensile specimens. WB - 2 3 2 2 . 2
WB-2 3 30
TEST REQU I REM EN TS AN D ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
WB-2 3 31
5
M ateri al for Con tai n m en ts
WB-2331. 1
Test Req u i rem en ts for Ferri ti c Steel Ma-
Ferritic steel material for contai nm en ts , o the r than b o l tin g, s h al l b e te s te d i n accordance with (a) and (b), (c), or (d) below. Consideration shall be given to the test temperature requirements of leak testing and hydrostatic testing of the containment (WB-6212). (a) For material with a nominal section between 3/16 in. (5 mm) and 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick, the dynamic tear test shall exhibit at least 80% shear fracture at the LST. For material of 5/8 in. (16 mm) and more but not exceeding 12 in. (300 mm) thick, the reference temperature, RT N D T , shall be established as follows: (1) Determine a temperature T N D T that is at or above the nil ‐ ductility transition temperature by drop weight tests. (2) At a temperature not greater than T N D T + 60°F ( T N D T + 3 3 ° C ) , e a c h s p e c i m e n o f th e C v t e s t (WB-2321.2) shall exhibit at least 35 mils (0.89 mm) lateral expansion and not less than 50 ft-lb (68 J) absorbed energy. Retesting in accordance with WB-2350 is permitted. When these requirements are met, TN D T is the reference temperature RTN D T . (3) In the event that the requirements of (2) above are not met, conduct additional C v tests in groups of three specimens (WB-2321.2) to determine the temperature T c at which they are met. In this case the reference temperature RT N D T = T c − 60°F (RT N D T = Tc − 33°C). Thus, the reference temperature RTN D T is the higher of T N D T and (Tc − 60°F) (Tc − 33°C). (4) When a C v test has not been performed at T N D T + 6 0 ° F ( T N D T + 3 3 ° C ) , o r wh e n th e C v te s t a t TN D T + 60°F (TN D T + 33°C), does not exhibit a minimum of 50 ft-lb (68 J) and 35 mils (0.89 mm) lateral expansion, a temperature representing a minimum of 50 ft-lb (68 J) teri al for Con tai n m en ts.
O ri e n tati o n o f To u g h n e s s Te s t Sp e ci -
m en s.
(a) Toughness test specimens shall be oriented as follows: (1) Specimens for forgings, other than bolting and bars used for containments, shall be oriented in a direction normal to the principal direction in which the material was worked. Specimens are neither required nor prohibited from the thickness direction. (2) Specimens from material for pipe, tube, and fittings, except for those made from plate and castings, shall be oriented in the axial direction. (3) Specimens from bolting material and bars shall be oriented in the axial direction. 38
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
and 35 mils (0.89 mm) lateral expansion may be obtained from a full C v impact curve developed from the minimum data points of all the C v tests performed. (b) Apply the procedures of (a) above to (1), (2), and (3) below. (1) the containment base materials, 6 (2) the base material, the heat-affected zone, and weld metal from the weld procedure qualification tests in accordance with WB-4330; (3) the weld metal of WB-2431. (c) For materials where fracture toughness values are determined in accordance with WB-2321.3 the measured fracture toughness shall be reported in the Certified Material Test Report. (d) Bars having a width or diameter of 2 in. (50 mm) and less which prohibit obtaining drop weight test specimens shall be tested in accordance with WB-2332. ð 17Þ
WB- 23 31. 2
Table WB-2 33 1. 2- 2 Req u i red Fractu re Tou g h n ess Valu es for Ferri ti c Steel M ateri al for Con tai n m en ts H avi n g a Speci fi ed Yi eld Stren g th of 50 ksi (350 000 kPa) or Less at 100°F (38°C)
Rapid ‐ Load Fracture Toughness, Nominal Wall Thickness, in. (mm) 5
/8 (16) 1 (25) 2 (50) 3 (75) 4 (100)
fo r
50 (55) 64 (70) 94 (103) 113 (124) 130 (143)
GENERAL NOTE: Linear interpolation is permissible. NOTE: (1) Measured for test time equal to or less than 10 ms.
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s for Ferri ti c Steel
E xcep t as limi ted i n WB-4330, the reference temperature R T N D T shall be the highest value of the individual R TN D T values determ i n e d i n acco rdan ce wi th WB - 2 3 3 1 . 1 (a) an d WB-2331.1(b). If applicable, the containment base materials shall be tested to determine the fracture toughness in accordance with WB-2321.3. The results shall meet the acceptance standards of either (a) or (b) below. (a) For materials not exceeding 12 in. (305 mm), the reference temperature RTN D T shall satisfy the value of A in acco rdance wi th Tab l e WB - 2 3 3 1 . 2 - 1 wh ere A = L ST − RTN D T . (b) For materials not exceeding 4 in. (100 mm), the rapid ‐ load fracture toughness of the base material shall satisfy the required value in Table WB-2331.2-2, and (1) All full penetration fabrication weld joints are ultrasonically examined in accordance with WB-5110 and meet the ultrasonic acceptance standards of WB-5330. (-a) Rules for fracture toughness requirements b as ed o n fracture mechanics metho do l o gy are in preparation. M ateri al
[Note (1)]
Con tai n m en ts.
WB-2331. 3
Test Req u i rem en ts for Du cti le Cast I ron
A rapid-load fracture toughness test shall be performed in accordance with WB-2321.3, except that ASTM E1820 shall be used. A test shall consist of at least four specimens. The test shall be performed at − 40°F (− 40°C). for Co n tai n m en ts.
WB- 2 3 3 1. 4
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s for D u cti le Cast
The rapid-load fracture toughness value shall satisfy the following inequality at − 40°F (− 40°C): I ro n fo r Co n tai n m e n ts.
where KI C, R = rapid-load fracture toughness, ksi-in. 1/2 (MPa-m 1/2 ) σ SD = standard deviation, ksi-in. 1/2 (MPa-m 1/2 ) The average value and standard deviation shall be es tab lis hed as s uming Weib ull dis tri b utio n o f the measurements.
Table WB-2 33 1. 2- 1 Req u i red LST-
RT
N D T
Valu es for Ferri ti c Steel
WB-2 332
M ateri al for Con tai n m en t M ateri al
Nominal Wall Thickness, in. (mm) 5
/8 (16) 1 (25) 2 (50) 3 (75) 4 (100) 8 (200) 12 (300)
M ateri al
(a) Containment boundary material, other than bolting, with nominal wall thickness 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) and less for piping (pipe and tubes) and fittings with all pipe connections of nominal wall thickness 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) and less shall be tested as required in (1) and (2) below. (1) Test three C v specimens at a temperature lower than or equal to the LST. All three specimens shall meet the requirements of Table WB-2332(a)-1. (2) Apply the procedures of (1) above to: (-a) the base material; 6
A = LST‐ R T N D T , °F (°C)
25 45 75 90 103 115 120
M ateri al for Pi pi n g , Exclu d i n g Bolti n g
(14) (25) (42) (50) (57) (64) (67)
GENERAL NOTE: Linear interpolation is permissible.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-2 3 42
Table WB-2 332 (a) -1
(a) Where the weight of an individual forging is less than 1,000 lb (450 kg), one test shall be made to represent each heat in each heat treatment lot. (b) When heat treatment is performed in a continuous type furnace with suitable temperature controls and equipped with recording pyrometers so that complete heat treatment records are available, a heat treatment charge shall be considered as the lesser of a continuous run not exceeding 8 hr duration or a total weight, so treated, not exceeding 2,000 lb (900 kg). (c) One test shall be made for each forging of 1,000 lb to 10,000 lb (450 kg to 4 500 kg) in weight. (d) As an alternative to (c), a separate test forging may be used to represent forgings of different sizes in one heat and heat treat lot, provided the test piece is a representation of the greatest thickness in the heat treat lot.
Req u i red C v Valu es for Pi pi n g
Lateral Expansion, mils (mm)
Nominal Wall Thickness, in. (mm), [Note (1)] 5
/8 (16) or less Over 5/8 to 3/4 (16 to 19) , incl. Over 3/4 to 1 1/2 (19 to 38), incl. Over 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 (38 to 64), incl.
No test required 20 (0.50) 25 (0.64) 40 (1.0)
NOTE: (1) For fittings, use the nominal pipe wall thickness of the connecting piping.
(-b) the base material, the heat-affected zone, and weld metal from the weld procedure qualification tests in accordance with WB-4330; and (-c) the weld metal of WB-2431. (b) Containment material, other than bolting, with nominal wall thickness over 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) for piping (pipe and tubes) and fittings with any pipe connections of nominal wall thickness greater than 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) shall meet the requirements of WB-2331. The LST shall not be lower than R TN D T + 100°F (R T N D T + 56°C).
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WB-2 3 33
WB-2 3 43
WB-2 3 44
Tu bu lar Prod u cts an d Fi tti n g s
On products which are seamless or welded without filler metal, one test shall be made from each lot. On products which are welded with filler metal, one additional test with the specimens taken from the weld area shall also be made on each lot. A lot shall be defined as stated in the applicable material specification, but in no case shall a lot consist of products from more than one heat of material and of more than one diameter, with the nominal thickness of any product included not exceeding that to be tested by more than 1/4 in. (6 mm); such a lot shall be in a single heat treatment load or in the same continuous run in a continuous furnace controlled within a 50°F (28°C) range and equipped with recording pyrometers.
Bolti n g M ateri al
N U M BER OF TOU G H N ESS TESTS REQU I RED
WB-2 3 41
Bars
One test shall be made for each lot of bars with crosssectional area greater than 1 in. 2 (650 mm 2 ), where a lot is defined as one heat of material heat treated in one charge or as one continuous operation, not to exceed 6,000 lb (2 700 kg).
For bolting material, including studs, nuts, and bolts, test three C v specimens at a temperature no higher than the preload temperature or the LST, whichever is less. All three specimens shall meet the requirements of Table WB-2333-1. WB-2 3 40
Forg i n g s
Plates
One test shall be made from each plate as heat treated. Where plates are furnished in the nonheat‐ treated condition and qualified by heat-treated test specimens, one test shall be made for each plate as ‐ rolled. The term as‐ rolled refers to the plate rolled from a slab or directly from an ingot, not to its heat-treated condition.
WB-2 3 45
Bolti n g M ateri al
One test shall be made for each lot of material, where a lot is defined as one heat of material heat treated in one charge or as one continuous operation, not to exceed in weight the following: Diameter, in. (mm)
1 3/4 (44) and less Over 1 3/4 to 2 1/2 (44 to 64) Over 2 1/2 to 5 (64 to 127) Over 5 (127)
Table WB-2 333 -1 Req u i red Cv Valu es for Bolti n g M ateri al
Nominal Diameter, in. (mm)
1 (25) or less Over 1 to 4 (25 to 100), incl. Over 4 (100)
Lateral Expansion, mils (mm)
No test required 25 (0.64) 25 (0.64)
Absorbed Energy, ft-lb (J)
No test required No requirements 45 (61)
WB-2 3 46
Weight, lb (kg)
1,500 3,000 6,000 10,000
(680) (1 350) (2 700) (4 500)
Test Defi n i ti on s
U n l e s s o th e rwi s e s ta te d i n WB - 2 3 4 1 th ro u gh WB-2345, the term one test is defined to include the combination of the drop weight test and the C v test when 40
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
is required [WB-2331.1(a) and WB-2331.1(b) ] o r o nly the C v tes t o r the fracture to ughnes s tes t when R T N D T is no t required [ WB - 2 3 3 1 . 1 (c) and WB-2331.1(d)].
(4) minimum tensile strength [WB-2 43 1.1 (e) ] in the as ‐ we l de d o r he at- tre ate d co ndi ti o n o r b o th [WB-2431.1(c)]; (5) drop weight test for material as ‐ welded or heattreated, or both (WB-2331); (6) Charpy V ‐ notch test for material as ‐ welded or heat treated, or both (WB-2331); the test temperature and the lateral expansion or the absorbed energy shall be provided; (7) fracture toughness test for material as ‐ welded or heat treated, or both (WB-2331); (8) the preheat and interpass temperatures to be used during welding of the test coupon [WB-2431.1(c)]; (9) postweld heat treatment time, temperature range, and maximum cooling rate, if the production weld will be heat treated [WB-2431.1(c)]; (1 0) elements for which chemical analysis is required per the SFA Specification or Welding Procedure Specification and WB-2432; (1 1 ) minimum delta ferrite (WB-2433).
R TN D T
WB-2 350
RETESTS
(a) For C v tests required by WB-2330, one retest at the same temperature may be conducted provided the requirements of (1) through (3) below are met: (1 ) the average value of the test results meets the minimum requirements; (2) not more than one specimen per test is below the minimum requirements; (3) the specimen not meeting the minimum requirements is no t lo wer than 1 0 ft- lb (1 4 J ) o r 5 mils (0.13 mm) below the specified requirements. (b) A retest consists of two additional specimens taken as near as practicable to the failed specimens. For acceptance of the retest, both specimens shall meet the minimum requirements. ð 17Þ
WB-2 36 0
WB-242 0
CALI BRATI ON OF I N STRU M EN TS AN D
The required tests shall be conducted for each lot of covered, flux cored, or fabricated electrodes; for each heat of bare electrodes, rod, or wire for use with the OFW, GMAW, GTAW, and PAW processes (Section IX); for each heat of consumable inserts; for each combination of heat of bare electrodes and lot of submerged arc flux (SAW); for each combination of lot of fabricated electrodes and lot of submerged arc flux; or for each combination of heat of bare electrodes or lot of fabricated electrodes, and dry blend of supplementary powdered filler metal, and lot of submerged arc flux. Tests performed on welding material in the qualification of weld procedures will satisfy the testing requirements for the lot, heat, or combination of heat and batch of welding material used, provided the tests required by Article WB-4000 and this subarticle are made and the results conform to the requirements of this Article. The definitions in (a) through (h) below apply. (a) A dry batch of coverin g m ixture is defined as the quantity of dry covering ingredients mixed at one time in one mixing vessel; a dry batch may be used singly or may be subsequently subdivided into quantities to which the liquid binders may be added to produce a number of wet mixes [see (c) below]. (b) A dry blend is defined as one or more dry batches mixed in a mixing vessel and combined proportionately to produce a uniformity of mixed ingredients equal to that obtained by mixing the same total amount of dry ingredients at one time in one mixing vessel. (c) A wet mix is defined as the combination of a dry batch or dry blend [(a) and (b) above, respectively], and liquid binder ingredients at one time in one mixing vessel. (d) A lot ofcovered, flux cored, or fabricated electrodes is defined as the quantity of electrodes produced from the same combination of heat of metal and dry batch, dry
EQU I PM EN T
Calibration of temperature instruments and test machines used in toughness testing shall be performed at the frequency given in (a) and (b) below. (a) Temperature instruments used to control test temperature of specimens shall be calibrated and the results recorded to meet the requirements of NCA‐ 4258.2 at least once in each 3 month interval. (b) Test machines shall be calibrated using the frequency and methods outlined in ASTM E23 and employing standard specimens obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or any supplier of subcontracted calibration services accredited in accordance with the requirements of WA-3 1 2 3 and NCA-4255.3(c). WB-2400 WB-2410
REQU I RED TESTS
WELDI N G M ATERI AL G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
(a) All welding material used in the construction and repair of containments, except welding material used for cladding or hard surfacing, shall conform to the requirements of the welding material specification or to the requirements for other welding material as permitted in Section IX. In addition, welding material shall conform to the requirements stated in this subarticle and to the rules covering identification in WB-2150. (b) The Certificate Holder shall provide the organization performing the testing with the information listed below, as applicable. (1 ) welding process; (2) SFA Specification and classification; (3) other identificatio n if no SFA Specification applies;
41
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
blend, or chemically controlled mixes of flux or core materials. Alternatively, a lot of covered, flux cored, or fabricated electrodes may be considered one type and size of electrode, produced in a continuous period, not to exceed 24 hr and not to exceed 100,000 lb (4 500 kg), from chemically controlled tube, wire, or strip and a dry batch, a dry blend, or chemically controlled mixes of flux, provided each container of welding material is coded for identification and traceable to the production period, the shift, line, and the analysis range of both the mix and the rod, tube, or strip used to make the electrode. (1 ) Chemically controlled tube, wire, or strip is defined as consumable tube, wire, or strip material supplied on coils with a maximum of one splice per coil that has been chemically analyzed to ensure that the material conforms to the electrode manufacturer s chemical control limits for the specific type of electrode. Both ends of each coil shall be chemically analyzed, except that those coils which are splice free need only be analyzed on one end of the coil. (2) Chemically controlled mixes of flux are defined as flux material that has been chemically analyzed to ensure that it conforms to the percent allowable variation from the electrode manufacturer s standard for each chemical element for that type electrode. A chemical analysis shall be made on each mix made in an individual mixing vessel after blending. (e) A heat ofbare electrode, rod, wire, or consumable insert is defined as the material produced from the same melt of metal. (f) Alternatively, for carbon and low alloy steel bare electrode, rod, wire, or consumable inserts for use with SAW, OFW, GMAW, GTAW, and PAW processes, a h eat may be defined as either the material produced from the same melt of metal or the material produced from one type and size of wire when produced in a continuous period [not to exceed 24 hr and not to exceed 100,000 lb (45 000 kg)] from chemically controlled wire, subj ect to requirements of (1) , (2), and (3) below. (1 ) For the chemical control of the product of the rod mill, coils shall be limited to a maximum of one splice prior to processing the wire. Chemical analysis shall be made from a sample taken from both ends of each coil of mill coiled rod furnished by mills permitting spliced coil practice of one splice maximum per coil. A chemical analysis need be taken from only one end of rod coils furnished by mills prohibiting spliced coil practice. (2) Carbon, manganese, silicon, and other intentionally added elements shall be identified to ensure that the material co nfo rms to the SFA o r us er s material specification. (3) Each container of wire shall be coded for identification and traceability to the lot, production period, shift, line, and analysis of rod used to make the wire. (g) A lot ofsubmerged arc flux is defined as the quantity of flux produced from the same combination of raw materials under one production schedule.
(h) A dry blend of supplementary powdered filler metal is defined as one or more mixes of material produced in a continuous period, not to exceed 24 hr and not to exceed 2 0 ,0 0 0 lb (9 0 0 0 kg) from chemically controlled mixes of powdered filler metal, provided each container of powdered metal is coded for identification and traceable to the production period, the shift, and the mixing vessel. A chemically controlled mix ofpowdered filler metal is defined as powdered filler metal material that has been chemically analyzed to assure that it conforms to the percent allowable variation from the powdered filler metal manufacturer s standard, for each chemical element, for that type of powdered filler metal. A chemical analysis shall be made on each mix made in an individual mixing vessel after blending. The chemical analysis range of the supplemental powdered filler shall be the same as that of the welding electrode, and the ratio of powder to electrode used to make the test coupon shall be the maximum permitted for production welding. ’

WB-2430 WELD METAL TESTS WB-2431 Mechanical Properties Test Tensile and toughness tests shall be made, in accordance with this paragraph, of welding materials which are used to join P Nos. 1 and 3 base materials in any combination, with the exceptions listed in (a) through (d) below. (a) austenitic stainless steel and nonferrous welding material used to join the listed P Numbers; (b) consumable inserts (backing filler material); (c) welding material used for GTAW root deposits with a maximum of two layers; (d) welding material to be used for the welding of base material exempted from toughness testing by WB-23 11 shall likewise be exempted from the impact testing required by WB-2330 and this paragraph.



WB-2431.1 General Test Requirements. The welding test coupon shall be made in accordance with (a) through (f) below, using each process with which the weld material will be used in production welding. (a) Test coupons shall be of sufficient size and thickness such that the test specimens required herein can be removed. (b) The weld metal to be tested for all processes shall be deposited in such a manner as to eliminate substantially the influence of the base material on the results of the tests. Weld metal to be used with the electroslag process shall be deposited in such a manner as to conform to one of the applicable Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) for production welding, Section IX. The base material s hall confo rm to the requirements o f Section I X, QW 403.1 or QW 403.4, as applicable. (c) The welding of the test coupon shall be performed within the range of preheat and interpass temperatures that will be used in production welding. Coupons shall be tested in the as welded condition, or they shall be




42
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17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
tested in the applicable postweld heat-treated condition when the production welds are to be postweld heattreated. The postweld heat treatment holding time shall be at least 80% of the maximum time to the weld metal in production application. The total time for postweld heat treatment of the test coupon may be applied in one heating cycle. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens. The cooling rate from the postweld heat treatment temperature shall be of the same order as that applicable to the weld metal in the component. (d) The tensile specimens, and the C v test specimens where required, shall be located and prepared in accordance with the requirements of SFA-5.1 or the applicable SFA specification. Drop weight and fracture toughness test specimens, where required, shall be oriented so that the longitudinal axis is transverse to the weld with the notch in the weld face or in a plane parallel to the weld face. For specimen preparation and testing, the applicable parts of WB-2321.1 and WB-2321.2 shall apply. The longitudinal axis of the specimen shall be at a minimum depth of 1/4 t from a surface, where t is the thickness of the test weld. (e) One all weld metal tensile specimen shall be tested and shall meet the specified minimum tensile strength requirements of the base material specification. When base materials of different specifications are to be welded, the tensile strength requirements shall conform to the specified minimum tensile strength requirements of either of the base material specifications. (f) Toughness specimens of the weld metal shall be tested where toughness tests are required for either of the base materials of the production weld. The weld metal shall conform to the parts of WB-2331.1(a) or WB-2332 applicable to the base material. Where different requirements exist for the two base materials, the weld metal may conform to either of the two requirements.
number of C v specimens, drop weight specimens, and fr a c tu r e to u gh n e s s te s t s p e c i m e n s r e q u i r e d b y WB-2330, where applicable. (c) The welding of the test coupon shall conform to the requirements of the SFA Specification for the classification of electrode being tested. Coupons shall be tested in the as ‐ welded condition and also in the postweld heattreated condition. The PWHT temperatures shall be in accordance with Table WB-4622.1-1 for the applicable P ‐ Number equivalent. The time at PWHT temperature shall be 8 hr. (This qualifies PWHT of 10 hr or less.) When the PWHT of the production weld exceeds 10 hr, or the PWHT temperature is other than that required above, the general test of WB-2431.1 shall be used. (d) The tensile and C v specimens shall be located and p rep ared in acco rdance with the requirements o f SFA-5.1 or SFA-5.5, as applicable. Drop weight and fracture toughness test specimens, where required, shall be located and oriented as specified in WB-2431.1(d). (e) One all weld metal tensile specimen shall be tested and shall meet the specified minimum tensile strength requirement of the SFA Specification for the applicable electrode classification. (f) The requirements of WB-2431.1(f) shall be applicable to the toughness testing of this option.
WB-2432 Chemical Analysis Test Chemical analysis of filler metal or weld deposits shall be made in accordance with WB-2420 and as required by the following subparagraphs.
WB-2432.1 Test Method. The chemical analysis test shall be performed in accordance with this subparagraph and Table WB-2432.1-1, and the results shall conform to WB-2432.2. (a) A‐ No. 8 welding material to be used with GTAW and PAW processes and any other welding material to be used with any GTAW, PAW, or GMAW process shall have chemical analysis performed either on the filler metal or on a weld deposit made with the filler metal in accordance with (c) or (d) below.
WB-2431.2 Standard Test Requirements. In lieu of the use of the General Test Requirements specified in WB-2431.1, tensile and toughness tests may be made in accordance with this subparagraph where they are required for mild and low alloy steel covered electrodes; the material combinations to require weld material testing, as listed in WB-2431, shall apply for this Standard Test Requirements option. The limitations and testing under this Standard Test option shall be in accordance with (a) through (f) below. (a) Testing to the requirements of this subparagraph shall be limited to electrode classifications included in Specifications SFA-5.1 or SFA-5.5. (b) The test assembly required by SFA-5.1 or SFA-5.5, as applicable, shall be used for test coupon preparation, except that it shall be increased in size to obtain the
Table WB-2432.1-1 Sampling of Welding Materials for Chemical Analysis GTAW/PAW
A‐ No. 8 filler metal All other filler metal
43
Filler metal or weld deposit Filler metal or weld deposit
GMAW
All Other Processes
Weld deposit Weld deposit Filler metal or weld deposit Weld deposit
ð
17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) A‐ No. 8 welding material to be used with other than the GTAW and PAW processes and other welding material to be used with other than the GTAW, PAW, or GMAW process shall have chemical analysis performed on a weld deposit of the material or combination of materials being certified in accordance with (c) or (d) below. The removal of chemical analysis samples shall be from an undiluted weld deposit made in accordance with (c) below. As an alternative, the deposit shall be made in accordance with (d) below for material that will be used for corrosion resistant overlay cladding. Where the Welding Procedure Specification or the welding material specification specifies percentage composition limits for analysis, it shall state that the specified limits apply for the filler metal analysis, the undiluted weld deposit analysis, or in situ cladding deposit analysis in conformance with the above required certification testing. (c) The preparation of samples for chemical analysis of undiluted weld deposits shall comply with the method given in the applicable SFA Specification. Where a weld deposit method is not provided by the SFA specification, the sample shall be removed from a weld pad, groove, or other test weld made using the welding process that will be followed when the welding material or combination of welding materials being certified is consumed. The methods given in the Appendix of SFA-5.9 shall be used to establish a welding and sampling method for the pad, groove, or other test weld to ensure that the weld deposit being sampled will be substantially free of base metal dilution. The weld for A‐ No. 8 material to be used with the GMAW process shall be made using the shielding gas composition specified in the WPSs that will be followed when the material is consumed. Where a chemical analysis is required for a welding material which does not have a mechanical properties test requirement, a chemical analysis test coupon shall be prepared as required by WB-2431.1(c), except that heat treatment of the coupon is not required and the weld coupon thickness requirements of WB-2431.1(c) do not apply. (d) The alternative method provided in (b) above for the preparation of samples for chemical analysis of welding material to be used for corrosion resistant overlay cladding shall require a test weld made in accordance with the essential variables of the WPS that will be followed when the welding material is consumed. The test weld shall be made in conformance with the requirements of Section IX, QW‐ 214.1. The removal of chemical analysis samples shall conform with Section IX, Table QW-453 for the minimum thickness for which the welding procedure specification is qualified.
(a) See (1) and (2) below. (1 ) All welding material of ferrous
alloys A‐ No. 8 and A‐ No. 9 (Section IX, Table QW‐ 442) shall be analyzed for the elements listed in Table WB-2432.2-1 and for any other elements specified in the welding material specification referenced by the WPS or in the WPS. (2) All other welding material shall be analyzed for the elements specified in either the welding material specification referenced by the WPS or in the WPS. (b) The chemical composition of the weld metal or filler metal shall conform to the welding material specification for elements having specified percentage composition limits. Where the Welding Procedure Specification contains a modification of the composition limits of SFA or other referenced welding material specifications, or provides limits for additional elements, these composition limits of the welding procedure specification shall apply for acceptability. (c) The results of the chemical analysis shall be reported. Elements listed in Table WB-2432.2-1 but not specified in the welding material specification or WPS shall be reported for information only.
WB-2433 Delta Ferrite Determination A determination of delta ferrite shall be performed on A‐ No. 8 weld material (Section IX, Table QW‐ 442) backing filler metal (consumable inserts); bare electrode, rod, or wire filler metal; or weld metal, except that delta ferrite determinatio ns are no t required fo r S FA- 5 . 9 and SFA-5.4, Type 16 ‐ 8 ‐ 2, or A‐ No. 8 weld filler metal to be used for weld metal cladding.
WB-2433.1 Method. Delta ferrite determinations of welding material, including consumable insert material, shall be made using a magnetic measuring instrument and weld deposits made in accordance with (b) below. Alternatively, the delta ferrite determinations for welding materials may be performed by the use of chemical anal ys i s o f WB - 2 4 3 2 i n co nj u ncti o n wi th Fi gure WB-2433.1-1. (a) Calibration of magnetic instruments shall conform to AWS ‐ A4.2. (b) The weld deposit for magnetic delta ferrite determination shall be made in accordance with WB-2432.1(c). (c) A minimum of six ferrite readings shall be taken on the surface of the weld deposit. The readings obtained shall be averaged to a single Ferrite Number (FN).
Table WB-2432.2-1 Chemical Analysis for Welding Material
WB-2432.2 Requirements for Chemical Analysis. The chemical elements to be determined, the composition requirements of the weld metal, and the recording of results of the chemical analysis shall be in accordance with (a) through (c) below. 44
Materials
Elements
Chromium – Nickel stainless steels
C, Cr, Mo, Ni, Mn, Si, Cb + Ta
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Fi g u re WB-243 3. 1-1 Weld Metal Delta Ferri te Con ten t
18
22
20
24
26
28
30
18
16
8 12 18
14
10
20
6
16
Fe
2
rr i
te
16 Ni eq ? Ni ? 35 C ? 20 N ? 0.25 Cu
4
0
nu
mb
er
( FN
)
18
14
22
26
30
24 8 2
40
50
12
35
60
45
70
80
14
55
90
65
75
85
12
95 1 00
10
10 18
20
22
26 24 Creq ? Cr ? Mo ? 0.7 Nb
28
30
GENERAL NOTES: (a) The actual nitrogen content is preferred. If this is not available, the following applicable nitrogen value shall be used: (1 ) GMAW welds — 0.08%, except that when self-shielding flux-cored electrodes are used — 0.12% (2) Welds made using other processes — 0.06% (b) This diagram is identical to the WRC ‐ 1992 Diagram, except that the solidification mode lines have been removed for ease of use.
The minimum acceptable delta ferrite shall be 5FN. The results of the delta ferrite determination shall be included in the Certified Material Test Report of WB-2130 or WB-4120. WB - 24 3 3 . 2
WB-2440
Acce p tan ce S tan d ard s .
WB-2500
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF CON TAI N M EN T M ATERI AL
WB-2 510
EXAM I N ATI O N OF CON TAI N M EN T M ATERI AL
(a) Containment material and material welded thereto shall be examined by nondestructive methods applicable to the material and product form as required by the rules of this subarticle. Seamless pipe, tubes, and fittings NPS 1 (DN 25), and less, need not be examined by the rules of this subarticle. (b) The requirements of this subarticle for repair by welding, including examination of the repair welds, shall be met wherever repair welds are made to containment material and material welded thereto. The exceptions in (a) above do not apply to repair welds.
STORAG E AN D H AN DLI N G OF WELDI N G M ATERI AL
Suitable storage and handling of electrodes, flux, and other welding material shall be maintained. Precautions shall be taken to minimize absorption of moisture by fluxes and cored, fabricated, and coated electrodes.
45
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-2 52 0
(c) Acceptance Standards. Material that shows one or more imperfections which produce indications exceeding in amplitude the indication from the calibration notch is unacceptable unless additional exploration by the straight beam method shows the imperfections are laminar in nature and are acceptable in accordance with WB-2532.1(b) .
EXAM I N ATI ON AFTER QU EN CH I N G AN D TEM PERI N G
Ferritic steel products that have their properties enhanced by quenching and tempering shall be examined by the methods specified in this subarticle for each product form after the quenching and tempering phase of the heat treatment.
WB-2 53 7
WB-2 53 0
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF PLATE
WB-2 53 1
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
Acceptance examinations shall be performed at the time of manufacture as required in (a) through (c) below. (a) Ultrason ic exam in ation shall be performed after rolling to size and after heat treatment, except for postweld heat treatment. (b) Radiographic examination of repair welds, when required, may be performed prior to any required postweld heat treatment. (c) Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of repair welds shall be performed after final heat treatment, except that the examination may be performed p rio r to po s tweld heat treatment o f P ‐ N o . 1 material 2 in. (51 mm) and less nominal thickness.
All plates 2 in. (5 0 mm) nominal thickness and less shall be examined by the angle beam ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2 5 3 2 .2 . All plates greater than 2 in. (50 mm) thickness shall be examined by the straight beam ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2532.1.
WB-2 53 2
Exam i n ati on Proced u res
WB-2 532 . 1 S t ra i g h t B e a m E xa m i n a t i o n . The requirements for straight beam examination shall be in accordance with SA-5 78, Specification for Straight Beam Wave Ultrasonic Testing and Inspection of Plain and Clad Steel Plates for Special Applications, as shown in Section V, except that the extent of examination and the acceptance standards to be applied are given in (a) and (b) below. (a) Extent of Examination . One hundred percent of one major plate surface shall be covered by moving the search unit in parallel paths with not less than a 10% overlap. (b) Acceptance Standards (1 ) Any area where one or more imperfections produce a continuous total loss of back reflection accompanied by continuous indications on the same plane that cannot be encompassed within a circle whose diameter is 3 in. (75 mm) or one ‐ half of the plate thickness, whichever is greater, is unacceptable. (2) In addition, two or more imperfections smaller than described in (1) above shall be unacceptable unless separated by a minimum distance equal to the greatest diameter of the larger imperfection, or unless they may be collectively encompassed by the circle described in (1) above.
WB-2 53 8
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Surface defects shall be removed by grinding or machining, provided the requirements of (a) through (d) below are met. (a) The depression, after defect elimination, is blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. (b) After defect elimination, the area is examined by the magnetic particle method in accordance with WB-2 545 o r the l i qu i d p ene trant metho d i n acco rdance wi th WB-2546 to ensure that the defect has been removed or reduced to an imperfection of acceptable size. (c) Areas ground to remove oxide scale or other mechanically caused impressions for appearance or to facilitate proper ultrasonic testing need not be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant test method. (d) When the eliminatio n o f the defect reduces the thickness of the section below the minimum required to satisfy Article WB-3 000, the product shall be repaired in accordance with WB-2539. WB-2 53 9
The requirements for angle beam examination shall be in accordance with SA-577, Specification for Ultrasonic Beam Wave Inspection of Steel Plates, as shown in Section V and supplemented b y (a) and (b ) b elow. The calibratio n notch, extent of examination, and acceptance standards to be applied are given in (a) through (c) below. (a) Calibration . Angle beam examination shall be calibrated from a notch. (b) Extent of Examination . One hundred percent of one major plate surface shall be covered by moving the search unit in parallel paths with not less than 10% overlap. WB- 2532. 2
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
An g le Beam Exam i n ati o n .
Repai r by Weld i n g
The Material Organization may repair by welding material from which defects have been removed, provided the depth of the repair cavity does not exceed one ‐ third the nominal thickness and the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met. Prior approval of the Certificate Holder shall be obtained for the repair of plates to be used in the manufacture of a containment. WB-2 539. 1 Defect Rem oval. The defect shall be removed by suitable mechanical or thermal cutting or gougi n g m e th o d s a n d th e c a vi ty p r e p a r e d fo r r e p a i r (WB-4211.1).
46
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB- 2 539 . 2
Q u ali fi cat i o n o f W e ld i n g P ro ce d u re s
WB-2 540
The welding procedure and welders or welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with Article WB-4000 and Section IX. an d W e ld e rs .
WB-2 541
Blen d i n g of Repai red Areas.
WB - 2 539 . 4 Exam i n ati on of Repai r Weld s. Each repair weld shall be examined by the magnetic particle method (WB-2 5 45 ) or by the liquid penetrant method (WB-2546). In addition, when the depth of the repair cavity exceeds the lesser of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% of the section thickness, the repair weld shall be radiographed after repair in accordance with WB-5110 and to the acceptance standards of WB-5320. The penetrameter and the acceptance standards for radiographic examination of repair welds shall be based on the section thickness at the repair area. WB-2539 . 5 H eat Treatm en t After Repai rs. The product shall be heat treated after repair in accordance with the heat treatment requirements of WB-4620. WB-2539 . 6
Req u i red Exam i n ati on s
(a) Forgings and bars shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2542, except forgings or sections of forgings which have coarse grains, or configurations which do not yield meaningful examination results b y ultras o nic metho ds , s hall b e examined b y radio grap hic metho ds in acco rdance with S ectio n V, Article 2 , using the acceptance standards of WB-5 3 2 0. In addition, all external surfaces and accessible internal surfaces shall be examined by a magnetic particle method (WB-2545) or a liquid penetrant method (WB-2546). (b) Forged flanges and fittings, such as elbows, tees, and couplings, shall be examined in accordance with the requirements of WB-2550. (c) Bar material used for bolting shall be examined in accordance with WB-2580. (d) Forgings and forged or rolled bars which are to be bored to form tubular products or fittings shall be examined in accordance with the requirements of WB-2 5 5 0 after boring.
After repair, the surface shall be blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. WB- 2539. 3
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF FORG I N G S AN D BARS
Materi al Report Descri bi n g Defects an d
Each defect repair exceeding in depth the lesser of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% of the section thickness shall be described in the Certified Material Test Report. The Certified Material Test Report for each piece shall include a chart which shows the location and size of the prepared cavity, the welding material identification, the welding procedure, the heat treatment, and the examination results, including radiographs. Repai rs.
WB-2 542
U ltrason i c Exam i n ati on
WB- 2 542 . 1 Exam i n ati o n Pro ced u re. All forgings in the rough ‐ forged or finished condition, and bars, shall be examined in accordance with Section V, Article 5 and the following supplemental requirements. The techniques of (a) through (d) below are required, as applicable. (a) Forgings may be examined by the use of alternative ultrasonic methods which utilize distance amplitude corrections, provided the acceptance standards are shown to be equivalent to those listed in WB-2542.2. (b) Cylindrical section bars shall be scanned from the entire external circumference. (c) Noncylindrical section bars shall be scanned in two perpendicular directions to the maximum extent possible (through each pair of parallel sides). (d) Bar products do not require recording and reporting of indications smaller than the acceptance standard, except when so specified for specialized applications.
WB-2539 . 7 Repai r of Clad d i n g by Weld i n g . The Material O rganization may repair defects in cladding by welding, provided the requirements of (a) through (d) below are met. (a) Qualification of Weldin g Procedures and Welders. The welding procedure and the welders or welding operators s hall b e qualified in acco rdance with Article WB-4000 and with Section IX. (b) Defect Removal and Examination of Cavity. The defect shall be removed, and the cavity prepared for repair s h al l b e e xam i n e d b y th e l i q u i d p e n e tran t m e th o d (WB-2546). (c) Examination of Repaired Areas. The repaired area s h a l l b e e x a m i n e d b y a l i q u i d p e n e tr a n t m e th o d (WB-2546). (d) Report of Repairs. Each defect repair shall be described in the Certified Material Test Report for each piece, including a chart which shows the location and size of the repair, the welding material identification, welding procedure, heat treatment, and examination results.
WB- 2542. 2
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s.
(a) Straight Beam General Rule. A forging shall be unac-
ceptable if the results of straight beam examinations show one or more reflectors which produce indications accompanied by a complete loss of back reflection not associated with or attributable to geometric configurations. Complete loss of back reflection is assumed when the back reflection falls below 5% of full calibration screen height. (b) Straigh t Beam Special Rule for Con tain m en t Shell Sections (1 ) A ring forging made to fine grain melting practice and used for containment shell sections shall be unacceptable if the results of the straight beam radial examination show one or more reflectors producing a continuous 47
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
complete loss of back reflection accompanied by continuous indications on the same plane that cannot be encompassed with a circle whose diameter is 3 in. (75 mm) or one ‐ half of the wall thickness, whichever is greater. (2) In addition, two or more reflectors smaller than described in (1) above shall be unacceptable unless separated by a minimum distance equal to the greatest diameter o f the larger reflecto r o r unles s they may b e collectively encompassed by the circle described in (1 ) above. (c) Angle Beam Rule. A forging shall be unacceptable if the results of angle beam examinations show one or more reflectors which produce indications exceeding in amplitude the indicatio n fro m the app ro priate calib ration notches. WB-2 545
(3) four or more indications in a line separated by /16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; 2 2 (4) ten or more indications in any 6 in. (4 000 mm ) of area whose maj or dimension is no more than 6 in. (150 mm) with the dimensions taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
1
WB-2 546
WB- 25 46. 1 Exam i n ati on Proced u re. The procedure for liquid penetrant examination shall be in accordance with the methods of Section V, Article 6. WB-2546. 2
vealed by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, localized surface discontinuities, s uch as may occur from machining marks, surface conditions, or an incomplete bond between base metal and cladding, may produce similar indications which are not relevant. (b) Any indication in excess of the WB-2 546.3 acceptance standards, which is believed to be nonrelevant, shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of pigmentation, which would mask defects, are unacceptable. (c) Relevan t in dications are indications which result from imperfections. Linear indications are indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded in dication s are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width.
WB-2 545. 1 Exam i n ati o n Proced u re. The procedure for magnetic particle examination shall be in accordance with the methods of Section V, Article 7. Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s.
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are re-
vealed by the retention of the examination medium. All indications are not necessarily defects, ho wever, since certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce similar indications which are not relevant. (b) Any indication in excess of the WB-2 545.3 acceptance standards, which is believed to be nonrelevant, shall be reexamined by the same or other nondestructive examination methods to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications which would mask defects are unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are indications which result from imperfections. Linear indications are indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width. WB-2545. 3
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s.
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are re-
M ag n eti c Parti cle Exam i n ati on
WB-2545. 2
Li q u i d Pen etran t Exam i n ati on
WB-2546. 3
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s.
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with ma-
jor dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following indications are unacceptable: 1 (1 ) a n y l i n e a r i n d i c a ti o n s gre a te r th a n /1 6 i n . (1.5 mm) long for material less than 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for material from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for material 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater; (2) ro unded indications with dimensions greater than 1/8 in . (3 m m) fo r thi ckn e s s e s l e s s th an 5/8 i n. (16 mm) and greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) for thicknesses 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and greater; (3) four or more indications in a line separated by 1 /16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; 2 2 (4) ten or more indications in any 6 in. (4 000 mm ) of area whose maj or dimension is no more than 6 in. (150 mm) with the dimensions taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s.
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with ma-
jor dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following indications are unacceptable: 1 (1 ) a n y l i n e a r i n d i c a ti o n s gre a te r th a n /1 6 i n . 5 (1.5 mm) long for material less than /8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for material from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for material 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater; (2) ro unded indications with dimensions greater than 1/8 in . (3 m m) fo r thi ckn e s s e s l e s s th an 5/8 i n. (16 mm) and greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) for thicknesses 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and greater;
WB-2 547
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
Acceptance examinations, including those for repair welds, shall be performed at the time of manufacture as required in (a) through (d) below. 48
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(a) Ultrasonic examination may be performed at any time after forging [WB-2541(d)], and the maximum practical volume, including weld repairs, if required, shall be examined after final heat treatment, excluding postweld heat treatment. (b) Radiographic examination of repair welds, if required, may be performed prior to any required postweld heat treatment. (c) Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination shall be performed in the finished condition, except repair welds of P ‐ No. 1 material, 2 in. (50 mm) nominal thickness and less, may be examined prior to postweld heat treatment. (d) Forgings and rolled bars which are to be bored or turned to form tubular parts or fittings shall be examined after boring or turning, except for threading. WB-2 548
notches or grooves of WB-2552.1(b), and the eddy current method shall be calibrated to the circumferential no tches and gro o ves as well as the radial ho le o f WB-2554.2. (-b) As an alternative to the eddy current examination or when the eddy current examination does not yield meaningful results, an axial scan ultrasonic examination in two opposite axial directions, 7 in accordance with WB-2552.1(b), shall be made. 1 (2) Pipe and tubing 2 /2 in. (64 mm) O.D. and larger shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2552.1(a) in two opposite circumferential directions, and in accordance with WB-2552.1(b) in two opposite axial directions. Alternatively, for welded without filler metal pipe larger than 6 3/4 in. (170 mm) O.D., the plate shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2530 prior to forming and the weld shall be examined by the radiographic method in accordance with WB-2553. Radiographic examination of welds, including repair welds, shall be performed after final rolling and forming and may be performed prior to any required postweld heat treatment. (3) Copper – nickel alloy and nickel alloy seamless pipe and tubing shall be examined as follows. (-a) Each pipe and tube, all sizes shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with WB-2552.1(a) in two opposite circumferential directions. 1 (-b) Pipe and tubing smaller than 2 /2 in. (64 mm) O.D. shall be examined by the eddy current method in accordance with WB-2554 if meaningful indications can be obtained from the reference specimen notches. If meaningful indications cannot be obtained from the reference specimen, an axial scan ultrasonic examination in two opposite axial directions, in accordance with WB-2552.1(b), shall be made. 1 (-c) Pipe and tubing 2 /2 in. (64 mm) O.D. and larger shall be examined by an axial scan ultrasonic examination in two opposite axial directions in accordance with WB-2552.1(b). (b) Wrought seamless and welded without filler metal fittings (including pipe flanges and fittings machined from forgings and bars) shall be examined in accordance with the material specification, and in addition by the magnetic particle method in accordance with WB-2555, or the liquid penetrant method in accordance with WB-2556 on all external surfaces and all accessible internal surfaces (excluding bolt holes and threads). Additionally, for fittings over NPS 6 (DN 150), the entire volume shall be exam i n e d b y th e u l tras o n i c me th o d , i f fe a s i b l e , i n accordance with WB-2552, or the radiographic method in accordance with WB-2553. Alternatively, the plate shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2530 prior to forming and the weld shall be examined by the radiographic method in accordance with WB-2553. Radiographic examination of welds, including
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Elimination of surface defects shall be made in accordance with WB-2538. WB-2 549
Repai r by Weld i n g
Rep ai r b y we ldi ng s hall b e in acco rdance wi th WB-2539, except that: (a) the depth of repair that is permitted is not limited; and (b) for ferritic steel forgings, the completed repair may be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with the requirements of WB-2542 in lieu of radiography. WB-2 550
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF SEAM LESS AN D WELDED TU BU LAR PRODU CTS AN D FI TTI N G S
ð 17Þ
WB-2 551
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
In addition to the requirements of the material specification and of this Article, seamless and welded tubular products (including pipe flanges and fittings machined from forgings and bars) shall comply with the following. (a) Wrought seamless and welded pipe and tubing shall be examined over the entire volume of the material in accordance with (1), (2), or (3), as follows. The volumetric examinations required by this paragraph need only be conducted from one surface. Tubular products may require both outside and inside surface conditioning prior to examination. (1 ) Pipe and Tubing (-a) Pipe and tubing
smaller than 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) O.D. shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2552.1(a) in two opposite circumferential directions 7 and by the eddy current method in accordance with WB-2554, provided the product is limited to sizes, materials, and thicknesses for which meaningful results can be obtained by eddy current examination as evidenced by detection of required standards. Each method shall be calibrated to the appropriate standard: that is, the ultrasonic method shall be calibrated to the axial 49
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-2552.2
Examination Procedure for Fittings. The procedure for ultrasonic examination of fittings shall be in accordance with the requirements of SA-3 88 for straight beam examination and, where feasible, angle ‐ beam examination in two circumferential directions. (b) Acceptance Standards. Fittings shall be unacceptable if straight beam examination shows one or more reflectors that p roduce indicatio ns acco mp anied b y complete loss of back reflection not associated with or attributable to the geometric configuration, or if angle beam examination results show one or more reflectors that produce indications exceeding in amplitude the indications from the calibrated notch. Complete loss of back reflection is assumed when the back reflection falls below 5% of full calibration screen height.
repair welds, shall be performed after final rolling and forming, and may be performed prior to any required postweld heat treatment.
(a) Procedure .
WB-2552 Ultrasonic Examination 7 WB-2552.1 Examination Procedure for Pipe and Tubing. Independent channels or instruments shall be employed for circumferential and axial scans. (a) Circumferential Direction . The procedure for ultrasonic examination of pipe and tubing in the circumferential direction shall be in accordance with SE-213 except as required in WB - 2 5 5 1 (a) (1 ) , WB - 2 5 5 1 (a) (2 ) , and WB-2551(a)(3)(-a), and the requirements of this paragraph. The procedure shall provide a sensitivity which will consistently detect defects that produce indications equal to, or greater than, the indications produced by the standard defects included in the reference specimens specified in WB-2552.3. (b) Axial Direction . When required by WB-2551, the ultrasonic examination of pipe and tubing shall include angle beam scanning in the axial direction. The procedure for the axial scans shall be in accordance with SE-213, except that the propagation of sound in the tube or pipe wall shall be in the axial direction instead of the circumferential direction and as required in WB-2 551 (a) (1) (-b) , WB - 2 5 5 1 (a) (2 ) , WB - 2 5 5 1 (a) (3 ) (- b ) , and WB-2551(a)(3)(-c). Figure WB-2552.1-1 illustrates the characteristic oblique entry of sound into the pipe or tube wall and the axial direction of ultrasonic energy propagation to detect transverse notches or similar surface discontinuities. (c) Acceptance Standards. Products with defects that produce indications in excess of the indications produced by the standard defects in the reference specimen are unacceptable unless the defects are eliminated or repaired in accordance with WB-2558 or WB-2559.
WB-2552.3 Reference Specimens. (a) The reference specimen shall be of the same nominal diameter and thickness, and of the same nominal composition and heat-treated condition as the product which is being examined. For circumferential scanning, the standard defects shall be axial notches or grooves on the outside and inside surfaces of the reference specimen, and shall have a length of approximately 1 in. (25 mm) or less, a width not to exceed 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) for a square notch or U ‐ notch, a width proportional to the depth for a V‐ notch, and a depth not greater than the larger of 0.004 in. (0.10 mm) or 5% of the nominal wall thickness. For axial scanning in accordance with SE-213, a transverse (circumferential) notch shall be introduced on the inner and outer surfaces of the standard. Dimensions of the transverse notch shall not exceed those of the longitudinal notch. The reference specimen may be the product being examined. (b) The reference specimen shall be long enough to simulate the handling of the product being examined through the examination equipment. When more than one standard defect is placed in a reference specimen, the defects shall be located so that indications from each defect are separate and distinct without mutual interference or amplification. All upset metal and burrs adjacent to the reference notches shall be removed.
Figure WB-2552.1-1 Axial Propagation of Sound in Tube Wall
WB-2552.4 Checking and Calibration of Equipment. The proper functioning of the examination equipment shall be checked and the equipment shall be calibrated by the use of the reference specimens, as a minimum (a) at the beginning of each production run of a given size and thickness of a given material; (b) after each 4 hr or less during the production run; (c) at the end of the production run; (d) at any time that malfunctioning is suspected. If, during any check, it is determined that the test equipment is not functioning properly, all of the product that has been tested since the last valid equipment calibration shall be reexamined. 50
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-2553 Radiographic Examination
surface plus a 1/1 6 in. (1 .5 mm) diameter hole drilled through the wall. These shall be used to establish the rej ection level for the product to be tested. The reference notches shall have a depth not greater than the larger of 0 .00 4 in. (0 .1 0 mm) or 5 % of the wall thickness. The width of the notch shall not exceed 1/1 6 in. (1 .5 mm) . The length shall be approximately 1 in. (25 mm) or less. The size of reference specimens shall be as specified in WB-2552.3.
(a) Gen eral. When radiographic examination is performed as an alternative for ultrasonic examination of the entire volume of the material, it shall apply to the entire volume of the pipe, tube, or fitting material. Acceptance standards specified for welds shall apply to the entire volume of material examined. (b) Examination Procedure . The radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Section V, Article 2, as modified by WB-5111. (c) A ccep tan ce Stan da rd . Welds that are s ho wn b y radiography to have any of the following types of discontinuities are unacceptable: (1 ) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; (2) any other elongated indication which has a length greater than: 1 3 (-a) /4 in. for t up to /4 in. (6 mm to 1 9 mm) , inclusive 1 3 1 (-b) /3 t fo r t fro m /4 in. to 2 /4 i n. , incl us ive (19 mm to 57 mm) 3 1 (-c) /4 in. for t over 2 /4 in. (19 mm to 57 mm) where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld; (3) any group of aligned indications having an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t , unless the minimum distance between successive indications exceeds 6 L , in which case the aggregate length is unlimited, L being the length of the largest indication; (4) rounded indications in excess of that shown as acceptable in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix VI.
WB-2554.3
WB-2555 Magnetic Particle Examination Magnetic particle examination shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of WB-2545.
WB-2556 Liquid Penetrant Examination Liquid penetrant examination shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of WB-2546.
WB-2557 Time of Examination (a) Products that are quenched and tempered shall be examined, as required, after the quenching and tempering heat treatment. (b) Products that are not quenched and tempered shall receive the required examinations as follows: (1 ) Ultrasonic or eddy current examination, when required, shall be performed after final heat treatment, except postweld heat treatment. (2) Radiographic examination, when required, may b e p e rfo rm e d p ri o r to an y re qu i re d p o s twe l d he at treatment. (3) Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination, including repair welds, shall be performed after final heat treatment, except that the examination may be performed prior to postweld heat treatment for P ‐ No. 1 (Section IX of the Code) materials of 2 in. (50 mm) and less nominal thickness. (4) Forgings and rolled bars which are to be bored and/or turned to form tubular parts or fittings shall be examined after boring and/or turning, except for threading. Fittings shall be examined after final forming.
WB-2554 Eddy Current Examination This examination method is restricted to materials with uniform magnetic properties and of sizes for which meaningful results can be obtained.
WB-2554.1 Examination Procedure. The procedure for eddy current examination shall provide a sensitivity that will consistently detect defects by comparison with the standard defects included in the reference specimen specified in WB-2 554.2. Products with defects that produce indications in excess of the reference standards are unacceptable unless the defects are eliminated or rep aired in acco rdance with WB - 2 5 5 8 o r WB - 2 5 5 9 as applicable. WB-2554.2
Checking and Calibration of Equipment.
The checking and calibration of examination equipment shall be the same as in WB-2552.4.
WB-2558 Elimination of Surface Defects
Reference Specimens.
The reference specimen shall be of the same nominal diameter and thickness, and of the same nominal composition and heattreated condition as the product that is being examined. The standard shall contain tangential or circumferential notches on the outside surface plus a 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) diameter hole drilled through the wall. For copper– nickel alloy and nickel alloy materials, the standard shall have one notch extending circumferentially on the outside surface and one notch extending circumferentially on the inside
Surface defects shall be removed by grinding or machining, provided the requirements of (a) through (c) below are met. (a) The depression, after defect elimination, is blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. (b) After defect elimination, the area is examined by the method which originally disclosed the defect to assure that the defect has been removed or reduced to an imperfection of acceptable size. 51
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(c) If the elimination of the defect reduces the thickness of the section below the minimum required to satisfy the rules of Article WB-3000, the product shall be repaired in accordance with WB-2559.
(1 ) Areas giving indications exceeding the Amplitude Reference Line with any dimension longer than those specified in the following tabulation shall be unacceptable: UT Quality Level
WB-2 559
Repai r by Weld i n g
1 2 3 4
Repair of defects shall be in accordance with WB-2539, except repair by welding is not permitted on copper – nickel alloy and nickel alloy materials. WB-2 570
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
For examination of the containment casting, the following shall apply: (a) All cast products shall be examined by the ultrasonic method as specified in WB-2574. (b) All external and accessible internal surfaces, except threaded surfaces, shall be examined using either the liquid penetrant method (WB-2576) or the magnetic particle method (WB-2577). WB-2 572
Ti m e of N on d estru cti ve Exam i n ati on
Provi si on s for Repai r of Base M ateri al by Weld i n g
Castings shall not be repaired by plugging, welding, brazing, impregnation, or any other means. WB-2 574
(38) (50) (64) (75)
(2) Quality Level 1 shall apply for the volume of castings within 1 in. (25 mm) of the surface regardless of the overall thickness. (3) Discontinuities indicated to have a change in depth equal to or greater than one-half the wall thickness or 1 in. (25 mm), whichever is less, shall be unacceptable. (4) Two or more indications in the same plane with amplitudes exceeding the Amplitude Reference Line and separated by a distance less than the longest dimension of the larger of the adjacent indications shall be unacceptable if they cannot be encompassed within an area less than that of the Quality Level specified in (1). (5) Two or more indications greater than permitted for Quality Level 1 for castings less than 2 in. (50 mm) in thickness, greater than permitted for Quality Level 2 fo r t h i c k n e s s e s 2 i n . t h r o u g h 4 i n . ( 5 0 m m through 100 mm), and greater than permitted for Quality Level 3 for thicknesses greater than 4 in. (100 mm), separated by a distance less than the longest dimension of the larger of the adjacent indications, shall be unacceptable if they cannot be encompassed in an area less than that of the Quality Level requirements stated in (1).
All examinations shall be performed after final machining except that ultrasonic testing shall be performed at the time when the configuration is best suited for scanning and the most meaningful results can be obtained. WB-2 573
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
NOTES: (1) The areas for the Ultrasonic Quality Levels in SA-609 refer to the surface area on the casting over which co ntinuo us indicatio n, exceeding the trans fercorrected distance amplitude curve, is maintained. (2) Areas shall be measured from dimensions of the movement of the search unit, using the center of the search unit as the reference point. (3) In certain castings, because of very long metal path distances or curvature of the examination surfaces, the surface area over which a given discontinuity is detected may be considerably larger or smaller than the actual area of the discontinuity in the casting; in such cases, other criteria that incorporate a consideration of beam angles or beam spread shall be used for realistic evaluation of the discontinuity.
EXAM I N ATI O N AN D REPAI R OF CAST PRO DU CTS
WB-2 571
Longest Dimension of Area, in. (mm) [Notes (1), (2), and (3)]
U ltrason i c Exam i n ati on of Casti n g s
Ultrasonic examination shall be performed in accordance with Section V, Article 5, T-571.4. Each manufacturer shall certify that the procedure is in accordance with the following requirements and shall make the procedure available for approval upon request. The following acceptance standards shall be applied: (a) The Quality Levels of SA-609 as shown in Section V shall apply for the casting thickness indicated. (1 ) Quality Level 1 fo r thicknes s es up to 2 in. (50 mm) (2) Quality Level 3 for thicknesses 2 in. to 4 in. (50 mm to 100 mm) (3) Quality Level 4 for thicknesses greater than 4 in. (100 mm) (b) In addition to the Quality Level requirements stated in (a) above, the requirements in (1) through (5) below shall apply for both straight beam and angle beam examination.
WB-2 576
Li q u i d Pen etran t Exam i n ati on
(a) Castings shall be examined, if required, on all accessible surfaces by the liquid penetrant method in accordance with Section V of the Code. (b) Evaluation of Indications. All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standards. Mechanical discontinuities intersecting the surface are indicated by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, localized surface discontinuities as may occur from machining marks,
52
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
scale, or dents may produce indications that are not relevant. Any indication in excess of the acceptance standards believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as a defect until it is reexamined to verify whether actual defects are present. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of pigmentation that would mask indications of defects are unacceptable. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Relevant indications are those that result from mechanical discontinuities. Linear indications are those whose length is more than 3 times the width. Rounded indications are those that are circular or elliptical with the length less than 3 times the width. Indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) are considered relevant. (c) Acceptance Standards. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: 1 (1 ) a n y l i n e a r i n d i c a ti o n s gre a te r th a n /1 6 i n . 5 (1.5 mm) long for materials less than /8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for materials from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for materials 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 1/8 i n . (3 mm ) fo r th ickne s s e s les s th an 5/8 i n . (16 mm) and greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) for thicknesses 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and greater (3) four or more relevant indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge-to-edge 2 (4) ten or more relevant indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) taken in the most unfavorable orientation relative to the indications being evaluated WB-2 577
(c) Acceptance Standards. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: 1 (1 ) linear indications greater than /1 6 in. (1.5 mm) 5 long for materials less than /8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for materials from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for materials 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater (2) ro unded indications with dimens io ns greater th a n 1/8 i n . (3 m m ) l o n g fo r m a te ri a l s fro m 5/8 i n . (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for materials 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater (3) four or more relevant indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge-to-edge 2 (4) ten or more relevant indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) taken in the most unfavorable orientation relative to the indications being evaluated WB-2 580
EXAM I N ATI ON OF BOLTS, STU DS, AN D N U TS
WB-2 581
ð 17Þ
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
All bolting material shall be visually examined in accordance with WB-2 582. In addition, nominal sizes greater than 1 in. (25 mm) shall be examined by either the magnetic particle method in accordance with WB-2583 or the liquid penetrant method in accordance with WB-2584. In addition, nominal sizes greater than 2 in. (50 mm) but not over 4 in. (100 mm) shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WB-2585 and nominal sizes greater than 4 in. (100 mm) shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with both WB-2585 and WB-2586.
M ag n eti c Parti cle Exam i n ati on (for Du cti le Cast I ron )
WB-2 582
(a) Castings of magnetic material shall be examined, if
ð 17Þ
Vi su al Exam i n ati on
The final surfaces of threads, shanks, and heads shall be visually examined for workmanship, finish, and appearance in acco rdance with the requirements o f AS TM F788 for bolting material and ASTM F812 for nuts. The visual examination personnel shall be trained and qualified in accordance with the Material Organization s Quality System Program or the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program. These examinations are not required to be performed either in accordance with procedures qualified to WB-5100 or by personnel qualified in accordance with WB-5500.
required, on all accessible surfaces by a magnetic particle method in accordance with Section V of the Code. (b) Evaluation of Indication s. All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standards. Mechanical discontinuities intersecting the surface are indicated by retention of the examination medium. All indications are not necessarily defects since certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce indications that are not relevant. Any indication in excess of the acceptance standards that is believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as a defect until it is reexamined to verify whether actual defects are present. Nonrelevant indications that would mask indications of defects are unacceptable. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Relevant indications are those that result from unacceptable mechanical discontinuities a n d h a ve a m a j o r d i m e n s i o n gr e a te r th a n 1/1 6 i n . (1 .5 mm) . Linear indications are those whose length is more than 3 times the width. Rounded indications are those that are circular or elliptical with the length less than 3 times the width.


WB-2 583
M ag n eti c Parti cle Exam i n ati on (for Ferri ti c Steel Bolti n g M ateri al On ly)
WB- 2583 . 1 Exam i n ati on Proced u re. All bolts, studs, and nuts greater than 1 in. (2 5 mm) nominal bolt size shall be examined by the magnetic particle method in accordance with ASTM A2 75. If desired, the supplier may perform liquid penetrant examination in accordance with WB-2584 instead of magnetic particle examination. Such e xa m i n a ti o n s h a l l b e p e r fo r m e d o n th e fi n i s h e d
53
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
component after threading or on the materials stock at approximately the finished diameter before threading and after heading (if involved) . This examination shall be performed on all accessible surfaces. WB-2583. 2
pigmentation also shall be reexamined after recleaning or light surface conditioning, as appropriate. Any indication observed during such reexamination shall be considered relevant and s hall b e evaluated in terms o f the acceptance standards.
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s.
WB - 2 5 84. 3 Acce p tan ce Stan d ard . Linear nonaxial indications are unacceptable. Linear axial indications greater than 1 in. (25 mm) long are unacceptable.
(a) All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the ac-
ceptance standards. Linear indications are those indicati o n s i n whi ch the l e ngth i s m o re than 3 ti m e s the width. Rounded indications are those which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than 3 times the width. (b) All indications are not necessarily relevant: leakage of magnetic fields and permeability variations may produce indications that are not relevant to the detection of unacceptable discontinuities. Indications with maj or dimensions of 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less are not relevant. (c) Any indication that is believed to be nonrelevant, and that is larger than acceptable, shall be considered to be a defect and shall be reexamined after light surface conditioning. (d) Any indication observed during such reexamination shall be considered relevant and shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standards. (e) As an alternative to magnetic particle reexamination, other nondestructive examination means (such as liquid penetrant examination for surface discontinuities) may be used to determine relevancy.
WB-2 585
All bolts, studs, and nuts greater than 2 in. (5 0 mm) nominal bolt size shall be ultrasonically examined over the entire cylindrical surface prior to threading in accordance with the following requirements. WB-2585. 1 U ltrason i c M eth od . Examination shall be carried out by the straight beam, radial ‐ scan method in accordance with Section V, Article 23, SA-388. WB- 2 5 85 . 2 E xam i n ati o n P ro ce d u re . Examination shall be performed at a nominal frequency of 2 .25 MHz with a search unit not to exceed 1 in. 2 (650 mm 2 ). W B - 2 5 85 . 3 Cali b rati o n o f E q u i p m e n t. Calibration sensitivity shall be established by adj ustment of the instrument so that the first back reflection is 75% to 90% of full ‐ screen height. WB-2585. 4 Acceptan ce Stan d ard . Any discontinuity that causes an indication in excess of 20% of the height of the first back reflection or any discontinuity that prevents the production of a first back reflection of 50% of the calibration amplitude is not acceptable.
Linear nonaxial indications are unacceptable. Linear axial indications greater than 1 in. (25 mm) in length are unacceptable. WB - 2 5 83 . 3
WB-2 584
Acce p tan ce Stan d ard .
Li q u i d Pen etran t Exam i n ati on
WB-2584. 1 Exam i n ati on Proced u re. All bolts, studs, and nuts greater than 1 in. (2 5 mm) nominal bolt size shall be examined by a liquid penetrant method in accordance with the methods of Section V, Article 6. Such examination shall be performed on the finished component after threading or on the materials stock at approximately the finished diameter before threading and after heading (if involved).
WB-2 586
U ltrason i c Exam i n ati on for Si zes Over 4 i n . (100 m m )
In addition to the requirements of WB-2585, all bolts, studs, and nuts over 4 in. (1 00 mm) nominal bolt size shall be ultrasonically examined over the entire surface of each end before or after threading in accordance with the following requirements. WB-2586. 1 U ltrason i c M eth od . Examination shall be carried o ut b y the s traigh t b eam, lo ngitudinal ‐ s can method.
All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standards. Linear indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded indications are those which are circular to elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width. All penetrant indications are not necessarily relevant. Surface imperfections such as machining marks and scratches may produce indications that are nonrelevant to the detection of unacceptable discontinuities. Broad areas of pigmentation, which could mask indications of defects, are unacceptable. Indications with maj or dimensions of 1 /1 6 in. (1.5 mm) or less are not relevant. Any indication that is believed to be nonrelevant, and that is larger than acceptable, shall be considered to be a defect and shall be reexamined after light surface conditioning. Any area of WB-2584. 2
U ltrason i c Exam i n ati on for Si zes G reater Th an 2 i n . (50 m m )
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s.
WB- 2 5 86 . 2 E xam i n ati o n P ro ce d u re . Examination shall be performed at a nominal frequency of 2 .25 MHz with a search unit having a circular cross section with a diameter not less than 1/2 in. (1 3 mm) nor more than 1 1/8 in. (29 mm). WB - 2 5 86 . 3 Cali b rati o n o f E q u i p m e n t. Calibration shall be established on a test bar of the same nominal composition and diameter as the production part and a minimum of one ‐ half of the length. A 3/8 in. (10 mm) diameter by 3 in. (75 mm) deep flat‐ bottom hole shall be drilled in one end of the bar and plugged to full depth. A distance – amplitude curve shall be established by scanning from both ends of the test bar.
54
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Any discontinuity that causes an indication in excess of that produced by the calibration hole in the reference specimen as corrected by the distance amplitude curve is not acceptable. WB- 2586. 4
(b) The requirements of NCA 3860 and NCA 4256 shall be met as required by WB-2130 and WB-2150, respectively. The other requirements of WA-3800 need not be used by Material Organizations for small products, as defined in (c) below, and for material which is allowed by this Subsection to be furnished with a Certificate of Compliance. For these products, the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program (Article WA-4000) shall include measures to provide assurance that the material is furnished in accordance with the material specification and with the applicable requirements of this Subsection. (c) For the purpose of this paragraph, small products are defined as given in (1) through (4) below: (1 ) p ipe, tube, pipe fittings, and flanges NPS 2 (DN 50) and less; (2) bolting material, including studs, nuts, and bolts of 1 in. (25 mm) nominal diameter and less; (3) bars with a nominal cross sectional area of 1 in. 2 (650 mm2 ) and less; and (4) material for valves with inlet pipe connections of NPS 2 (DN 50) and less.
Acceptan ce Stan d ard .


WB-2 587
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
Acceptance examinations shall be performed after the final heat treatment required by the basic material specification. WB-2 588

Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Unacceptable surface defects on finished bolts, studs, and nuts are not permitted, and are cause for rejection. WB-2 589
Repai r by Weld i n g
Weld repairs of bolts, studs, and nuts are not permitted. WB-2600

M ATERI AL ORG AN I ZATI ON ’ S QU ALI TY SYSTEM PROG RAM S
ð 17Þ
WB-26 10

DOCU M EN TATI ON AN D M AI N TEN AN CE O F QU ALI TY SYSTEM PRO G RAM S
(a) Except as provided in (b) below, Material Organizations shall have a Quality System Program or an Identification and Verification Program, as applicable, which meets the requirements of WA-3800.
WB-2700
DI M EN SI ON AL STAN DARDS
Dimensions of standard items shall comply with the standards and specifications listed in Article WA-7000.
55
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WB-3000 DESI G N
WB-3100
WB- 3112. 4
G EN ERAL DESI G N
WB-3 110
LOADI N G CRI TERI A
WB-3 111
Load i n g Con d i ti on s
The loadings considered in designing a containment as identified in the Design Specification shall include, but are not limited to those in (a) through (g) below: (a) internal and external pressures (b) impact loads caused by either internal or external conditions, including drop and puncture (c) weight of the containment and normal contents under operating or test conditions, including additional pressure due to static and dynamic head of liquids (d) superimposed loads such as other components, operating equipment, impact limiting devices, shielding, insulation, and linings (e) shock loads, vibration loads, transportation loads, and handling loads (f) reaction loads from attachments and supports (g) temperature effects caused by contents, the external environment, and other components WB-3 112
Desi g n Load i n g s
The Design Loadings shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1 and the following subparagraphs. The specified internal and external D es ign Pres s ures to b e us ed in this Subsection shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1(a). The specified Design Temperature shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1(b). It shall be used in computations involving the Design Pressure and the coincidental Design Mechanical Loads. If necessary, the metal temperature shall be determined by computation using accepted heat transfer procedures or by measurement from equipment in service under equivalent operating conditions. In no case shall the temperature of the metal exceed the maximum temperature listed in the applicability column of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4, nor exceed the maximum temperature limitations specified elsewhere in this Subsection. The specified Design Mechanical Loads shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1(c). They shall be used in conjunction with the Design Pressure. WB - 3 11 2 . 1
D esi g n Pressu re.
WB- 3 11 2 . 2
D e si g n Tem p eratu re.
WB- 3112. 3
Desi g n M ech an i cal Load s.
Desi g n Stress I n ten si ty Valu es.
Design stress intensity values for Section III, Class TC materials listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4 shall be used. The materials shall not be used at temperatures that exceed the temperature limit established in the stress tables. The stress intensity values in the tables may be interpolated for intermediate temperatures. As an additional control on permitted transportation containment materials listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B, only the following materials shall be used: (1 ) materials whose P-numbers are listed in Table WB-4622.1-1, or (2) ductile cast iron castings per specifications SA-874 or SA/JIS G5504 of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 2A (b) The design of a containment shall be determined so that the primary membrane and primary membrane plus bending stress intensities due to any combination of Design Loading does not exceed the maximum design stress intensity value permitted at the Design Temperature. These design stress intensity values may be interpolated for an intermediate Design Temperature. (a)
WB-3 113
O perati n g an d Test Con d i ti on s
(a) Transportation containments (WA-1110) are subject to operating and test conditions that are required to be considered in the design of the containment in order to satisfy applicable safety criteria. (b) The selection of operating and test conditions is beyond the scope of this Division. The Design Specification shall specify these conditions using appropriate guidance from safety criteria documents for transportation containments and the requirements of regulatory and enforcement authorities having jurisdiction. (c) Each operating and test condition to which the containment may be subjected shall be classified in accordance with WA-2120, and Service Limits [WA-2123.4(b)] shall be designated in the Design Specification in such detail as will provide a complete basis for design in accordance with this Subsection. (d) When any loading for which Level A or D Service Limits are specified in the Design Specification, they shall be evaluated in accordance with WA-2120 and in compliance with the applicable design and stress intensity limits of this Subsection.
56
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-3114
Fillet welds conforming to Figure WB-4427-1 may be used for attachments to containments except as limited by WB-4433. Limits for primary and secondary stress intensities in the weld shall be one ‐ half of the allowable primary and secondary stress intensities for the weaker of the materials being joined. Evaluation for cyclic loading shall be made in accordance with WB-3222.9, using a fatigue strength reduction factor of 4, and shall include consideration of temperature differences between the containm e n t a n d th e a tta c h m e n t, a n d o f e xp a n s i o n o r contraction of the containment produced by internal or external pressure. WB- 3123 . 2
Stress Li m i ts
Stress limits associated with operating and test conditions are specified in WB-3220 and WB-3230. WB-3120
SPECI AL CON SI DERATI ON S
WB-3121
M ateri al Deg rad ati on
Material subject to thinning by corrosion, erosion, mechanical abrasion, or other environmental effects shall have provision made in the Design Specification for these effects by indicating the increase in the thickness of the base metal over that determined by the design analysis (WB-3200). Other suitable methods of protection may be used. Material added or included for these purposes need not be of the same thickness for all areas of the containment if different rates of attack are expected for the various areas. WB-3122
The rules of this paragraph apply to the design of clad containments constructed of materials permitted in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B. Only materials whose P ‐ numbers are listed in Table WB-4622.1-1 shall be used. No structural strength shall be attributed to the cladding. The dimensions given in (a) and (b) below shall be used in the design of the containment. (a) For containments subjected to internal pressure, the inside diameter shall be taken at the nominal inner face of the cladding. (b) For containments subjected to external pressure, the outside diameter shall be taken at the outer face of the base metal. In satisfying WB-3222.6 and WB-3222.9, the presence of the cladding shall be considered with respect to both the thermal analysis and the stress analysis. The stresses in both materials s hal l b e limited to the values s p eci fied in WB-3222.6 and WB-3222.9. However, when the cladding is of the integrally bonded type and the nominal thickness of the cladding is 10% or less of the total thickness of the containment, the presence o f the cladding may b e neglected. I n s a ti s fyi n g WB-3227.1, the presence of cladding shall be included. Pri m ary Stresses.
WB- 312 2. 2
Desig n Di m en si on s.
WB- 3122. 3
WB-3122.4
WB-3123
WB-3131
Desi g n Reports
Di m en si on al Stan d ard s for Stan d ard Prod u cts
Dimensions of standard products shall comply with the standards and specifications listed in Table WA-7100-1 when the standard or specification is referenced in the specific design subarticle. However, compliance with these standards does not replace or eliminate the requirements for stress analysis. WB-3133
Extern al Pressu re, Axi al Com pressi on , Bu ckli n g , an d I n stabi li ty
Rules are given in this paragraph for the consideration of statically applied external pressure and axial compression loads for Design Loadings and normal loadings. Compressive loads as a result of accident loadings shall use the rules from WB-3224.1(e). Rules are given in this paragraph for determining the thickness of spherical shells, cylindrical shells with or without stiffening rings, and formed heads under external pressure loading. WB- 3133. 1
G e n e ral.
The symbols used in this paragraph are defined as follows: WB- 3133. 2
N om en clatu re.
A = factor determined from Section II, Part D, Subpart
Stresses.
3, Figure G and used to enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3. For the case of cylinders having D o /T values less than 10, see WB-3133.3(b). Also, factor determined from the applicable chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material used in a stiffening ring, corresponding to the factor B and the design metal temperature for the shell under consideration. A s = cross ‐ sectional area of a stiffening ring
Weld i n g
In satisfying the requirements of this subarticle, caution shall be exercised in design and construction involving dissimilar metals having different chemical compositions, mechanical properties, and coefficients of thermal expansion to avoid difficulties in service. WB- 3 1 2 3 . 1
G EN ERAL DESI G N RU LES
WB-3132
Secon d ary an d Peak Stresses.
Beari n g
WB-3130
The Certificate Holder shall provide a Design Report co nfo rming to the requirements o f WA- 3 3 5 2 and WB-3211.
Clad d i n g
WB- 312 2. 1
Fi llet Weld ed Attach m en ts.
D i ss i m i lar M e tals.
57
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
B
Do E
I
Is
L
Ls
P
= factor determined from the applicable chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material used in a shell or stiffening ring at the design metal temperature, psi (MPa) = outside diameter of the cylindrical shell = modulus of elasticity of material at Design Temperature, psi (MPa). For external pressure and axial compression design in accordance with this Subsection, the modulus of elasticity to be used shall be taken from the applicable materials chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3. (Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures.) The modulus of elasticity values shown in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for material groups may differ from those values listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TM for specific materials. Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 values shall be applied only to external pressure and axial compression design = available moment of inertia of the combined ring‐ shell section about its neutral axis, parallel to the axis of the shell. The width of the shell which is taken as contributing to the combined moment of inand shall ertia shall be not greater than 1.10 be taken as lying one ‐ half on each side of the centroid of the ring. Portions of shell plates shall not be considered as contributing area to more than one stiffening ring. = required moment of inertia of the combined ring‐ shell section about its neutral axis parallel to the axis of the shell = the design length of a containment taken as the largest of the following: (a) the distance between head tangent lines plus one ‐ third of the depth of each head if there are no stiffening rings (b) the greatest center ‐ to ‐ center distance between any two adjacent stiffening rings (c) the distance from the center of the first stiffening ring to the head tangent line plus one ‐ third of the depth of the head, all measured parallel to the axis of the containment = one ‐ half the distance from the center line of the stiffening ring to the next line of support on one side, plus one ‐ half of the center line distance to the next line of support on the other side of the stiffening ring, both measured parallel to the axis of the component. A line of support is one of the following: (a) a stiffening ring that meets the requirements of this paragraph (b) a circumferential line on a head at one ‐ third the depth of the head from the head tangent line (c) circumferential connection to a jacket for a jacketed section of a cylindrical shell = external Design Pressure, psi (MPa) (gage or absolute, as required)
Pa R S
T Tn
= allowable external pressure, psi (MPa) (gage or absolute as required) = inside radius of spherical shell = the lesser of 1.5 times the stress intensity at design metal temperature from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B or 0.9 times the tabulated yield strength at design metal temperature from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1, psi (MPa) = minimum required thickness of cylindrical shell or spherical shell = nominal thickness used, less corrosion allowance, of a cylindrical shell
WB-3133.3 Cylindrical Shells. The thickness of cylinders under external pressure shall be determined by the procedure given in (a) or (b) below. (a) Cylinders having D o / T values ≥ 10: Step 1 . Assume a value for T and determine the ratios L / D o and D o / T . Step 2 . Enter Section II, Part D, Subpart 3, Figure G at the value at L / D o determined in Step 1. For values of L / D o greater than 50, enter the chart at a value of L / D o of 50. For values of L /D o less than 0.05, enter the chart at a value of L /D o of 0.05. Step 3. Move horizontally to the line for the value of D o / T determined in Step 1. Interpolation may be made for intermediate values of D o /T . From this point of intersection move vertically downward to determine the value of factor A . Step 4. Using the value of A calculated in Step 3, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value of A falls to the right of the end of the material/temperature line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. For values of A falling to the left of the material/temperature line, see Step 7. Step 5. From the intersection obtained in Step 4, move horizontally to the right and read the value of B . Step 6. Using this value of B , calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P a using the following equation:
Step 7. For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/temperature line, the value of P a can be calculated using the following equation:
58
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Step 8. Compare P a with P . If P a is smaller than P , select a larger value for T and repeat the design procedure until a value of P a is obtained that is equal to or greater than P . (b) Cylinders having D o / T values <10: Step 1 . Using the same procedure as given in (a) above, obtain the value of B . For values of D o /T less than 4, the value of factor A can be calculated using the following equation:
a
Step 4. Using the value of B obtained in Step 3, calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P a using the following equation:
Step 5. For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/temperature line for the Design Temperature, the value o f P a can b e calculated us ing the following equation:
For values of A greater than 0.10, use a value of 0.10. 1, calculate
Step 2 . Using the value of B obtained in Step value P a 1 using the following equation:
Step 3 . C alculate
equation:
a value
Pa 2
Step 6. Compare P a obtained in Steps 4 or 5 with P . If P a is smaller than P , select a larger value for T and repeat the design procedure until a value for P a is obtained that is equal to or greater than P .
(b) Nomenclature for Formed Heads. The nomenclature defined below is used in the equations of (c) through (e) below.
using the follo wing
D Do Step 4. The smaller of the values of P a 1 calculated in Step 2, or P a 2 calculated in Step 3 shall be used for the maximum allowable external pressure P a . Compare P a with P . If P a is smaller than P , select a larger value for T and repeat the design procedure until a value for P a is obtained that is equal to or greater than P .
h
K1 R
WB-3133.4
Spherical Shells and Formed Heads. (a) Spherical Shells. The minimum required thickness of a spherical shell under external pressure shall be determined by the procedure given in Steps 1 through 6 below. Step 1 . Assume a value for T and calculate the value of factor A using the following equation:
T
= inside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head = outside diameter of the head skirt at the point under consideration = one ‐ half of the length of the minor axis of the ellipsoidal head or the inside depth of the ellipsoidal head measured from the tangent line, head bend line = a factor depending on the ellipsoidal head proportions, given in Table WB-3133.4-1 = for hemispherical heads, the inside radius in the corroded condition = for ellipsoidal heads, the equivalent inside spherical radius taken as K1 D o in the corroded condition = for torispherical heads, the inside radius of the cro wn p o rti o n o f th e h e ad i n th e co rro de d condition = minimum required thickness of head after forming, exclusive of corrosion allowance
(c) Hemispherical Heads. The required thickness of a hemispherical head having pressure on the convex side shall be determined in the same manner as outlined in (a) above for determining the thickness for a spherical shell.
Step 2 . Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value of A falls to the right of the end of the material/temperature line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. For values of A falling to the left of the material/temperature line, see Step 5. Step 3 . From the intersection obtained in Step 2, move horizontally to the right and read the value of factor B .
Table WB-3133.4-1 Values of Spherical Radius Factor, K 1 D /2 h 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 K1 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.57 0.50 GENERAL NOTE: Equivalent spherical radius = K1 D ; D /2 h = axis ratio; interpolation permitted for intermediate values.
59
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(d) Ellipsoidal Heads. The required thickness of an ellipsoidal head having pressure on the convex side, either seamless or of built‐ up construction with butt joints, shall not be less than that determined by the following procedure. Step 1 . Assume a value for T and calculate the value of factor A using the following equation:
Step 6. If the required I s is greater than the computed moment of inertia I for the combined ring‐ shell section selected in Step 1, a new section with a larger moment of inertia must be selected and a new I s determined. If the required I s is smaller than the computed I for the section selected in Step 1, that section should be satisfactory. (b) Stiffening rings may be attached to either the outside or the inside of the containment by continuous welding. WB-3133.6 Cylinders Under Axial Compression. The maximum allowable compressive stress to be used in the design of cylindrical shells subjected to loadings that produce longitudinal compressive stresses in the shell or wall shall be the lesser of the values given in (a) or (b) below: (a) the S m value for the applicable material at Design Temperature given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B (b) the value of the factor B determined from the applicable chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 using the following definitions for the symbols on the charts:
Step 2 . Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, follow the same procedure as that given for spherical shells in (a) Step 2 through (a) Step 6 above. (e) Torispherical Heads. The required thickness of a torispherical head having pressure on the convex side, either seamless or of built‐ up construction with butt joints, shall not be less than that determined by the same design procedure as is used for ellipsoidal heads given in (d) above, using the appropriate value for R .
WB-3133.5 Stiffening Rings for Cylindrical Shells. (a) The required moment of inertia of the combined ring‐ shell section is given by the equation:
R T
= inside radius of the cylindrical shell = selected thickness of the shell, exclusive of the corrosion allowance
The value of B shall be determined from the applicable chart contained in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 as given in Steps 1 through 5 below. Step 1 . Using the selected values of T and R , calculate the value of factor A using the following equation:
The available moment of inertia I for a stiffening ring shall be determined by the procedure given in Steps 1 through 6 below. Step 1 . Assuming that the shell has been designed and D o , L s , and T n are known, select a member to be used for the stiffening ring and determine its area A s and the value of I defined in WB-3133.2. Then calculate B by the equation:
Step 2 . Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value at A falls to the right of the end of the material/temperature line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. For values of A falling to the left of the material/temperature line, see Step 4. Step 3. From the intersection obtained in Step 2, move horizontally to the right and read the value of factor B . This is the maximum allowable compressive stress for the values of T and R used in Step 1. Step 4. For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/temperature line, the value of B shall be calculated using the following equation:
Step 2 . Enter the right‐ hand side of the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration at the value of B determined in Step 1. If different materials are used for the shell and stiffening ring, then use the material chart resulting in the larger value for factor A in Step 4 or Step 5 below. Step 3. Move horizontally to the left to the material/ temperature line for the design metal temperature. For values of B falling below the left end of the material/temperature line, see Step 5. Step 4. Move vertically to the bottom of the chart and read the value of A . Step 5. For values of B falling below the left end of the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature, the value of A can be calculated using the following equation:
Step 5. Compare the value of B determined in Step 3 or Step 4 with the computed longitudinal compressive stress in the cylindrical shell, using the selected values of T and
60
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
R . If the value of B is smaller than the computed compressive stress, a greater value of T must be selected and the design procedure repeated until a value of B is obtained which is greater than the compressive stress computed for the loading on the cylindrical shell. WB-3134
one ‐ half the difference between the algebraically largest and the algebraically smallest of the three principal stresses at the point. WB-32 13
Terms used in this Subsection relating to stress analysis are defined in the following subparagraphs. Stress intensity is defined as twice the maximum shear stress, which is the difference between the algebraically largest principal stress and the algebraically smallest principal stress at a given point. Tensile stresses are considered positive and compressive stresses are considered negative. Gross structural discontinuity is a geometric or material discontinuity that affects the stress or strain distribution through the entire wall thickness of the containment. Gross discontinuity‐ type stresses are those portions of the actual stress distributions that produce net bending and membrane force resultants when integrated through the wall thickness. Examples of a gross structural discontinuity are head ‐ to ‐ shell junctions, flange ‐ to ‐ shell junctions, reinforcement of openings in containment shells and heads, and junctions between shells of different diameters or thicknesses. Local structural discontinuity is a geometric or material discontinuity that affects the stress or strain distribution through a fractional part of the wall thickness. The stress distribution associated with a local discontinuity causes only very localized deformation or strain and has no significant effect on the shell ‐ type discontinuity deformati o n s . E xa m p l e s a re s m a l l fi l l e t ra d i i a n d s m a l l attachments. Normal stress is the component of stress normal to the plane of reference. This is also referred to as direct stress. Usually the distribution of normal stress is not uniform through the thickness of a part, so this stress is considered to have two components, one uniformly distributed and equal to the average stress across the thickness under consideration, and the other varying from this average value across the thickness. Shear stress is the component of stress tangent to the plane of reference. Membrane stress is the component of normal stress that is uniformly distributed and equal to the average stress across the thickness of the section under consideration. Bending stress is the component of normal stress that varies across the thickness. The variation may or may not be linear. Primary stress is any normal stress or shear stress developed by an imposed l o ad i n g, th at i s n e ce s s ary to s a ti s fy th e l a ws o f
Leak Ti g h tn ess
The leak tightness requirements for each containment shall be set forth in the Design Specification. WB-3135
WB- 32 13 . 1
Attach m en ts
(a) Except as permitted in (c) and (d) below, attachments and connecting welds within the jurisdictional boundary of the containment as defined in WB-1130 shall meet the stress limits of the containment. (b) The design of the containment shall include consideration of the interaction effects and loads transmitted through the attachment to and from the containment. Thermal stresses, stress concentrations, and restraint of the containment shall be considered. (c) Beyond 2 t from the outside surface of the containment shell, where t is the nominal thickness of the contai n m e n t s h e l l , th e a p p ro p ri a te d e s i gn ru l e s a s identified in the Design Specification may be used. (d) Nonstructural attachments shall meet the requirements of WB-4435. WB-3200
DESI G N OF CON TAI N M EN TS
WB-32 10
DESI G N CRI TERI A
WB-32 11
Req u i rem en ts for Acceptabi li ty
The requirements for the acceptability of a design by analysis are given in (a) through (d) below. (a) The design shall be such that stress intensities will not exceed the limits described in this subarticle and tabulated in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4. The material shall not be used at metal or Design Temperature that exceeds the temperature limit in the applicability column for which stress intensity values are listed. The values in the tables may be interpolated for intermediate temperatures. (b) The design details shall conform to the rules given in this Article. (c) For configurations where compressive stresses occur, in addition to the requirements in (a) and (b) above, the critical buckling stress shall be taken into account as specified in WB-3133. (d) Protection against nonductile fracture shall be provided. An acceptable procedure for nonductile failure prevention is given in WB-2300. WB-32 12
Term s Relati n g to Stress An alysi s
Basi s for Determ i n i n g Stresses
The theory of failure, used in the rules of this Subsection for combining stresses, is the maximum shear stress theory. The maximum shear stress at a point is equal to 61
Stress I n ten si ty.
8
WB-32 13 . 2
G ro s s S tru ctu ral D i s co n ti n u i ty.
WB-32 13 . 3
L o cal S tru ct u ral D i s c o n ti n u i t y.
WB-3213. 4
N orm al Stress.
WB-3213. 5
Sh ear Stress.
WB - 3 2 1 3 . 6
M e m b ran e Stre s s.
WB- 32 13. 7
B e n d i n g S t re s s .
WB- 32 13 . 8
P ri m ary S tre s s .
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
equilibrium of external and internal forces and moments. The basic characteristic of a primary stress is that it is not self‐ limiting. Primary stresses that considerably exceed the yield strength will result in failure or, at least, in gross distortion. Primary membrane stress is divided into general and local categories. A general primary membrane stress is one that is so distributed in the structure that no redistribution of load occurs as a result of yielding. Examples of primary stress are: (a) general membrane stress in a circular cylindrical shell or a spherical shell due to internal pressure or to distributed loads; (b) bending stress in the central portion of a flat head due to pressure; (c) longitudinal stress due to cylinder bending in the central portion of a horizontal cylindrical shell being decelerated by forces applied at its extreme ends. Refer to Table WB-3217-1 for examples of primary stress. WB-3213.9 Secondary Stress. Secondary stress is a normal stress or a shear stress developed by the constraint of adjacent material or by self‐ constraint of the structure. The basic characteristic of a secondary stress is that it is self‐ limiting. Local yielding and minor distortions can satisfy the conditions that cause the stress to occur and failure from one application of the stress is not to be expected. Examples of secondary stress are: (a) general thermal stress [WB-3213.13(a)]; (b) bending stress at a gross structural discontinuity. Refer to Table WB-3217-1 for examples of secondary stress. WB-3213.10 Local Primary Membrane Stress. Cases arise in which a membrane stress produced by pressure or other mechanical loading and associated with a discontinuity would, if not limited, produce excessive distortion in the transfer of load to other portions of the structure. Conservatism requires that such a stress be classified as a local primary membrane stress even though it has some characteristics of a secondary stress. A stressed region may be considered local if the distance over which the membrane stress intensity exceeds 1.1 S m does not extend in the meridional direction more than , where R is the minimum midsurface radius of curvature and t is the minimum thickness in the region considered. Regions of local primary stress intensity involving axisymmetric membrane stress distributions that exceed 1.1 S m shall not be closer in the meridional direction than , where R L is defined as (R 1 + R 2 )/2 and t L is defined as ( t 1 + t 2 )/2 (where t 1 and t 2 are the minimum thicknesses at each of the regions considered, and R 1 and R 2 are the minimum midsurface radii of curvature at these regions where the membrane stress
intensity exceeds 1.1 S m ). Discrete regions of local primary membrane stress intensity, such as those resulting from concentrated loads acting on brackets, where the membrane stress intensity exceeds 1.1 S m , shall be spaced so that there is no overlapping of the areas in which the membrane stress intensity exceeds 1.1 S m . WB-3213.11 Peak Stress. Peak stress is that increment of stress that is additive to the primary plus secondary stresses by reason of local discontinuities or local thermal stress [WB-3213.13(b)], or localized application of dynamic load including the effects, if any, of stress concentrations. The basic characteristic of a peak stress is that it does not cause any noticeable distortion and is objectionable only as a possible source of a fatigue crack or a brittle fracture. A stress that is not highly localized falls into this category if it is of a type that cannot cause noticeable distortion. Examples of peak stress are: (a) the thermal stress in the austenitic steel cladding of a carbon steel part; (b) certain thermal stresses that may cause fatigue but not distortion; (c) the stress at a local structural discontinuity; (d) surface stresses produced by thermal shock. W B - 3 2 1 3 . 1 2 L o a d - C o n t ro l le d S t re s s . L o a d controlled stress is the stress resulting from application of a loading, such as internal pressure, inertial loads, or gravity, whose magnitude is not reduced as a result of displacement. WB-3213.13 Thermal Stress. Thermal stress is a self‐ balancing stress produced by a nonuniform distribution of temperature or by differing thermal coefficients of expansion. Thermal stress is developed in a solid body whenever a volume of material is prevented from assuming the size and shape that it normally would under a change in temperature. For the purpose of establishing allowable stresses, two types of thermal stress are recognized, dep ending o n the vo lume o r area in which distortion takes place, as described in (a) and (b) below. (a) General thermal stress is associated with distortion of the structure in which it occurs. If a stress of this type, neglecting stress concentrations, exceeds twice the yield strength of the material, the elastic analysis may be invalid and successive thermal cycles may produce incremental dis to rtio n. Therefo re this type is clas s ified as secondary stress in Table WB-3217-1. Examples of general thermal stress are: (1) stress produced by an axial temperature distribution in a cylindrical shell; (2) stress produced by the temperature difference between a nozzle and the shell to which it is attached; (3) the equivalent linear stress 9 produced by the radial temperature distribution in a cylindrical shell.
62
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Local thermal stress is associated with almost complete suppression of the differential expansion and thus produces no significant distortion. Such stresses shall be considered only from the fatigue standpoint and are therefo re clas s ified as p eak s tres s es in Tab le WB-3217-1. Examples of local thermal stress are: (1 ) the stress in a small hot spot in a containment wall; (2) the difference between the actual stress and the equivalent linear stress resulting from a radial temperature distribution in a cylindrical shell; (3) the thermal stress in a cladding material that has a coefficient of expansion different from that of the base metal. Total stress is the sum of the primary, secondary, and peak stress contributions. Recognition of each of the individual contributions is essential to establishment of appropriate stress limitations. Operational cycle is defined as the initiation and establishment of new conditions followed by a return to the conditions that prevailed at the beginning of the cycle. The types of operating conditions that may occur are further defined in WB-3113. Stress cycle is a condition in which the alternating stress difference [WB-3222.9(e)] goes from an initial value through an algebraic maximum value to an algebraic minimum value and then returns to the initial value. A single operational cycle may result in one or more stress cycles. Dynamic effects shall also be considered as stress cycles. Fatigue strength reduction factor is a stress intensification factor that accounts for the effect of a local structural discontinuity (stress concentration) on the fatigue strength. In the absence of experimental data, the theoretical stress concentration factor may be used. Deformation of a component part is an alteration of its shape or size. Ratcheting is a progressive incremental inelastic deformation or strain that can occur in a component that is subjected to variations of mechanical stress, thermal stress, or both. Shakedown of a structure occurs if, after a few cycles of load application, ratcheting ceases. The subsequent structural response is elastic, or elastic – plastic, and progressive incremental inelastic deformation is absent. Elastic shakedown is the case in which the subsequent response is elastic. WB- 3213 . 14
Total Stress.
WB- 3213. 15
Operati on al Cycle.
WB- 3213. 16
Stress Cycle.
WB- 3213. 17
Fati g u e Stren g th Red u cti on Factor.
WB- 3213. 20
Deform ati on .
WB- 3213. 21
Ratch eti n g .
WB- 32 13 . 22
WB-32 14
Stress An alysi s
A detailed stress analysis of all major structural components shall be prepared in sufficient detail to show that each of the stress limitations of WB-3220 and WB-3230 is satisfied when the component is subjected to the loadings of WB-3110. WB-32 15
Deri vati on of Stress I n ten si ti es
One requirement for the acceptability of a design (WB-3210) is that the calculated stress intensities shall not exceed specified allowable limits. These limits differ depending on the stress category (primary, secondary, etc.) from which the stress intensity is derived. This paragraph describes the procedure for the calculation of the stress intensities that are subject to the specified limits. The steps in the procedure are stipulated in (a) through (e) below. (a) At the point on the component that is being investigated, choose an orthogonal set of coordinates, such as tangential, longitudinal, and radial, and designate them by the subscripts t , l , and r . The stress components in these directions are then designated σ t , σ l , and σ r for direct stresses and τ l t , τ l r , and τ r t for shear stresses. (b) Calculate the stress components for each type of loading to which the part will be subjected, and assign each set of stress values to one or a group of the following categories: (1 ) g e n e r a l p r i m a r y m e m b r a n e s t r e s s P m (WB-3213.8); (2) l o c a l p r i m a r y m e m b r a n e s t r e s s P L (WB-3213.10); (3) primary bending stress P b ( WB-3 2 1 3 .7 and WB-3213.8); (4) secondary stress Q (WB-3213.9); (5) peak stress F (WB-3213.11). WB-3217 provides guidance for this step. (c) For each category, calculate the algebraic sum of the σ t values that result from the different types of loadings and similarly for the other five stress components. Certain combinations of the categories must also be considered. (d) Translate the stress components for the t , l , and r directions into principal stresses σ 1 , σ 2 , and σ 3 . In many pressure component calculations, the t , l , and r directions may be so chosen that the shear stress components are zero and σ 1 , σ 2 , and σ 3 are identical to σ t , σ l , and σ r . (e) Calculate the stress differences S 1 2 , S 2 3 , and S 3 1 from the relations:
Sh ake d o wn .
The stress intensity S is the largest absolute value of S 1 2 , S 2 3 , and S 3 1 . 63
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(c) Subtract each of the six stress components σ t i , σ l i , etc., from the corresponding stress components σ t , σ l , etc., at each point in time during the cycle and call the resulting components σ ′t , σ ′ l , etc. (d) At each point in time during the cycle, calculate the principal stresses σ ′ 1 , σ ′ 2 , and σ ′ 3 derived from the six stress components σ ′t , σ ′ l , etc. Note that the directions of the principal stresses may change during the cycle but each principal stress retains its identity as it rotates. (e) Determine the stress differences S ′ 1 2 = σ ′ 1 − σ ′ 2 , S ′ 2 3 = σ ′ 2 − σ ′ 3 , and S ′ 3 1 = σ ′ 3 − σ ′ 1 versus time for the complete cycle and find the largest absolute magnitude of any stress difference at any time. The alternating stress intensity S a l t is one ‐ half of this magnitude.
NOTE: Membrane stress intensity is derived from the stress components averaged across the thickness of the section. The averaging shall be performed at the component level in (b) or (c). WB-32 16
Deri vati on of Stress Di fferen ces
If the specified operation of the component does not meet the conditions of WB-3222.9(d), the ability of the component to withstand the specified cyclic operation without fatigue failure shall be determined as provided in WB-3222.9(e). The determination shall be made on the basis of the stresses at a point of the component, and the allowable stress cycles shall be adequate for the specified service at every point. Only the stress differences due to cyclic operating loadings, as specified in the Design Specification, need to be considered. For any case in which the directions of the principal stresses at the point being considered do not change during the cycle, the steps stipulated in (a) through (c) below shall be taken to determine the alternating stress intensity. (a) Principal Stresses. Consider the values of the three principal stresses at the point versus time for the complete stress cycle, taking into account both the gross and local structural discontinuities and the thermal effects, which vary during the cycle. These are designated as σ 1 , σ 2 , and σ 3 for later identification. (b) Stress Differences. Determine the stress differences S 1 2 = σ 1 − σ 2 , S 2 3 = σ 2 − σ 3 , and S 3 1 = σ 3 − σ 1 versus time for the complete cycle. In what follows, the symbol S i j is used to represent any one of these three stress differences. (c) Alternating Stress Intensity. Determine the extremes of the range through which each stress difference S i j fluctuates and find the absolute magnitude of this range for each S i j . Call this magnitude S r i j and let S a l t i j = 0.5 S r i j . The alternating stress intensity S a l t is the largest S a l t i j value. For any case in which the directions of the principal stresses at the point being considered do change during the stress cycle, it is necessary to use the more general procedure of (a) through (e) below. (a) Consider the values of the six stress components σ t , σ l , σ r , τ l t , τ l r , and τ r t versus time for the complete stress cycle, taking into account both the gross and local structural discontinuities and the thermal effects that vary during the cycle. (b) Choose a point in time when the conditions are one of the extremes for the cycle (either maximum or minimum, algebraically) and identify the stress components at this time by the subscript i . In most cases, it will be possible to choose at least one time during the cycle when the conditions are known to be extreme. In some cases, it may be necessary to try different points in time to find the one that results in the largest value of alternating stress intensity. WB-3216. 1
WB - 32 16 . 2
WB-32 17
Con stan t Pri n ci pal Stress Di recti on .
Classi fi cati on of Stresses
Table WB-3217-1 provides assistance in the determination of the category to which a stress should be assigned. WB-32 20
STRESS LI M I TS FOR OTH ER TH AN
WB-32 21
Desi g n Li m i ts
BOLTS
The stress intensity limits that must be satisfied for Design Loadings (WB-3112) stated in the Design Specification are the limits of the following subparagraphs and the Special Stress Limits of WB-3227. The design stress intensity values S m are given by WB-3229. The limits are summarized in Figure WB-3221-1. WB - 3 2 2 1 . 1
G e n eral Pri m ary M e m b ran e Stre s s I n -
(Derived from P m in Figure WB-3221-1) This stress intensity is derived from the average value across the thickness of a section of the general primary stresses (WB-3213.8) produced by Design Loadings, which include internal pressure and other specified mechanical loads, but excluding secondary and peak stresses. Averaging is to be applied to the stress components prior to determination of the stress intensity values. The allowable value of this stress intensity is S m at the Design Temperature. te n s i ty.
Varyi n g Pri n ci pal Stress D i recti on .
WB- 32 21 . 2
Lo cal Pri m ary M em bran e Stress I n ten -
(Derived from P L in Figure WB-3221-1) This stress intensity is derived from the average value across the thickness of a section of the local primary stresses (WB-3213.10) produced by Design Pressure and specified Design Mechanical Loads, but excluding all thermal and peak stresses. Averaging is to be applied to the stress components prior to the determination of the stress intensity values. The allowable value of the stress intensity is 1.5 S m .
si ty.
WB- 32 2 1 . 4
Pri m ary M e m b ran e (G e n e ral or Lo cal)
[Derived from (P m or P L ) + P b in Figure WB-3221-1] This stress intensity is derived from the highest value across the thickness of a section of the general or local primary membrane Plu s Pri m ary B e n d i n g Stre ss I n te n s i ty.
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Table WB-3 217-1 Classi fi cati on of Stress I n ten si ty i n Con tai n m en ts for Som e Typi cal Cases
Containment Part
Location
Cylindrical or spherical shell
Shell plate remote from discontinuities
Origin of Stress
Internal pressure
Axial thermal gradient
Any shell or head
Junction with head or flange
Internal pressure
Any section across entire containment
External load or moment, or internal pressure External load or moment
Near nozzle or other opening
External load or moment, or internal pressure
Any location Any location away from impact area
Temperature difference between shell and head Impact on unyielding surface
At impact area
Impact on puncture bar
Crown
Internal pressure
Knuckle or junction to shell
Internal pressure
Center region
Internal pressure
Junction to shell
Internal pressure
Center region
Uniform pressure
Junction between flat plates
Uniform pressure Lateral internal loading
Cladding
Any section across entire containment Any
Any
Any
Dished head or conical head
Flat head
Square or rectangular containment of flat plates
Any
Any
Differential expansion Radial temperature distribution [Note (6)]
Any
Type of Stress
General membrane Gradient through plate thickness Membrane Bending Membrane Bending General membrane averaged across full section Bending across full section Local membrane Bending Peak (fillet or corner) Membrane Bending General membrane Bending across full section Local membrane Local bending Membrane Bending Membrane Bending Membrane Bending Membrane Bending Membrane Bending Membrane Bending Bending across full cross section Membrane Bending Equivalent linear stress [Note (7)] Nonlinear portion of stress distribution Stress concentration (notch effect)
Classification
Pm Q Q Q PL Q [Note (1)] Pm Pm PL Q F Q [Note (2)] Q [Note (3)] Pm Pm P L [Note (4)] Q Pm Pb P L [Note (5)] Q Pm Pb PL Q [Note (1)] Pm Pb PL Pb Pm F F Q F F
GENERAL NOTE: Q and F classification of stresses refers to other than design condition (Figure WB-3222-1). NOTES: (1) If the bending moment at the edge is required to maintain the bending stress in the middle to acceptable limits, the edge bending is classified as P b . Otherwise, it is classified as Q .
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Table WB- 32 17-1 Classi fi cati on of Stress I n ten si ty i n Con tai n m en ts for Som e Typi cal Cases (Con t'd )
NOTES (CONT'D): (2) Components such as concentric shells attached to each other at the ends or in close radial contact may develop stresses due to temperature differences or differential expansion between dissimilar materials. Members subjected to compressive load shall be evaluated against buckling, treating the membrane stresses as P m . (3) If an end connection of two concentric shells is relatively weak, the differential thermal expansion of the shells may lead to the formation of a plastic hinge in the connection and could cause excessive deformation or failure. The end connection shall be evaluated for such a condition treating the bending stresses as P b . (4) The special stress limits of WB-3227 shall also be met. (5) Consideration shall also be given to the possibility of wrinkling and excessive deformation in containments with a large diameter– thickness ratio. (6) Consider possibility of thermal stress ratchet. (7) Equivalent linear stress is defined as the linear stress distribution that has the same net bending moment as the actual stress distribution.
stresses plus primary bending stresses produced by Design Pressure and other specified Design Mechanical Loads, but excluding all secondary and peak stresses. For solid rectangular sections, the allowable value of this stress intensity is 1.5 S m . For other than solid rectangular sections, a value of α times the limit established in WB-3221.1 may be used, where the factor α is defined as the ratio of the load set producing a fully plastic section to the load set producing initial yielding in the extreme fibers of the section. In the evaluation of the initial yield and fully plastic section capacities, the ratios of each individual load in the respective load set to each other load in that load set shall be the same as the respective ratios of the individual loads in the specified design load set. The value of α shall not exceed the value calculated for bending only (P m = 0). In no case shall the value of α exceed 1.5. The propensity for buckling of the part of the section that is in compression shall be investigated. WB-32 22
determination of the stress intensity values. The allowable value of this stress intensity is S m at the normal operating temperature. WB- 3222 . 2
WB- 32 2 2 . 4
Pri m ary M em bran e (G e n eral or Local)
[Derived from (P m or P L ) + P b in Figure WB-3222-1] This stress intensity is derived from the highest value across the thickness of a section of the general or local primary membrane stresses plus primary bending stresses produced by normal loads, but excluding all secondary and peak stresses. For solid rectangular sections, the allowable value of this stress intensity is 1.5 S m . For other than solid rectangular sections, a value of α times the limit established in WB-3222.1 may be used, where the factor α is defined as the ratio of the load set producing a fully plastic section to the load set producing initial yielding in the extreme fibers of the section. In the evaluation of the initial yield and fully plastic section capacities, the ratios of each individual load in the respective load set to each other load in that load set shall be the same as the respective ratios of the individual loads in the specified design load set. The value of α shall not exceed the value calculated for bending only (P m = 0). In no case shall the value of α exceed 1.5. The propensity for buckling of the part of the section that is in compression shall be investigated. Plu s Pri m ary B e n d i n g Stre ss I n te n s i ty.
Level A Servi ces Li m i ts
The stress intensity limits that must be satisfied for normal loadings (WB-3113) stated in the Design Specification are the Level A Service Limits [WA-2123.4(b)(1)] of the following subparagraphs and the Special Stress Limits of WB-3227. The design stress intensity values S m are given by WB-3229. The limits are summarized in Figure WB-3222-1. WB - 32 2 2 . 1
Local Pri m ary M em bran e Stress I n ten -
(Derived from P L in Figure WB-3222-1) This stress intensity is derived from the average value across the thickness of a section of the local primary stresses (WB-3213.10) produced by normal loads, but excluding all thermal and peak stresses. Averaging is to be applied to the stress components prior to the determination of the stress intensity values. The allowable value of this stress intensity is 1.5 S m . si ty.
G en e ral Pri m ary M em b ran e Stress I n -
(Derived from P m in Figure WB-3222-1) This stress intensity is derived from the average value across the thickness of a section of the general primary stresses (WB-3213.8) produced by normal loads, which include internal pressure and other specified mechanical loads, but excluding secondary and peak stresses. Averaging is to b e a p p l i e d to th e s tr e s s c o m p o n e n ts p r i o r to te n si ty.
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Fi g u re WB- 322 1- 1 Stress Categ ori es an d Li m i ts of Stress I n ten si ty for Desi g n Load i n g s
Stress Category
Primary General Membrane
Local Membrane
Bending
Description (for examples see Table WB-321 7-1 )
Average primary stress across solid section. Excludes discontinuities and concentrations. Produced by Design Loads.
Average stress across any solid section. Considers discontinuities but not concentrations. Produced by Design Loads.
Component of primary stress proportional to distance from centroid of solid section. Excludes discontinuities and concentrations. Produced by Design Loads.
Symbol [Note (1 )] Combination of stress components and allowable limits of stress intensities.
Pm
PL
Pb
Pm
Sm
PL
1 .5 Sm
(Pm or PL ) + Pb
1 .5 Sm
[Note (2)]
Legend: = Allowable value = Calculated value
NOTES: (1) The symbols P m , P L , and P b do not represent single quantities, but rather sets of six quantities representing the six stress components σ l , σ r , τ l t , τ l r , and τ r t . (2) Allowable values shown are for a solid rectangular section. See WB-3221.4 for other than a solid rectangular section.
67
σt,
Fi g u re WB-32 2 2- 1 Stress Categ ori es an d Li m i ts of Stress I n ten si ty for N orm al Load i n g s
Primary Stress Category Description (for examples, see Table WB-3217-1)
Pm
Pm
PL
1.0 S m
PL
Pb
1.5 S m
( Pm or PL) + Pb [N ote (6)]
Legend: = Allowable value = Calculated value
[N ote (4)]
Peak Increment added to prim ary or secondary stress by a concentration (notch).
Certain thermal stresses that may cause fatigue but not distortion. In local impact regions.
F
Q
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
68
Symbol [N ote (1)] Combination of stress components and allowable limits of stress intensities
General M embrane Local M embrane Bending Average primary stress Average stress across any Component of primary stress proportional to across solid section. solid section. Considers Excludes discontidiscontinuities but distance from centroid nuities and concentra- not concentrations. of solid section. Extions. Produced by Produced by pressure cluding effects of pressure and mechani- and mechanical loads, discontinuities and cal loads. including inertia effects. concentrations. Produced by pressure and mechanical loads, including inertia effects.
Secondary [Note (2)] M embrane Plus Bending Self-equilibrating stress necessary to satisfy continuity of structure discontinuities. Can be caused by pressure, mechanical loads, or differential thermal expansion. Excludes local stress concentrations.
1.5 S m
( Pm or PL) + Pb + Q
3Sm
[N otes (2) and (3)]
( Pm or PL) + Pb + Q + F
[N ote (5)]
Sa
NOTES: (1) The symbols P m , P L , P b , Q , and F do not represent single quantities, but sets of six quantities representing the six stress components: σ t , σ l , σ r , τ l t , τ l r , τ r t . (2) When the secondary stress is due to a temperature transient at the point at which the stresses are being analyzed, the value of S m shall be taken as the average of the tabulated S m values for the highest and the lowest temperatures of the metal during the transient. When part or all of the secondary stress is due to the mechanical load, the value of S m shall not exceed the value for the highest temperature during the transient. (3) The 3 S m limit is applicable to the range of stresses. (4) The stresses in Category Q are those parts of the total stress that are produced by thermal gradients, structural discontinuities, etc., and they do not include primary stresses that may also exist at the same point. However, it should be noted that a detailed stress analysis frequently gives the combination of primary and secondary stresses directly and, when appropriate, the calculated value represents the total of P m + P b + Q , and not Q alone. Similarly, if the stress in Category F is produced by a stress concentration, the quantity F is the additional stress produced by the notch over and above the nominal stress. For example, if a point has a nominal stress intensity P m + P m (K − 1) = KP m . However, P L is the total membrane stress that results from mechanical loads, including discontinuity effects rather than a stress increment. Therefore, the P L value always includes the P m contribution. (5) S a is obtained from the fatigue curves, Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I. The allowable stress intensity for the full range of fluctuation is 2 S a . (6) Allowable values shown are for a solid rectangular section. See WB-3222.4 for other than a solid rectangular section.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ð 17Þ
WB- 32 2 2 . 6
the condition where the stress fluctuates about a mean value that is different from zero. As a consequence of this procedure, it is essential that the requirements of WB-3222.6 be satisfied at all times with transient stresses included, and that the calculated value of the alternating stress intensity be proportional to the actual strain amplitude. To evaluate the effect of alternating stresses of varying amplitudes, a linear damage relation is assumed in (e)(5) below.
Pri m ary Plu s Se co n d ary Stre ss I n te n -
[Derived from ( P m or P L ) + P b + Q in Figure WB-3222-1] . This stress intensity is derived from the highest value at any point across the thickness of a section of the general or local primary membrane stresses, plus primary bending stresses plus secondary stresses, produced by normal loads. The allowable value of the maximum range of this stress intensity is 3 S m . s i ty.
NOTE: The concept of stress differences discussed in WB-3216 is essential to determination of the maximum range, since algebraic signs must be retained in the computation. This limitation on range is applicable to the entire history of normal loadings, not just to the stresses resulting from each individual transient. ð 17Þ
WB- 3222. 9
(d) Components Not Requiring Analysis for Cyclic Operation . An analysis for cyclic operation is not required, and it
may be assumed that the limits on peak stress intensities, as governed by fatigue, have been satisfied for a component by compliance with the applicable requirements for material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing of this Subsection, provided the specified normal loads of the component, or portion thereof, meet all the conditions stipulated in (1) through (5) below. (1 ) Atmospheric to Normal Pressure Cycle. The specified number of times that the pressure will be cycled from atmospheric pressure to normal pressure and back to atmospheric pressure during normal conditions does not exceed the number of cycles on the applicable fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, corresponding to an S a value of three times the S m value for the material at the maximum normal temperature. (2) Normal Pressure Fluctuation . The specified full range of pressure fluctuations during normal conditions does not exceed the quantity 1/3 × Design Pressure × (S a /S m ), where S a is the value obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for the total specified number of significant pressure fluctuations and S m is the allowable stress intensity for the material at the maximum normal temperature. If the total specified number of significant pressure fluctuations exceeds the maximum number of cycles defined on the applicable design fatigue curve, the S a value corresponding to the maximum number of cycles defined on the curve may be used. Significant pressure fluctuations are those for which the total excursion exceeds one-third of the Design Pressure multiplied by (S a /S m ) where S is defined as follows: 6 (-a) If the total specified number of cycles is 10 cycles or less, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for 10 6 cycles. (-b) If the total specified number of cycles exceeds 10 6 cycles, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for the maximum number of cycles defined on the curve. (3) Temperature Difference Normal Condition . The total algebraic range of temperature difference, °F (°C), between any two adjacent points 10 does not change during normal conditions by more than the quantity S a /2 E α , where S a is the value obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, for the total specified number of significant temperature difference fluctuations, α is the value of the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion, and
An alysi s for Cycli c Operati on .
(a) Suitability for Cyclic Operation .
The suitability of a component for specified normal loadings and Test Loadings [if required by WB-3225(d)] involving cyclic application of loads and thermal conditions shall be determined by the methods described herein, except that the suitability of high strength bolts shall be determined by the methods of WB-3232.4(b), and the possibility of thermal stress ratche t s h al l b e i n ves ti gate d i n acco rdance wi th WB-3222.11. If the specified normal loads of the component meet all of the conditions of (d) below, no analysis for cyclic operation is required, and it may be assumed that the limits on peak stress intensities, as governed by fatigue, have been satisfied by compliance with the applicable requirements for material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing of this Subsection. If the normal loads do not meet all the conditions of (d) below, a fatigue analysis shall be made in accordance with (e) below or a fatigue test shall be made in accordance with Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix II, II-1500. (b) Peak Stress Intensity. This stress intensity is derived from the highest value at any point across the thickness of a section of the combination of all primary, secondary, and peak stresses produced by specified normal loads. (c) Conditions and Procedures. The conditions and procedures of WB-3222.9 are based on a comparison of peak stresses with strain cycling fatigue data. The strain cycling fatigue data are represented by design fatigue strength curves of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I. These curves show the allowable amplitude S a of the alternating stress intensity component (one ‐ half of the alternating stress intensity range) plotted against the number of cycles. This stress intensity amplitude is calculated on the assumption of elastic behavior and, hence, has the dimensions of stress, but does not represent a real stress when the elastic range is exceeded. The fatigue curves are obtained from uniaxial strain cycling data in which the imposed strains have been multiplied by the elastic modulus and a design margin has been provided so as to make the calculated stress intensity amplitude and the allowable stress intensity amplitude directly comparable. Where necessary, the curves have been adjusted to include the maximum effects of mean stress, which is

69
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
at the mean value of the temperatures at the two points as given by Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TE and TM. A temperature difference fluctuation shall be considered to be significant if its total algebraic range exceeds the quantity S /2 E α , where S is defined as follows: 6 (-a) If the total specified number of cycles is 10 cycles or less, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for 10 6 cycles. (-b) If the total specified number of cycles exceeds 10 6 cycles, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for the maximum number of cycles defined on the curve. (4) Temperature Difference Dissimilar Materials. For components fabricated from materials of differing moduli of elasticity or coefficients of thermal expansion, the total algebraic range of temperature fluctuation, °F (°C), experienced by the component during normal conditions does not exceed the magnitude S a /2(E 1 α 1 − E 2 α 2 ), where S a is the value obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for the total specified number of significant temperature fluctuations, E 1 and E 2 are the moduli of elasticity (Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TM), and α 1 and α 2 are the values of the instantaneous coefficients of thermal expansion (Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TE) at the mean temperature value involved for the two materials of construction. A temperature fluctuation shall be considered to be significant if its total excursion exceeds the quantity S /2(E 1 α 1 − E 2 α 2 ), where S is defined as follows: 6 (-a) If the total specified number of cycles is 10 cycles or less, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for 10 6 cycles. (-b) If the total specified number of cycles exceeds 10 6 cycles, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for the maximum number of cycles defined on the curve. If the two materials used have different applicable design fatigue curves, the lower value of S a shall be used in applying the rules of this paragraph. (5) Mechanical Loads. The specified full range of mechanical loads, excluding pressure but including support reactions, handling and transportation loads, and assembly/dissembly loads, does not result in load stresses whose range exceeds the S a value obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, for the total specified number of significant load fluctuations. If the total specified number of significant load fluctuations exceeds the maximum number of cycles defined on the applicable design fatigue curve, the S a value corresponding to the maximum number of cycles defined on the curve may be used. A load fluctuation shall be considered to be significant if the total excursion of load stress exceeds the quantity S , where S is defined as follows: 6 (-a) If the total specified number of cycles is 10 cycles or less, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for 10 6 cycles.
(-b) If the total specified number of cycles exceeds 10 6 cycles, S is the value of S a obtained from the applicable design fatigue curve for the maximum number of cycles defined on the curve. (e) Procedure for Analysis for Cyclic Loading . If the specified normal loads for the component do not meet the conditions of (d), the ability of the component to withstand the specified cyclic operation without fatigue failure shall be determined as provided in this subsubparagraph. The determination shall be made on the basis of the stresses at a point, and the allowable stress cycles shall be adequate for the specified normal loads at every point. Only the stress differences due to operation cycles as specified in the Design Specifications need be considered. Compliance with these requirements means only that the component is suitable from the standpoint of possible fatigue failure; complete suitability for the specified normal loads is also dependent on meeting the general stress limits of WB-3 2 2 2 and any applicable special stress limits of WB-3227. (1 ) Stress Differences. For each normal load, determine the stress differences and the alternating stress intensity S a in accordance with WB-3216. (2) Local Structural Discon tin uities . These effects shall be evaluated for all conditions using stress concentration factors determined from theoretical, experimental, or photoelastic studies, or numerical stress analysis techniques. Experimentally determined fatigue strength reduction factors may be used when determined in accordance with the procedures of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix II, II-1600, except for high strength alloy steel bolting for which the requirements of WB-3232.4(c) shall apply when using the design fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, Figure I-9.4. No fatigue strength reduction factor greater than five need be used. (3) Design Fatigue Curves . Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, contains the applicable fatigue design curves for the materials permitted by this Subsection. When more than one curve is presented for a given material, the applicability of each is identified. Where curves for various strength levels of a material are given, linear interpolation may be used for intermediate strength levels of these materials. The strength level is the specified minimum room temperature value. (4) Effect of Elastic Modulus. Multiply S a l t (as determined in WB-3216.1 or WB-3216.2) by the ratio of the modulus of elasticity given on the design fatigue curve to the value of the modulus of elasticity used in the analysis. Enter the applicable design fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I at this value on the ordinate axis and find the corresponding number of cycles on the abscissa. If the operating cycle being considered is the only one which produces significant fluctuating stresses, this is the allowable number of cycles.
E

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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(5) Cum ulative Dam age . If there are two or more types of stress cycle that produce significant stresses, their cumulative effect shall be evaluated as stipulated in Steps 1 through 6 below. Step 1 . Designate the specified number of times each type of stress cycle of types 1, 2, 3, ..., n , will be repeated during the life of the component as n 1 , n 2 , n 3 , ..., n n , respectively.
NOTE: For both x and y ′ , it is permissible to use 1.5 S m whenever it is greater than S y . Case 1
Case 2
NOTE: In determining n 1 , n 2 , n 3 ,..., n n , consideration shall be given to the superposition of cycles of various origins that produce a total stress difference range greater than the stress difference ranges of the individual cycles. For example, if one type of stress cycle produces 1,000 cycles of a stress difference variation from zero to +60,000 psi (+414 MPa) and another type of stress cycle produces 1 0 , 0 0 0 cycles o f a s tres s difference variatio n fro m zero to − 50,000 psi ( − 345 MPa), the two types of cycle to be considered are defined by the following parameters: (a) for type 1 cycle, n 1 = 1,000 and Salt 1 = (60,000 + 50,000)/ 2 = 55,000 psi; (b) fo r typ e 2 cycle, n 2 = 9 ,0 0 0 and S a l t 2 = (5 0 , 0 0 0 + 0 ) / 2 = 25,000 psi.
(b) Use of yield strength, S y , in the above relations instead of the proportional limit allows a small amount of growth during each cycle until strain hardening raises the proportional limit to S y . If the yield strength of the material is higher than 2 times the S a value for the maximum number of cycles on the applicable fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I for the material, the latter value shall be used if there is to be a large number of cycles because strain softening may occur.
Step 2 . For each type of stress cycle, determine the alternating stress intensity S a l t by the procedures of WB-3216.1 or WB-3216.2 above. Call these quantities S a l t 1 , S a l t 2 , S a l t 3 , ..., S a l t n . Step 3 . For each value S a l t 1 , S a l t 2 , S a l t 3 , ..., S a l t n , use the applicable design fatigue curve to determine the maximum number of repetitions that would be allowable if this type of cycle were the only one acting. Call these values N 1 , N 2 , N 3 , ..., N n . Step 4. For each type of stress cycle, calculate the usage factors U 1 , U 2 , U 3 , ..., U n , from U 1 = n 1 /N 1 , U 2 = n 2 /N 2 , U 3 = n 3 / N 3 , ..., U n = n n / N n . Step 5. Calculate the cumulative usage factor U from U = U 1 + U 2 + U 3 + ... + U n . Step 6. The cumulative usage factor U shall not exceed 1.0.
WB-3224 Level D Service Limits (a) Level D Service Limits [WA-2123.4(b)(3)] are those limits that must be satisfied for accident loadings (WB-3113) stated in the Design Specification. (b) Any deformation limits prescribed by the Design Specification for accident loadings, such as those to limit leakage, shall be satisfied.
WB-3224.1 Elastic Analysis. The stress intensity limits that must be satisfied for accident loadings stated in the Design Specification are the Level D Service Limits of this paragraph and in Figure WB-3224.1-1 for elastic analysis. The design stress intensity values S m are given by WB-3229. (a) The general primary membrane stress intensity P m shall not exceed the lesser of 2.4 S m and 0.7 S u for austenitic steel, high ‐ nickel alloy, and copper– nickel alloy materials included in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B, or 0.7 S u for ferritic steel materials included in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 2A. (b) The local primary membrane stress intensity P L shall not exceed 150% of the limit for general primary membrane stress intensity P m but not greater than 1.0 S u . (c) The primary membrane (general or local) plus primary bending stress intensity, (P m or P L ) + P b shall not exceed 150% of the limit for general primary membrane stress intensity P m , but not greater than 1.0 S u . For other than solid rectangular sections, consideration of the factor α as discussed in WB-3221.4 shall be incorporated into the stress evaluation. The α factor is not permitted for Level D Service Limits when inelastic component analysis is used as permitted in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXVII. (d) The average primary shear across a section loaded in pure shear shall not exceed 0.42 S u .
WB-3222.10 Deformation Limits. Any deformation limits prescribed by the Design Specifications, such as those intended to limit leakage, shall be satisfied. ð
17Þ
WB-3222.11 Thermal Stress Ratchet. It should be noted that under certain combinations of steady state and cyclic loadings there is a possibility of large distortions developing as the result of ratchet action; that is, the deformation increases by a nearly equal amount for each cycle. Examples of this phenomenon are treated in this subparagraph and in WB-3227.3. (a) The limiting value of the maximum cyclic thermal stress permitted in a portion of an axisymmetric shell loaded by steady state internal pressure in order to prevent cyclic growth in diameter is as follows. Let x y′
: Linear variation of temperature through the wa l l : fo r 0 < x < 0 . 5 , y ′ = 1 / x a n d , fo r 0.5 < x < 1.0, y ′ = 4(1 − x ) : Parabolic constantly increasing or constantly decreasing variation of temperature through the wall: for 0.615 < x < 1.0, y ′ = 5.2(1 − x ) and, approximately for x < 0.615, y ′ = 4.65, 3.55, and 2.70 for x = 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively
= maximum general membrane stress due to pressure divided by the yield strength, S y = maximum allowable range of thermal stress computed on an elastic basis divided by the yield strength, S y 71
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Fi g u re WB-32 24. 1-1 Stress Categ ori es an d Li m i ts of Stress I n ten si ty for Acci d en t Load i n g s for Elasti c An alysi s
Stress Category
Description (for examples, see Table WB-3217-1)
72
Combination of stress components and allowable limits of stress intensities
Average primary stress across solid section. Excludes discontinuities and concentrations. Produced by pressure and mechanical loads.
Pm WB-3213.6 and WB-3213.8
Pm
2.4 S m 0.7 S u [N ote (3)]
Primary [Note (2)] Local M embrane
Average stress across any solid section. Considers discontinuities but not concentrations. Produced by pressure and mechanical loads, including inertia effects. PL WB-3213.10
PL
3.6 S m 1.0 S u [N ote (3)]
Bending
Secondary M embrane Plus Bending
Component of primary stress proportional to distance from centroid of solid section. Excluding discontinuities and concentrations. Produced by pressure and mechanical loads, including inertia effects. Pb WB-3213.7 and WB-3213.8
Self-equilibrating stress necessary to satisfy continuity of structure. Occurs at structural discontinuities. Can be caused by mechanical loads or by differential thermal expansion. Excludes local stress concentration. Q WB-3213.9
(
Pm or PL
) +
Pb
[N ote (4)]
3.6 S m 1.0 S u
(
Pm or PL
Peak
) +
Increment added to primary or secondary stress by a concentration (notch). Certain thermal stresses that may cause fatigue but not distortion of vessel shape. F WB-3213.11
Pb Q F +
+
[N ote (3)]
Legend: = Allowable value = Calculated value
NOTES: (1) The symbols P m or P L , P b , Q , and F do not represent single quantities, but sets of six quantities representing the six stress components: σ t , σ l , σ r , τ l t , (2) For configurations where compressive stresses occur, the stress limits shall be revised to take into account critical buckling stresses [WB-3211(c) ] . (3) Use the lesser of the values specified. (4) Allowable values shown are for a solid rectangular section. See WB-3224.1(c) for other than a solid rectangular section.
τ l r , τ rt .
2S a @ 10 cycles
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Symbol [N ote (1)]
General M embrane
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(e) For compressive loads, Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXVII shall be used. WB-3224.2 Plastic Analysis. The plastic analysis rules contained in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXVII may be used to evaluate primary stresses resulting from accident loadings, provided the requirements of WB-3224(b) are satisfied.
requirements and the basic stress limits, the rules of WB-3227 take precedence for the particular situations to which they apply. WB-3227.1
WB-3224.3 Alternative Strain-Based Acceptance Cri teri a. I n lieu o f the requirements p ro vided in
WB - 3 2 2 4 . 1 o r WB - 3 2 2 4 . 2 , th e re q u i re m e n ts o f WB-3700 may be used to evaluate inelastic containment responses to energy-limited dynamic events.
WB-3225 Testing Limits The evaluation of pressure test loadings [WB-3113] shall be in accordance with (a) through (d) below. (a) The containments shall be subjected to an internal pressure test. The general primary membrane stress intensity P m produced in the containment during the test shall not exceed 90% of the tabulated yield strength S y at test temperature. (b) For pressure tested containments, the primary membrane plus bending stress intensity P m + P b shall not exceed the applicable limits given in (1) or (2) below: (1 ) For P m ≤ 0.67 S y
(2)
Bearing Loads.
The average bearing stress for resistance to crushing under the maximum load, experienced as a result of Design Loadings, Test Loadings, or Operating Loadings, except those for which Level D Service Limits are designated, shall be limited to S y at temperature, except that when the distance to a free edge is larger than the distance over which the bearing load is applied, a stress of 1.5 S y at temperature is permitted. For clad surfaces, the yield strength of the base metal may be used if, when calculating the bearing stress, the bearing area is taken as the lesser of the actual contact area or the area of the base metal supporting the contact surface. (b) When bearing loads are applied near free edges, such as at a protruding ledge, the possibility of a shear failure shall be considered. In the case of load stress only (WB-3213.12), the average shear stress shall be limited to 0.6 S m . In the case of load stress plus secondary stress (WB-3213.9), the average shear stress shall not exceed (1) or (2) below: (1 ) for material to which Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 2A, Note G7 or Table 2B, Note G1, applies, the lower of 0.5 S y at 100°F (38°C) and 0.675 S y at temperature; (2) for all other materials, 0.5 S y at temperature. For clad surfaces, if the configuration or thickness is such that a shear failure could occur entirely within the clad material, the allowable shear stress for the cladding shall be determined from the properties of the equivalent wrought material. If the configuration is such that a shear failure could occur across a path that is partially base metal and partially clad material, the allowable shear stresses for each material shall be used when evaluating the combined resistance to this type of failure. (c) When considering bearing stresses in pins and similar members, the S y at temperature value is applicable, except that a value of 1.5 S y may be used if no credit is given to bearing area within one pin diameter from a plate edge. (a)
For 0.67 S y < P m ≤ 0.90 S y
where S y = the tabulated yield strength at test temperature (c) Additional tests may be specified in the Design Specification. Stresses produced in the containment by such tests shall not exceed the limits specified for normal loadings (Figure WB-3222-1). (d) Tests, with the exception of either the first 10 hydrostatic tests in accordance with WB-6220, the first 10 pneumatic tests in accordance with WB-6320, or any combination of 10 such tests, shall be considered in the fatigue evaluation of the component. In this fatigue evaluation, the limits on the primary plus secondary stress intensity range (WB-3222.6) may be taken as the larger of 3 S m or 2 S y when at least one extreme of the stress intensity range is determined by the test loadings.
WB-3227.2
Pure Shear.
(a) The average primary shear stress across a section loaded in pure shear, experienced as a result of Design Loadings, Test Loadings, or Operating Loadings except those for which Level D Service Limits are designated (for example, keys, shear rings, screw threads), shall be limited to 0.6 S m . (b) The maximum primary shear that is experienced as a result of Design Loadings, Test Loadings, or Operating Loadings (except those for which Level D Service Limits are designated), exclusive of stress concentration, at the periphery of a solid circular section in torsion shall be limited to 0.8 S m . Primary plus secondary and peak shear
WB-3227 Special Stress Limits The following deviations from the basic stress limits are provided to cover special Design and Operating Loadings or configurations. Some of these deviations are more restrictive, and some are less restrictive, than the basic s tre s s l i m i ts . I n cas e s o f co n fl i ct b e twe e n th e s e 73
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
stresses shall be converted to stress intensities (equal to two times the pure shear stress) and as such shall not exceed the basic stress limits of WB-3222.6 and WB-3222.9. WB - 3 2 2 7. 3
Sy
WB-32 29

WB-32 30
STRESS LI M I TS FOR BOLTS
The evaluation of bolting requires a number of analysis considerations, including (a) through (f) below and the criteria specified in this subsubarticle for the loads imposed. (a) When gaskets are used for preservice testing only, the design is satisfactory if WB-3231 requirements are satisfied for m = y = 0, and the requirements of WB-3232 are satisfied when the appropriate m and y factors are used for the test gasket. (b) The membrane and bending stresses in the bolt produced by thermal expansion due to differences in the temperature or thermal expansion coefficients, shall be treated as primary stresses in bolting analysis. (c) The bolting analysis shall consider the effects of loading eccentricities due to puncture loads and eccentric impact loads. (d) The bolting analysis shall consider prying effects, which cause amplification of the bolt loads due to rotation of the closure surfaces. (e) Bolting analysis shall consider bolt preload application methodology and resulting bolt forces. (f) Gasket characteristics and leak tightness requirements shall be considered in the bolting analysis.

The algebraic sum of the three primary principal stresses (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) shall not exceed four times the tabulated value of S m , except for accident loadings. WB- 3 2 2 7. 5
Desi g n Stress Valu es
The design stress intensity values S m are given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B for component materials. Values for intermediate temperatures may be found by interpolation. These form the basis for the various stress limits. Values of yield strength are given in Section I I, Part D , Subpart 2 , Table Y 1 . Values of the coefficient of thermal expansion are in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TE, and values of the modulus of elasticity are in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TM. The basis for establishing stress values is given in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix III. The design fatigue curves used in conjunction with WB-3222.9 are those of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I.
Pro g re s si ve D i s to rti o n o f N o n i n te g ral
Screwed on caps, screwed in plugs, shear ring closures, and breech lock closures are examples of nonintegral connections that are subject to failure by bell mouthing or other types of progressive deformation. If any combination of applied loads (including Test Loads) produces yielding, such joints are subject to ratcheting because the mating members may become loose at the end of each complete operating cycle and start the next cycle in a new relationship with each other, with or without manual manipulation. Additional distortion may occur in each cycle so that interlocking parts, such as threads, can eventually lose engagement. Therefore, primary plus secondary stress intensities (WB-3222.6) , which result in slippage between the parts of a nonintegral connection in which disengagement could occur as a result of progressive distortion, shall be limited to the value S y (Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Table Y 1). Co n n ecti on s.
WB- 32 2 7. 4
= yield strength of the material at the mean value of the temperature of the cycle
Tri axi al Stresses.
Ap p l i c a t i o n s o f E l a s t i c An al ys i s fo r
Certain of the allowable stresses permitted in the design criteria are such that the maximum stress calculated on an elastic basis may exceed the yield strength of the material. The limit on primary plus secondary stress intensity of 3 S m (WB-3222.6) has been placed at a level that ensures shakedown to elastic action after a few repetitions of the stress cycle, except in regions containing significant local structural discontinuities or local thermal stresses. These last two factors are considered only in the performance of a fatigue evaluation. Therefore: (a) In evaluating stresses for comparison with the stress limits on other than fatigue allowables, stresses shall be calculated on an elastic basis. (b) In evaluating stresses for comparison with fatigue allowables, all stresses except those that result from local thermal stresses [WB-3213.13(b)] shall be evaluated on an elastic basis. In evaluating local thermal stresses, the elastic equations shall be used, except that the numerical value substituted for Poisson s ratio shall be determined from the expression: Stresses Beyon d th e Yi eld Stren g th .

WB-32 31
Desi g n Li m i ts
The number and cross sectional area of bolts required to resist the Design Pressure shall be determined in accordance with the procedures of Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix E, using the larger of the bolt loads, given by the equations of Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix E, as a Design Mechanical Load. The stress limits shall utilize the values given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4 for bolting material. ‐
where S a = al te rn a ti n g s tre s s i n te n s i ty d e te rm i n e d i n WB-3222.9(e) prior to the elastic modulus adjustment in WB-3222.9(e)(4) 74
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-32 32
(3) fillet radii at the end of the shank shall be such that the ratio of fillet radius to shank diameter is not less than 0.060. (c) Fatigue Strength Reduction Factor (WB-321 3. 1 7) . Unless it can be shown by analysis or tests that a lower value is appropriate, the fatigue strength reduction factor used in the fatigue evaluation of threaded members shall be not less than 4.0. However, when applying the rules of (b) for high strength alloy steel bolts, the value used shall be not less than 4.0 (d) Effect of Elastic Modulus. Multiply S a l t (as determined in WB-3216.1 or WB-3216.2) by the ratio of the modulus of elasticity given on the design fatigue curve to the value of the modulus of elasticity used in the analysis. Enter the applicable design fatigue curve at this value on the ordinate axis and find the corresponding number of cycles on the abscissa. If the cyclic operation being considered is the only one which produces significant fluctuating stresses, this is the allowable number of cycles. (e) Cumulative Damage . The bolts shall be acceptable for the specified cyclic application of loads and thermal stresses provided the cumulative usage factor U, as determined in WB-3222.9(e)(5), does not exceed 1.0.
Level A Servi ce Li m i ts
Actual stresses in bolts, such as those produced by the combination of preload, pressure, and differential thermal expansion, may be higher than the values given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. The maximum value of stress, averaged across the bolt cross section and neglecting stress concentrations, shall not exceed two-thirds of the yield strength values, S y , of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1. WB- 32 32 . 1
Averag e Stress.
The average bolt shear stress expressed in terms of available shear stress area shall not exceed 40% of the yield strength values, S y , (at temperature) of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1. WB- 32 32 . 2
S h e ar S t re s s .
The maximum value of stress, except as restricted by WB-3232.4(b), at the periphery of the bolt cross section resulting from direct tension plus bending and neglecting stress concentrations shall not exceed the yield strength values, S y , of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1. Stress intensity, rather than maximum stress, shall be limited to this value when the bolts are tightened by methods other than heaters, stretchers, or other means which minimize residual torsion. WB- 3232. 3
M axi m u m Stress.
WB-32 34
(a) The rules contained in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXVII may be used in evaluating loadings for which Level D Service Limits are specified, independently of all other loadings. (b) If leak tightness of the closure is required by the Design Specification, the analysis of the bolting shall demonstrate that no yielding occurs in the bolt or sealing surface materials. This requirement may be satisfied by using the rules of WB-3232.
Unless the components on which they are installed meet all the conditions of WB-3222.9(d) and thus require no fatigue analysis, the suitability of bolts for cyclic service shall be determined in accordance with the procedures of (a) through (e) below. Thermal stress ratchet shall be evaluated in accordance with WB-3222.11. WB- 32 32. 4
Level D Servi ce Li m i ts
F ati g u e An alys i s o f B o lts .
(a) Bolting Having Less Than 1 00.0 ksi (689 MPa) Tensile Strength . Bolts made of material which has specified
m i n im um tens i l e s trength o f l e s s than 1 0 0 . 0 ks i (689 MPa) shall be evaluated for cyclic service by the methods of WB-3222.9(e), using the applicable design fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I and an appropriate fatigue strength reduction factor [see (c)]. (b) High Strength Alloy Steel Bolting . High strength alloy steel bolts and studs may be evaluated for cyclic service by the methods of WB-3222.9(e) using the design fatigue curve of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, provided: (1 ) the maximum value of the stress (WB-3232.3) at the periphery of the bolt cross section, resulting from direct tension plus bending and neglecting stress concentration, shall not exceed 0.9 S y if the higher of the two fatigue design curves given in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix I, Figure I-9.4 is used. The 2/3 S y limit for direct tension is unchanged. (2) threads shall be of a Vee ‐ type having a minimum thread root radius no smaller than 0.003 in. (0.08 mm).
WB-32 35
Testi n g Li m i ts
Bolts shall not yield for test conditions. WB-32 36
Desi g n Stress I n ten si ty Valu es
The design stress intensity values S m are given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4 for bolting. Values for i n t e r m e d i a t e t e m p e r a t u r e s m a y b e fo u n d b y interpolation. WB-3240
N OZZLES OR O PEN I N G S
(a) The rules for nozzles or openings are given in (1) through (5) below, where R is the mean radius and t is the nominal thickness of the containment shell or head at the location of the nozzle or opening; and lo ca lly stressed area means any area in the containment where the primary local membrane stress exceeds 1.1 S m . (1 ) A single nozzle or opening shall not have a diameter exceeding or NPS 2 (DN 50), whichever is smaller. Nozzles shall be self‐ reinforcing.
75
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(2) If there are two or more nozzles or openings within any circle of diameter , the sum of the diameters of such nozzles or openings shall not exceed . (3) No two nozzles or openings shall have their centers closer to each other, measured on the inside of the containment wall, than 1 .5 times the sum of their diameters. (4) No nozzle or opening shall have its center closer to the edge of a locally stressed area in the than shell. (5) Nozzles or openings shall be such that there are substantially no significant external load or reactions on the nozzle(s). (b) Any nozzle or opening not meeting the requirements in (a) above shall meet the requirements of WB-3220.
ð 17Þ
WB-32 50
DESI G N OF WELDED CON STRU CTI ON
WB-32 51
Weld ed J oi n t Categ ory
flat sided containment; and circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main containment shells, or transitions in diameters. Category B comprises circumferential welded joints within the main containment shell or transitions in diameter, including joints between the transition and a cylinder at either the large or small end; and circumferential welded joints connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main shells. W B - 3 2 51 . 2
C atego ry C co mpris es welded joints connecting flanges or flat heads to main containment shell, to formed heads, or to transitions in diameter, any welded joint connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided containment. WB-3251. 3
Cat e g o ry C .
Category D comprises welded joints connecting integral attachments or protrusions to main containment shells, to spheres, to transitions in diameter, to heads, or to flat sided containments. WB-3251. 4
The term Category defines the location of a joint in a containment, but not the type of joint. The categories established are for use in specifying special requirements regarding joint type and degree of examination for certain welded joints. Since these special requirements, which are based on service, material, and thickness, do not apply to every welded joint, only those joints to which special requirements apply are included in the categories. The special requirements apply to joints of a given category only when specifically stated. The joints included in each category are designated as joints of Categories A, B, C, and D. Figure WB-3251-1 illustrates typical joint locations included in each category. Category A comprises longitudinal welded joints within the main containment shell, transitions in diameter, any welded joint within a sphere, within a formed or flat head, or within the side plates of a WB-3251. 1
Cate g o ry B .
WB-32 52
Cate g o ry D .
Perm i ssi ble Types of Weld ed J oi n ts
The design of the containment shall meet the requirements for each category of joint. Butt joints are full penetration joints between plates or other elements that lie approximately in the same plane. Figure WB-32 52 -1 shows typical butt welds for each category joint. All welded joints of Category A as defined in WB-3251 shall meet the fabrication requirements of WB-4241 and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WB-5210. WB-3252. 1
J oi n ts of Categ ory A.
All welded joints of Category B as defined in WB-3251 shall meet the fabrication requirements of WB-4242 and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WB-52 2 0. When joints with opposing lips to form an integral backing strip or joints with backing strips not later removed are used, WB-3252. 2
Categ ory A.
J oi n ts of Categ ory B.
Fi g u re WB-3251-1 Weld ed J oi n t Locati on s Typi cal of Categ ori es A, B, C, an d D
C D A
A B
A
C
A A
A
B
76
A
D
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-3252-1 Typical Butt Joints
77
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the suitability for cyclic operation shall be analyzed by the method of WB-3222.9 using a fatigue strength reduction factor of not less than 2.
(b) Partial Penetration Welds (1 ) Partial penetration welds, as shown in Figure WB-4244(d)-1, are allowed only for connecting items on which there are substantially no reaction loads, such as openings for instrumentation. For such connecting items, all reinforcement shall be integral with the portion of the containment boundary penetrated. Partial penetration welds shall be of sufficient size to develop the full strength of the connecting items. Connecting items attached by partial penetration welds shall have an interference fit or a maximum diametric clearance between the item and the containment boundary penetration of (-a) 0.010 in. (0.25 mm) for d ≤ 1 in. (25 mm) (-b) 0.020 in. (0.50 mm) for 1 in. (25 mm) < d ≤ 4 in. (100 mm) (-c) 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) for d > 4 in. (100 mm)
WB-3252.3 Joints of Category C. All welded joints of Category C, as defined in WB-3251, shall meet the fabrication requirements of WB-4243 and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WB-5230. Minimum dimensions of the welds and throat thickness shall be as shown in Figure WB-4243-1 or Figure WB-4243-2 where: (a) for forged flat heads and forged flanges with the weld preparation bevel angle not greater than 45 deg measured from the face: t, t n tc tw
= nominal thicknesses of welded parts = 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less = t n /2 or t /4, whichever is less
where d is the outside diameter of the item, except that the above limits on maximum clearance need not be met for the full length of the opening, provided there is a region at the weld preparation and a region near the end of the opening opposite the weld that does meet the above limits on maximum clearance, and the latter region is extensive enough (not necessarily continuous) to provide a positive stop for deflection of the connecting item. (2) In satisfying the limit of WB-3222.6, the stress intensities resulting from pressure-induced strains (dilatio n o f ho le) may b e treated as s eco ndary in the penetrating part of partial penetration welded constructio n, pro vided the requirements o f (f) and Figure WB-4244(d)-1 are fulfilled. (c) Butt-Welded Conn ection s. Connections shall meet the fabrication requirements of WB-4244(a) and shall be cap ab le o f b eing examined in accordance with WB-5242. The minimum dimensions and geometrical requirements of Figure WB-4244(a)-1 shall be met, where
(b) for all other material forms and for forged flat heads, and forged flanges with the weld preparation bevel angle greater than 45 deg measured from the face: t, tn tc tw
= nominal thicknesses of welded parts = 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less = t n or t /2, whichever is less
(c) Hubs for butt welding to the adjacent shell, head, or other containment part, as in Figure WB-4243-2, shall not be machined from rolled plate. The component having the hub shall be forged in such a manner as to provide in the hub the full minimum tensile strength and elongation specified for the material, in a direction parallel to the axis of the vessel. Proof of this shall be furnished by a tension test specimen (subsize if necessary) taken in this direction and as close to the hub as is practical. In Figure WB-4243-2, the minimum dimensions are as follows: (1 ) sketch (a), r not less than 1.5 t n (2) sketch (b), r not less than 1.5 t n , and e not less than t n (3) sketch (c), r not less than 1.5 t n (4) sketch (d), t f not less than 2 t n and r not less than 3tf (5) sketch (e), t f not less than 2 t n , r not less than 3 t f, and e not less than t f
r1 r2 t tn
WB-3252.4 Joints of Category D. All welded joints of Category D, as defined in WB-3251, shall be in accordance with the requirements of one of (a) through (f) below. (a) Full Penetration Welds. Full penetration welds, as shown in Figures WB-4244(a) -1, WB-4244(b) -1, and WB-4244(c)-1 may be used [except as otherwise provided in (b)] for the purposes of achieving continuity of metal and facilitating the required radiographic examination. When all or part of the required reinforcement is attributable to the connecting item, the connecting items shall be attached by full penetration welds through either the containment shell or head, the thickness of the connecting item, or both.
= = = =
1
/4t or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less /4 in. (6 mm) minimum nominal thickness of part penetrated nominal thickness of penetrating part 1
(d) Full Penetration Corner-Welded Connections. Connections shall meet the fabrication requirements of WB-4244(b) and shall be capable of being examined as required in WB-5243. The minimum dimensions of Figure WB-4244(b)-1 shall be met, where r1 r2 t tc tn
78
= = = = =
1
/4t or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less /4 in. (6 mm) minimum nominal thickness of part penetrated 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less nominal thickness of penetrating part 1
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(e) Use o f D ep o sited Weld Meta l fo r Op en in g s a n d Connections (1 ) Connections shall meet the fabrication require-
WB-32 55
The dimensions and shape of the edges to be joined shall be such as to permit complete fusion and complete j oint penetration, except as otherwise permitted in WB-3252.4.
ments of WB-4244(c) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WB-5244. (2) When the deposited weld metal is used as reinforcement, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the base metal, the weld metal, and the connection shall not differ b y more than 1 5 % of the lo west co efficient involved. (3) T h e m i n i m u m d i m e n s i o n s o f F i g u r e WB-4244(c)-1 shall be met, where r1 t tc tn
= = = =
WB-32 56
1
/4t or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less nominal thickness of part penetrated 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less nominal thickness of penetrating part
WB-3260
SPECI AL CO N TAI N M EN T REQU I REM EN TS
The corners of the end of each connection extending less than beyond the inner surface of the part penetrated shall be rounded to a radius of one ‐ half the thickness t n of the connection or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is smaller.
WB-3261
Categ ory A or Categ ory B J oi n ts Between Secti on s of U n eq u al Th i ckn ess
In general, a tapered transition section as shown in Figure WB-3261-1, which is a type of gross structural discontinuity (WB-3213.2), shall be provided at joints of Categories A and B between sections that differ in thickness by more than one ‐ fourth the thickness of the thinner section. The transition section may be formed by any process that will provide a uniform taper. An ellipsoidal or hemispherical head that has a greater thickness than a cylinder of the same inside diameter may be machined to the outside diameter of the cylinder, provided the remaining thickness is at least as great as that required for a shell of the same diameter. A uniform taper is not required for flanged hubs. The adequacy of the transition shall be evaluated by stress analysis. Stress intensity limitations are given in WB-3220. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to flange hubs.
(f) Attachment ofConnections Using Partial Penetration Welds (1 ) Partial penetration welds used for connections as
permitted in (b) shall meet the fabrication requirements of WB-4244(d) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with the requirements of WB-5245. (2) T h e m i n i m u m d i m e n s i o n s o f F i g u r e WB-4244(d)-1 shall be met where = = = = =
Th erm al Treatm en t
All containments and containment parts shall be given the appropriate postweld heat treatment prescribed in WB-4620.
(4)
d r1 t tc tn
Weld i n g G rooves
outside diameter of the connecting item /4t n or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less nominal thickness of part penetrated 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less nominal thickness of penetrating part 1
The corners of the end of each connecting item, extending less than beyond the inner surface of the part penetrated, shall be rounded to a radius of one ‐ half of the thickness t n of the penetrating part or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is smaller. (4) Weld groove design for partial penetration joints attaching connecting item may require special consideration to achieve the 1.25 t n minimum depth of weld and adequate access for welding examination. The welds shown in the sketches of Figure WB-4244(d)-1 may be on either the inside or the outside of the containment shell. Weld preparation may be J ‐ groove, as shown in the figures, or straight bevel. (5) A fatigue strength reduction factor of not less than four shall be used when fatigue analysis is required. (3)
WB-32 54
WB-3700
STRAI N -BASED ACCEPTAN CE CRI TERI A
The strain-based acceptance criteria are applicable only to the metallic containments of transportation packagings subject to energy-limited dynamic events. It is not the intent of this subarticle to permit significant regions or major portions of the containment to experiences strains at or near the limits of these strain-based acceptance criteria without consideration of the overall component deformation. These strain-based acceptance criteria are established to address the regions of the containment that experience high strains due to the effects of direct impacts. Deformation limits, if any, provided in the Design Specification shall be satisfied. Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix FF provides the strain-based acceptance criteria.
Stru ctu ral Attach m en t Weld s
Welds for structural attachments shall meet the requirements of WB-4430. 79
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-3261-1 Categories A and B Joints Between Sections of Unequal Thickness
GENERAL NOTE: Length of taper may include the width of the weld.
80
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WB-4000 FABRI CATI ON
WB-4100 WB-4110
(b) the amount of material removed from the surface exceeds the lesser of 1/8 in. (3 mm) or 10% of the minimum required thickness of the item.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS I N TRO DU CTI ON
Containments shall be fabricated and installed in accordance with the requirements of this Article and shall be manufactured from materials that meet the requirements of Article WB-2000. WB-412 0
WB-412 2
(a) Material performing a containment function shall carry identification markings which will remain distinguishable until the containment is assembled. If the original identification markings are cut off or the material is divided, the marks shall either be transferred to the parts cut or a coded marking shall be used to ensure identification of each piece of material during subsequent fabrication. In either case, an as ‐ built sketch or a tabulation of materials shall be made identifying each piece of material with the Certified Material Test Report, where applicable, and the coded marking. For studs, bolts, and nuts it is permissible to identify the Certified Material Test Reports for material in each component or item in lieu of identifying each piece of material with the Certified Material Test Report and the coded marking. Material supplied with a Certificate of Compliance, and welding material, shall be identified and controlled so that they can be traced to the containment, or else a control procedure shall be employed which ensures that the specified materials are used. (b) Material from which the identification marking is lost shall be treated as nonconforming material until appropriate tests or other verifications are made and documented to assure material identification. Testing is required unless positive identification can be made by other documented evidence. The material may then be re ‐ marked upon establishing positive identification.
CERTI FI CATI ON OF M ATERI ALS AN D FABRI CATI ON BY CERTI FI CATE H OLDER
WB-412 1
M ean s of Certi fi cati on
The Certificate Holder for a containment shall certify, by application of the Certification Mark and completion of the appropriate Data Report in accordance with Article WA-8000, that the materials used comply with the requirements of Article WB-2000 and that the fabrication complies with the requirements of this Article. ð 17Þ
WB- 412 1. 1
Certi fi cati on of Treatm en ts, Tests, an d
If the Certificate Holder or Subcontractor performs treatments, tests, repairs, or examinations required by this Division, the NPT or N3 Certificate Holder shall certify that this requirement has been fulfilled (WA-3800 or WA-8410). Reports of all required treatments and of the results of all required tests, repairs, and examinations performed shall be available to the Inspector.
Exam i n ati on s.
If during the fabrication of the containment the material is subjected to heat treatment that has not been covered by treatment of the test coupons (WB-2200) and that may reduce either tensile or impact properties below the required values, the tensile and impact tests shall be repeated by the Certificate Holder on test specimens taken from test coupons which have been taken and treated in accordance with the requirements of Article WB-2000. WB- 4121. 2
WB- 4121. 3
M ateri al I d en ti fi cati on
Repeti tion of Ten si le or I m pact Tests.
WB-4122 . 1
M a rk i n g M a t e ri a l .
marked in accordance with WB-2150. WB-412 3
Material shall be
Exam i n ati on s
Visual examination activities that are not referenced for examination by other specific Code paragraphs, and are performed solely to verify compliance with requirements of Article WB-4000, may be performed by the persons who perform or supervise the work. These visual examinations are not required to be performed by personnel and procedures qualified to WB-5500 and WB-5100, respectively, unless so specified.
Repeti ti on of Su rface Exam i n ati on After
If, during the fabrication of a containment, materials are machined, then the Certificate Holder shall reexamine the surface of the material in accordance with WB-2500 when: (a) the surface was required to be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with WB-2500; and M ach i n i n g .
81
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-4124
preheating the material, using preheat schedules such as suggested in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix D.
Ad d i ti on al Req u i rem en ts Wh en Strai n -Based Acceptan ce Cri teri a H ave Been I m plem en ted
In order to satisfy the strain-based acceptance criteria of WB-3700 regarding the locations of unique material heats used in containment fabrication, traceability of all unique material heats and their specific location(s) of use shall be established and documented in the final Design Report and the as-built Design Drawings. This requirement is only necessary when strain-based acceptance criteria have been employed in the design of the containment. WB-412 5
WB-42 12
Form i n g an d Ben d i n g Processes
Any process may be used to hot or cold form or bend containment material, including weld metal, provided the required dimensions are attained (see WB-4214 and WB-4220), and provided the impact properties of the material, when required, are not reduced below the minimum specified values, or they are effectively restored by heat treatment following the forming operation. Hot forming is defined as forming with the material temperature higher than 100°F (38°C) below the lower transformation temperature of the material.
Testi n g of Weld i n g M ateri al
All welding material shall meet the requirements of WB-2400.
WB-42 13
Qu ali fi cati on of Form i n g Processes for I m pact Property Req u i rem en ts
WB-4130
REPAI R OF M ATERI AL
WB-4131
Eli m i n ati on an d Repai r of Defects
A procedure qualification test shall be conducted using specimens taken from material of the same specification, grade or class, heat treatment, and with similar impact properties, as required for the material in the containment. These specimens shall be subjected to the equivalent forming or bending process and heat treatment as the material in the containment. Applicable tests shall be conducted to determine that the required impact properties of WB-2300 are met after straining. Procedure qualification tests are not required for materials listed in (a) through (f) below: (a) hot formed material, such as forgings, in which the hot forming is completed by the Material Organization prior to removal of the impact test specimens; (b) hot formed material represented by test coupons required in either WB-2211 or WB-4121.2, which have been subjected to heat treatment representing the hot forming procedure and the heat treatments to be applied to the parts; (c) material that does not require impact tests in accordance with WB-2300; (d) material that has a final strain less than 0.5%; (e) material where the final strain is less than that of a previously qualified procedure for that material; (f) material from which the impact testing is required by WB-2300 is performed on each heat and lot, as applicable, after forming. The procedure qualification test shall be performed in the manner stipulated in (a) through (f) below. (a) The tests shall be performed on three different heats of material both before straining and after straining and heat treatment to establish the effects of the forming and subsequent heat treatment operations. (b) Specimens shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of Article WB-2000 and shall be taken from the tension side of the strained material.
Material originally accepted on delivery in which defects exceeding the limits of WB-2 500 are known or discovered during the process of fabrication is unacceptable. The material may be used provided the condition is corrected in accordance with the requirements of WB-2500 for the applicable product form, except (a) the limitation on the depth of the weld repair does not apply (b) the time of examination of the weld repairs to weld edge preparations shall be in accordance with WB-5130 WB-4132
WB- 42 13 . 1
Docu m en tati on of Repai r Weld s of Base M ateri al
The Certificate Holder who makes a repair weld exceeding in depth the lesser of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% of the section thickness, shall prepare a report which shall include a chart which shows the location and size of the prepared cavity, the welding material identification, the welding procedure, the heat treatment, and the examination results of repair welds. WB-42 00
FORM I N G , FI TTI N G , AN D ALI G N I N G
WB-4210
CU TTI N G , FORM I N G , AN D BEN DI N G
WB-4211
Cu tti n g
WB-4213. 2
Materials may be cut to shape and size by mechanical means, such as machining, shearing, chipping, or grinding, or by thermal cutting. WB- 42 11. 1
P re h e a t i n g B e fo re T h e rm a l C u t t i n g .
When thermal cutting is performed to prepare weld joints or edges, to remove attachments or defective material, or for any other purpose, consideration shall be given to 82
E xe m p t i o n s .
Proced u re Qu ali fi cati on Test.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(c) The percent strain shall be established by the following equations: (1 ) For cylinders
WB- 4213. 3
Acceptan ce Cri teri a for Form ed M ateri -
To be acceptable, the formed material used in the component shall have impact properties before forming sufficient to compensate for the maximum loss of impact properties due to the qualified forming processes used. A new procedure qualification test is required when any of the changes in (a), (b), or (c) below are made. (a) The actual postweld heat treatment time at temperature is greater than previously qualified considering WB-2211. If the material is not postweld heat treated, the procedure must be qualified without postweld heat treatment. (b) The maximum calculated strain of the material exceeds the previously qualified strain by more than 0.5%. (c) Preheat over 250°F (120°C) is used in the forming or bending operation but not followed by a subsequent postweld heat treatment. al.
WB-4213. 4
(2)
For spherical or dished surfaces
(3)
For pipe
where R = nominal bending radius to the center line of the pipe, in. (mm) R f = final radius to center line of shell, in. (mm) R o = original radius (equal to infinity for a flat part), in. (mm) r = nominal radius of the pipe, in. (mm) t = nominal thickness, in. (mm)
WB-42 14
Req u alifi cati on .
M i n i m u m Th i ckn ess of Fabri cated M ateri al
If any fabrication operation reduces the thickness below the minimum required to satisfy the rules of Article WB-3000, the material may be repaired in accordance with WB-4130.
The procedure qualification shall simulate the maximum percent surface strain, employing a bending proces s s imilar to that us ed in the fab ricatio n o f the material or by direct tension on the specimen. (e) Sufficient C v test specimens shall be taken from each of the three heats of material to establish a transition curve showing both the upper and lower shelves. On each of the three heats, tests consisting of three impact specimens shall be conducted at a minimum of five different temperatures distributed throughout the transition region. The upper and lower shelves may be established by the use of one test specimen for each shelf. Depending on the product form, it may be necessary to plot the transition curves using both lateral expansion and energy level data (WB-2300). In addition, drop weight tests shall be made when required by WB-2300. (f) Using the results of the impact test data from each of three heats, taken both before and after straining, determine either: (1 ) the maximum change in NDT temperature along with: (-a) the maximum change of lateral expansion and energy at the temperature under consideration; or (-b) the maximum change of temperature at the lateral expansion and energy levels under consideration; or (2) when lateral expansion is the acceptance criterion (WB-2300), either the maximum change in temperature or the maximum change in lateral expansion. (d)
WB-42 2 0
FORM I N G TO LERAN CES
WB-42 2 1
Toleran ce for Con tai n m en t Sh ells
Cylindrical or spherical shells of a completed containment vessel, except formed heads covered by WB-4222, shall meet the requirements of the following subparagraphs at all cross sections, where not further limited by design. WB- 4221. 1
M axi m u m Di fferen ce i n Cross- Section al
The difference in inches (millimeters) between the maximum and minimum diameters at any cross section shall not exceed the smaller of
D i am e te rs .
(U.S. Customary Units)
(SI Units)
where D is the nominal inside diameter, in. (mm), at the cross section under consideration. The diameters may be measured on the inside or outside of the containment cylindrical s hell . I f meas ured o n the o uts i de, the diameters shall be corrected for the plate thickness at the cro s s s ectio n under co ns i deratio n (Fi gure WB-4221.1-1). When the cross section passes through an opening, the permissible difference in inside diameters given herein may be increased by 2% of the inside diameter of the opening. 83
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(d) The dimensions of a completed containment may be brought within the requirements by any process which will not impair the strength of the material. (e) Sharp bends and flat spots shall not be permitted unless provision is made for them in the design.
Figure WB-4221.1-1 Maximum Difference in Cross-Sectional Diameters
WB-4221.3 Deviations From Tolerances. Deviations fr o m th e to l e r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n ts s ti p u l a te d i n WB-4221.1 and WB-4221.2 are permitted, provided the drawings are modified and deviations are reconciled with the calculations and the licensing documents. Deviations are permitted, provided Design Documents (WA-3350) and corrective actions are certified by a Certifying Engineer in an addendum to the Design Report.
ð
17Þ
ð
17Þ
WB-4221.4 Tolerance Deviations for Containment Parts Fabricated From Pipe. Containments subjected to
either internal or external pressure and fabricated from pipe, meeting all other requirements of this Subsection, may have variations of diameter and deviations from circularity permitted by the specification for such pipe.
WB-4221.2 Maximum Deviation From True Theoretical Form for External Pressure. Containments designed
for external pressure shall meet the tolerances given in (a) through (e) below. (a) The maximum plus or minus deviation from the true circular form of cylinders or the theoretical form of other shapes, measured radially on the outside or inside of the component, shall not exceed the maximum permissible deviation obtained from Figure WB-4221.2(a)-1. Measurements shall be made from a segmental circular template having the design inside or outside radius depending on where the measurements are taken and a chord length equal to twice the arc length obtained from Figure WB-4221.2(a)-2. For Figure WB-4221.2(a)-1, the maximum permissible deviation e need not be less than 0.3 t . For Figure WB-4221.2(a)-2, the arc length need not be greater than 0.30 D o . Measurements shall not be taken on welds or other raised parts. (b) The value of t , in., at any cross section is the nominal plate thickness less corrosion allowance for sections of constant thickness and the nominal thickness of the thinnest plate less corrosion allowance for sections having plates of more than one thickness. (c) The value of L in Figures WB-42 2 1 .2 (a) -1 and WB-4221.2(a)-2 is determined by (1) and (2) below. (1 ) For cylinders, L is the total length, in., of the design length of a containment section, taken as the largest of the following: (-a) the distance between head tangent lines plus one ‐ third of the depth of each head if there are no stiffening rings; (-b) the greatest center ‐ to ‐ center distance between any two adjacent stiffening rings; or (-c) the distance from the center of the first stiffening ring to the head tangent line plus one ‐ third of the depth of the head, all measured parallel to the axis of the containment, in. (2) For spheres, L is one ‐ half of the outside diameter D o , in.
WB-4222 Tolerances for Formed Vessel Heads The tolerance for formed vessel heads shall be as set forth in the following subparagraphs. WB-4222.1 Maximum Difference in Cross-Sectional Diameters. The skirt or cylindrical end of a formed head
shall be circular to the extent that the difference in inches (millimeters) between the maximum and minimum diameters does not exceed the lesser of (U.S. Customary Units)
(SI Units)
where D is the nominal inside diameter, in. (mm), and shall match the cylindrical edge of the adjoining part within the alignment tolerance specified in WB-4232. WB-4222.2
Deviation From Specified Shape.
The inner surface of a torispherical or ellipsoidal head shall not deviate outside the specified shape by more than 1 1/4% of D , inside the specified shape by more than 5/8 % of D , where D is the nominal inside diameter of the containment. Such deviations shall be measured perpendicular to the specified shape and shall not be abrupt. The knuckle radius shall not be less than specified. For 2:1 ellipsoidal heads, the knuckle radius may be considered to be 17% of the diameter of the containment. (b) Hemispherical heads and any spherical portion of a formed head shall meet the local tolerances for spheres as given in WB-4221.2, using L as the outside spherical radius, in. (mm), and D o as two times L . (a)
84
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Fi g u re WB-42 2 1. 2 (a) - 1 M axi m u m Perm i ssi ble Devi ati on
e
From a Tru e Ci rcu lar Form
1 ,000 900 800 700 600 500
Outside Diameter ? Thickness, Do /t
400
e?
300
e?
0. 8
200
e? e? 1 00 90 80 70 60
1 .0
0. 6 0. 5
e?
t
t
t
0. 4
e?
50
t
t
0. 3
t
40 30 25
0.1 0
0.2
0.3
0.4 0.5 0.6
Design Length
0.8 1 .0
? Outside Diameter, L/Do
(c) Deviation measurements shall be taken on the surface of the base material and not on welds.
WB-42 32
2
3
4
5
6 7 8 910
Ali g n m en t Req u i rem en ts Wh en Con tai n m en ts Are Weld ed From Two Si d es
WB-42 30
FI TTI N G AN D ALI G N I N G
WB-42 31
Fi tti n g an d Ali g n i n g M eth od s
(a) Alignment of sections which are welded from two sides shall be such that the maximum offset of the finished weld will not be greater than the applicable amount listed in Table WB-4232-1, where t is the nominal thickness of the thinner section at the joint. (b) Joints in spherical containments or within heads, and joints between cylindrical shells and hemispherical heads shall meet the requirements in Table WB-4232-1 for longitudinal joints. Any offset within the allowable tolerance provided above shall be faired to at least a 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld or, if necessary, by adding additional weld metal beyond what would otherwise be the edge of the weld. In additi o n , o ffs e ts gre a te r th a n th o s e s ta te d i n T a b l e WB-4232-1 are acceptable provided the requirements of WB-3200 are met.
Parts that are to be joined by welding may be fitted, aligned, and retained in position during the welding operation by the use of bars, jacks, clamps, tack welds, or temporary attachments. Tack welds used to secure alignment shall either be removed completely, when they have served their purpose, or their stopping and starting ends shall be properly prepared by grinding or other suitable means so that they may be satisfactorily incorporated into the final weld. Tack welds shall be made by qualified welders using qualified welding procedures. When tack welds are to become part of the finished weld, they shall be visually examined and defective tack welds shall be removed. WB- 42 3 1. 1
Tack Weld s.
WB- 4232. 1
85
Fai ri n g of Offsets.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Fi g u re WB- 42 2 1. 2(a) -2
0.6
o
D
c?
Ar
0.4
Ar
Ar
c?
0. 0
65
55 0. 0
o 0 c ? . 07 5 D 0. o Ar c ? 085D 0. 1 o 0D Ar o c? 0. 1 Ar 25 c? D o 0. 1 Ar c ? 50D o 0. 1 Ar c ? 7 5D 0. 2 o 00 Ar D c? o 0. 2 50 Ar D c? 0. 3 o 00 D
o
D
o
o
D
45
0. 0
c?
c? Ar
o
D
D
40
0. 0
Ar
c?
0. 0 c?
Ar
1 ,000
Ar
Ar
c?
0. 0
30
2,000
35
D
o
M axi m u m ARC Len g th for Determ i n i n g Plu s or M i n u s Devi ati on
Outside Diameter ? Thickness, Do /t
800 600 500 400 300 200
1 00 80 60 50 40 30 20
10 0.01
0.02
0.04 0.06
0.1 0
0.2
Design Length
WB-423 3
Su rfaces Are I n accessi ble
(a) When the inside surfaces of items are inaccessible for welding or fairing in accordance with WB-4232, alignment of sections shall meet the requirements of (1) and (2) below: (1 ) See (-a) and (-b) below.
Table WB-42 32 -1 M axi m u m Allowable Offset i n Fi n al Weld ed J oi n ts
Direction of Joints Section Thickness, in. (mm) Up to 1/2 (13), incl. Over 1/2 to 3/4 (13 to 19) , incl. Over 3/4 to 1 1/2 (19 to 38), incl. Over 1 1/2 to 2 (38 to 50), incl. Over 2 (50)
1
/4t /8 (3) 1 /8 (3) 1 /8 (3) Lesser of 1/16 t or 3 /8 (10) 1
2
3
4 5 6
8 10
20
(-a) Fo r circumferential j o ints the ins ide diameters shall match each other within 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) . When the items are aligned concentrically, a uniform mismatch of 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) all around the joint can result as shown in Figure WB -42 3 3 (a) - 1 s ketch (a) . H owever, other variables not associated with the diameter of the item often result in alignments that are offset rather than concentric. In these cases, the maximum misalignment at any one point around the j oint shall not exceed 3/3 2 in. (2 .5 mm) as shown in Figure WB-42 3 3(a) -1 sketch (b) . S ho uld to lerances o n diameter, wall thicknes s , o ut ‐ of‐ roundness, etc., result in inside diameter variations which do not meet these limits, the inside diameters shall be counterbored, sized, or ground to produce a bore within these limits, provided a gradual change in thickness from the item to adjoining items is maintained. Any welding transition is acceptable, provided the wall thickness in the transition region is not less than the minimum wall thickness of the containment or item and sharp reentrant angles and abrupt changes in slope in the transition region are avoided.
Ali g n m en t Req u i rem en ts Wh en I n si d e
Longitudinal in. (mm)
1 .0
? Outside Diameter, L/Do
Circumferential in. (mm) 1
/4 t /4 t 3 /16 (5) 1 /8 t Lesser of 1/8 t or 3/4 (19) 1
86
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-4240
Fi g u re WB-42 33 (a) -1 Bu tt Weld Ali g n m en t an d M i sm atch Toleran ces
WB-4241
for U n eq u al I . D. an d O . D. Wh en I tem s Are
Category A weld joints containments shall be full penetration butt joints. Joints that have been welded from one s ide with b acking that has b een remo ved and tho s e welded from one side without backing are acceptable as full penetration welds provided the weld root side of the joints meets the requirements of WB-4424.
Perform ed
1 /32 in. (0.8 mm) maximum
uniform mismatch around joint
WB-4242
Component centerline
Categ ory B Weld J oi n ts i n Con tai n m en ts
Category B weld j oints in containments shall be full penetration butt joints. When used, backing strips shall be continuous in cross section. Joints prepared with opposing lips to form an integral backing strip and j oints with backing strips which are not later removed are acceptable provided the requirements of WB-3 2 5 2 .2 are met.
t
t
Categ ory A Weld J oi n ts i n Con tai n m en ts
Weld ed From On e Si d e an d Fai ri n g I s N ot
Centerline
REQU I REM EN TS FOR WELD J OI N TS I N CON TAI N M EN TS
= nominal thickness, in. (mm)
(a) Concentric Centerlines
WB-4243
Categ ory C Weld J oi n ts i n Con tai n m en ts
Category C weld joints shall be described in subparas. (a) through (c) below. (a) Full Penetration Butt Joints. Category C welds shall be full penetration j oints. Joints that have been welded from one side with backing where backing has been subsequently removed and those welded from one side witho ut b acking are acceptable as full penetratio n welds provided the weld root side of the j oints meets the requirements of WB-442 4. Butt-welded j oints are shown in Figure WB-4243-1. (b) Full Penetration Corner Joints. Full penetration corner j oints shall be groove welds extending completely through at least one of the parts being joined and shall be fully fused to each part. Typical details for type No. 1 and No. 2 full penetration corner j oints are shown in Figure WB-4243-1. (c) Flat Heads With Hubs (1 ) Hubs for butt welding to the adjacent shell, head, o r o th e r c o n ta i n m e n t p a r ts , a s s h o w n i n F i g u r e WB-4243-2, for flat heads, shall not be machined from flat plate. The hubs shall be forged in such a manner as to provide in the hub the full minimum tensile strength and elongation specified for the material in the direction parallel to the axis of the containment vessel. Proof of this shall be furnished by a tension test specimen (subsize, if necessary) taken in this direction and as close to the hubs as is practical. One test specimen may represent a group of forgings, provided they are of the same nominal dimensions, from the same heat material and the same heat treatment lot, and forged in the same manner. The minimum height of the hub shall be the lesser of 1 1/2 times
3 /32 in. (2.5 mm) maximum at any
one point around the joint
Centerline 1
Centerline 2
(b) Offset Centerlines (-b) Offset of outside surfaces shall be faired to at least a 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld or, if necessary, by adding additional weld metal. (2) For longitudinal joints the misalignment of inside surfaces shall not exceed 3/3 2 in. (2.5 mm) and the offset of outside surfaces shall be faired to at least a 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld or, if necessary, by adding additional weld metal. (b) Single-welded j oints may meet the alignment requirements of (a) (1) and (a) (2 ) above in lieu of the requirements of WB-4232. 87
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4243-1 Acceptable Full Penetration Weld Details for Category C Joints
tc
tw
t
tc
t
tc
tw
tw
tn
tn
(a)
(b) Type 1 Corner Welds
tc
t
t
tc
tc
tn
tn
(c)
(d) Type 2 Corner Welds
GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WB-3252.3.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the thickness of the containment part to which it is welded or 3/4 in. (19 mm), but need not be greater than 2 in. (50 mm). (2) Hubbed flanges shall not be machined from flat plate.
(a) Butt-Welded Nozzles. Nozzles shall be attached by full penetration butt welds through the wall of the containment as shown in Figure WB-4244(a) -1. Backing strips, if used, shall be removed. (b) Corner-Welded Nozzles. Nozzles shall be joined to the containment by full penetration welds through the wall of the containment similar to those shown in Figure WB-4244(b)-1. Backing strips, if used, shall be removed. (c) Deposited Weld Metal of Openings for Nozzles. Nozzles shall be joined to the containment by full penetration weld to built‐ up weld deposits applied to the containment as shown in Figure WB-4244(c)-1. Backing strips, if used, shall be removed. Fillet welds shall be used only to provide a transition between the parts joined or to provide
WB-4244
Category D Weld Joints in Containments Category D weld joints in containments and similar weld joints in other components shall be full or partial penetration weld joints using one of the details of (a) through (d) below.
Figure WB-4243-2 Typical Flat Heads With Hubs Tension test specimen
Tension test specimen
e tn
r
tn
r
r
tn
r
t
t
(a)
(b)
(c) tf
Tension test specimen tf
tn e
tn
Tension test specimen r
r
t
t
(d)
(e)
GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WB-3252.3(c).
89
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4244(a)-1 Nozzles Attached by Full Penetration Butt Welds tn tn
r2
30 deg min. tn
t
1
3
r2
t
1 / in. (1 3 mm) 2
r2
45 deg max. 30 deg max.
min.
r2
r2 t3
r2 t
1 t4
r 1 1 /2 t min. 1
r1
r1
2
t3
t4
1
(a)
(b)
A
tn
r1
t
30 deg max.
r2
Max. = 0.2 t
R min.
r2
1 8.5 deg max.
tn
3 / (1 9 mm) 4
45 deg max.
r2
0.2 t but 1 8.5 deg
(c)
tn
45 deg max.
2
r2
r2 r1
r1
r2
(e) Backing ring, if used, shall be removed
t
t
30 deg max.
Section A–A
A
tn
3 / (1 9 mm) 4 R min.
Sections perpendicular and parallel to the cylindrical axis of the component
t
(d)
r1
(f)
GENERAL NOTE: For definition of nomenclature, see WB-3252.4.
90
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4244(b)-1 Nozzles Attached by Full Penetration Corner Welds
GENERAL NOTE: For definition of nomenclature, see WB-3252.4.
91
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
a seal. The fillet welds, when used, shall be finished by grinding to provide a smooth surface having a transition radius at its intersection with either part being joined.
WB-432 0
WB-432 1
(d) Partial Penetration Welded Nozzles. Partial penetra-
WELDI N G QU ALI FI CATI ON S
WB-4310
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
WB-4311
Types of Processes Perm i tted
Req u i red Qu ali fi cati on s
(a) Each Certificate Holder is responsible for the welding done by his organization, and each Certificate Holder shall establish the procedure and conduct the tests required by this Article and by Section IX in order to qualify b o th th e we l d i n g p ro ce du re s an d th e p e rfo rm ance o f we l ders and we ldi ng o p e rato rs who ap p ly the s e procedures.
tion welds in containments shall meet the weld design requirements of WB-3252.4(f) . Nozzles shall be attached as shown in Figures WB-4244(d)-1.
WB-4300
WELDI N G QU ALI FI CATI ON S, RECORDS, AN D I DEN TI FYI N G STAM PS
(b) Procedures, welders, and welding operators used to j oin permanent or temporary attachments to containments and to make permanent or temporary tack welds used in such welding shall also meet the qualification requirements of this Article.
(a) Only those welding processes which are capable of producing welds in accordance with the welding procedure qualification requirements of Section IX and this Subsection may be used for welding containment material or attachments thereto. Any process used shall be such that the records required by WB-432 0 can be prepared, except that records for stud welds shall be traceable to the welders and welding operators and not necessarily to each specific weld.
(c) When making procedure test plates for butt welds, consideration shall be given to the effect of angular, lateral, and end restraint on the weldment. This applies particularly to material and weld metal of 80.0 ksi (550 MPa) tensile strength or higher and heavy sections of both low and high tensile strength material. The addition of restraint during welding may result in cracking difficulties that otherwise might not occur.
(b) This Subsection does not permit the use of inertia and continuous drive friction welding, specially designed seal welds, electroslag, or electrogas welding.
(d) WA-3131 provides specific additional requirements when welding services are subcontracted to or through organizations not holding an appropriate Certificate of Authorization.
WB-4311. 1 Stu d Weld i n g Restri cti on s. Stud welding is acceptable only for nonstructural and temporary attachments (WB -443 5 ) . Studs shall be limited to 1 in. (2 5 mm) maximum diameter for ro und studs and an equivalent cross sectional area for studs of other shapes when welding in the flat position and 3/4 in. (19 mm) diameter for all other welding positions. Postweld heat treatment shall comply with WB-4600 , except that time at temperature need not exceed 1/2 hr regardless of base material thickness. Welding procedure and performance qualification shall comply with the requirements of Section IX.
WB-432 2
M ai n ten an ce an d Certi fi cati on of Record s

The Certificate Holder shall maintain a record of the qualified welding procedures and of the welders and welding operators qualified by him, showing the date and results of tests and the identification mark assigned to each welder. These records shall be reviewed, verified, and certified by the Certificate Holder by signature or some other method of control in accordance with the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program and shall be available to the Authorized Nuclear Inspector. ’
WB- 4311. 2 Capaci tor Di sch arg e Weld i n g . Capacitor discharge welding may be used for welding temporary attachments and permanent nonstructural attachments provided:
WB- 432 2 . 1
I d e n t i fi cat i o n o f J o i n t s b y W e ld e r o r
Weld i n g Operator.
(a) Each welder or welding operator shall apply the identification mark assigned by the Certificate Holder on or adjacent to all permanent welded j oints or series of joints on which he welds. The marking shall be at intervals of 3 ft (1 m) or less and shall be done with either blunt nose continuous or blunt nose interrupted dot die stamps. As an alternative, the Certificate Holder shall keep a record of permanent welded j oints in each item and of the welders and welding operators used in making each of the joints.
(a) temporary attachments are removed in accordance
with the provisions of WB-4435(b) ; and (b) the energy output for permanent nonstructural attachments such as strain gages and thermocouples is limited to 1 2 5 W sec, and the minimum thickness of the material to which the attachment is made is greater than 0.09 in. (2.3 mm); and ‐
(c) a Welding Procedure Specification is prepared describing the capacitor discharge equipment, the combinatio n o f materials to b e j o ined, and the technique o f application; qualification of the welding procedure is not required.
(b) When a multiple number of permanent structural attachment welds, nonstructural welds, fillet welds, socket welds, weld metal cladding, and hard surfacing are 92
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4244(c)-1 Deposited Weld Metal Used as Reinforcement of Openings for Nozzles 3 / in. (1 9 mm) min. 4 tn
tn
t
Step 1
(a)
Step 2 3 / in. (1 9 mm) min. 4 tn
tn
t
Step 1
(b)
Step 2
3 / in. (1 9 mm) 4
min.
tc
t
r1
Step 1
Backing ring, if used, shall be removed
tn
r1
t
(c)
Step 2
3 / in. (1 9 mm) 4
tn
min.
t
r1
Step 1
t
(d)
r1
Step 2
GENERAL NOTE: For definition of nomenclature, see WB-3252.4.
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Backing ring, if used, shall be removed
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Fi g u re WB-4244(d ) -1 N ozzles Attach ed by Parti al Pen etrati on Weld s
t
d
d
d tn
tn
tn
t
t
r1
1 1 /2 tn min.
r1
1 .25 tn min.
1 .25 tn min.
3 / t min. 4 n
[Note (1 )]
tc
(a)
(b)
r1
tc
(c)
Welding buildup added, when required, to meet reinforcement limitations [Notes (2) and (3)] GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of symbols and other related requirements, see WB-3252.4. NOTES: (1) The 3/4 t n minimum dimension applies to the fillet leg and the J ‐ groove depth. (2) Weld deposit reinforcement, if used, shall be examined as required by WB-5244. (3) Weld buildups are not attached to the nozzle.
made on the containment, the Certificate Holder need not identify the welder or welding operator who welded each individual joint, provided the following applies:
WB-4330
QU ALI FI CATI O N TESTS
(1 ) the Certificate Holder maintains a system that will identify the welders or welding operators who made such welds on the containment so that the Inspector can verify that the welders or welding operators were all properly qualified; (2) the welds in each category are all of the same type and configuration and are welded with the same Welding Procedure Specification.
WB-432 3
WB-4331
Con form an ce to Secti on I X Req u i rem en ts
All welding procedure qualification tests shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section IX as supplemented or modified by the requirements of this Article. WB-4333
H eat Treatm en t of Qu ali fi cati on Weld s for Ferri ti c M ateri als
Postweld heat treatment of procedure qualification welds shall conform to the applicable requirements of WB-4600 and Section IX. The postweld heat treatment time at temperature shall be at least 80% of the maximum time to be applied to the component weld material. The postweld heat treatment total time may be applied in one heating cycle.
Weld i n g Pri or to Qu ali fi cati on s
No welding shall be undertaken until after the welding procedures which are to be used have been qualified. Only welders and welding operators who are qualified in accordance with WB-4320 and Section IX shall be used.
WB-4324
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FOR WELDI N G PROCEDU RE
Tran sferri n g Qu ali fi cati on s
WB-4334
Preparati on of Test Cou pon s an d Speci m en s
The welding procedure qualifications and the performance qualification tests for welders and welding operators conducted by one Certificate Holder shall not qualify welding pro cedures and s hall not qualify welders o r welding o p erato rs to weld fo r any o ther C ertificate Holder, except as provided in Section IX.
(a) Removal of test coupons from the test weld and the dimensions of specimens made from them shall conform to the requirements of Section IX, except that the removal of impact test coupons and the dimensions of impact test specimens shall be in accordance with (b) below. 94
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Weld deposit of each process in a multiple process weld shall, where possible, be included in the impact test specimens. When each process cannot be included in the full ‐ size impact test specimen at the 1/4t location required by this Subsection, additional full ‐ size specimens shall be obtained from locations in the test weld that will ensure that at least a portion of each process has been included in full ‐ size test specimens. As an alternative, additional test welds can be made with each process so that full‐ size specimens can be tested for each process. WB-4334. 1
specimens. The axis of the unaffected base material specimens shall be parallel to the axis of the heat-affected zone specimens, and the axis of the notch shall be normal to the s u rface o f th e b as e m a te ri a l . Wh e n re q u i re d b y WB-4335.2(b), drop ‐ weight specimens shall be removed from a depth as near as practical to midway between the surface and center thickness of the unaffected base material and shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of WB-2321.1. WB-43 35
Cou pon s Represen ti n g th e Weld Depos-
Impact test specimens and testing methods shall conform to WB-2321. The impact specimen shall be located so that the longitudinal axis of the specimen is at least 0.25 t and, where the thickness of the test assembly permits, not less than 3/8 in. (10 mm) from the weld surface of the test assembly. In addition, when the postweld heat treatment temperature exceeds the maximum temperature specified in WB-4620 and the test assembly is cooled at an accelerated rate, the longitudinal axis of the specimen shall be a minimum of t from the edge of the test ass em b ly. The s p eci me n s hall b e trans vers e to the longitudinal axis of the weld with the area of the notch located in the weld. The length of the notch of the Charpy V‐ notch specimen shall be normal to the surface of the weld. Where drop weight specimens are required, the tension surface of the specimen shall be oriented parallel to the surface of the test weld assembly. W B - 4 3 3 4 . 2
C o u p o n s
R e p re s e n t i n g
I m pact Test Req u i rem en ts
When materials are required to be impact tested per WB - 2 3 0 0 , i m p a c t te s ts o f th e we l d m e ta l a n d heat-affected zone shall be performed in accordance with the following subparagraphs. The weld procedure qualification impact test specimens shall be prepared and tested in accordance with the applicable requirements of WB-2330 and WB-4334. Retests in accordance with the provisions of WB-2350 are permitted.
i t.
WB- 4335. 1
I m pact Tests of Weld M etal.
(a) Impact tests
of the weld metal shall be required for welding procedure qualification tests for production weld joints exceeding 5/8 in. (16 mm) in thickness when the weld will be made on the surface or penetrate base material that requires impact testing in accordance with WB-2310. In addition, such testing of the weld metal is required for the welding procedure qualification tests for any weld repair to base material that requires impact testing in accordance with WB-2310, regardless of the depth of the repair. Exemption from impact testing under WB-2311(a) does not apply to weld metal of welding procedure qualification tests for either production weld joints or base metal repairs unless the specific weld metal used is A‐ No. 8. (b) The impact test requirements and acceptance standards for welding procedure qualification weld metal shall be the same as specified in WB-2330 for the base material to be welded or repaired. Where two materials are to be joined by welding and have different fracture toughness requirements, the test requirements and acceptance standards of either material may be used for the weld metal except where this is otherwise specified in the Design Specification. (c) Impact tests are not required for austenitic and nonferrous weld metal. (d) A Welding Procedure Specification qualified to the impact testing requirements of Division 1, Subsection NB or NE may be accepted as an alternative to the Welding Procedure Specification impact testing requirements of this Subsection.
t h e
Where impact tests of the heataffected zone are required by WB-4335.2, specimens shall be taken from the welding procedure qualification test assemblies in accordance with (a) through (c) below. (a) If the qualification test material is in the form of a plate or a forging, the axis of the weld shall be oriented in the direction parallel to the principal direction of rolling or forging. (b) The heat-affected zone impact test specimens and testing methods shall conform to the requirements of WB-2321.2. The specimens shall be removed from a location as near as practical to a depth midway between the s u r fa c e a n d c e n te r th i c kn e s s . T h e c o u p o n s fo r heat-affected zone impact specimens shall be taken transverse to the axis of the weld and etched to define the heat-affected zone. The notch of the Charpy V‐ notch specimen shall be cut approximately normal to the material s u rface i n s u ch a m an n e r as to i n cl u d e as m u ch heat-affected zone as possible in the resulting fracture. Where the material thickness permits, the axis of a specimen may be inclined to allow the root of the notch to align parallel to the fusion line. (c) For the comparison of heat-affected zone values with base material values [ WB -43 3 5 .2 (b) ] , Charpy V‐ notch specimens shall be removed from the unaffected base material at approximately the same distance from the base material surface as the heat-affected zone H e at - Affe ct e d Z o n e .
WB-4335. 2
I m pact Tests of H eat-Affected Zon e.
(a) Charpy V‐ notch tests of the heat-affected zone of the
welding procedure qualification test assembly are required whenever the thickness of the weld exceeds 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and either of the base materials require 95
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(6) As an alternative to (5), if the average lateral expansion value of the heat-affected zone specimens is no less than 3 5 mils (0.89 mm) and the average of the heat-affected zone specimens is not less than 5 mils (0.13 mm) below the average lateral expansion value of the unaffected base material specimens, T A D J may be taken as 15°F (8°C). (7) As a second alternative to (5), if the average lateral expansion value of the heat-affected zone specimens is no less than 35 mils (0.89 mm), the difference between the average lateral expansion of the heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material specimens shall be calculated and used as described in (e)(3) below. (d) For heat-affected zones associated with base materials tested under WB-2332(a), the required testing shall be in accordance with (1) through (5). (1) Three Charpy V‐ notch specimens shall be removed from both the unaffected base material and the heat-affected zone. The unaffected base material specimens shall be tested at a test temperature established in the Design Specification, or additional testing shall be performed at higher temperatures until the applicable requirements of Table WB-2332(a)-1 are met for the thickness of material to be welded in production. (2) The heat‐ affected zone specimens shall be tested at the test temperature determined in (1). The average lateral expansion value of the specimens shall equal or exceed the average lateral expansion value of the unaffected base material. For this case, the qualification test is acceptable for the essential and supplemental essential variables recorded on the weld procedure qualification record. If the heat-affected zone average lateral expansion value is less than the unaffected base material lateral expansion value, the adjustment given in (3) through (5) shall be determined and applied as provided in (e). Alternatively, another test coupon may be welded and tested. (3) Additional Charpy V‐ notch tests shall be performed on either the heat-affected zone or the unaffected base material, or both, at temperatures where the lateral expansion value of all three specimens tested is not less than the values shown in Table WB-2332(a)-1 for the thickness of base material to be welded in production. The average lateral expansion value for each test meeting this requirement shall be plotted on a lateral expansion versus temperature graph. The difference in temperature between T H A Z and T U B M , where the heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material average lateral expansion values are the same and not less than that specified in (2) above, shall be used to determine the adjustment temperature TA D J , where:
impact testing in accordance with the rules of WB-2310. The o nly excep tio ns to the requirements are the following: (1) the qualification for welds in P ‐ Nos. 1 and 3 and SA-336 F12 materials that are postweld heat treated. (2) the qualification for weld deposit cladding. (3) that portion of the heat-affected zone associated with GTAW root deposits with a maximum of two layers or 3/16 in. (5 mm) thickness, whichever is less. (b) The required testing shall be in accordance with (c) belo w for base material tested under WB -2 3 3 1 or WB-2332(b) and in accordance with (d) below for base material tested under WB-2332(a). (c) For heat-affected zones associated with base material tested under WB-2331 or WB-2332(b), the required testing shall be in accordance with (1) through (7). (1) Determine the TN D T of the unaffected base material to be used in the welding procedure qualification test assembly. (2) Charpy V‐ notch test specimens representing both the heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material shall be tested. The unaffected base material specimens shall be tested at the ( T N D T + 60°F) ( T N D T + 3 3 °C) temperature. (3) The Charpy V‐ notch tests of the unaffected base material shall meet the applicable requirements of WB-2330 or additional testing shall be performed at higher temperatures until the requirements of WB-2330 are met. (4) The heat-affected zone specimens shall be tested at the test temperature determined in (3). The average lateral expansion value of the specimens shall equal or exceed the average lateral expansion value of the unaffected base material. For this case, the qualification test is acceptable for the essential and supplemental essential variables recorded on the welding procedure qualification record. If the heat-affected zone average lateral expansion value is less than the unaffected base material lateral expansion value, the adjustment given in (5) through (7) shall be determined and applied as provided in (e). Alternatively, another test coupon may be welded and tested. (5) Additional Charpy V‐ notch tests shall be performed on either the heat‐ affected zone or the unaffected base material, or both, at temperatures where the lateral expansion value of all three specimens tested is not less than 35 mils (0.89 mm). The average lateral expansion value for each test meeting this requirement shall be plotted on a lateral expansion versus temperature graph. The difference in temperature between TH A Z and T U B M , where the heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material average lateral expansion values are the same and not less than 35 mils (0.89 mm), shall be used to determine the adjustment temperature TA D J , where:
If TA D J ≤ 0, then TA D J = 0 (4) As an alternative to (3), if the average lateral expansion value of the heat‐ affected zone is no less than 35 mils (0.89 mm) and the average of the heat‐ affected
If TA D J ≤ 0, then TA D J = 0 96
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ð 17Þ
zone specimens is not less than 5 mils (0.13 mm) below the average lateral expansion value of the unaffected base material, T A D J may be taken as 15°F (8°C). (5) As a second alternative to (3), if the average lateral expansion value of the heat-affected zone specimens is no less than 35 mils (0.89 mm), the difference between the average lateral expansion of the heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material specimens shall be calculated and used as described in (e)(3) below. (e) At least one of the following methods shall be used to compensate for the heat-affected zone toughness decrease due to the welding procedure effects: (1 ) The R T N D T temperature established in WB-2331 or WB-2332(b) or the LST specified in the Design Specification [WB-2332(a)] for all of the material to be welded in production Welding Procedure Specifications supported by this Procedure Qualification Record shall be increased by the adjustment temperature T A D J . (2) The specified testing temperature for the production material may be reduced by TA D J . (3) The materials to be welded may be welded using the WPS, provided they exhibit Charpy V‐ notch values which are no less than the minimum required lateral expansion value required by WB-2300 plus the difference in average lateral expansion values established in (c)(7) or (d)(5) above. (f) The Charpy V ‐ notch testing results shall be recorded on the welding procedure qualification record and any offsetting T A D J or increased toughness requirements shall be noted on the welding procedure qualification record and on the welding procedure specification. More than one compensation method may be used on a par basis. (g) A Welding Procedure Specification qualified to the impact testing requirements of Division 1, Subsection NB or Subsection NE may be accepted as an alternative to the Welding Procedure impact testing requirements of this Subsection. WB-43 36
identification, storage, and handling of electrodes, flux, and other welding material shall be maintained. Precautions shall be taken to minimize absorption of moisture by electrodes and flux. WB-4412
Su rfaces
The method used to prepare the base metal shall leave the weld preparation with reasonably smooth surfaces. The surfaces for welding shall be free of scale, rust, oil, grease, and other deleterious material. The work shall be protected from deleterious contamination and from rain, snow, and wind during welding. Welding shall not be performed on wet surfaces. WB-442 0
RU LES FO R M AKI N G WELDED J OI N TS
WB-442 1
Backi n g Ri n g s
Backing rings shall conform to the requirements of WB-4240. The material for backing rings, when used, shall be compatible with the base metal. Permanent backing rings, when permitted by WB-3252, shall be continuous, and any splices shall be made by full penetration welds. Spacer pins shall not be incorporated into the welds. WB-442 2
Peen i n g
Controlled peening may be performed to minimize distortion. Peening shall not be used on the initial layer, root of the weld metal, or on the final layer unless the weld is postweld heat treated. WB-442 3
M i scellan eou s Weld i n g Req u i rem en ts
(a) Before applying weld metal on the second side to be welded, the root of full penetration double welded joints shall be prepared by suitable methods, such as chipping, grinding, or thermal gouging, except for those processes of welding by which proper fusion and penetration are otherwise obtained and demonstrated to be satisfactory by welding procedure qualification. (b) If the welding is stopped for any reason, extra care shall be taken in restarting to get the required penetration and fusion. For submerged arc welding, chipping out a groove in the crater is recommended. (c) Where single-welded joints are used, particular care shall be taken in aligning and separating the components to be joined so that there will be complete penetration and fusion at the bottom of the joint for its full length.
Qu ali fi cati on Req u i rem en ts for Bu i lt-U p Weld Deposi ts
Built‐ up weld deposits for base metal reinforcement shall be qualified in accordance with the requirements of WB-4331 through WB-4335. WB-4400
Clean li n ess an d Protecti on of Weld i n g
RU LES G OVERN I N G M AKI N G , EXAM I N I N G , AN D REPAI RI N G WELDS
WB-4424 WB-4410
PRECAU TI ON S TO BE TAKEN BEFORE
As ‐ welded surfaces are permitted. However, the surface of welds shall be sufficiently free from coarse ripples, grooves, overlaps, and abrupt ridges and valleys to meet (a) through (e) below. (a) The surface condition of the finished weld shall be suitable for the proper interpretation of radiographic and other required nondestructive examinations of the
WELDI N G WB-4411
Su rfaces of Weld s
I d en ti fi cati on , Storag e, an d H an d li n g of Weld i n g M ateri al
Each Certificate Holder is responsible for control of the welding electrodes and other material which is used in the fabrication of containments (WB-412 0) . Suitable 97
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
weld. In those cases where there is a question regarding the surface condition of the weld on the interpretation of a radiographic film, the film shall be compared to the actual weld surface for interpretation and determination of acceptability. (b) Reinforcements are permitted in accordance with WB-4426.1. 1 (c) Undercuts shall not exceed /3 2 in. (0.8 mm) and shall not encroach on the required section thickness. (d) Concavity on the root side of a single ‐ welded circumferential butt weld is permitted when the resulting thickness of the weld meets the requirements of Article WB-3000. (e) If the surface of the weld requires grinding to meet the above criteria, care shall be taken to avoid reducing the weld or base material below the required thickness. WB-4426
M ateri als for Attach m en ts
Weld i n g of Stru ctu ral Attach m en ts
The rules of WB-4321 governing welding qualifications shall apply to the welding of structural attachments to containments. WB-4433
Stru ctu ral Attach m en ts
Structural attachments shall conform reasonably to the curvature of the surface to which they are to be attached and shall be attached by full penetration, fillet, or partial penetration continuous welds. When fillet and partial penetration welds are used on containments, the requirements of WB-3123.2 shall be met. Attachments to the internal surfaces of containments shall be made only with full penetratio n welds. Figure WB - 443 3 - 1 illustrates some of the typical details for attaching structural attachments to a containment using full penetration welds.
Th i ckn e s s o f W e ld Re i n fo rce m e n t fo r
The surface of the reinforcement of all butt-welded j oints in containments may be flush with the b as e material o r may have unifo rm cro wns . The height of reinforcement on each face of the weld shall not exceed the thickness in the following tabulation:
Up to 1 (25), incl. Over 1 to 2 (25 to 50) , incl. Over 2 to 3 (50 to 75) , incl. Over 3 to 4 (75 to 100), incl. Over 4 to 5 (100 to 125), incl. Over 5 (125)
WB-4431
WB-4432
Co n tai n m e n ts .
Nominal Thickness, in. (mm)
WELDI N G O F ATTACH M EN TS
Attachments (WB-1 1 3 2 ) welded to the containment shall be of materials which meet the requirements of WB-2 1 2 1 . Materials for the containment attachments shall meet the requirements of WB-2120.
Rei n forcem en t of Weld s
W B - 4 426 . 1
WB-4430
Maximum Reinforcement, in. (mm)
WB-4434
Weld i n g of I n tern al Stru ctu ral Su pports to Clad Con tai n m en ts
3
/32 (2.5) 1 /8 (3.0) 5 /32 (4.0) 7 /32 (5.5) 1 /4 (6) 5 /16 (8)
Internal structural supports on clad containments shall be welded to the base metal and not to the cladding, except for weld overlay cladding. WB-4435
Weld i n g of N on stru ctu ral an d Tem porary Attach m en ts an d Th ei r
WB-442 7
Rem oval
Sh ape an d Si ze of Fi llet Weld s
(a) Nonstructural attachments welded to the containment need not comply with Article WB-2 000 and may be welded with continuous fillet or partial penetration welds, provided the requirements of (1) through (4) below are met. (1 ) The welding procedure and the welders have been qualified in accordance with WB-4321. (2) The material is identified and is compatible with the material to which it is attached. (3) The welding material is identified and compatible with the materials joined. (4) The welds are postweld heat treated when required by WB-4620. (b) Removal of nonstructural attachments, when temporary, shall be accomplished as follows. (1 ) The immediate area around the temporary attachment is marked in a suitable manner so that after removal the area can be identified until after it has been examined in accordance with (3) below. (2) The temp o rary attachment is co mp letely removed in accordance with the procedures of WB-4211.
Fillet welds may vary from convex to concave. The shape and size of the weld shall be in accordance with the requirements of Figure WB-442 7-1 . A fillet weld in any single continuous weld may be less than the specified fillet weld dimension by not more than 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) , provided that the total undersize portion of the weld does not exceed 10% of the length of the weld. Individual undersize weld portions shall not exceed 2 in. (50 mm) in length. In making socket welds, a gap as shown in Figure WB-4427-1 shall be provided prior to welding. The gap need not be present nor be verified after welding. WB-442 8
Seal Weld s of Th read ed J oi n ts
Where seal welding of threaded pipe j oints is performed, the exposed threads shall be either removed entirely or covered with weld metal. WB-442 9
Weld i n g of Clad Parts
11
The joint types and welding procedures used for cladding shall be such as to prevent the formation of brittle weld composition. 98
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
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Fi g u re WB-442 7-1 Fi llet Weld Detai ls
Theoretical throat
Theoretical throat
Surface of vertical member
Surface of vertical member Convex fillet weld Size of weld
Concave fillet weld
Surface of horizontal member Size of weld (a) Equal Leg Fillet Weld [Note (1 )]
Theoretical throat Surface of vertical member
Theoretical throat Surface of vertical member
Concave fillet weld
Convex fillet weld Surface of horizontal member (b) Unequal Leg Fillet Weld [Note (2)]
NOTES: (1) The size of an equal leg fillet weld is the leg length of the largest inscribed right isosceles triangle. Theoretical throat = 0.7 × size of weld. (2) The size of an unequal leg fillet weld is the shorter leg length of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. (3) After the temporary attachment has been removed, the marked area is examined by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method in accordance with the requirements of WB-5110, and meets the acceptance s tandards o f WB - 5 3 40 or WB - 5 3 5 0 , whichever is applicable. (4) As an alternative to (a)(4) above, postweld heat treatment may be deferred until after removal of the attachment. WB-4450
REPAI R OF WELD M ETAL DEFECTS
WB-4451
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
(c) The area is examined by a magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with WB-5110 after b l en di ng and me ets the acce p tance s tandards o f WB-5300 to ensure that the defect has been removed or reduced to an imperfection of acceptable limit. Defects detected by visual or volumetric method and located on an interior surface need only be reexamined by the method which initially detected the defect when the interior surface is inaccessible for surface examination. WB-4453
Req u i rem en ts for M aki n g Repai rs of Weld s
Excavations in weld metal, when repaired by welding, shall meet the following requirements.
Defects in weld metal detected by the examinations required by Article WB-5000, or by the tests of Article WB - 6 0 0 0 , s hall b e eliminated and rep aired when necessary. WB-4452
Defects may be removed by mechanical means or by thermal gouging processes. The area prepared for repair shall be examined by a liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method in accordance with WB-5110, and meet the acceptance standards of WB-5340 or WB-5350. This examination is not required where defect elimination removes the full thickness of the weld and where the backside of the weld joint is not accessible for removal of examination materials.
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Weld metal surface defects may be removed by grinding or machining, and need not be repaired by welding, provided that the requirements of (a) through (c) below are met. (a) The remaining thickness of the section is not reduced below that required by Article WB-3000. (b) The depression, after defect elimination, is blended uniformly into the surrounding surface.
WB- 4453 . 1
D e fe c t R e m o va l .
WB- 4453 . 2
R e q u i re m e n t s fo r W e ld i n g M at e ri al,
The weld repair shall be made using welding material, welders, and welding procedures qualified in accordance with WB-4125 and WB-4300.
Proced u res, an d Weld ers.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4433-1 Types of Attachment Welds Di m . n ot
1 / in. (6 mm) 4
su ffi ci en t
m i n . ra d i u s
for wel d
A
A
A
A
from i n si d e
Secti on
Secti on
A – A
A – A
( a) Attach m en t of Lu g s, Sh oes, an d Brackets
A
A Secti on A – A
( b) Attach m en t of Tru n n i on s
( c) Attach m en t of Ri n g s
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
After repair, the surface shall be blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. WB- 4453. 3
WB- 4453. 4
Blen d i n g of Repaired Areas.
WB-46 12
Preheat for welding or thermal cutting, when employed, may be applied by any method which does not harm the base material or any weld metal already applied, or which does not introduce deleterious material into the welding area which is harmful to the weld.
Exam i n ati on of Repai r Weld s.
(a) The examination of a weld repair shall be repeated as required for the original weld, except that when the defect was originally detected by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method, and when the repair cavity does not exceed the lesser of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% of the thickness, it need only be reexamined by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. (b) When repairs to welds joining P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 materials require examination by radiography as required in (a) above, but construction assembly prevents meaningful radiographic examination, ultrasonic examination may be substituted provided: (1 ) the weld had been previously radiographed and met the applicable acceptance standards; (2) the ultrasonic examination is performed using a procedure in accordance with Section V, Article 4, to the acceptance standards of WB-5330; (3) the substitution is limited to Category A and B welds in containments, and similar type welds in other items. The absence of suitable radiographic equipment is not justification for the substitution.
WB-46 13
WB-4600
WB-46 11
Wh en Preh eat I s N ecessary
POSTWELD H EAT TREATM EN T
WB-46 21
H eati n g an d Cooli n g M eth od s
WB-46 22
PWH T Ti m e an d Tem peratu re Req u i rem en ts
Except as otherwise permitted in WB-4622.7, all welds, including repair welds, shall be postweld heat treated. During postweld heat treatment, the metal temperature shall be maintained within the temperature range and for the minimum holding time specified in Table WB-462 2 .1 -1 , e xcep t as o th erwi s e p erm itte d in WB - 46 2 2 . 4(c) . P ‐ Number groups in Table WB-4622.1-1 are in accordance with Section IX, QW-420. Except as provided in WB-4624.3, PWHT shall be performed in temperature ‐ surveyed and ‐ calibrated furnaces, or PWHT shall be performed with thermocouples in contact with the material or attached to blocks in contact with the material. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens. In addition, the requirements of the following subparagraphs shall apply. – Time – temperature recordings of all postweld heat treatments shall be made available for review by the Inspector. Identification on the time – temperature recording shall be to the weld or containment, as applicable. A summary of the time – temperature recording may be provided for permanent records in accordance with WA-4134. WB- 4622. 1
H EAT TREATM EN T
WELDI N G PREH EAT REQU I REM EN TS
WB-46 20
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) may be accomplished by any suitable methods of heating and cooling, provided the required heating and cooling rates, metal temperature, metal temperature uniformity, and temperature control are maintained.
H eat Treatm en t of Repai red Areas.
WB-46 10
I n terpass Tem peratu re
Consideration shall be given to the limitations of interpass temperatures for quenched and tempered material to avoid detrimental effects on the mechanical properties.
The area shall be heat treated in accordance with WB-4620. WB-4453. 5
Preh eati n g M eth od s
The need for and temperature of preheat are dependent on a number of factors, such as the chemical analysis, degree of restraint of the parts being joined, elevated temperature, physical properties, and material thicknesses. Some practices used for preheating are given in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix D as a general guide for the materials listed by P ‐ Numbers of Section IX. It is cautioned that the preheating suggested in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix D does not necessarily ensure satisfactory completion of the welded joint and that the preheating requirements for individual materials within the P ‐ Number may be more or less restrictive. The Welding Procedure Specification for the material being welded shall specify the minimum preheating requirements under the welding procedure qualification requirements of Section IX.
G en eral Req u irem en ts.
WB- 462 2 . 2
Ti m e
WB-4622. 3
Tem pe ratu re Re cord i n g s.
D e fi n i t i o n
o f N o m i n al Th i ckn e s s
N o m i n a l th i c kn e s s i n T a b l e WB-4622.7(b)-1 is the thickness of the weld, the containment material for structural attachment welds or the thinner of the containment materials being joined, whichever is least. It is not intended that nominal thickness G overn i n g
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Table WB-4622.1-1 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Welds
P ‐ No. (Sec. IX, QW-420) 1, 3
Holding Temperature Range, °F (°C) [Note (1)]
Minimum Holding Time at Temperature for Weld Thickness (Nominal) 1
/2 in. (13 mm) or less
Over 1/2 in. to 2 in. (13 mm to 50 mm)
30 min
1 hr/in. (2 min/mm)
1,100 – 1,250 (595 – 675)
P ‐ Nos. 8, 10 H Gr. 1, 34, 42, 43, 45 and hard surfacing on P ‐ No. 1 base metal whose reported carbon content is not more than 0.30%
Over 2 in. to 5 in. (50 mm to 125 mm) 2 hr plus 15 min each additional inch (2 h plus 0.5 min/mm) over 2 in. (50 mm)
Over 5 in. (125 mm) 2 hr plus 15 min each additional inch (2 h plus 0.5 min/mm) over 2 in. (50 mm)
PWHT neither required nor prohibited
GENERAL NOTE: Exemptions to the mandatory requirements of this Table are defined in WB-4622.7. NOTE: (1) All temperatures are metal temperatures.
(1 ) Except for P ‐ No. 1 materials, when welds in the materials listed in Table WB-4622.4(c)-1 are to be postweld heat treated at the lower minimum temperatures, the impact test specimens for the welding procedure qualification required by WB-4300 shall be made using the same minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding time. Welding procedures, qualified at the temperature range and minimum holding time specified in Table WB-4622.1-1 and at the lower temperature and increas e d mi ni mu m ho ldi ng ti me p e rm itted b y Tab le WB-462 2.4(c) -1 , are also qualified for any temperature in between. When such an in ‐ between temperature is used, the minimum holding time shall be interpolated from Table WB-462 2 .1 -1 and the alternative requirements from Table WB-4622.4(c)-1.
include material provided for forming allowance, thinning, or mill overrun when the excess material does not exceed 1/8 in. (3 mm). For fillet welds the nominal thickness is the throat thickness, and for partial penetration and material repair welds the nominal thickness is the depth of the weld groove or preparation.
WB-4622.4
Holding Times at Temperature.
(a) The holding time at temperature as specified in Table WB-4622.1-1 shall be based on the nominal thickness of the weld. The holding time need not be continuous. It may be an accumulation of the times of multiple postweld heat treat cycles. (b) Holding time at temperature in excess of the minimum requirements of Table WB-4622.1-1 may be used, provided that specimens so heat treated are tested in accordance with WB-2200, WB-2400, and WB-4300. (c) Alternatively, when it is impractical to postweld heat treat at the temperature range specified in Table WB-4622 .1-1 , it is permissible to perform the postweld heat treatment of certain materials at lower temperatures fo r lo nger perio ds o f time in acco rdance with Tab le WB-4622.4(c)-1 and (1), (2), and (3) below.
(2) Except for P ‐ No. 1 materials, when welds in the materials listed in Table WB-4622.4(c)-1 are to be postweld heat treated at these lower minimum temperatures, the welding material certification required by WB-2400 shall be made using the same minimum temperature and increased minimum holding time. Welding material certified at the temperature range and minimum holding time specified in Table WB-462 2 .1 -1 and at the lower minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding time permitted by Table WB-4622 .4(c) -1 are also certified for any temperature in between.
Table WB-4622.4(c)-1 Alternative Holding Temperatures and Times Material P ‐ No.
Alternative Minimum Holding Temperatures, °F (°C)
Alternative Minimum Holding Times [Note (1)]
1, 3 1, 3
1,050 (565) 1,000 (540)
2 hr/in. (4 min/mm) thick 4 hr/in. (8 min/mm) thick
(3) B a s e m a te ri a l ce rti fi e d i n a c co rd a n c e wi th WB-2200 may be postweld heat treated at the lower minimum temperature ranges and increased minimum holdi n g ti m e s wi th o u t r e c e r ti fi c a ti o n . P o s twe l d h e a t treatment at these lower minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding times may also be the tempering operation provided a higher tempering temperature is not required by the material specification.
NOTE: (1) All other requirements of WB-4622 shall apply.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-4622.5 PWHT Requirements When Different P-Number Materials Are Joined. When materials of two
(d) welds connecting nozzles to containments provided the requirements in WB-4622.8 are met;
different P ‐ Number groups are joined by welding, the applicable postweld heat treatment shall be that specified in Table WB-4622.1-1 for the material requiring the higher PWHT temperature range.
(e) weld repairs to containments provided the requirements of WB-4622.9 are met; (f) weld repairs to cladding after final postweld heat treatment provided the requirements of WB -462 2 .1 0 are met;
WB-4622.6 PWHT Requirements for Noncontainment Parts. When noncontainment material is welded
(g) weld repairs to dissimilar metal welds after final postweld heat treatment provided the requirements of WB-4622.11 are met.
to containment material, the postweld heat treatment temperature range of the containment material shall control.
WB-4622.8 Requirements for Exempting PWHT of Nozzles to Containment Welds. Welds connecting noz-
WB-4622.7 Exemptions to Mandatory Requirements. Postweld heat treatment in accordance with this
zles of P ‐ No. 1 materials to containments of P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials that are not exempted from PWHT in Table WB-4622.7(b)-1 need not be given a postweld heat treatment if the requirements of (a) below are met for partial penetration and (b) below are met for full penetration welds.
subarticle is not required for: (a) nonferrous material; (b) welds exempted in Table WB-4622.7(b)-1; (c) welds subjected to temperatures above the PWHT temperature range specified in Table WB-4622 .1-1, provided the Welding Procedure Specification is qualified in accordance with Section IX and the base material and the deposited weld filler material have been heat treated at the higher temperature;
(a) The partial penetration welds are made with A‐ No. 8 or non ‐ air ‐ hardening nickel – chromium – iron weld metal after:
Table WB-4622.7(b)-1 Exemptions to Mandatory PWHT P ‐ No. (Section IX, QW‐ 420) 1
All welds, where the materials being joined are 1 1/4 (32) and less 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) and less Over 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 (32 to 38)
All welds in material over 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) 1 Gr. 1 or Gr. 2
Nominal Thickness, in. (mm) (WB-4622.3)
Type of Weld [Note (1)]
Max. Reported Carbon, % [Note (2)]
Min. Preheat Required, °F (°C)
0.30 and less 0.30 and less

200 (95)
3
/4 (19) or less
Over 0.30
Over 3/4 to 1 1/2 (19 to 38)
Over 0.30
200 (95)

200 (95)
0.30
100 (38)
3
/4 (19) or less
Cladding or repair of cladding [Note (3)] with A‐ No. 8 or F ‐ No. 43 filler metal in base material of: 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) or less


Over 1 1/2 in. to 3 in. (38 mm to 75 mm)

0.30
200 (95) [Note (4)]
Over 3 in. (75 mm)

0.30
250 (120) [Note (5) ]


3
For containment repair without required PWHT, see WB-4622.9 or WB-4622.10
3 except Gr. 3
All welds, except repair welds in containments, 5/8 (16) or less provided weld procedure qualification is made using equal or greater thickness base material than production weld [Note (6)] Attachment welds joining containment to noncontainment material
1
/2 (13) or less
350 (175)
0.25 or less
200 (95)
0.25 or less
200 (95)
GENERAL NOTE: The exemptions noted in this Table do not apply to electron beam welds in ferritic materials over 1/8 in. (3 mm) in thickness. NOTES: (1) Where the thickness of material is identified in the column Type of Weld, it is the thickness of the base material at the welded joint. (2) Carbon level of the pressure-retaining materials being joined. (3) The maximum resulting hardness of the heat-affected zone, in the procedure qualification test plate shall not exceed 35 Rc. (4) Intermediate postweld soak at not less than 200°F (95°C) for 2 hr minimum. (5) Intermediate postweld soak at not less than 300°F (150°C) for 2 hr minimum. (6) Weld Procedure Qualification coupon need not exceed 1.5 in. (38 mm) in thickness.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(1 ) the ferritic materials to be joined are buttered or b u i lt ‐ up wi th A ‐ N o . 8 o r no n ‐ ai r ‐ harden i ng ni ckel – chromium – iron weld metal having a minimum thickness of 1/4 in. (6 mm), and (2) the heat-affected zones of the buttered or built‐ up ferritic materials are postweld heat treated in accordance with WB - 462 0 , without the PWHT exemptions being applied, prior to making the final welds. (b) The full penetration welds are made with A‐ No. 1 or A‐ No. 2 weld metal provided that: (1 ) the containment is built‐ up or buttered in the area of the attachment with A‐ No. 1 or A‐ No. 2 metal having a minimum thickness of 1/4 in. (6 mm); (2) the A‐ No. 1 or A‐ No. 2 weld metal buildup or butte ri ng is p o s twe ld heat tre ate d i n acco rdance wi th WB-462 0 for P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials without the PWHT exemptions being applied; (3) the welds do not penetrate through the containment thickness; (4) weld metal with A ‐ No. 1 or A ‐ No. 2 analysis is used to j oin the nozzle of P ‐ No. 1 material to the weld buildup or buttering; (5) the nominal thickness of the weld joining the nozzle to the containment does not exceed 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) and the maximum reported carbon content of the nozzle does not exceed 0.30%; (6) a 200°F (95°C) minimum preheat is maintained during welding whenever the nominal thickness of the weld exceeds: 1 (-a) 1 /4 in. (32 mm) and the maximum reported carbon content of the material of the nozzle is 0.3 0% or less, or 3 (-b) /4 in. (1 9 mm) and the maximum reported carbon content of material of the nozzle exceeds 0.30%.
(2) The weld metal shall be deposited by the manual shielded metal arc process using low hydrogen type electrode. The maximum bead width shall be four times the electrode core diameter. (3) Welding electrodes shall meet the requirements for supplemental designators “ R” indicating a moistureresistant coating and “ H4 ” indicating that they are low in diffusible hydrogen as defined in the applicable specifications in Section II, Part C. Welding electrodes shall also be supplied in unopened hermetically sealed containers. (4) After a hermetically sealed container is opened, the electrodes shall be stored in holding ovens at 225°F to 350°F (105°C to 175°C). When electrodes are removed from elevated storage, they may be exposed to the atmosphere for a maximum of 8 hr. (5) Electrodes, which are exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr, shall be discarded or baked to remove any absorbed moisture for the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer. After baking and b efo re the electro des are allowed to coo l b elo w 225°F (105°C), they shall be transferred immediately into holding ovens at 225°F to 350°F (105°C to 175°C). When the once-baked electrodes are removed from elevated storage, they may be exposed to the atmosphere for an additional 8 hr after which they shall be discarded. (6) If the repair area is to be subjected to a significant fast neutron fluence (greater than 10 1 9 nvt E o >1 MeV) , electrode shall be limited to Cu content of 0.10% maximum (as deposited). (7) The weld area plus a band around the repair area of at least 1 1/2 times the component thickness or 5 in. (125 mm), whichever is less, shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350°F (175°C) during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450°F (230°C) . Thermocouples and recording instruments shall be used to monitor the process temperatures. Their removal shall be in accordance with WB-4435(b) .
WB-4622.9 Temper Bead Weld Repair. Limited weld repairs to P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 material, and A‐ Nos. 1, 2, 1 0, or 1 1 weld filler metal (Section IX, Table QW-442 ) , may be made without PWHT or after the final PWHT, provided it is impossible or impractical to postweld heat treat the area after repair, and provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met: (a) Examination of Area to Be Repaired. Before repair, the area shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with Article WB-5000. (b) Maximum Extent ofRepair. The maximum area of an individual repair based on the finished surface shall be 100 in. 2 (65 000 mm 2 ) and the depth of repair shall not be greater than one ‐ third of the base material thickness. (c) Repair Welding Procedure . The welding procedure shall be in accordance with Section IX and this Subsection and shall include the requirements of (1 ) through (6) below. (1 ) The area to be repaired shall be suitably prepared for welding in accordance with a written procedure.
3
(8) The cavity s hal l b e b uttered, us i ng a /3 2 in .
( 2 . 5 m m ) d i a m e te r e l e c tr o d e a s s h o wn i n F i g u r e WB-462 2 .9(c) (8) -1 . The weld bead crown surface shall be removed by grinding or machining before depositing the second layer [see Figure WB-4622.9(c)(8)-1 , Step 2] . T h e s e c o n d l a ye r s h a l l b e d e p o s i te d wi th a 1/8 i n . (3 mm) diameter electro de. S ub s equent layers s hall b e d e p o s i te d wi th a we l d i n g e l e c tr o d e n o l a r ge r th a n 5/3 2 i n . ( 4 m m ) d i a m e t e r . B e a d d e p o s i ti o n s h a l l b e p e r fo r m e d i n a m a n n e r s h o wn i n F i gu r e WB -462 2 .9(c) (8) -1 , Step 3 . The completed weld shall have at least one layer of weld reinforcement deposited and then this reinforcement shall be removed by mechanical means, making the finished surface of the repair substantially flus h with the s urface o f the co ntainment surrounding the repair [Figure WB-4622.9(c) (8) -2 ] . The technique described in this paragraph shall be performed in the procedure qualification test. 104
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4622.9(c)(8)-1 Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement
Step 1 : Butter cavity with one layer of weld metal using 3 / in. (2.5 mm) diameter coated electrode. 32
Step 2: Remove the weld bead crown of the first layer of grinding.
Reinforcement weld Temper bead layer
Step 3: The second layer shall be deposited with a 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers shall be deposited with welding electrodes no larger than 5 /32 in. (4.0 mm) maximum diameter. Bead deposition shall be performed in the manner as shown. Particular care shall be taken in the application of the temper bead reinforcement weld at the tie-in points as well as its removal to ensure that the heat-affected zone of the base metal and the deposited weld metal is tempered and the resulting surface is substantially flush.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(g) This test assembly may be used to qualify procedures for weld buildup repairs of pressure-retaining materials. In this case, the depth of the cavity shall not be less than the thickness of the weld buildup or 1 in. (25 mm), whichever is greater, and the area of the weld buildup to be applied or 54 in. 2 (35 000 mm 2 ), whichever is less. (h) In all cases, the test assembly and cavity shall be of sufficient size to permit removal of the required test specimens. (i) Performance Qualifications. If the repair weld is to be performed where physical obstructions impair the welder s ability to perform, the welder shall also demonstrate the ability to deposit sound weld metal in the positions required, using the same parameters and simulated physical obstructions as are involved in the repair.
Figure WB-4622.9(c)(8)-2 Temper Bead Reinforcement
NOTE: (1) Apply temper bead reinforcement weld metal to a level above the surface and then remove it substantially flush to the surface as required by WB-4622.9(c)(8).

(9) The weld area shall be maintained at a temperature of 450°F to 550°F (230°C to 290°C) for a minimum period of 2 hr after completion of the weld repair in P No. 1 materials. For P No. 3 materials, the holding time shall be a minimum of 4 hr. (d) Examination of Repair Welds. The second (temper bead) layer shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. The completed weld shall have the weld reinforcement, including the final layer, removed substantially flush with the surface prior to performing the required nondestructive examination. The nondestructive examination shall be performed after the completed weld has been at ambient temperature for a minimum period of 48 hr to detect the presence of possible delayed cracking of the weldment. The nondestructive examination of the repair welded and preheated region shall be in accordance with WB-4453.4. In addition, all repairs shall be ultrasonically examined. All nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with Article WB-5000. (e) Documentation of Weld Repairs. Documentation of weld repairs shall be in accordance with WB-4130, exclusive of the size requirements. (f) Welding Procedure Qualification Test Plate . The test assembly materials for the welding procedure qualification shall be of the same P Number and Group Number, including a postweld heat treatment that is at least equivalent to the time and temperature applied to the materials being repaired. The depth of cavity in the test assembly shall be a minimum of one half the depth of actual repair, but not less than 1 in. (25 mm). The test assembly thickness shall be a minimum of twice the depth of cavity in the test assembly. The test assembly shall be large enough to permit removal of the required test specimens. In order to simulate the restraint that the weld metal will experience in the repair section of the component, the test assembly dimensions surrounding the cavity shall be equal to the test assembly thickness, but not less than 6 in. (150 mm). The qualification test plate shall be prepared in acco rdance with Figure WB-4622.9(f)-1. ‐
WB-4622.10 Repair Welds to Cladding After Final Postweld Heat Treatment. Nonpostweld heat-treated weld repairs may be made to P No. 8 or P No. 43 cladding of P No. 1 and P No. 3 material after final PWHT, provided it is impossible or impractical to postweld heat treat the area after repair, and provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met: (a) Maximum Extent of Repair. This procedure may be used with the base material exposed to a depth not greater than 1/4 in. (6 mm) or 10% of the base material thickness, whichever is less, nor to an individual area greater than 100 in. 2 (65 000 mm 2 ). Areas with greater base material exposure depth shall be repaired in accordance with WB-4622.9 to within this limit before implementing the cladding repair. (b) Repair Welding Procedure . The welding procedure shall be in accordance with Section IX and this Division, and shall include the requirements of (1) through (7) below. (1 ) The repairs shall be made using A No. 8 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-442) for P No. 8 cladding or F No. 43 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-432) for either P No. 8 or P No. 43 cladding. (2) The manual shielded metal arc process shall be used for welding with a bead width not to exceed four times the electrode core diameter. (3) All covered electrodes used for qualification test and repair welding shall be from unopened, hermetically sealed packages or heated ovens maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes withdrawn from hermetically sealed containers or ovens for longer than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (4) During the repair, the electrodes may be maintained in heated ovens in the repair area. The oven temperature shall be maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at











106

ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4622.9(f)-1 Qualification Test Plate Discard Side bend
specimen
Reduced section
specimen
Side bend
specimen
Plan view
Charpy
V – Notch (HAZ)
Charpy
V – Notch (HAZ)
Charpy
V – Notch (HAZ)
Side bend
specimen
Reduced section
specimen
Side bend
specimen Charpy V – Notch (HAZ) 1 /8 in. 1 /32 in. (3 mm
Fusion line
Elevation view
3 /8 in. (1 0 mm)
30 deg (max.)
1 /2 in. (1 3 mm)
min.
Weld metal
Heat-affected zone
107
0.8 mm)
WB-4622.9(f)
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-4622.11 Temper Bead Weld Repair to Dissimilar Metal Welds or Buttering. Whenever PWHT is impractical or impossible, limited weld repairs to dissimilar metal welds of P No. 1 and P No. 3 material or weld filler metal A No. 8 (Section IX, Table QW-442) or F No. 43 (Section IX, Table QW-432) may be made without PWHT or after the final PWHT provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met: (a) Examination of Area to Be Repaired. Before repair, the area shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with Article WB-5000. (b) Maxim um Exten t of Repair. Repairs made to this paragraph are limited to those along the fusion line of a nonferritic weld to ferritic base material where 1/8 in. (3 mm) or less of nonferritic weld deposit exists above the original fusion line after defect removal. If the defect penetrates into the ferritic base material, repair of the base material may be performed in accordance with WB-4622.11 provided the depth of repair in the base material does not exceed 3/8 in. (10 mm). The repairs to a completed joint shall not exceed one half the joint thickness. The surface of the completed repair shall not exceed 100 in. 2 (65 000 mm 2 ). (c) Repair Welding Procedure . The welding procedure and welder qualification shall meet all of the requirements of Section IX and the additional requirements of this Article. In addition, the Welding Procedure Specification shall include the following requirements. (1 ) The area to be repaired shall be suitably prepared for welding in accordance with the written procedure to be used for the repair. (2) The weld metal shall be deposited by the shielded metal arc welding process (SMAW) using A No. 8 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-442) for P No. 8 to P No. 1 or P No. 3 weld joints or F No. 43 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-43 2 ) for either P No. 8 or P No. 43 to P No. 1 or P No. 3 weld joints. The maximum bead width shall be four times the electrode core diameter. (3) All covered electrodes used for qualification test and repair welding shall be from unopened, hermetically sealed packages or heated ovens maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes withdrawn from hermetically sealed containers or ovens for longer than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (4) During the repair, the electrode may be maintained in heated ovens in the repair area. The oven temperature shall be maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode
the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (5) The weld area plus a band around the clad repair of 1 1/2 times the component thickness or 5 in. (125 mm), whichever is less, shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350°F (175°C) during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450°F (230°C). Thermocouples and recording instruments shall be used to monitor the process temperatures. Their removal shall be in accordance with WB-4435. (6) All areas of the base material on which weld metal is to be deposited shall be covered with a single layer of weld deposit using 3/32 in. (2.5 mm) diameter electrode, followed by a minimum of one layer of weld deposit using 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers may be deposited with electrode no larger than 5/32 in. (4 mm). The weld bead crown surface of the first layer shall be removed by grinding. (7) After completion of welding, the weld area shall be maintained at a temperature of 45 0 °F to 5 5 0 °F (230°C to 290°C) for a period of 2 hr for P No. 1 material and 4 hr for P No. 3 material. (c) Exam ination of Repair Welds. The weld repair as well as the preheated band shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method. All nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with Article WB-5000. (d) Documentation of Weld Repairs. Documentation of weld repairs shall be in accordance with WB-4130, exclusive of the size requirements.







(e) Welding Procedure Qualification Test Plate (1 ) The test assembly material for the welding procedure qualification test shall be of the same P Number and Group Number, including a postweld heat treatment that is at least equivalent to the time and temperature of that applied to the material being repaired. If the repair involves two different P Number or Group Number materials, the test assembly shall duplicate the combination. (2) The test assembly base material shall be at least 1 2 in. (3 00 mm) by 1 2 in. (300 mm) , 2 in. (50 mm) min. thickness, with a clad surface area of at least 8 in. (200 mm) by 8 in. (200 mm), in the area from which the bend test specimens will be removed. (3) The qualification test plate assembly shall be prepared and tested in accordance with the requirements of Section IX. The guided bend test acceptance standards described in Section IX for cladding shall also be applicable to the HAZ of the base material. (f) Performance Qualifications. If the repair weld is to be performed where physical obstructions impair the welder s ability to perform, the welder shall also demonstrate the ability to deposit sound weld metal in the positions required, using the same parameters and simulated physical obstructions as are involved in the repair.








108




ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (5) The weld area plus a band around the weld repair of 1 1/2 times the component thickness or 5 in. (125 mm), whichever is less, shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350°F (175°C) during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450°F (230°C). Thermocouples and recording instruments shall be used to monitor the metal temperature during welding. Their removal shall be in accordance with WB-4435. (6) All areas of the ferritic base material, exposed or not, on which weld metal is to be deposited, shall be covered with a single layer of weld deposit using 3/3 2 in. (2.5 mm) diameter electrode. The weld bead crown surface shall be removed by grinding before depositing the second layer. The second layer shall be deposited with 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers may be deposited with 5/32 in. (4 mm)maximum diameter electrode. The techniques described in this paragraph shall be duplicated in the procedure qualification. [See Figure WB-4622.11(c)(6)-1.] 3 (7) After at least /1 6 in. (5 mm) of weld metal has been deposited, the preheated area as defined in (5) ab o ve s hal l b e mai ntained in the range o f 45 0 ° F to 550°F (230°C to 290°C) for 4 hr as a minimum. (8) Subsequent to the above heat treatment, the balance of the welding may be performed at a minimum preheat temperature of 100°F (40°C) and at a maximum interpass temperature of 350°F (175°C).
(e) Documentation of Weld Repairs. Documentation of weld repairs shall be in accordance with WB-4130, exclusive of the size requirements. (f) Welding Procedure Qualification Test Plate. The test assembly materials for the welding procedure qualification shall be of the same P Number and Group Number, including a postweld heat treatment that is at least equivalent to the time and temperature applied to the materials being repaired. The depth of cavity in the test assembly shall be a minimum of one half the depth of actual repair but not less than 1 in. (25 mm). The test assembly thickness shall be a minimum of twice the depth of cavity in the test assembly. The test assembly shall be large enough to permit removal of the required test specimens. In order to simulate the restraint that the weld metal will experience in the repaired section of the component, the test assembly dimensions surrounding the cavity shall be equal to the test assembly thickness, but not less than 6 in. (150 mm). The qualification test plate shall be prepared in accordance with Figure WB-4622.9(f)-1. (g) Performance Qualifications. If the repair weld is to be performed where physical constructions impair the welder s ability to perform, the welder shall also demonstrate the ability to deposit sound weld metal in the positions required, using the same parameters and simulated physical obstructions as are involved in the repair. ‐


WB-4623 PWHT Heating and Cooling Rate Requirements Above 800°F (425°C) the rate of heating and cooling in any hourly interval shall not exceed 400°F (220°C) divided by the maximum thickness in inches of the material being heat treated, but shall not exceed 400°F (220°C) and need not be less than 100°F (55°C) in any hourly interval. During the heating and cooling period there shall not be a greater variation in temperature than 250°F (140°C) within any 15 ft (4.5 m) interval of weld length.
(d) Examination of Repair Areas (1 ) After the heat treatment specified
in (c)(7) above has been completed, the repaired area shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method. (2) The repaired area and the preheated band as defined in (c)(5) above shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method after the completed weld has been at ambient temperature for a minimum of 48 hr. The repaired region shall be examined by the radiographic method and, if practical, by the ultrasonic method. (3) For repairs to partial penetration welds, the radiographic and ultrasonic examinations specified in (2) above need not be performed, if meaningful results cannot be obtained. For these cases, liquid penetrant examination only shall be performed. For weld repair depths approximately 3/16 in. (5 mm), liquid penetrant examination shall be performed at the time specified in (2) above. For weld repair depths greater than 3/1 6 in. (5 mm), liquid penetrant examination shall be performed after approximately 3/16 in. (5 mm) thickness has been deposited and the post heat specified in (c)(7) above has been completed. Additional incremental deposit thicknesses shall be liquid penetrant examined in accordance with WB-5245. The final weld surface shall be liquid penetrant examined at the time specified in (2) above. (4) All nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with Article WB-5000.
WB-4624 Methods of Postweld Heat Treatment The postweld heat treatment shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of one of the following subparagraphs. WB-4624.1 Furnace Heating One Heat. Heating the item in a closed furnace in one heat is the preferred procedure and should be used whenever practical. The furnace atmosphere shall be controlled so as to avoid excessive oxidation and direct impingement of flame on the containment is prohibited. WB-4624.2 Furnace Heating More Than One Heat. The item may be heated in more than one heat in a furnace, provided the furnace atmosphere control requirements of WB-4624.1 apply and overlap of the heated sections of the component or item is at least 5 ft (1.5 m). When this procedure is used, the portion of the component or item outside the furnace shall be shielded so that


109
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WB-4622.11(c)(6)-1 Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement of Dissimilar Metal Welds or Buttering 3 / in. (1 0 mm) maximum axial depth into the original base material for 8
repair to WB-4622.1 1 . Greater depths shall be repaired to WB-4622.9 to the 3 /8 in. (1 0 mm) level before implementing the WB-4622.1 1 repair.
T max. depth
1/ 2
Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Step 1 : Prepare cavity and determine axial depth into ferritic base material.
Step 2: Butter cavity with one layer of weld metal using 3 /32 in. (2.5 mm) diameter coated electrode. Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Step 3: Remove the weld bead crown of the first layer by grinding. Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Reinforcement weld Temper bead layer
Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Step 4: The second layer shall be deposited with a 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layer shall be deposited with welding electrodes no larger than 5 /32 in. (4.0 mm) diameter. Bead deposition shall be performed in the manner as shown. Particular care shall be taken in the application of the temper bead reinforcement weld at the tie-in point with the ferritic material as well as its removal to ensure that the base metal and the deposited weld metal are tempered and the resulting surface is substantially flush.
110
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the temp erature gradient is no t harmful. The cro s s section where the containment projects from the furnace s h a l l n o t i n te r s e c t a n o z z l e o r o th e r s tr u c tu r a l discontinuity.
WB-4700
BO LTI N G AN D TH READI N G
WB-4711
Th read En g ag em en t
WB-4712
Th read Lu bri can ts
Any lubricant or compound used in threaded j oints shall be suitable for the service conditions and shall not react unfavorably with either the service fluid or any containment material in the system. WB-4713
Rem oval of Th read Lu bri can ts
All threading lubricants or compounds shall be removed from surfaces which are to be seal welded.
The containment may be heated internally by any appropriate means and with adequate indicating and recording temperature devices to aid in the control and maintenance of a uniform distribution of temperature in the containment. Previous to this operation, the item should be fully enclosed with insulating material. WB-46 30
WB-4710
The threads of all bolts or studs shall be engaged in accordance with the design.
W B - 4 6 24 . 3 L o cal H e at i n g . Welds may be locally postweld heat treated when it is not practical to heat treat the entire component or item. Local postweld heat treatment s hall consist o f heating a circumferential b and around the containment at temperature within the ranges specified in this subarticle. The minimum width of the controlled band at each side of the weld, on the face of the greatest weld width, shall be the thickness of the weld or 2 in. (50 mm) , whichever is less. The temperature of the component or item from the edge of the controlled band outward shall be gradually diminished so as to avoid harmful thermal gradients. This procedure may also be used for postweld heat treatment after repairs. WB- 4624. 4
M ECH AN I CAL J OI N TS
WB-472 0
H eati n g I tem s I n tern ally.
BOLTI N G FLAN G ED J OI N TS
In bolting gasketed flanged joints, the contact faces of the flanges shall bear uniformly on the gasket and the gasket shall be properly compressed in accordance with the design principles applicable to the type of gasket used. All flanged j oints shall be made up with relatively uniform bolt stress.
H EAT TREATM EN T OF WELDS OTH ER TH AN TH E FI N AL POSTWELD H EAT TREATM EN T
The holding temperature, the time at temperature, the heating rate, and the cooling rate need not conform to the requirements of this Article for heat treatments other than the final postweld heat treatment.
111
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WB-5 000 EXAM I N ATI ON
WB-5100
WB-5110
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FOR
WB-5113
EXAM I N ATI ON
Following any nondestructive examination in which examination materials are applied to the piece, the piece shall be thoroughly cleaned in accordance with applicable material or procedure specifications.
PROCEDU RES, QU ALI FI CATI ON S, AN D EVALU ATI O N
WB-5111
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
Nondestructive examinations shall be conducted in accordance with the examination methods of Section V, except as they may be modified by the requirements of this Article. Radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Section V, Article 2, except that fluorescent screens are not permitted for film radiography, the geometric unsharpness shall not exceed the limits of Section V, Article 2, T-274.2, and the image quality indicators (IQIs) of Table WB-5111-1 shall be used in lieu of those shown in Section V, Article 2, Table T-276. The requirements for the retention of electronic and digital radiographic images are the same as that for radiographic film. Ultrasonic examination shall be in accordance with Section V, Article 4; magnetic particle examination shall be in accordance with Section V, Article 7; and liquid penetrant examination shall be in accordance with Section V, Article 6. The examinations required by this Article, or by reference to this Article, shall be performed by personnel who have been qualified as required by this Article. The results of the examinations shall be evaluated in accordance with the acceptance standards of this Article.
WB-5112
Post- Exam i n ati on Clean i n g
WB-512 0
TI M E OF EXAM I N ATI ON OF WELDS AN D WELD M ETAL CLADDI N G
Acceptance examinations of welds and weld metal cladding required by WB-5200 shall be performed at the times stipulated in (a) through (f) below during fabrication and installation. (a) Radiographic examination of welds shall be performed after an intermediate 12 or final postweld heat treatment, when required, except that radiographic examination of welds in containments fabricated of P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials may be performed prior to an intermediate or final postweld heat treatment, provided the welds are ultrasonically examined after an intermediate or final postweld heat treatment. The ultrasonic examination and acceptance standards shall be in accordance with this Article. (b) Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examinations of welds shall be performed after any required postweld heat treatment, except that welds in P ‐ No. 1 material may be examined either b efo re o r after po s tweld heat treatment. (c) All dissimilar metal weld joints, such as in austenitic or high nickel to ferritic material, or using austenitic or high nickel alloy filler metal to join ferritic materials which penetrate the wall, shall be examined after final postweld heat treatment. (d) The magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of weld surfaces that are to be covered with weld metal cladding shall be performed before the weld metal cladding is deposited. The magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of weld surfaces that are not accessible after a postweld heat treatment shall be performed prior to the operation which caused this inaccessibility. These examinations may be performed before PWHT. (e) Weld metal cladding shall be examined after either an intermediate 12 or final postweld heat treatment, except the examination of weld metal cladding on P ‐ Nos. 1 and 3 materials may be performed before or after the intermediate 12 or final postweld heat treatment.
N on d estru cti ve Exam i n ati on Proced u res
All nondestructive examinations required by this Article shall be performed in accordance with detailed written procedures which have been proven by actual demonstration to the satisfaction of the Inspector. The procedures shall comply with the appropriate Article of Section V for the particular examination method. The digitization of radiographic film and radioscopic images shall meet the requirements of Section V, Article 2, Mandatory Appendix III, “ Digital Image Acquisition, Display, and Storage for Radiography and Radioscopy.” Written procedures and records of demonstration of procedure capability and personnel qualification shall be made available to the Inspector on request. At least one copy of the procedure shall be readily available to all applicable nondestructive examination personnel for reference and use. 112
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Table WB-5111-1 Th i ckn ess, I QI Desi g n ati on s, Essen ti al H oles, an d Wi re Di am eters
U.S. Customary Units Single Wall Material Thickness Range, in.
IQI(s)
— Hole or Wire Type [Note (1)]
Source Side
Film Side
Designation
Hole Size
Up to 0.25 incl. Over 1/4 – 3/8 Over 3/8 – 1/2 Over 1/2 – 5/8 Over 5/8 – 3/4
5 7 10 12 15
0.040 0.040 0.040 0.050 0.060
Over 3/4 – 1
20
0.040
T T T T T 2 T
25 30 35 40 45 50
0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.090 0.100
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.020 0.025 0.032 0.040 0.040 0.050
17 20 25 30 35 40
0.035 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.013 0.016 0.020 0.025 0.032 0.040
60 80 100 120 160 200
0.120 0.160 0.200 0.240 0.320 0.400
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.063 0.100 0.126 0.160 0.250 0.320
45 50 60 80 100 120
0.090 0.100 0.120 0.160 0.200 0.240
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.040 0.050 0.063 0.100 0.126 0.160
Over Over Over Over Over Over
1 – 1 1/4 1 1/4– 1 1/2 1 1/2 – 2 2 – 2 1/2 2 1/2 – 3 3 –4
Over Over Over Over Over Over
4–6 6–8 8 – 10 10 – 12 12 – 16 16 – 20
Essential Hole
Required Wire Diameter IQI
Designation
Hole Size
Essential Hole
Required Wire Diameter IQI
0.006 0.006 0.010 0.013 0.016
5 7 10 12 12
0.040 0.040 0.040 0.050 0.050
0.006 0.006 0.010 0.013 0.013
0.016
17
0.035
T T T T T 2 T
0.013

4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4

SI Units Single Wall Material Thickness Range, mm
IQI(s)
— Hole or Wire Type [Note (1)]
Source Side Essential Hole
Film Side
Designation
Hole Size
Required Wire Diameter IQI
Designation
Hole Size
Up to 6 incl. Over 6 – 10 Over 10 – 13 Over 13 – 16 Over 16 – 19 Over 19 – 25
5 7 10 12 15 20
1.02 1.02 1.02 1.27 1.52 1.02
4 4 4 4 4 2
T T T T T T
0.15 0.15 0.25 0.33 0.41 0.41
5 7 10 12 12 17
1.02 1.02 1.02 1.27 1.27 0.89
4 4 4 4 4 2
T T T T T T
0.15 0.15 0.25 0.33 0.33 0.33
Over Over Over Over Over Over
25 – 32 32 – 38 38 – 50 50 – 64 64 – 75 75 – 100
25 30 35 40 45 50
1.27 1.52 1.78 2.03 2.29 2.54
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.51 0.64 0.81 1.02 1.02 1.27
17 20 25 30 35 40
0.89 1.02 1.27 1.52 1.78 2.03
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.33 0.41 0.51 0.64 0.81 1.02
Over Over Over Over Over Over
100 – 150 150 – 200 200 – 250 250 – 300 300 – 400 400 – 500
60 80 100 120 160 200
3.05 4.06 5.08 6.10 8.13 10.16
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
1.60 2.54 3.20 4.06 6.35 8.13
45 50 60 80 100 120
2.29 2.54 3.05 4.06 5.08 6.10
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
1.02 1.27 1.60 2.54 3.20 4.06

Essential Hole
Required Wire Diameter IQI

NOTE: (1) Hole (plaque) type IQIs may be used on flat plates and on objects with geometries such that the IQI hole image is not distorted.
113
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(f) All of the joints in austenitic stainless steel and nonferrous material shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method after an intermediate or final postweld heat treatment, if any, is performed.
WB-513 0
WB-5200
REQU I RED EXAM I N ATI ON OF WELDS
WB-52 10
CATEG O RY A WELDED J OI N TS
Category A welded joints in containments shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method.
EXAM I N ATI ON OF WELD EDG E PREPARATI ON SU RFACES
WB-52 2 0
All full penetration weld edge preparation surfaces for joint Categories A, B, C, D, and similar joints in material 2 in. (50 mm) or more in thickness shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. Indications shall be evaluated in accordance with the acceptance standards of (a), (b), and (c) below. (a) Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1/1 6 in. (1 .5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Laminar‐ type imperfections are acceptable without repair if they do not exceed 1 in. (25 mm) in length. The extent of all laminar‐ type imperfections exceeding 1 in. (25 mm) in length shall be determined by ultrasonic examination. Imperfections exceeding 1 in. (25 mm) in length shall be repaired by welding to a depth of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or the depth of the imperfection, whichever is less, unless the ultrasonic examination reveals that additional depth of repair is required to meet the ultrasonic examination requirement for the product form. (c) Indications of nonlaminar imperfections of (1) through (3) below are unacceptable: (1 ) any linear indications greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) long; (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm); (3) four or more indications, in a line separated by 1 /16 in. (1.5 mm) or less, edge to edge. (d) Weld repairs made to weld edge preparations for Category A, B, C, D, or similar type welds shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method before the surfaces become inaccessible. The examination may b e p erfo rmed b efo re o r after p o s tweld heat treatment.
WB-5140
CATEG ORY B WELDED J OI N TS
Category B welded joints in containments shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. WB-52 30
CATEG O RY C WELDED J O I N TS
WB-52 31
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
(a) Category C full penetration butt-welded joints in containments shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. (b) Category C full penetration corner-welded joints in containments shall be ultrasonically or radiographically examined and either liquid penetrant or magnetic particle examined. (c) Type 2 Category C full penetration corner-welded joints similar to Figure WB-4243-1 sketches (c) and (d) also require the fusion zone and the parent metal beneath the attachment surface to be ultrasonically examined after welding to verify freedom from lack of fusion and laminar defects. WB-5240
CATEG O RY D WELDED J OI N TS
WB-5241
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
All Category D welded joints in containments shall be examined as stated in the following paragraphs. WB-5242
Fu ll Pen etrati on Bu tt-Weld ed N ozzles
Nozzles attached by full penetration butt-welded joints as shown in Figure WB-4244(a)-1 shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. WB-5243
Corn er-Weld ed N ozzles
Full penetration corner-welded nozzles in containments as shown in Figure WB-4244(b)-1 shall be examined b y either the ultras o nic o r the radio grap hic method, and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. If radiographed, the weld fusion zone and the parent metal beneath the weld for details shown in Figure WB-4244(b)-1 sketches (a) and (b) and the weld fusion zone and parent material beneath the attachment surface for details shown in Figure WB -42 44(b) -1 sketches (c), (d), (e), and (g) shall be ultrasonically examined after welding to assure freedom from lack of fusion and laminar defects.
EXAM I N ATI ON O F ADJ ACEN T BASE M ATERI AL
When performing the surface examinations of weld joint Categories A, B, C, and D as required by WB-5200, the external and accessible internal weld surfaces and adjacent base material for at least 1/2 in. (13 mm) on each side of the weld shall be included in the examination. Acceptance standards for the weld shall be as stated in this Article while the acceptance standards for base material shall be as stated in WB-2500. 114
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-5244
Weld M etal Bu i ld u p at Open i n g s for
WB-5279
N ozzles
When the joint detail, or environmental conditions (i.e., background radiation), does not permit radiographic examination to be performed in accordance with this Article, ultrasonic examination plus liquid penetrant or magnetic particle examination of the completed weld may be substituted for the radiographic examination. The absence of suitable radiographic equipment shall not be justification for such substitution. The substitution of ultrasonic examination can be made, provided the examination is performed using a detailed written procedure which has been proven by actual demonstration to the satisfaction of the Inspector as capable of detecting and locating defects described in this Division. The nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with WB - 5 1 1 0 an d m e e t the acce p tan ce s tan dard s o f WB-5300.
When weld metal buildup is made to a surface as shown in Step 1 of Figure WB-4244(c)-1, the weld metal buildup and the parent metal beneath the weld metal buildup shall be ultrasonically examined. The parent material beneath the weld metal buildup shall be ultrasonically examined to detect laminar defects after weld metal buildup. Nozzles may then be attached by a full penetration weld as shown in Step 2 of Figure WB-4244(c)-1. The full penetration butt-welded joint shall be examined by either the ultrasonic or radiographic method, and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method and the weld metal buildup shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid-penetrant method. WB-5245
Parti al Pen etrati on Weld ed J oi n ts
Partial penetration welded j oints, as permitted in WB-3252.4(b), and as shown in Figure WB-4244(d)-1, shall have the surface of the finished welded joint examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. WB-526 0
WB-5300 WB-532 0
Fi llet, Parti al Pen etrati on , an d Socket Weld ed J oi n ts
Fillet and partial penetration welded joints, except for nonstructural attachments (WB-1 13 2 .1 ) , and socket welds shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. Stru ctu ral Attach m en t Weld ed J oi n ts
Structural attachment welded joints made to containment material shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. WB-5270
SPECI AL WELDED J O I N TS
WB-5272
Weld M etal Clad d i n g
Weld metal cladding shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method. WB-5273
H ard Su rfaci n g
Hard surfacing weld metal shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method in accordance with WB-2546, and the acceptance standards applicable to materials less than 5 /8 in. (16 mm) thick shall apply. WB-5277
RADI OG RAPH I C ACCEPTAN CE
Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and characterized as imperfections are unacceptable under the following conditions: (a) any indication characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; (b) any indication characterized as incomplete penetration or incomplete fusion, except that such indications in welds between P ‐ 8 metals that were made using GTAW or SMAW in which the deposit analysis in A‐ 8 or A‐ 9 are acceptable provided they do not exceed the length in (c). (c) any other elongated indication which has a length greater than: 1 3 (1 ) /4 in. (6 mm) for t up to /4 in. (19 mm), inclusive 1 3 1 (2) /3 t for t from /4 in. to 2 /4 in. (19 mm to 57 mm), inclusive 3 1 (3) /4 in. (19 mm) for t over 2 /4 in. (57 mm) where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld; (d) internal root weld conditions are acceptable when the density change or image brightness difference as indicated in the radiograph is not abrupt; elongated indicati o n s o n th e r a d i o gr a p h a t e i th e r e d ge o f s u c h conditions shall be unacceptable, as provided in (c) above; (e) any group of aligned indications having an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t , unless the minimum distance between successive indications exceeds 6 L , in which case the aggregate length is unlimited, L being the length of the largest indication; (f) rounded indications in excess of that shown as acceptable in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix VI.
J OI N TS
WB-526 2
ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
STAN DARDS
FI LLET, PARTI AL PEN ETRATI O N , SO CKET, AN D ATTACH M EN T WELDED
WB-526 1
Speci al Excepti on s
Electron Beam Weld s
In addition to the requirements for the type of weld being examined, all complete penetration welds made by the electron beam welding process shall be ultrasonically examined. 115
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WB-5330
(3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; (4) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm 2 ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
U LTRASON I C ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
All imperfections that produce a response greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the operator can determine the shape, identity, and location of all such imperfections and evaluate them in terms of the acceptance standards given in (a) and (b) below. (a) Imperfections are unacceptable if the indications exceed the reference level amplitude and have lengths exceeding: (1 ) 1/4 in. (6 mm) for t up to 3/4 in. (19 mm), inclusive (2) 1/3 t for t from 3/4 in. to 2 1/4 in. (19 mm to 57 mm), inclusive (3) 3/4 in. (19 mm) for t over 2 1/4 in. (57 mm) where t is the thickness of the weld being examined; if a weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. (b) Indications characterized as cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length. WB-5340
WB-5350
WB-5351
M AG N ETI C PARTI CLE ACCEPTAN CE
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are revealed by the retention of the examination medium. All indications are not necessarily defects, however, since certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce similar indications which are not relevant. (b) Any indication that is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined by the same or other nondestructive examination methods to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. After an indication has been verified to be nonrelevant, it is not necessary to reinvestigate repetitive nonrelevant indications of the same type. Nonreleva n t i n d i c a ti o n s th a t w o u l d m a s k d e fe c ts a r e unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are indications which result from imperfections. Linear indications are indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width. WB-5342
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are revealed by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, localized surface discontinuities, such as may occur from machining marks, surface conditions, or an incomplete bond between base metal and cladding, may produce similar indications which are nonrelevant. (b) Any indication which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas o f p i gm e n ta ti o n wh i c h wo u l d m a s k d e fe c ts a re unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are indications which result from imperfections. Linear indications are indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width.
STAN DARDS WB-5341
LI QU I D PEN ETRAN T ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
WB-5352
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following indications are unacceptable: (1 ) any cracks or linear indications; (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm); (3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; (4) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm 2 ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s
WB-5400
(a) Only
imperfections producing indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following indications are unacceptable: (1 ) any cracks and linear indications; (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm);
FI N AL EXAM I N ATI ON OF CON TAI N M EN TS
WB-5410
EXAM I N ATI ON AFTER H YDROSTATI C TEST
After the pressure testing of a containment, all weld joints and heat-affected zones of Categories A, B, C, and D, used to join ferritic material and repair welds in ferritic material that exceed in depth either 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 116
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
10% of the section thickness, whichever is less, shall be examined when physically accessible by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. WB-55 00
(3) The number of hours of training and experience for nondestructive examination personnel who perform only one operation of a nondestructive examination method that consists of more than one operation, or perform nondestructive examination of limited scope, may be less than that recommended in Table 6.3.1 A of SNT TC 1A. The time of training and experience shall be described in the written practice, and any limitations or restrictions placed on the certification shall be described in the written practice and on the certificate. The minimum classroom training times for visual examination personnel identified in Table 6.3.1 A of SNTTC-1A for Level II certification may be reduced from 16 hr to 8 hr. (4) For the near-vision acuity examination, the Jaeger Number 1 letters shall be used in lieu of the Jaeger Number 2 letters specified in paragraph 8.2.1 of SNT TC 1A. The use of equivalent type and size letters is permitted. (5) An NDE Level I individual shall be qualified to properly perform specific setups, specific calibrations, specific NDE, and specific evaluations for acceptance or rejection determinations according to written instructions, and to record results. The NDE Level I individual shall receive the necessary instruction and supervision from a certified NDE Level II or Level III individual. A Level I individual may independently accept the results of nondestructive examinations when the specific acceptance criteria are defined in the written instructions. (b) For nondestructive examination methods not covered by SNT TC 1A documents, personnel shall be qualified to comparable levels of competency by subjection to comparable examinations on the particular method involved. (c) The emphasis shall be on the individual s ability to perform the nondestructive examination in accordance wi th th e a p p l i c a b l e p ro ce d u r e fo r th e i n te n d e d application. (d) For nondestructive examination methods that consist of more than one operation or type, it is permissible to use personnel qualified to perform one or more operations. As an example, one person may be used who is qualified to conduct radiographic examination and another may be used who is qualified to interpret and evaluate the radiographic film.
QU ALI FI CATI ON S AN D

CERTI FI CATI ON OF

N ON DESTRU CTI VE EXAM I N ATI ON PERSON N EL WB-5510
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
Organizations performing Code required nondestructive examinations shall use personnel competent and knowledgeable to the degree specified by WB-552 0. When these services are subcontracted by the Certificate Holder or Quality System Certificate Holder, he shall verify the qualification of personnel to the requirements of WB-5520. All nondestructive examinations required by this Subsection shall be performed by and the results evaluated by qualified nondestructive examination personnel. WB-552 0

PERSON N EL QU ALI FI CATI ON , CERTI FI CATI O N , AN D VERI FI CATI ON
WB-552 1
Qu ali fi cati on Proced u re
(a) Personnel performing nondestructive examinations shall be qualified in accordance with the recommended guidelines of SNT TC 1A. 13, 14 The ACCP Level II and III provisions for qualification and certification and the ASNT administered Level II certification provision for qualification and certification of NDE Personnel shall not be used for Section III. The Employer s 15 written practice, required by paragraph 5 of SNT TC 1A, shall identify the requirements relative to the recommended guidelines. The recommended guidelines of SNT TC 1A shall be considered as minimum requirements, except as modified in (1) through (5) below. (1 ) Qualification of Level III nondestructive examination personnel shall be by examination. (-a) The basic and method examinations, paragraphs 8.8.1 and 8.8.2 of SNT TC 1A, may be prepared and administered by Employer, 1 5 ASNT, or an outside agency. (-b) The specific examination, paragraph 8.8.3 of SNT TC 1A, shall be prepared and administered by the Employer or an outside agency. The Employer or outside agency administering the specific examination shall identify the minimum grade requirement in the written program when the basic and method examinations have been administered by ASNT, which issues grades on a pass/fail basis. In this case, the minimum grade for the specific examination may not be less than 80%. (2) The written practice identified in paragraph 5 of SNT TC 1A and the procedures used for examination of personnel shall be referenced in the Employer s Quality Program. ‐















WB-552 2
Certi fi cati on of Person n el
(a) The Employer retains responsibility for the adequacy of the program and is responsible for certification o f Levels I , I I , and I I I nondestructive examination personnel. (b) When ASNT is the outside agency administering t h e L e v e l I I I b a s i c a n d m e th o d e x a m i n a t i o n s [WB-5521(a)(1)(-a)], the Employer may use a letter from ASNT as evidence on which to base the certification.


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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(c) When an outside agency is the examining agent for Level III qualification of the Employer s personnel, the examination results shall be included with the Employer s record.
and qualified by them in accordance with WA-3 820 and subcontractors who provide nondestructive examination services to them.


WB-5530 RECORDS
WB-5523 Verification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel Certification
Personnel qualification records identified in paragraph 9.4 of SNT TC 1A shall be retained by the Employer. ‐
The Certificate Holder has the responsibility to verify the qualification and certification of nondestructive examination personnel employed by Material Organizations
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WB-6 000 TESTI N G
WB-6100 WB-6110
The containment test may be used in lieu of any pressure test required by the material specification for material used in the containment provided (a) nondestructive examinations, if required by the material specification, can be performed subsequent to the containment test (b) the material can be repaired by welding in accordance with the rules of WB-4130 (c) postweld heat treatment, when required after repairs, can be performed in accordance with WB-4620 WB-6123. 2
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS SCOPE
(a) This Article contains the testing requirements for transportation containments constructed in accordance with the rules of this Subsection. (b) The terms test and testing as used in this Article include hydrostatic testing (WB-6200), pneumatic testing (WB-6300), and leak testing (WB-6700). WB-612 0
TESTI N G O F CO N TAI N M EN TS
Except for final closure welds and final mechanical closures made on inner containments meeting the requirements of this Subsection and made after the inner containment is loaded (e.g., dual-purpose containments that are totally enclosed in a transportation containment meeting the requirements of this Subsection), all transportation containments shall be pressure tested and then leak tested in accordance with WB-6700. Final closure welds and final mechanical closures made after inner containments are loaded shall be tested as required by WB-6700. WB-612 1
WB-6124
PREPARATI ON FOR TESTI N G
WB-613 1
Exposu re of J oi n ts
WB-6132
Ad d i ti on of Tem porary Su pports
Containments may be provided with additional temporary supports, if necessary, to support the weight of the test liquid when hydrostatic testing is performed.
P n e u m at i c T e s t L i m i t at i o n s .
WB-613 3
Restrai n t or I solati on of Expan si on J oi n ts
Expansion joints shall be provided with temporary restraints, if required, for the additional pressure load under test.
P re cau ti o n s to B e E m p lo ye d i n P n e u -
Compressed gaseous fluid is hazardous when used as a testing medium. Therefore, it is recommended that special precautions for protection of personnel be taken when a gaseous fluid under pressure is used as a test medium. m ati c Te s ti n g .
WB-612 2
WB-613 0
All joints, including welded joints, shall be left uninsulated and exposed for examination during the test.
A pneumatic test in accordance with WB-6300 may be substituted for the hydrostatic test when permitted by the Design Specification. A pneumatic test at a pressure not to exceed 25% of the Design Pressure may be applied, prior to either a hydrostatic or a pneumatic test, as a means of locating leaks. WB- 612 1. 2
M ach i n i n g After Testi n g
An additional amount of material, not to exceed 10% of the wall thickness or 3/8 in. (10 mm), whichever is less, is permitted on the completed item after testing where critical dimensions and tolerances is required.
Pn eu m ati c Testi n g
WB-6121. 1
M ateri al Pressu re Test.
WB-613 6
Precau ti on s Ag ai n st Test M ed i u m Expan si on
If a test is to be maintained for a period of time and the test medium in the system is subject to thermal expansion, precautions shall be taken to avoid excessive pressure.
Wi tn essi n g of Tests
All testing required by this Article shall be performed in the presence of the Inspector.
WB-6137
Ch eck of Test Eq u i pm en t Before Applyi n g Pressu re
WB-612 3
The test equipment shall be examined before pressure is applied to ensure that it is tight and that all low pressure filling lines and other items that should not be subjected to the test have been disconnected or isolated.
Ti m e of Testi n g
Completed containments shall have all the testing required by this Article completed prior to initial service. WB- 6123. 1
Con tai n m en ts.
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WB-62 00
the Design Specification shall be directed away from the surface of the containment to avoid masking leaks from other joints.
H YDROSTATI C TESTS
WB-6210
H YDRO STATI C TEST PROCEDU RE
WB-6211
Ven ti n g Du ri n g Fi ll O perati on
The containment in which the test is to be conducted shall be vented during the filling operation to minimize air pocketing. WB-6212
WB-6300
Test M ed i u m an d Test Tem peratu re
(a) Water or an alternative liquid, as permitted by the Design Specification, shall be used for the hydrostatic test. (b) It is recommended that the test be made at a temperature that will minimize the possibility of brittle fracture (Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix G). The test pressure shall not be applied until the containment and the pressurizing fluid are at approximately the same temperature. WB-622 0
H YDROSTATI C TEST PRESSU RE
WB-622 1
M i n i m u m H yd rostati c Test Pressu re
PN EU M ATI C TESTI N G PROCEDU RES
WB-6 311
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
WB-6 312
containment shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than 1.50 times Design Pressure.
WB-6 313
Proced u re for Applyi n g Pressu re
The pressure in the system shall gradually be increased to not more than one ‐ half of the test pressure, after which the pressure shall be increased in steps of approximately one ‐ tenth of the test pressure until the required test pressure has been reached.
M axi m u m Perm i ssi ble Test Pressu re
The stress limits specified in WB-3225 shall be used in determining the maximum permissible test pressure. In multichamber containments, pressure may be simultaneously applied to the appropriate adjacent chamber to satisfy these stress limits.
WB-6 32 0
PN EU M ATI C TEST PRESSU RE REQU I REM EN TS
WB-6 32 1
H yd rostati c Test Pressu re H old i n g
M i n i m u m Req u i red Pn eu m ati c Test Pressu re
Ti m e
The containment shall be pneumatically tested at not less than 1.5 times Design Pressure.
The hydrostatic test pressure shall be maintained a minimum of 10 minutes prior to initiation of the examination for leakage required by WB-6224. WB-6224
Test M ed i u m an d Test Tem peratu re
(a) T h e g a s u s e d a s th e te s t m e d i u m s h a l l b e nonflammable. (b) Testing temperature shall be in accordance with WB-6212(b).
(a) The
WB-622 3
WB-6 310
When a pneumatic test is performed, it shall be cond u c te d i n a cc o rd a n ce wi th th e re q u i re m e n ts o f WB-6100 and this Article.
REQU I REM EN TS
WB-622 2
PN EU M ATI C TESTS
WB-6 32 2
Exam i n ati on for Leakag e After
M axi m u m Perm i ssi ble Test Pressu re
The maximum test pressure shall be limited as defined in WB-6222.
Appli cati on of Pressu re
Following the application of the hydrostatic test pressure for the required time (WB-6223), all joints, connections, and regions of high stress, such as regions around openings and thickness transition sections, shall be examined for leakage. This examination shall be made at a pressure equal to the greater of the Design Pressure or three ‐ fourths of the test pressure and it shall be witnessed by the Inspector. Leakage of temporary gaskets and seals, installed for the purpose of conducting the hydrostatic test and which will be replaced later, may be permitted unless the leakage exceeds the capacity to maintain test pressure for the required amount of time. Other leaks, such as those from permanent seals, seats, and gasketed joints in containments, may be permitted when specifically allowed by the Design Specification. Leakage from temporary seals or leakage permitted by
WB-6 32 3
Test Pressu re H old i n g Ti m e
The test pressure of WB-6321 shall be maintained for a minimum total time of 10 minutes. WB-6 324
Exam i n ati on for Leakag e After Appli cati on of Pressu re
Following the application of pressure for the time specified in WB-6323, the test pressure shall be reduced to a value equal to the greater of the Design Pressure or three ‐ fourths of the test pressure and held for a sufficient time to permit examination as defined in accordance with WB-6224. 120
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WB-6400
WB-66 2 0
TEST G AG ES
WB-66 2 1
WB-6410
TESTI N G OF COM BI N ATI ON U N I TS Pressu re Ch am bers Desi g n ed to Operate I n d epen d en tly
WB-6411
Types of G ag es to Be U sed an d Th ei r
Pressure chambers of combination units that have been designed to operate independently shall be tested as separate containments; that is, each chamber shall be tested without pressure in the adjacent chamber.
Locati on
Test gages used in testing shall be indicating pressure gages and shall be connected directly to the item being tested. If the indicating gage is not readily visible to the operator controlling the test, an additional indicating gage shall be provided where it will be visible to the operator for the duration of the test. WB-6412
WB-66 2 2
(a) When chambers of combination units have their common elements designed for the maximum differential pressure and the differential pressure is less than the higher of the Design Pressure of the adjacent chambers, the common elements shall be subjected to a test pressure of at least 1 1/4 times the maximum differential pressure. (b) Following the test of the common elements, as required by (a) above and their inspection, the adjacent chambers shall be tested. Care must be taken to limit the differential pressure between the chambers to the pressure used when testing the common elements.
Ran g e of I n d i cati n g G ag es
(a) Analog type indicating gages used in testing shall be graduated over a range not less than 1 1/2 times nor more than 4 times the test pressure. (b) Digital type gages may be used without range restriction provided the combined error due to calibration and readability does not exceed 1% of the test pressure. WB-6413
Cali bration of Pressu re Test G ag es
All test gages shall be calibrated against a standard dead weight tester or a calibrated master gage. The test gages shall be calibrated before each test or series of tests. A series of tests is that group of tests using the same pressure test gage or gages which is conducted at the same site within a period not exceeding 2 weeks. WB-6600
WB-6700 WB-6710
LEAK TESTI N G H ELI U M LEAK TESTI N G
Requirements for helium leak testing: leak testing shall be conducted in accordance with Section V, Article 10, and ANSI N14.5. 16 Personnel performing helium leak testing shall be qualified in accordance with Article WB-5000. (b) The allowable volumetric leakage rate shall be defined in the Design Specification. An acceptable method to determine the maximum, permissible volumetric leakage rate can be found in ANSI N14.5. (c) If a single leak-rate test is conducted, the conversion methods in ANSI N14.5 shall be used to determine if the leakage rates specified in the Design Specification have been met. (a) Helium
SPECI AL TEST PRESSU RE SI TU ATI ON S
WB-66 10
Com m on Elem en ts Desi g n ed for a M axi m u m Di fferen ti al Pressu re
CON TAI N M EN TS DESI G N ED FOR EXTERN AL PRESSU RE
Containments designed for external pressure only shall be subjected to an internal test pressure at 1.5 times the Design External Pressure. The pressure shall be under proper control so that the required test pressure is never exceeded by more than 6%.
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ARTI CLE WB-8000 N AM EPLATES, STAM PI N G WI TH CERTI FI CATI ON M ARK, AN D REPORTS
WB-8100
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
The requirements for nameplates, stamping with the Certification Mark, and reports shall be as given in Article WA-8000.
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SU BSECTI ON WC CLASS SC STORAG E CON TAI N M EN TS
ARTI CLE WC-1000 I N TRODU CTI ON
ð 17Þ
WC-1100
WC-1132
SCOPE
Attach m en ts
Subsection WC contains rules for the material, design, fabrication, examination, testing, marking, stamping, and preparation of reports by the Certificate Holder for Class SC storage containments for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive material. (b) The rules of Subsection WC cover the strength and containment integrity of items where their failure could breach the containment boundary. The rules cover load stresses but do not cover deterioration which may occur in service as a result of corrosion, radiation effects, or instability of containment materials. WA-1130 further limits the rules of this Subsection. (a)
ð 17Þ
WC-1120
WC-1132. 1
STORAG E CON TAI N M EN TS
(a) Subsection WC does not contain rules to cover all details of construction of Class SC containments. Where complete details are not provided in this Subsection, it is intended that the N3 Certificate Holder, subject to review by the Inspector (Article WA-5000), shall provide the details of construction which will be consistent with those provided by the rules of this Subsection. (b) Valves, classified as part of the containment by the Design Specification, shall be classified as Class 1 or Class 2 and shall meet the requirements of Division 1 in lieu of all other requirements of this Division.
BOU N DARI ES OF J U RI SDI CTI ON
WC-1131
Bou n d ary of Con tai n m en ts
Attach m en ts.
(a) An attachment is an element in contact with or connected to the inside or outside of a containment, which may perform a containment function, and either a structural or nonstructural function. (b) Attachments that do not perform a containment function include items such as stiffeners or containment opening reinforcement. (c) Attachments that do not perform a containment function include items in the containment support load path such as support and shear lugs, brackets, trunnions and skirts. (d) Attachments with a structural function (structural attachments) perform a containment function or are in the containment support load path. (e) Attachments with a nonstructural function (nonstructural attachments) do not perform a containment function nor are they in the containment support load path. Nonstructural attachments include nameplates and lifting lugs.
LI M I TS OF RU LES FOR CLASS SC
WC-1130
Bou n d ary Between a Con tai n m en t an d
The jurisdictional boundary between a containment and an attachment defined in the Design Specification shall not be any closer to the containment than as defined in (a) through (g) below. (a) Attachments forged with the containment or weld buildup on the containment surface shall be considered part of the containment. (b) Attachments, welds, and fasteners having a containm e n t fu n c ti o n s h a l l b e c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f th e containment. (c) Except as provided in (d) and (e) below, the boundary between a containment and an attachment not having a containment function shall be at the surface of the containment. W C- 1 1 3 2 . 2
The Design Specification shall define the boundary of a containment. The containment includes the vessel and any penetration assemblies attached to the vessel. 123
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(d) The first connecting weld of a structural attachment that does not perform a containment function to a containment shall be considered part of the containment. (e) The first connecting weld of a welded nonstructural attachment to a containment shall be considered part of the attachment.
(f) Mechanical fasteners used to connect an attachment that does not perform a containment function to the containment shall be considered part of the attachment. (g) The boundary may be located further from the containment portion of the containment than as defined in (a) through (f) above when specified in the Design Specification.
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ARTI CLE WC-2000 M ATERI AL
WC-2100
(2) ductile cast iron castings per specifications SA-874 or SA/JIS G5504 (3) SA-2 63, Specification for Corrosion ‐ Resisting Chromium ‐ Steel Clad Plate, Sheet, and Strip (4) SA-2 64, Specification for Corrosion ‐ Resisting Chromium – Nickel Steel Clad Plate, Sheet, and Strip (5) SA-265, Specification for Nickel and Nickel ‐ Base Alloy Clad Steel Plate (b) The requirements of this Article do not apply to material for items not associated with the containment function of a component such as seals, gaskets, and ceramic insulating materials and special alloys used as seal materials in electrical penetration assemblies. (c) Material for line fittings, NPS 1 (DN 25) and less, may be of material made to specifications other than those listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, provided that the fittings are in conformance with the requirements of NC ‐ 3671.4 and the material is determined to be adequate for the service conditions by the piping system designer. (d) Welding and brazing materials used in manufacture of items shall comply with an SFA specification in Section II, Part C, except as otherwise permitted in Section IX, and shall also comply with the applicable requirements of this Article. The requirements of this Article do not apply to materials used as backing rings or backing strips in welded joints. (e) The requirements of this Article do not apply to hard surfacing or corrosion resistant weld metal overlay that is 10% or less of the thickness of the base material (WC-3122).
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FOR M ATERI AL
WC-2 110
SCOPE OF PRI N CI PAL TERM S EM PLOYED
(a) The term material as used in this Subsection is defined in WA-1220. The term Material Organization is defined in Division 1, Article NCA‐ 9000. (b) The term containment materials, as used in this Subsection applies to containment shells, heads, nozzles and bolting that form part of the containment boundary. (c) The requirements of this Article make reference to the term thickness. For the purpose intended, the following definitions of nominal thickness apply: (1 ) plate: the thickness is the dimension of the short transverse direction; (2) forgings: the thickness is the dimension defined as follows: (-a) hollow forgings: the nominal thickness is measured between the inside and outside surfaces (radial thickness); (-b) disk forgings (axial length less than the outside diameter): the nominal thickness is the axial length; (-c) flat ring forgings (axial length less than the radial thickness): for axial length ≤ 2 in. (50 mm), the axial length is the nominal thickness. For axial length ≥ 2 in. (50 mm), the radial thickness is the nominal thickness. (-d) rectangular solid forgings: the least rectangular dimension is the nominal thickness. (3) castings: thickness for fracture toughness testing and heat treatment purposes is defined as the wall thickness of the containment. WC-2 12 0
CON TAI N M EN T M ATERI AL
WC-2 12 1
Perm i tted M ateri al Speci fi cati on s
WC-2 12 2
Speci al Req u i rem en ts Con fli cti n g Wi th Perm i tted M ateri al Speci fi cati on s
Special requirements stipulated in this Article shall apply in lieu of the requirements of the material specifications wherever the special requirements conflict with the material specification requirements (NCA ‐ 4256) . Where the special requirements include an examination, test, or treatment which is also required by the material specification, the examination, test, or treatment need be performed only once. Required nondestructive examinations shall be performed as specified for each product form in WC-2500. Any examination, repair, test, or treatment required by the material specification or by this Article may be performed by the Material Manufacturer or the Certificate Holder as provided in WC-4121.1. Any hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure test required by a material specification need not be performed, provided the
(a) Containment materials shall conform to the requirements of one of the specifications for materials given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B including all applicable reference notes in the table, and to all of the requirements of this Article that apply to the product form in which the material is used. Attachments that perform a containment function shall be containment material. As an additional control, only the following materials shall be used: (1 ) materials whose P-Numbers are listed in Table WC-4622.1-1
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material is identified as not having been pressure tested and it is subsequently pressure tested in accordance with WC-6123, except where the location of the material in the component or the installation would prevent performing any nondestructive examination required by the material specification to be performed subsequent to the hydrostatic or pneumatic test. (a) The stress rupture test of SA-453 and SA-638 for Grade 660 (UNS S66286) is not required for design temperatures of 800°F (427°C) and below. (b) In addition to tension testing required by the material specification, forgings produced for flat heads with hubs, for butt welding to the adjacent shell, head, or other pressure part, shall have tensile tests performed in accordance with WC-4265(d). The tension test specimen shall be located in accordance with WC-4265(d) and Figure WC-4265-3. ð 17Þ
WC- 2124
unusual restraint such as may occur at points of stress concentration and also because of metallurgical changes occurring at high temperatures. WC- 2126
The containment body shall be cast by a single pouring controlled by a casting plan to ensure reproducibility. The casting plan shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser and shall become a lifetime quality assurance record in accordance with WA-4134. WC- 2127
WC- 2125
Ad d i ti on al Req u i rem en ts Wh en Strai n -Based Acceptan ce Cri teri a H ave Been I m plem en ted
In order to satisfy the strain-based acceptance criteria of WC-3700 regarding sufficient ductility, all material specified to be used in the construction of the containment and implementing the strain-based acceptance criteria shall meet the requirements of Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix FF, FF-1122 and FF-1140(a) or FF-1140(b). Assurance of satisfying these requirements shall be documented in the final Design Report. Per Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix FF, FF-1140(a), when temperature-dependent material test data are no t available, the Certified M aterial Test Report(s) shall include reduction of area values in order to have the necessary data to ensure sufficient material ductility. This requirement is only necessary when strainbased acceptance criteria have been employed in the design of the containment.
M ateri al Si ze Ran g es an d Toleran ces
In those specifications in which chemical composition or mechanical properties are indicated to vary with size or thickness, any material outside the specification range shall be required to conform to the composition and mechanical properties shown for the nearest specified range (NCA‐ 4256). (a) Plate material shall be ordered not thinner than the design thickness. Components, except for piping, made of plate furnished with an undertolerance of not more than the lesser value of 0.01 in. (0.25 mm) or 6% of the ordered thickness, may be used at the full design pressure for the thickness ordered. If the specification to which the plate is ordered allows a greater undertolerance, the ordered thickness of the material shall be sufficiently greater than the design thickness so that the thickness of the material furnished is not more than the lesser of 0.01 in. (0.25 mm) or 6% under the design thickness. (b) If pipe or tube is ordered by its nominal wall thickness, the manufacturing undertolerance on wall thickness shall be taken into account. The manufacturing undertolerances are given in the several pipe and tube specifications listed in the applicable tables in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1. After the minimum wall thickness is determined (Article WC-3000), it shall be increased by an amount sufficient to provide for the manufacturing undertolerance allowed in the pipe or tube specification. ð 17Þ
Du cti le Cast I ron for Con tai n m en t
WC- 2128
Bolti n g M ateri al
(a) Material for bolts and studs shall conform to the requirements of one of the specifications listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. Material for nuts shall conform to SA-194 or to the requirements of one of the specifications for nuts or bolting listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. (b) The use of washers is optional. When used, they shall be made of wrought material with mechanical properties compatible with the nuts with which they are to be employed. WC- 2130
M ateri al i n Com bi n ati on
A containment may be designed and constructed of any combination of materials permitted in Article WC-2000, provided the applicable rules are followed and the requirements of Section IX for welding dissimilar metals are met. When components have different thermal coefficients of expansion of dissimilar materials, caution shall be exercised in construction in order to avoid difficulties in service under extreme temperature conditions, or with
CERTI FI CATI ON OF M ATERI AL
All materials used in the construction of containments s h a l l b e c e rti fi e d a s re q u i re d i n N C A ‐ 3 8 6 2 a n d NCA‐ 3861. Certified Material Test Reports are required fo r co n tai n m e n t m ate ri al e xce p t as p ro vi de d b y NCA‐ 3861. A Certificate of Compliance may be provided in lieu of a Certified Material Test Report for all other material. Copies of all Certified Material Test Reports and Certificates of Compliance applicable to material used in a component shall be furnished with the material. 126
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WC-2 140
surface of the containment shell portion of the component need not comply with Article WC-2000 or Division 1, Article NF‐ 2000, provided the requirements of WC-4430 are met. (c) Structural steel rolled shapes, which are permitted by this Subsection to be furnished with a Certificate of Compliance, may be repaired by welding using the welders, documentation, and examination requirements specified in SA-6/SA-6M.
WELDI N G M ATERI ALS
For the requirements governing the materials to be used for welding, see WC-2400. ð 17Þ
WC-2 150
M ATERI AL I DEN TI FI CATI O N
The identification of containment material shall meet the requirements of NCA‐ 4256. Material for small items shall be controlled during manufacture and installation of the containment so that they are identifiable as acceptable material at all times. Welding and brazing materials shall be controlled during the repair of material and the manufacture and installation so that they are identifiable as acceptable until the material is actually consumed in the process.
WC-22 00
M ATERI AL TEST COU PON S AN D SPECI M EN S FOR FERRI TI C STEEL M ATERI AL AN D DU CTI LE CAST I RON
WC-2 16 0
DETERI ORATI ON OF M ATERI AL I N WC-2 2 10
SERVI CE
Consideration of deterioration of material caused by service is generally outside the scope of this Subsection. It is the responsibility of the N3 Certificate Holder to select material suitable for the conditions stated in the Design Specifications (WA-3351), with specific attention being given to the effects of service conditions upon the properties of the material. WC-2 170
WC-2 2 11
Where ferritic steel material is subjected to heat treatment during fabrication or installation of a containment, the material used for the tensile and impact test specimens shall be heat treated in the same manner as the containment, except that test coupons and specimens for P ‐ No. 1 material with a nominal thickness of 2 in. (50 mm) or less are not required to be so heat treated where nominal thickness for flanges refers to the wall thickness at the weld joint to the containment. The Certificate Holder shall provide the Material Organization with the temperature and heating and cooling rate to be used. In the case of postweld heat treatment, the total time at temperature or temperatures for the test material shall be at least 80% of the total time at temperature or temperatures during actual postweld heat treatment of the material, and the total time at temperature or temperatures for the test material, coupon, or specimen may be performed in a single cycle. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens.
H EAT TREATM EN T TO EN H AN CE I M PACT PROPERTI ES
PRO CEDU RES FOR H EAT TREATM EN T OF M ATERI AL
When heat treating temperature or time is required by the material specification and the rules of this Subsection, the heat treating shall be performed in temperature ‐ surveyed and ‐ calibrated furnaces or the heat treating shall be controlled by measurement of material temperature by thermocouples in contact with the material or attached to blocks in contact with the material or by calibrated pyrometric instruments. Heat treating shall be performed under furnace loading conditions such that the heat treatment is in accordance with the material specification and the rules of this Subsection. WC-2 19 0
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for Ferri ti c M ateri al
Carbon steels, low alloy steels, and high alloy chromium (Series 4XX) steels may be heat treated by quenching and tempering to enhance their impact properties. Postweld heat treatment of the component at a temperature of not less than 1,100°F (595°C) may be considered to be the tempering phase of the heat treatment. WC-2 180
H EAT TREATM EN T REQU I REM EN TS
WC-2 2 12
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for Qu en ch ed an d Tem pered M ateri al
Where ferritic steel material is subjected to quenching from the austenitizing temperature, the test coupons representing those materials shall be cooled at a rate similar to and no faster than the main body of the material except in the case of certain forgings and castings (WC-2223.3 and WC-2226). This rule shall apply for coupons taken directly from the material as well as for separate test coupons representing the material, and one of the general procedures described in WC-2212.2 or one of the specific procedures described in WC-2220 shall be used for each product form. WC-2212. 1
ATTACH M EN T M ATERI AL
(a) Material in the containment support load path and not performing a containment function (see WC-1130) welded to containment material shall meet the requirements of Division 1, NF‐ 2000. (b) Material not performing a containment function and not in the containment support load path (nonstructural attachments) welded at or within 2 t of the outside
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WC- 22 12 . 2 G en eral Proced u res. One of the general procedures in (a) , (b) , and (c) below may be applied to quenched and tempered material or test coupons representing the material, provided the specimens are taken relative to the surface of the product in accordance with WC-2 2 2 0. Further specific details of the methods to be used shall be the obligation of the Material Organization and the Certificate Holder.
WC- 22 2 2
WC- 2 2 2 2 . 1
WC- 2 2 2 2 . 2
WC- 22 2 3
(c) When any of the specific procedures described in WC-2220 are used, faster cooling rates at the edges may be compensated for by:
Forg i n g s
WC- 2 2 23 . 1
Forg i n g s Wi th 2 i n . (50 m m ) M axi m u m
For forgings with a maximum thickness of 2 in. (50 mm) , the coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at the midplane of the thickness or the center of the cross section and with the midlength of the specimens at least 2 in. (5 0 mm) from any second surface. Th i ckn e s s .
(1 ) taki n g th e te s t s p e ci m e n s a t l e a s t t fro m a quenched edge, where t equals the material thickness; (2) attaching a steel pad at least t wide by a partial penetration weld (which completely seals the buffered surface) to the edge where specimens are to be removed; or
WC- 2223. 2
Forg i n g s Wi th Th i ckn ess Exceed i n g 2 i n .
Fo r forgings exceeding a thickness of 2 in. (50 mm), the coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4 t of the maximum heat-treated thickness from any surface and with the midlength of the specimens at least t from any second surface. This is normally referred to as 1/4t × t , where t is th e m a x i m u m h e a t- tr e a te d th i c kn e s s . A th e r m a l b uffer may b e us ed to achieve the ab o ve co nditio ns [WC-2212 .2(c) (3) ] unless cooling rates applicable to the b u l k fo r g i n g s a r e s i m u l a te d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i th WC-2212.2. (5 0 m m ) .
(3) using thermal barriers or insulation at the edge where specimens are to be removed. It shall be demonstrated (and this information shall be included in the Certified Material Test Report) that the cooling rates are equivalent to (a) or (b) above.
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for Du cti le Cast I ron
The tensile and impact coupon shall receive the same heat treatment as the casting.
WC- 2 223. 3 Very Th i ck an d Com plex Forg i n g s. Test coupons for forgings that are both very thick and complex, such as contour nozzles, flanges, nozzles, and other complex forgings that are contour shaped or machined to essentially the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment, may be removed from prolongations or o ther sto ck pro vided on the p ro duct. The C ertificate Holder shall specify the surfaces of the finished product subjected to high tensile stresses in service. The coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at a distance below the nearest heat-treated surface, equivalent to at least the greatest distance that the indicated high tensile stress surface will be from the nearest surface during heat treatment, and with the midlength of the specimens a minimum of twice this distance fro m a s eco nd heat- treated surface. I n any cas e, the
PROCEDU RE FOR OBTAI N I N G TEST CO U PON S AN D SPECI M EN S FOR QU EN CH ED AN D TEM PERED M ATERI AL AN D FOR DU CTI LE CAST I RON
WC- 22 2 1
Re q u i re m e n ts fo r Se p arate Te s t Co u -
Where a separate test coupon is used to represent the component material, it shall be of sufficient size to ensure that the cooling rate of the region from which the test coupons are removed represents the cooling rate of the material at least 1/4 t deep and t from any edge of the product. Unless cooling rates applicable to the bulk pieces o r p ro duct are simulated in acco rdance with WC-2212.2, the dimensions of the coupon shall be not less th a n 3 t × 3 t × t , wh e re t i s th e n o m i n a l m a te ri a l thickness. pon s.
(b) If cooling rate data for the material and cooling rate control devices for the test specimens are available, the test specimens may be heat treated in the device to represent the material, provided that the provisions of (a) above are met.
WC- 22 2 0
O ri e n tati o n an d Lo cati o n o f Co u p o n s.
Coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4 t from a rolled surface and with the midlength of the specimen at least t from any heat-treated edge, where t is the nominal thickness of the material.
(a) Any procedure may be used which can be demonstrated to produce a cooling rate in the test material that matches the cooling rate of the main body of the product at the region midway between midthickness and the surface (1/4 t ) and no nearer any heat-treated edge than a distance equal to the nominal thickness t being quenched within 25°F (14°C) and 2 0 sec at all temperatures after cooling begins from the austenitizing temperature.
WC- 22 13
Plates
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
T h e p ro c e d u re fo r o b ta i n i n g te s t s p e c i m e n s fo r quenched and tempered material is related to the product form. Coupon and specimen location shall be as required by the material specification, except as stated in the following paragraphs of this subarticle. References to dimensions signify nominal values. 128
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longitudinal axes of the specimens shall not be nearer than 3/4 in. (19 mm) to any heat-treated surface and the midlength o f the s p ecimens s hall b e at leas t 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) from any heat-treated surface. W C- 2 2 2 3 . 4
heat-treated end. When the studs, nuts, or bolts are not of sufficient length, the midlength of the specimen shall be at the midlength of the studs, nuts, or bolts. The studs, nuts, or bolts selected to provide test coupon material shall be identical with respect to the quenched contour and size except for length, which shall equal or exceed the length of the represented studs, nuts, or bolts.
C o u p o n s F ro m S e p a rat e ly P ro d u ce d
Test coupons representing forgings from one heat and one heat treatment lot may be taken from a separately forged piece under the conditions given in (a) through (e) below. (a) The separate test forging shall be of the same heat of material and shall be subj ected to substantially the same reduction and working as the production forging it represents. (b) The separate test forging shall be heat treated in the same furnace charge and under the same conditions as the production forging. (c) The separate test forging shall be of the same nominal thickness as the production forging. (d) Test coupons for simple forgings shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at the region midway between midthickness and the surface and with the midlength of the specimens no nearer any heattreated edge than a distance equal to the forging thickness, except when the thickness – length ratio of the prod u c ti o n fo r gi n g d o e s n o t p e r m i t, i n wh i c h c a s e a production forging shall be used as the test forging and the midlength of the specimens shall be at the midlength of the test forging. (e) Test coupons for complex forgings shall be taken in accordance with WC-2223.3. Test Forg i n g s.
WC-2 2 2 5
WC- 2 2 2 5 . 1
WC-2 2 24
For tubular products with 2 in. (50 mm) maximum wall thickness, the coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes on a surface midway between the outside and inside surfaces and with the midlength of the specimens at least one wall thickness from a heat-treated end. WC-2 22 5. 2
2 in.
(50 m m )
in.
WC- 2 2 2 5 . 3
S e p arate ly Pro d u ce d Co u p o n s Re p re -
Separately produced test coupons repr e s e n ti n g fi tti n g s m a y b e u s e d . Wh e n s e p a r a te l y p r o d u c e d c o u p o n s a r e u s e d , th e r e q u i r e m e n ts o f WC-2223.4 shall be met. sen ti n g Fi tti n g s.
WC-2 2 26
Ten si le Test Speci m en Locati on for Du cti le Cast I ron
Tensile specimens shall be taken from each containment casting or its excess length part that has the same or equivalent solidification property. The location shall be near the center of the thickness and shall be at a distance from the end of the excess length part that is not less than one-half of the maximum casting thickness. The excess length part shall be at least the same thickness as the maximum casting thickness.
M axi m u m
For bars with diameters or thicknesses 2 in. (50 mm) or less, the coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes on a line repres e n ti n g th e c e n te r o f th e th i c kn e s s a n d wi th th e midlength of the specimens at least one diameter or thickness from a heat-treated end. Th i ckn ess.
WC- 2 2 24. 2
2
For tubular products with nominal wall thicknesses exceeding 2 in. (5 0 mm) , the coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4 t from the outside surface and with the midlength of the specimens at least one wall thickness from a heat-treated end.
Test Speci m en s for Forg i n g s.
B ars W i th
T u b u l a r P r o d u c t s E xc e e d i n g
(5 0 m m ) N om i n al Th i ckn ess.
Bars an d Bolti n g M ateri al
W C - 2 2 24 . 1
Tu b u lar P ro d u cts W i th 2 i n . ( 5 0 m m )
M axi m u m Th i ckn e s s .
When test specimens for forgings are to be taken under the applicable specification, the Inspector shall have the option of witnessing the selection, placing an identifying stamp on them, and witnessing the testing of these specimens. WC-2223. 5
Tu bu lar Prod u cts
WC-2300
FRACTU RE TOU G H N ESS REQU I REM EN TS FOR M ATERI AL
Bars Wi th Th i ckn esses Exceed i n g 2 i n .
For bars with diameters or thicknesses over 2 in. (50 mm) , the coupons shall be taken so that specimens shall have their longitudinal axes at least 1/4 t from the outside or rolled surface and with the midlength of the specimens at least t from a heat-treated end, where t is either the bar diameter or thickness.
WC-2 310
M ATERI AL TO BE I M PACT TESTED
WC-2 311
M ateri al for Wh i ch I m pact Testi n g I s Req u i red
(5 0 m m ) .
(a) Containment material shall be impact tested in accordance with the requirements of WC-2330, except that impact testing of materials described in (1) through (8) below is not a requirement of this Subsection. (1 ) material with a no minal s ectio n thicknes s o f 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and less where thicknesses shall be taken as defined in (-a) through (-c) below. (-a) for containments, use the nominal thickness of the shell or head, as applicable;
WC- 2 2 24. 3 B o lti n g M ate ri al. For bolting material, the coupons shall be taken in conformance with the applicable material specification and with the midlength of the specimen at least one diameter or thickness from a
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(-b) for nozzles or parts welded to containments, use the lesser of the containment shell thickness to which the item is welded or the maximum radial thickness of the item exclusive of integral shell butt welding projections; (-c) for flat heads, or flanges, use the maximum shell thickness associated with the butt welding hub. (2) bolting, including studs, nuts, and bolts, with a nominal size of 1 in. (25 mm) or less; (3) bar with a nominal cross ‐ sectional area that does not exceed 1 in. 2 (650 mm 2 ); (4) all thicknesses of material for pipe, tube, fittings, with a NPS 6 (DN 150) diameter and smaller; (5) austenitic stainless steels, including precipitation hardened austenitic Grade 660 (UNS S66286); (6) nonferrous materials; (7) materials listed in Table WC-2311(a)-1 for which the listed value of TN D T 17 is lower than the Lowest Service Temperature (LST) by an amount established by the rules in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix R. This exemption does not exempt either the weld metal (WC-2430) or the welding procedure qualification (WC-4335) from impact testing. (8) materials for containments for which the LST exceeds 150°F (65°C). (b) The Design Specification shall state the LST for the containments.
(c) Drop weight tests are not required for the martens itic high allo y chro mium (Series 4XX) s teels and precipitation ‐ hardening steels listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1 , Table 2 A. The other requirements of WC-2331 and WC-2332 apply for these steels. For nominal wall thicknesses greater than 2 1/2 in. (64 mm), the required C v values shall be 40 mils (1 .0 mm) lateral expansion.
WC-2 311(a) (7)
SA-537, Class 1 SA-516, Grade 70 SA-516, Grade 70 SA-508, Class 1 SA-533, Grade B SA-299 [Note (5)] SA-36 (Plate) SA-508, Class 2
N Q&T N Q&T Q&T N HR Q&T
WC- 2321
Types of Tests
WC-2321. 1
Table WC-2 311(a) -1
Material Condition [Note (2)]
I M PACT TEST PROCEDU RES
The drop weight test, when required, shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E208 ‐ 91. Specimen types P ‐ 1, P ‐ 2, or P ‐ 3 may be used. When drop weight tests are performed to meet the requirements of WC-2300, the test temperature and the results shall be reported on the Certified Material Test Report. The Charpy V‐ notch test (C v), when required, shall be performed in accordance with SA-370. Specimens shall be in accordance with SA-370, Figure 11, Type A. A test shall consist of a set of three full ‐ size 10 mm × 10 mm specimens. The lateral expansion and absorbed energy, as applicable, and the test temperature, as well as the orientation and location of all tests performed to meet the requirements of WC-2330 shall be reported in the Certified Material Test Report. Fracture toughness tests, when required, shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E399. The tests shall be performed at the LST. A test shall consist of two test specimens.
Exem pti on s From I m pact Testi n g U n d er
Material [Note (1)]
WC- 2320
TN D T , °F (°C) [Notes (3) and (4)] − 30 (− 34) − 10 (− 23) 0 (− 18) +10 (− 12)
Drop Wei g h t Tests.
WC- 2 321. 2
C h arp y V- N o tch
WC- 2 32 1. 3
F ra c t u r e T o u g h n e s s T e s t s .
WC- 2322
Tests.
Test Speci m en s
WC-2322. 1
Locati on of Test Speci m en s.
(a) Impact test specimens shall be removed from a
+10 (− 12) +20 (− 7) +40 (+4) +40 (+4)
depth within the material that is at least as far from the material surface as that specified for tensile test specimens in the material specification. For bolting, the C v impact test specimens shall be taken with the longitudinal axis of the specimen located at least one ‐ half radius or 1 in. (25 mm) below the surface plus the machining allowance per side, whichever is less. The fracture plane of the specimen shall be at least one diameter or thickness from the heat-treated end. When the studs, nuts, or bolts are not of sufficient length, the midlength of the specimen shall be at the midlength of the studs, nuts, or bolts. The studs, nuts, or bolts selected to provide test coupon material shall be identical with respect to the quenched contour and size except for length, which shall equal or exceed the length of the represented studs, nuts, or bolts. (b) For fracture toughness requirements, toughness test specimens for ductile cast iron shall be taken from each containment casting or its excess length part. The location shall be the same as that for the tensile specimens.
NOTES: (1) These materials are exempt from toughness testing when LST − T N D T is satisfied in accordance with the rules established in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix R. (2) Material Condition letters refer to: N = normalize Q & T = quench and temper HR = hot rolled (3) These values for T N D T were established from data on heavy section steel [thickness greater than 2 1/2 in. (64 mm)] . Values for sections less than 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) thick are held constant until additional data are obtained. (4) T N D T = temperature at or above nil ‐ ductility transition temperature NDT (ASTM E208); T N D T is 10°F (5°C) below the temperature at which at least two specimens show no ‐ break performance. (5) Materials made to a fine grain melting practice.
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WC-2322. 2
Ori en tati on of I m pact Test Speci m en s.
Table WC-2 3 32 . 1-1
Specimens for C v impact tests shall be oriented as required in WC-2200 for the tensile test specimen or, alternatively, the orientation may be in the direction of maximum stress. The notch of the C v specimen shall be normal to the surface of the material. (b) Specimens for drop weight tests may have their axes oriented in any direction. (c) Toughness test specimens for cast material shall have their axes oriented the same as the axes of the tensile specimens (WC-2226). (d) The plane of the toughness test specimen notch shall be normal to the surface of the material. The fracture toughness specimen orientation of ductile cast iron shall be L-R, as identified in ASTM E399, Fig. 1 (Crack Plane Identifications for Cylindrical Bars and Tubes). (a)
WC-2 33 0
Req u i red C v Lateral Expan si on Valu es for Con tai n m en t M ateri al Oth er Th an Bolti n g
Lateral Expansion, mils (mm) Nominal Wall Thickness, in. (mm) [Note (1)] 5
/8 (16) or less [Note (2)] Over 5/8 to 1 (16 to 25), incl. Over 1 to 1 1/2 (25 to 38), incl. Over 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 (38 to 64), incl. Over 2 1/2 (64) [Note (3)]
TEST REQU I REM EN TS AN D
WC-2 33 1
Con tai n m en t M ateri al Test M eth od s
(a) Containment material shall be impact tested in accordance with one of the test methods indicated below: 18 (1 ) Charpy V‐ notch testing at or below the LST (2) drop weight testing to show that the value of (LST − T N D T 17 + A ) is satisfied in accordance with the rules established in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix R (3) fracture toughness test for ductile cast iron at − 40°F (− 40°C)
WC-2 33 2

(0.50) (0.64) (0.89) (1.14)

15 20 30 40
(0.38) (0.50) (0.75) (1.0)
NOTES: (1) For containment use the least of: (a) the maximum radial thickness of the item exclusive of integral butt-welded projections; (b) the containment shell thickness to which the item is welded; (c) the maximum shell thickness associated with the item for flat heads or flanges. (2) No test required. (3) For use with WC-2332.2(b).
an d Tem peratu re
ð 17Þ
20 25 35 45
Lowest 1 of 3
GENERAL NOTES: (a) Where weld metal tests of WC-2400 are made to these requirements, the impact lateral expansion shall conform to the requirements of either of the base materials being joined. (b) Where two base materials having different required lateral expansion values are joined, the weld metal lateral expansion requirements of WC-4330 shall conform to the requirements of either of the base materials.
ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
ð 17Þ
Average of 3
(b) Charpy V‐ Notch Testing for Absorbed Energy Values. The test results of the three specimens, collectively and singly, shall meet the respective requirements of Table WC-2332.1-2. (c) Drop Weight Testing . An acceptance test shall consist of at least two no ‐ break specimens as described in ASTM E208.
Speci fi c Test M eth od s an d Acceptan ce Stan d ard s for Con tai n m en t M ateri al for Tests Based on Lowest Servi ce Tem peratu res
WC-2332.1
WC- 2332. 2
Con tai n m en t M ateri al Oth er Th an Bolt-
For containments , us e the les s er o f the: maximum radial thickness of the item, exclusive of integral butt-welded projections; the containment shell thickness to which the item is welded; and the maximum shell thickness associated with the item for flat heads or flanges. (a) The base material, and the weld procedure qualification weld metal tests of WC-4335, shall be tested by the drop weight method as specified in WC-2321.1 and WC-2331(a)(2). (b) Except as limited in WC-4335, apply one of the methods of WC-2331(a) to test: the base material and the heat-affected zone of the weld procedure qualification tests for WC-4335; and the weld metal for WC-2431. (c) The acceptance standards shall be as given in WC-2 3 3 2 .1 (a) , WC-2 3 3 2 .1 (b) , or WC-2 3 3 2 .1 (c) , as applicable.
Con tai n m en t M ateri al Oth er Th an Bolt-
1
For containments , us e the les s er o f the: maximum radial thickness of the item, exclusive of integral butt-welded projections; the containment shell thickness to which the item is welded; and the maximum shell thickness associated with the item for flat heads or flanges. Except as limited in WC - 43 3 5 , ap p ly o ne o f the metho ds o f WC-2331 to test: base material; the base material, the heat-affected zone, and weld metal for the weld procedure qualification tests of WC-4335; and the weld metal for WC-2431. The impact test results shall meet one of the acceptance standards applicable to the specified test method.
i n g Wi th Th i ckn ess Exceed i n g 2 /2 i n . (64 m m ) .
1
i n g Wi th 2 /2 i n . (64 m m ) Maxi m u m Th i ckn ess.
(a) Charpy V‐ Notch Testing for Lateral Expansion Values. The test results of the three specimens, collectively
and singly, shall meet the respective requirements of Table WC-2332.1-1. 131
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Table WC-2 3 32 . 1- 2 Req u i red C v En erg y Valu es for Con tai n m en t M ateri al Oth er Th an Bolti n g
Energy, ft-lb (J) for Base Materials [Note (1)] of Specified Minimum Yield Strength, ksi (MPa) Nominal Wall Thickness, in. (mm) [Note (2)]
55 ksi (380 MPa) or Below
Over 75 ksi to 105 ksi (515 MPa to 725 MPa), incl.
Average of 3
Lowest 1 of 3
Average of 3
Lowest 1 of 3
Average of 3





5
/8 (16) or less [Note (3)] Over 5/8 to 1 (16 to 25), incl. Over 1 to 1 1/2 (25 to 38), incl. Over 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 (38 to 64) , incl. Over 2 1/2 (64) [Note (4)]
Over 55 ksi to 75 ksi (380 MPa to 515 MPa), incl.
20 25 35 45
(27) (34) (47) (61)
15 20 30 40
(20) (27) (41) (54)
25 30 40 50
(34) (41) (54) (68)
20 25 35 45
(27) (34) (47) (61)
30 35 45 55
(41) (47) (61) (75)
Lowest 1 of 3 …
25 30 40 50
(34) (41) (54) (68)
GENERAL NOTE: Where weld metal tests of WC-2400 are made to these requirements, the impact energy shall conform to the requirements of either of the base materials being joined. NOTES: (1) Where two base materials having different required energy values are joined, the weld metal impact energy requirements of the procedure qualification tests of WC-4330 shall conform to the requirements of either of the base materials. (2) For containment vessels use the least of: (a) the maximum radial thickness of the item exclusive of integral butt-welded projections; (b) the containment shell thickness to which the item is welded; (c) the maximum shell thickness associated with the item for flat heads or flanges. (3) No test required. (4) For use with WC-2332.2(b) .
(d) Fracture Toughness Testing for Ductile Cast Iron . A rapid-load fracture toughness test shall be performed in accordance with WC-2 3 2 1 .3 , except that ASTM E1 82 0 shall be used. A test shall consist of at least four test specimens. The test shall be performed at − 40°F (− 40°C). (e) A cceptan ce Stan dards for Ductile Cast Iron . The rapid-load fracture toughness value shall satisfy the following inequality at − 40°F (− 40°C):
shall be made for each plate as rolled. The term as‐ rolled refers to the plate rolled from a slab or directly from an ingot, not to its heat-treated condition.
WC- 23 42
(a) Where an individual forging is less than 1 ,000 lb (450 kg) , one test shall be made to represent each heat in each heat treatment charge. (b) When heat treatment is performed in a continuoustype furnace with s uitable temperature controls and equipped with recording pyrometers so that complete heat treatment records are available, a heat treatment charge shall be considered as the lesser of a continuous run not exceeding 8 hr duration or a total weight, so treated, not exceeding 2,000 lb (900 kg).
where KI C , R = rapid-load fracture toughness, ksi-in.
(MPa-m
1/2
1/2
)
σ S D = standard deviation, ksi-in. 1/2 (MPa-m 1/2 ) The ave rage val u e an d s tand ard de vi ati o n s hal l b e e s ta b l i s h e d a s s u m i n g We i b u l l d i s tri b u ti o n o f th e measurements.
(c) One test shall be made for each forging of 1,000 lb to 10,000 lb (450 kg to 4 500 kg).
WC- 2 3 3 2 . 3 B o lti n g M ate ri al. For bolting material, including nuts, studs, and bolts, a Charpy V‐ notch test shall be performed. The tests shall be performed at or below the LST, and all three specimens shall meet the requirements of Table WC-2332.3-1.
WC- 23 40
N U M BER OF I M PACT TESTS REQU I RED
WC- 23 41
Plates
Forg i n g s
Table WC-2 33 2 . 3- 1 Req u i red Cv Valu es for Bolti n g M ateri al Tested i n Accord an ce Wi th WC-2 33 2 . 3
Nominal Diameter, in. (mm) 1 (25) or less Over 1 through 4 (25 through 100) Over 4 (100)
One test shall be made from each plate as heat treated. Where plates are furnished in the non ‐ heat‐ treated condition and qualified by heat‐ treated test specimens, one test 132
Lateral Expansion, mils (mm)
Absorbed Energy, ft-lb (J)
No test required
No test required
25 (0.64) 25 (0.64)
No requirements 45 (61)
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(d) As an alternative to (c), a separate test forging may be used to represent forgings of different sizes in one heat and heat treat lot, provided the test piece is a representation of the greatest thickness in the heat treat lot. In additi o n , t e s t fo r g i n g s s h a l l h a v e b e e n s u b j e c te d to substantially the same reduction and working as the forgings represented. (e) Forgings larger than 10,000 lb (4 500 kg) shall have two tests per part for Charpy V‐ notch and one test for drop weights. The location of drop weight or C v test specimens shall be selected so that an equal number of specimens is obtained from positions in the forging 180 deg apart. WC-2 343
(1 ) the average value of the test results meets the a ve ra ge o f th r e e r e q u i r e m e n ts s p e c i fi e d i n T a b l e WC-2332.1-1 or Table WC-2332.1-2, as applicable; (2) not more than one specimen per test is below the lo wes t o ne o f three requirements s p ecified in Tab le WC-2332.1-1 or Table WC-2332.1-2, as applicable; (3) the specimen not meeting the requirements is not lower than 5 ft-lb (6.8 J) or 5 mils (0.13 mm) below the lo wes t o ne o f three requirements s p ecified in Tab le WC-2332.1-1 or Table WC-2332.1-2, as applicable. (b) A retest consists of two additional specimens taken as near as practicable to the failed specimens. For acceptance of the retests, both specimens shall be equal to or greater than the average of three requirements specified i n T a b l e WC - 2 3 3 2 . 1 - 1 o r T a b l e WC - 2 3 3 2 . 1 - 2 , a s applicable.
Bars
One test shall be made for each lot of bars with a cross ‐ sectional area greater than 1 in. 2 (650 mm 2 ) where a lot is defined as one heat of material heat treated in one charge or as one continuous operation, not to exceed 6,000 lb (2 700 kg). WC-2 344
WC-2 352
(a) For Charpy V‐ notch tests required by WC-2330, one rete s t at the s am e te m p e rature m ay b e co n ducte d, provided (1 ) not more than one specimen per test is below the acceptance requirements; (2) the specimen not meeting the acceptance requirements is not lower than 5 ft-lb (6.8 J) or 5 mils (0.13 mm) below the acceptance requirements. (b) A retest consists of two additional specimens taken as near as practicable to the failed specimens. For acceptance of the retests, both specimens shall meet the specified acceptance requirements.
Tu bu lar Prod u cts an d Fi tti n g s
On products which are seamless or welded without filler metal, one test shall be made from each lot. On products which are welded with filler metal, one additional test with the specimens taken from the weld area shall also be made on each lot. A lot shall be defined as stated in the applicable material specification, but in no case shall a lot consist of products from more than one heat of material and of more than one diameter, with the nominal thickness of any product included not exceeding that to be impact tested by more than 1/4 in. (6 mm); such a lot shall be in a single heat treatment load or in the same continuous run in a continuous furnace controlled within a 5 0 ° F ( 2 8 ° C ) r a n g e a n d e q u i p p e d wi th r e c o r d i n g pyrometers. WC-2 345
WC-2 36 0
Calibration of temperature instruments and C v impact test machines used in impact testing shall be performed at the frequency specified in (a) or (b) below. (a) Temperature instruments used to control test temperature of specimens shall be calibrated and the results recorded to meet the requirements of NCA‐ 4258.2 at least once in each three month interval. (b) C v impact test machines shall be calibrated and th e re s u l ts re c o rd e d to m e e t th e re q u i re m e n ts o f NCA‐ 4258.2. The calibrations shall be performed at least once per year using methods outlined in ASTM E23 and employing standard specimens obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or any supplier of subcontracted calibration services accredited in acco rdance with the requirements o f WA- 3 1 2 3 and NCA‐ 4255.3(c).
Bolti n g M ateri al
Diameter
WC-2 350 WC-2 351
Weight 1,500 3,000 6,000 10,000
lb lb lb lb
CALI BRATI ON O F I N STRU M EN TS AN D EQU I PM EN T
One test shall be made for each lot of material where a lot is defined as one heat of material heat treated in one charge or as one continuous operation, not to exceed the following:
1 3/4 in. (44 mm) and less Over 1 3/4 in. to 2 1/2 in. (44 mm to 64 mm) Over 2 1/2 in. to 5 in. (64 mm to 127 mm) Over 5 in. (127 mm)
Retests for Bolti n g M ateri al
(680 kg) (1 350 kg) (2 700 kg) (4 500 kg)
WC-2400
RETESTS
WC-2410
Retests for M ateri al Oth er Th an Bolti n g
WELDI N G M ATERI AL G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
(a) All welding material used in the construction and repair of containments or material, except welding material used for cladding or hard surfacing, shall conform to
(a) For Charpy V‐ notch tests required by WC-2330, one rete s t at the s am e te m p e rature m ay b e co n ducte d, provided 133
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the requirements of the welding material specification or to the requirements for other welding material as permitted in Section IX. In addition, welding material shall conform to the requirements stated in this subarticle and to the rules covering identification in WC-2150. (b) The Certificate Holder shall provide the organization performing the testing with the information listed below, as applicable: (1 ) welding process; (2) SFA specification and classification; (3) o th e r i d e n ti fi c a ti o n i f n o S F A s p e ci fi ca ti o n applies; (4) minimum tensile strength [ WC - 2 43 1 . 1 (e) ] in either the as welded or heat-treated condition, or both [WC-2431.1(c) ] ; (5) drop weight test for material in either the as welded or heat-treated condition, or both (WC-2332); (6) Charpy V notch test for material as welded, or heat treated, or both (WC-2 3 3 1 ) ; the test temperature and the lateral expansion or the absorbed energy shall be provided; (7) the preheat and interpass temperatures to be used during welding of the test coupon [WC-2431.1(c) ] ; (8) p o s twel d h e at tre atm e nt ti m e , te m p e ratu re range, and maximum cooling rate, if the production weld will be heat treated [WC-2431.1(c) ] ; (9) elements for which chemical analysis is required per the SFA specification or WPS, and WC-2432; (1 0) minimum delta ferrite (WC-2433).
(b) A dry blend is defined as one or more dry batches mixed in a mixing vessel and combined proportionately to produce a uniformity of mixed ingredients equal to that obtained by mixing the same total amount of dry ingredients at one time in one mixing vessel. (c) A wet m ix is defined as the combination of a dry batch (a) or dry blend (b) and liquid binder ingredients at one time in one mixing vessel. (d) A lot ofcovered, flux cored, or fabricated electrodes is defined as the quantity of electrodes produced from the same combination of heat of metal and dry batch, dry blend, or chemically controlled mixes of flux or core materials. Alternatively, a lot of covered, flux cored, or fabricated electrodes may be considered one type and size of electrode, produced in a continuous period, not to exceed 2 4 hr and not to exceed 1 00,000 lb (45 0 00 kg) , from chemically controlled tube, wire, or strip and a dry batch, a dry blend, or chemically controlled mixes of flux, provided each container of welding materials is coded for identification and traceable to the production period, the shift, line, and the analysis range of both the mix and the rod, tube, or strip used to make the electrode.



WC- 2420

(1 ) Chemically controlled tube, wire, or strip is defined as consumable tube, wire, or strip material supplied on coils with a maximum of one splice per coil that has been chemically analyzed to assure that the material conforms to the electrode manufacturer s chemical control limits for the specific type of electrode. Both ends of each coil shall be chemically analyzed except that those coils which are splice free need only be analyzed on one end of the coil. ’
REQU I RED TESTS
The required tests shall be conducted for each lot of covered, flux cored, or fabricated electrodes; for each heat of bare electrodes, rod, or wire for use with the OFW, GMAW, GTAW, PAW, and EGW (electrogas welding) processes (Section IX); for each heat of consumable inserts; for each combination of heat of bare electrodes and lot of submerged arc flux; for each combination of lot of fabricated electrodes and lot of submerged arc flux; for each combination of heat of bare electrodes or lot of fabricated electrodes and dry blend of supplementary powdered filler metal and lot of submerged arc flux; or for each combination of heat of bare electrodes and lot of electroslag flux. Tests performed on welding material in the qualification of weld procedures will satisfy the testing requirements fo r the l o t, heat, o r co mb i nati o n o f he at and batch of welding material used, provided the tests required by Article WC-4000 and this subarticle are made and the res ults co nfo rm to the requirements o f this Article. The definitions in (a) through (h) below apply. (a) A dry batch of coverin g m ixture is defined as the quantity of dry covering ingredients mixed at one time in one mixing vessel; a dry batch may be used singly or may be subsequently subdivided into quantities to which the liquid binders may be added to produce a number of wet mixes.
(2) Chemically controlled mixes of flux are defined as flux material that has been chemically analyzed to assure that it conforms to the percent allowable variation from the electrode manufacturer s standard for each chemical element for that type electrode. A chemical analysis shall be made on each mix made in an individual mixing vessel after blending. ’
(e) A heat ofbare electrode, rod, wire, or consumable insert is defined as the material produced from the same
melt of metal. (f) Alternatively, for carbon and low alloy steel bare electrode, rod, wire, or consumable inserts for use with SAW, OFW, GMAW, GTAW, PAW, and EGW processes, a heat may be defined as either the material produced from the same melt of metal or the material produced from one type and size of wire when produced in a continuous period [not to exceed 2 4 hr and not to exceed 1 00,000 lb (45 000 kg) ] from chemically controlled wire, subject to requirements of (1), (2), and (3) below. (1 ) For the chemical control of the product of the rod mill, coils shall be limited to a maximum of one splice prior to processing the wire. Chemical analysis shall be made from a sample taken from both ends of each coil of mill coiled rod furnished by mills permitting spliced 134
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
coil practice of one splice maximum per coil. A chemical analysis need be taken from only one end of rod coils furnished by mills prohibiting spliced coil practice. (2) Carbon, manganese, silicon, and other intentionally added elements shall be identified to ensure that the material conforms to the SFA or user s material specification. (3) Each container of wire shall be coded for identification and traceability to the lot, production period, shift, line, and analysis of rod used to make the wire. (g) A lot of submerged arc or electroslag flux is defined as the quantity of flux produced from the same combination of raw materials under one production schedule. (h) A dry blend of supplementary powdered filler metal is defined as one or more mixes of material produced in a continuous period, not to exceed 24 hr and not to exceed 20,000 lb (9 000 kg) from chemically controlled mixes of powdered filler metal, provided each container of powdered metal is coded for identification and traceable to the production period, the shift, and the mixing vessel. A chemically controlled mix of powdered filler metal is defined as powdered filler metal material that has been chemically analyzed to assure that it conforms to the percent allowable variation from the powdered filler metal manufacturer s standard, for each chemical element, for that type of powdered filler metal. A chemical analysis shall be made on each mix made in an individual mixing vessel after blending. The chemical analysis range of the supplemental powdered filler shall be the same as that of the welding electrode, and the ratio of powder to electrode used to make the test coupon shall be the maximum permitted for production welding.
(b) The weld metal to be tested for all processes except electroslag welding shall be deposited in such a manner as to substantially eliminate the influence of the base material on the results of the tests. Weld metal to be used with the electroslag process shall be deposited in such a manner as to conform to one of the applicable Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) for production welding. The base material shall conform to the requirements of Section IX, QW 403.1 or QW 403.4, as applicable. (c) The welding of the test coupon shall be performed within the range of preheat and interpass temperatures that will be used in production welding. Coupons shall be tested in the as welded condition, or they shall be tested in the applicable postweld heat-treated condition when the production welds are to be postweld heattreated. The postweld heat treatment holding time shall be at least 80% of the maximum time to be applied to the weld metal in production application. The total time for postweld heat treatment of the test coupon may be applied in one heating cycle. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens. The cooling rate from the postweld heat treatment temperature shall be of the same order as that applicable to the weld metal in the component. In addition, weld coupons for weld metal to be used with the electroslag process, which are tested in the as welded condition or following a postweld heat treatment wi th i n the h o l di n g te m p e ratu re ran ge s o f Tab l e WC-4622.1-1 or Table WC-4622.4(c)-1, shall have a thickness within the range of 0.5 to 1.1 times the thickness of the welds to be made in production. Electroslag weld coupons to be tested following a postweld heat treatment, which will include heating the coupon to a temperature a b o ve th e H o l d i n g T e m p e ratu re Ra n ge o f T ab l e WC-4622.1-1 for the type of material being tested, shall have a thickness within the range of 0.9 to 1.1 times the thickness of the welds to be made in production. (d) The tensile specimens, and the C v impact specimens when required, shall be located and prepared in accordance with the requirements of SFA-5.1 or the applicable SFA specification. Drop weight impact test specimens, where required, shall be oriented so that the longitudinal axis is transverse to the weld, with the notch in the weld face or in a plane parallel to the weld face. For impact specimen preparation and testing, the applicable parts of WC-2321.1 and WC-2321.2 shall apply. The longitudinal axis of the specimen shall be at a minimum depth of 1/4t from a surface, where t is the thickness of the test weld. (e) One all weld metal tensile specimen shall be tested and shall meet the specified minimum tensile strength requirements of the base material specification. Where base materials of different specifications are to be welded, the





WC-2430 WELD METAL TESTS WC-2431 Mechanical Properties Test Tensile and impact tests shall be made in accordance with this paragraph, of welding materials which are used to join P Nos. 1 and 3 base materials in any combination, with the exceptions listed in (a) through (d) below. (a) austenitic stainless steel and nonferrous welding material used to join the listed P Numbers; (b) consumable inserts (backing filler material); (c) welding material used for GTAW root deposits with a maximum of two layers; (d) welding material to be used for the welding of b as e materials exemp ted fro m i mp act tes ti ng b y WC - 2 3 1 1 (a) (1 ) th ro ugh WC - 2 3 1 1 (a) (6 ) o r WC-2311(a)(8) shall also be exempted from the impact testing required by this paragraph. WC-2431.1 General Test Requirements. The welding test coupon shall be made in accordance with (a) through (f) below, using each process with which the weld material will be used in production welding. (a) Test coupons shall be of sufficient size and thickness such that the test specimens required herein can be removed. ‐

ð
17Þ


135

ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-2432.1 Test Method. The chemical analysis test ð 17Þ shall be performed in accordance with this Subparagraph and Table WC-2432.1-1, and the results shall conform to WC-2432.2. (a) A‐ No. 8 welding material to be used with GTAW and PAW processes and any other welding material to be used with any GTAW, PAW, or GMAW process shall have chemical analysis performed either on the filler metal or on a weld deposit made with the filler metal in accordance with (c) or (d) below. (b) A‐ No. 8 welding material to be used with other than the GTAW and PAW processes and other welding material to be used with other than the GTAW, PAW, or GMAW process shall have chemical analysis performed on a weld deposit of the material or combination of materials being certified in accordance with (c) or (d) below. The removal of chemical analysis samples shall be from an undiluted weld deposit made in accordance with (c) below. As an alternative, the deposit shall be made in accordance with (d) below for material that will be used for corrosion resistant overlay cladding. Where the Welding Procedure Specification or the welding material specification specifies percentage composition limits for analysis, it shall state that the specified limits apply for the filler metal analysis, the undiluted weld deposit analysis, or the in situ cladding deposit analysis in conformance with the above required certification testing. (c) The preparation of samples for chemical analysis of undiluted weld deposits shall comply with the method given in the applicable SFA specification. Where a weld deposit method is not provided by the SFA specification, the sample shall be removed from a weld pad, groove, or other test weld made using the welding process that will be followed when the welding material or combination of welding materials being certified is consumed. The methods given in the Appendix of SFA-5.9 shall be used to establish a welding and sampling method for the pad, groove, or other test weld to ensure that the weld deposit being sampled will be substantially free of base metal dilution. The weld for A‐ No. 8 material to be used with the GMAW or EGW process shall be made using the shielding gas composition specified in the Welding Procedure Specifications that will be followed when the
tensile strength requirements shall conform to the specified minimum tensile strength requirement of either of the base material specifications. (f) Impact specimens of the weld metal shall be tested where impact tests are required for either of the base materials of the production weld. The weld metal shall conform to the parts of WC-2331 or WC-2332 applicable to the base material. Where different requirements exist for the two base materials, the weld metal may conform to either of the requirements for either base material.
WC-2431.2 Standard Test Requirements. In lieu of the use of the General Test Requirements specified in WC-2431.1, tensile and impact tests may be made in accordance with this Subparagraph where they are required for mild and low alloy steel covered electrodes. The material combinations to require weld material testing, as listed in WC-2431, shall apply for this option. The limitations and testing under this option shall be in accordance with (a) through (f) below. (a) Testing to the requirements of this Subparagraph shall be limited to electrode classifications included in SFA-5.1 or SFA-5.5. (b) The assembly required by SFA-5.1 or SFA-5.5, as applicable, shall be used for test coupon preparation, except that it shall be increased in size to obtain the number of impact specimens required by WC-2331 or WC-2332, as applicable. (c) The welding of the test coupon shall conform to the requirements of the SFA specification for the classification of electrode being tested. Coupons shall be tested in the as ‐ welded condition and the postweld heat-treated condition. The postweld heat treatment temperatures shall be in accordance with Table WC-4622.1-1 for the applicable P ‐ Number equivalent. The time at postweld heat treatment temperature shall be 8 hr (this qualifies postweld heat treatments of 10 hr or less). When the postweld heat treatment of the production weld exceeds 10 hr or the PWHT temperature is other than that required, the general test of WC-2431.1 shall be used. (d) The tensile and C v specimens shall be located and prep ared in accordance with the requirements o f SFA-5.1 or SFA-5.5, as applicable. Drop weight impact test specimens, where required, shall be located and oriented as specified in WC-2431.1(d). (e) One all ‐ weld ‐ metal tensile specimen shall be tested and shall meet the specified minimum tensile strength requirement of the SFA specification for the applicable electrode classification. (f) The requirements of WC-2431.1(f) shall be applicable to the impact testing.
Table WC-2432.1-1 Sampling of Welding Materials for Chemical Analysis GTAW/PAW
A‐ No. 8 filler metal
WC-2432 Chemical Analysis Test
All other filler metal
Chemical analysis of filler metal or weld deposits shall be made in accordance with WC-2420 and as required by the following Subparagraph. 136
Filler metal or weld deposit Filler metal or weld deposit
GMAW
All Other Processes
Weld deposit Weld deposit Filler metal or weld deposit
Weld deposit
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
material is consumed. The test sample for ESW shall be removed from the weld metal of the mechanical properties test coupon. Where a chemical analysis is required for a welding material which does not have a mechanical properties test requirement, a chemical analysis test coupon shall be prepared as required by WC-2431.1(c), except that heat treatment of the coupon is not required an d th e we l d co u p o n th i ckn e s s re q u i re m e n ts o f WC-2431.1(c) do not apply. (d) The alternate method provided in (b) above for the preparation of samples for chemical analysis of welding material to be used for corrosion resistant overlay cladding shall require a test weld made in accordance with the essential variables of the welding procedure specification that will be followed when the welding material is consumed. The test weld shall be made in conformance with the requirements of Section IX, QW‐ 214. The removal of chemical analysis samples shall conform to QW‐ 453 for the minimum thickness for which the Welding Procedure Specification is qualified. W C- 24 3 2 . 2
WC-243 3
A determination of delta ferrite shall be performed on A‐ No. 8 weld material (Section IX, Table QW-442) backing filler metal (consumable inserts); bare electrode, rod, or wire filler metal; or weld metal, except that delta ferrite determinations are not required for SFA-5.4 Type 16 ‐ 8 ‐ 2 or A‐ No. 8 weld filler metal to be used for weld metal cladding. Delta ferrite determinations of welding material, including consumable insert material, shall be made using a magnetic measuring instrument and weld deposits made in accordance with (b) below. Alternatively, the delta ferrite determinations for welding materials may be performed by the use of the chemical anal ys i s o f WC - 2 4 3 2 i n co n j u n cti o n wi th Fi gu re WC-2433.1-1. (a) Calibration of magnetic instruments shall conform to AWS A 4.2. (b) The weld deposit for magnetic delta ferrite determination shall be made in accordance with WC-2432.1(c). (c) A minimum of six ferrite readings shall be taken on the surface of the weld deposit. The readings obtained shall be averaged to a single Ferrite Number. WC- 243 3 . 1
Re q u i re m e n ts fo r Ch e m i cal An alys i s .
The chemical elements to be determined, the composition requirements of the weld metal, and the recording of results of the chemical analysis shall be in accordance with (a), (b), and (c) below. (a) Welding material of ferrous alloy A‐ No. 8 (Section IX, Table QW-442) shall be analyzed for the elements listed in Table WC-2432.2-1 and for any other elements specified either in the welding material specification referenced by the Welding Procedure Specification or in the Welding Procedure Specification. (b) The chemical composition of the weld metal or filler metal shall conform to the welding material specification for elements having specified percentage composition limits. Where the Welding Procedure Specification contains a modification of the composition limits of SFA or other referenced welding material specifications, or provides limits for additional elements, these composition limits of the Welding Procedure Specification shall apply for acceptability. (c) The results of the chemical analysis shall be reported in accordance with NCA‐ 3862.1. Elements listed in Table WC-2432.2-1 but not specified in the welding material specification or Welding Procedure Specification shall be reported for information only.
WC-2433. 2
WC-2440
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s.
STO RAG E AN D H AN DLI N G OF WELDI N G M ATERI AL
Suitable storage and handling of electrodes, flux, and other welding materials shall be maintained. Precautions shall be taken to minimize absorption of moisture by fluxes and cored, fabricated, and coated electrodes.
WC-2500
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF CON TAI N M EN T M ATERI AL
WC-2 510
CON TAI N M EN T M ATERI AL
Containment material shall be examined and repaired in accordance with the material specification and as otherwise required by this subarticle. WC-2 530
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF PLATE
WC-2 531
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
Plates shall be examined in accordance with the requirements of the material specification. In addition, for ferritic steels, the containment shell in the area of the closure welds made, after loading the containment (Figure WC-4265-3) shall be examined by the ultrasonic method in accordance with WC-2532.
Table WC-243 2. 2 -1
Materials
M eth o d .
The minimum acceptable delta ferrite shall be 5FN (Ferrite Number). The results of the delta ferrite determination shall be included in the Certified Material Test Report of WC-213 0 or WC-4120.
Weld i n g M ateri al Ch em i cal An alysi s
Cr– Ni stainless
Delta Ferri te Determ i n ati on
Elements
C, Cr, Mo, Ni, Mn, Si, Cb
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Figure WC-2433.1-1 Weld Metal Delta Ferrite Content 18
22
20
24
26
28
30
18
4
0
16
8
te r ri
16
18
35
14
28
24
10
20
6
16
2
12
Fe
14
45
30
26
22
Ni eq ? Ni ? 35 C ? 20 N ? 0.25 Cu
nu
mb
er
( FN
)
18
40
50
12
60
70
80
14
55
65
20
22
24 26 Creq ? Cr ? Mo ? 0.7 Nb
85
12
95
90
1 00
10 18
75
28
10 30
GENERAL NOTES: (a) The actual nitrogen content is preferred. If this is not available, the following applicable nitrogen value shall be used: (1 ) GMAW welds — 0.08%, except that when self-shielding flux-cored electrodes are used — 0.12% (2) Welds made using other processes — 0.06% (b) This diagram is identical to the WRC ‐ 1992 Diagram, except that the solidification mode lines have been removed for ease of use.
WC-2532
Ultrasonic Examination Procedures
(b) Acceptance Standards (1 ) Any area where one
or more imperfections produce a continuous total loss of back reflection accompanied by continuous indications on the same plane that cannot be encompassed within a circle whose diameter is 3 in. (75 mm) or one ‐ half of the plate thickness, whichever is greater, is unacceptable. (2) In addition, two or more imperfections smaller than described in (1) above shall be unacceptable unless separated by a minimum distance equal to the greatest diameter of the larger imperfection, or unless they may be collectively encompassed by the circle described in (1) above.
WC-2532.1 Straight Beam Examination. The requirements for straight beam examination shall be in accordance with SA- 5 7 8 /SA- 5 78 M , Specificatio n fo r Straight Beam Wave Ultrasonic Testing and Inspection of Plain and Clad Steel Plates for Special Applications, as shown in Section V, except that the extent of examination and the acceptance standards to be applied are given in (a) and (b) below. (a) Exten t of Exam in ation . The examination shall include the area adjacent to the closure weld to a distance of at least three times the nominal shell thickness. One hundred percent of one major plate surface shall be covered by moving the search unit in parallel paths with not less than a 10% overlap.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-2 537
WC-2539. 5 H eat Treatm en t After Repai rs. The product shall be heat treated after repair in accordance with the requirements of WC-4620.
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
Acceptance examinations shall be performed at the time of manufacture as required in (a) through (c) below. (a) Ultrason ic exam in ation shall be performed after rolling to size and after heat treatment, except for postweld heat treatment. (b) Radiographic examination of repair welds, when required, may be performed prior to any required postweld heat treatment. (c) Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination or repair welds shall be performed after final heat treatment, except that the examination may be performed prior to postweld heat treatment of P ‐ No. 1 material 2 in. (50 mm) and less nominal thickness. WC-2 538
WC-2539. 6
WC-2539. 7 Repai r of Clad d i n g by Weld i n g . The Material Organization may repair defects in cladding by welding, provided the requirements of (a) through (d) below are met. (a) Qualification of Weldin g Procedures and Welders. The welding procedure and the welders or welding operato rs shall b e qualified in acco rdance with Article WC-4000 and Section IX. (b) Defect Removal and Examination of Cavity. The defect shall be removed, and the cavity prepared for repair s h al l b e e xam i n e d b y th e l i q u i d p e n e tran t m e th o d (WC-2546). (c) Examination of Repaired Areas. The repaired area s h a l l b e e x a m i n e d b y a l i q u i d p e n e tr a n t m e th o d (WC-2546). (d) Report of Repairs. Each defect repair shall be described in the Certified Material Test Report for each piece, including a chart which shows the location and size of the repair, the welding material identification, welding procedure, heat treatment, and examination results.
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Surface defects shall be removed by grinding or machining, provided the requirements of (a) and (b) below are met. (a) The depression, after defect elimination, is blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. (b) When the eliminatio n of the defect reduces the thickness of the section below the minimum required by the design, the material shall be repaired in accordance with WC-2539. WC-2 539
Repai r by Weld i n g
The Material Organization may repair by welding materials from which defects have been removed, provided the depth of the repair cavity does not exceed one ‐ third of the nominal thickness and the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met. Prior approval of the Certificate Holder shall be obtained for the repair of plates to be used in the manufacture of containment vessels.
WC-2 540
WC- 2 5 3 9 . 2
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF FO RG I N G S AN D BARS
The defect shall be removed or reduced to an imperfection of acceptable limit by suitable mechanical or thermal cutting or gouging methods and the cavity prepared for repair (WC-4211.1). WC- 253 9. 1
M ateri al Report Descri bi n g Defects an d
Each defect repair that is required to be radiographed shall be described in the Certified Material Test Report. The Certified Material Test Report for each piece shall include a chart which shows the location and size of the prepared cavity, the welding material identification, the welding procedure, the heat treatment, and a report of the results of the examinations, including radiographic film.
Re p ai r.
Defect Rem oval.
WC-2 541
Req u i red Exam i n ati on s
Forgings and bars shall be examined in accordance with the requirements of the material specification, except when magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination is specifically required by the rules of this Subsection, in which case the examination shall conform to the requirements of WC-2545 or WC-2546, as applicable.
Q u ali fi cati o n o f W e ld i n g P ro ce d u re s
The welding procedure and welders or welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with Article WC-4000 and Section IX. an d W e ld e rs .
WC-2539. 3 Blen d i n g of Repai red Areas. After repair, the surface shall be blended uniformly into the surrounding surface.
WC-2 545
M ag n eti c Parti cle Exam i n ati on
WC-2 545. 1 Exam i n ati on Proced u re. The procedure for magnetic particle examination shall be in accordance with the methods of Section V, Article 7.
WC- 253 9 . 4 Exam i n ati on of Repai r Weld s. Each repair weld shall be examined by the magnetic particle method (WC-2 5 45 ) or by the liquid penetrant method (WC-2546). In addition, when the depth of the repair cavity exceeds the lesser of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% of the section thickness, the repair weld shall be radiographed in accordance with and to the applicable acceptance standards of WC-5320. The image quality indicator (IQI) shall be based upon the section thickness of the repaired area.
WC-2545. 2
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s.
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are re-
vealed by the retention of the examination medium. All indications are no t necessarily defects, however, since certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce similar indications which are not relevant. 139
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Any indication in excess of the WC-2 545 .3 acceptance standards which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined by the same or other nondestructive examination methods to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications which would mask defects are unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are those which result from imperfections. Linear indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width. Indications resulting from nonmetallic inclusions are not considered relevant indications. WC-2545. 3
Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width. WC-2546. 3
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s.
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following relevant indications are unacceptable: (1 ) a n y l i n e a r i n d i c a ti o n s gre a te r th a n 1/1 6 i n . (1.5 mm) long for material less than 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for material from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for material 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater; (2) ro unded indications with dimensions greater than 1/8 in . (3 m m) fo r thi ckn e s s e s l e s s th an 5/8 i n. (16 mm) and greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) for thicknesses 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and greater; (3) four or more relevant indications in a line separated by 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; (4) ten or more relevant indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm 2 ) of area whose major dimension is no more than 6 in. (1 5 0 mm) with the dimensions taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
WC- 2547
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
The requirements for time of examination shall be the same as stated in WC-2537. WC- 2548
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Elimination of surface defects shall be made in accordance with WC-2538. WC- 2549
WC- 2546
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s.
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant. (b) Imperfections producing the following relevant indications are unacceptable: (1 ) a n y l i n e a r i n d i c a ti o n s gre a te r th a n 1/1 6 i n . (1.5 mm) long for material less than 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for material from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for material 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater; (2) ro unded indications with dimensions greater than 1/8 in . (3 m m) fo r thi ckn e s s e s l e s s th an 5/8 i n. (16 mm) and greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) for thicknesses 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and greater; (3) four or more relevant indications in a line separated by 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; (4) ten or more relevant indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm 2 ) of area whose major dimension is no more than 6 in. (1 5 0 mm) with the dimensions taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
Li q u i d Pen etran t Exam i n ati on s
Repai r by Weld i n g
WC- 2546. 1
Exam i n ati o n Proced u re.
Repair by welding shall be performed in accordance with WC-2539, except that the depth of repair that is permitted is not limited.
WC- 2546. 2
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s.
WC- 2550
The procedure for liquid penetrant examination shall be in accordance with the methods of Section V, Article 6.
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are revealed by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, localized surface dis continuities, s uch as may occur from machining marks or surface conditions, may produce similar indications which are not relevant. (b) Any indication in excess of the WC-2 546.3 acceptance standards, which is believed to be nonrelevant, shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of pigmentation which would mask defects are unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are those which result from imperfections. Linear indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width.
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF SEAM LESS AN D WELDED (WI TH OU T FI LLER M ETAL) TU BU LAR PRODU CTS AN D FI TTI N G S
WC- 2551
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
(a) All seam welds in welded (without filler metal) tubular products shall be examined by one of the following methods: (1 ) u l tra s o n i c e xa m i n a ti o n i n a c c o rd a n c e wi th WC-2552 (2) radiographic examination in accordance with WC-2553 (3) eddy current examination in accordance with WC-2554 140
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Wrought seamless and welded (without filler metal) tubular products and fittings, except copper alloy and nickel alloy tubular products and fittings, shall comply with the requirements of WC-2557, WC-2558, and WC-2559, in addition to the basic material specification. (c) Copper alloy and nickel alloy wrought seamless and welded (without filler metal) tubular products and fittings shall comply with the requirements of WC-2558, in addition to the basic material specification. ð
17Þ
standard defects shall be axial notches or grooves on the outside and inside surfaces of the reference specimen and shall have a length of approximately 1 in. (25 mm) or less, a width not to exceed 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) for a square notch or U ‐ notch, a width proportional to the depth for a V‐ notch, and a depth not greater than the larger of 0.004 in. (0.10 mm) or 5% of the nominal wall thickness. (b) The reference specimen shall be long enough to simulate the handling of the product being examined through the examination equipment. When more than one standard defect is placed in a reference specimen, the defects shall be located so that indications from each defect are separate and distinct without mutual interference or amplification. All upset metal and burrs adjacent to the reference notches shall be removed.
WC-2552 Ultrasonic Examination The volumetric examinations required by this paragraph need only be conducted from one surface. WC-2552.1 Examination Procedure for Welds in Pipe and Tubing.

3
WC-2552.4 Checking and Calibration of Equipment. The proper functioning of the examination equipment shall be checked, and the equipment shall be calibrated by the use of the reference specimens, as a minimum: (a) at the beginning of each production run of a given size and thickness of a given material; (b) after each 4 hr or less during the production run; (c) at the end of the production run; (d) at any time that malfunctioning is suspected. If, during any check, it is determined that the testing equipment is not functioning properly, all of the product that has been tested since the last valid equipment calibration shall be reexamined.
(a) Circumferential Direction 6 /4 in. (1 70 mm) O. D. and Smaller. The welds in pipe and tubing shall be exam-
ined in two circumferential directions. The procedure for ultrasonic examination of pipe and tubing in the circumferential direction shall be in accordance with SE-213, Standard Method for Ultrasonic Examination of Pipe and Tubing for Longitudinal Discontinuities, and the requirements of this paragraph. The procedure shall provide a sensitivity which will consistently detect defects that produce indications equal to or greater than the indications produced by standard defects included in the reference specimens specified in WC-2552.3. 3
(b) Pipe and Tubing Larger Than 6 /4 in. (1 70 mm) O.D.
The welds in pipe and tubing shall be examined in two circumferential directions. The procedure for ultrasonic examinatio n o f p ip e and tub ing larger than 6 3/4 i n. (170 mm) O.D. shall be in accordance either with the requirements of SA-388 for angle beam scanning in the circumferential direction, or with the requirements of SE-213. The reference standard shall be in accordance with WC-2552.3 below. (c) Acceptan ce Stan dard. Products with defects that produce indications in excess of the indications produced by the standard defects in the reference specimen are unacceptable unless the defects are eliminated or repaired in accordance with WC-2558 or WC-2559. WC-2552.2 Examination Procedure for Welds in Fittings. (a) Procedure . The procedure for ultrasonic examination of welds in fittings shall be in accordance with the requirements of Recommended Practice SA-388 for angle beam examination in two circumferential directions. (b) Acceptance Standard. Fittings shall be unacceptable if angle beam examination results show one or more reflectors that produce indications exceeding in amplitude the indications from the calibrated notch. WC-2552.3 Reference Specimens. (a) The reference specimen shall be of the same nominal diameter and thickness and of the same nominal composition and heat-treated condition as the product which is being examined. For circumferential scanning, the
WC-2553 Radiographic Examination (a) Gen eral. When radiographic examination is performed as an alternative to ultrasonic examination of the entire volume of the material, it shall apply to the entire volume of the pipe, tube, or fitting material. Acceptance standards specified for welds shall apply to the entire volume of material examined. (b) Examination Procedure . The radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Section V, Article 2, as modified by WC-5111. (c) A ccep tan ce Stan da rd . Welds that are shown by radiography to have any of the following types of discontinuities are unacceptable: (1 ) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; (2) any other elongated indication which has a length greater than: 1 3 (-a) /4 in. (6 mm) for t up to /4 in. (19 mm) , inclusive 1 3 1 (-b) /3 t for t from /4 in. (1 9 mm) to 2 /4 in. (57 mm), inclusive 3 1 (-c) /4 in. (19 mm) for t over 2 /4 in. (57 mm) where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld;
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(3) any group of aligned indications having an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t , unless the minimum distance between successive indications exceeds 6 L , in which case the aggregate length is unlimited, L being the length of the largest indication; (4) rounded indications in excess of that shown as acceptable in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix VI. WC- 2554
may be performed prior to postweld heat treatment for P ‐ No. 1 (Section IX of the Code) materials of 2 in. (50 mm) and less nominal thickness; (4) forgings and rolled bars which are to be bored and/or turned to form tubular parts or fittings shall be examined after boring and/or turning, except for threading; fittings shall be examined after final forming; (5) when surface examination is required, all external surfaces and all accessible internal surfaces shall be examined, except for bolt holes and threads.
Ed d y Cu rren t Exam i n ati on
This examination method is restricted to materials with uniform magnetic properties and of sizes for which meaningful results can be obtained. The procedure for eddy current examination shall provide a sensitivity that will consistently detect defects by comparison with the standard defects included in the reference specimen specified in WC-2554.2. Products with defects that produce indications in excess of the reference standards are unacceptable unless the defects are eliminated or repaired in accordance with WC-2 5 5 8 or WC-2 55 9 as applicable. The reference specimen shall be of the same nominal diameter and thickness and of the same nominal composition and heattreated condition as the product that is being examined. The standard shall contain tangential or circumferential notches on the outside surface plus a 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) diameter hole drilled through the wall. These shall be used to establish the rejection level for the product to be tested. The reference notches shall have a depth not greater than the larger of 0.004 in. (0.10 mm) or 5% of the wall thickness. The width of the notch shall not exceed 1/1 6 in. (1 .5 mm) . The length shall be approximately 1 in. (25 mm) or less. The size of reference specimens shall be as specified in WC-2552.3. WC- 2 554. 1
WC- 2 5 5 4. 2
WC- 2554. 3
WC- 2558
Surface defects shall be removed by grinding or machining, provided the requirements of (a) through (c) below are met. (a) The depression, after defect elimination, is blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. (b) After defect elimination, the area is examined by the method which originally disclosed the defect to assure that the defect has been removed or reduced to an imperfection of acceptable size. (c) If the elimination of the defect reduces the thickness of the section below the minimum required to satisfy the rules of Article WC-3000, the product shall be repaired in accordance with WC-2559.
Exam i n ati on Proced u re.
R e fe re n ce S p e ci m e n s .
WC- 2559
Repai r by Weld i n g
Repair of defects shall be in accordance with WC-2539. WC- 256 0
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF TU BU LAR PRODU CTS AN D FI TTI N G S WELDED WI TH FI LLER M ETAL
WC- 2561
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
(a) Welded (with filler metal) tubular products, such as pipe made in accordance with SA-358, SA-409, SA-671, SA-672, and SA-691 and fittings made in accordance with the WPW grades of SA-234, SA-403, and SA-420, which are made by welding with filler metal, shall be treated as material; however, inspection by an Inspector and stamping with a Certification Mark with NPT Designator shall be in accordance with Section III requirements. In addition to the Certification Mark with NPT Designator, a numeral 1 shall be stamped below and outside the official Certification Mark. (b) In addition to the requirements of the material specification and of this Article, all welds shall be examined 100% by radiography in accordance with the basic material specification. When radiographic examination is not specified in the basic material specification, the welds shall be examined in accordance with WC-2563. (c) Tubular products and fittings which have been radiographed shall be marked to indicate that radiography has been performed. The radiographs and a radiographic report showing exposure locations shall be provided with the Certified Material Test Report.
Ch ecki n g an d Cali brati on of Eq u i pm en t.
The checking and calibration of examination equipment shall be the same as in WC-2552.4. WC- 2557
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
(a) Products that are quenched and tempered shall be examined, as required, after the quenching and tempering heat treatment. (b) Products that are not quenched and tempered shall receive the required examinations as follows: (1 ) ultrasonic or eddy current examination, when required, shall be performed after final heat treatment, except postweld heat treatment; (2) radiographic examination, when required, may be performed prior to any required postweld heat treatment; (3) magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of welds, including repair welds, shall be performed after final heat treatment, except that the examination
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(d) The Authorized Inspector shall certify by signing the Partial Data Report Form NM-1 (see Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix V) in accordance with NCA‐ 5290. WC-2 563
The following acceptance standards shall be applied: Quality Levels of SA-609 as shown in Section V shall apply for the casting thickness indicated. (1 ) Quality Level 1 fo r thicknes s es up to 2 in. (50 mm) (2) Quality Level 3 for thicknesses 2 in. to 4 in. (50 mm to 100 mm) (3) Quality Level 4 for thicknesses greater than 4 in. (100 mm) (b) In addition to the Quality Level requirements stated in (a) above, the requirements in (1) through (5) below shall apply for both straight beam and angle beam examination. (1 ) Areas giving indications exceeding the Amplitude Reference Line with any dimension longer than those specified in the following tabulation shall be unacceptable: (a) The
Rad i og raph i c Exam i n ati on
The radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of WC-2553. WC-2 567
Ti m e of Exam i n ati on
The time of examination shall be in accordance with the requirements of WC-2557. WC-2 568
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Unacceptable surface defects shall be removed in accordance with the requirements of WC-2558.
UT Quality Level WC-2 569
1 2 3 4
Repai r by Weld i n g
When permitted by the basic material specification, base material defects shall be repair welded in accordance to the requirements of WC-2559. Repair welding o f weld s eam defects s hall b e in acco rdance with WC-4450. WC-2 570
EXAM I N ATI ON AN D REPAI R OF CAST
Req u i red Exam i n ati on
For examination of the containment casting, the following shall apply: (a) All cast products shall be examined by the ultrasonic method as specified in WC-2574. (b) All external and accessible internal surfaces, except threaded surfaces, shall be examined using either the liquid penetrant method (WC-2576) or the magnetic particle method (WC-2577). WC-2 572
Provi si on s for Repai r of Base M ateri al by Weld i n g
Castings shall not be repaired by plugging, welding, brazing, impregnation, or any other means. WC-2 574
(38) (50) (64) (75)
(2) Quality Level 1 shall apply for the volume of castings within 1 in. (25 mm) of the surface regardless of the overall thickness. (3) Discontinuities indicated to have a change in depth equal to or greater than one-half the wall thickness or 1 in. (25 mm), whichever is less, shall be unacceptable. (4) Two or more indications in the same plane with amplitudes exceeding the Amplitude Reference Line and separated by a distance less than the longest dimension of the larger of the adjacent indications shall be unacceptable if they cannot be encompassed within an area less than that of the Quality Level specified in (1). (5) Two or more indications greater than permitted for Quality Level 1 for castings less than 2 in. (50 mm) in thickness, greater than permitted for Quality Level 2 fo r t h i c k n e s s e s 2 i n . t h r o u g h 4 i n . ( 5 0 m m through 100 mm), and greater than permitted for Quality Level 3 for thicknesses greater than 4 in. (100 mm), separated by a distance less than the longest dimension of the
Ti m e of N on d estru cti ve Exam i n ati on
All examinations shall be performed after final machining except that ultrasonic testing shall be performed at the time when the configuration is best suited for scanning and the most meaningful results can be obtained. WC-2 573
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
NOTES: (1) The areas for the Ultrasonic Quality Levels in SA-609 refer to the surface area on the casting over which co ntinuo us indicatio n, exceeding the trans fercorrected distance amplitude curve, is maintained. (2) Areas shall be measured from dimensions of the movement of the search unit, using the center of the search unit as the reference point. (3) In certain castings, because of very long metal path distances or curvature of the examination surfaces, the surface area over which a given discontinuity is detected may be considerably larger or smaller than the actual area of the discontinuity in the casting; in such cases, other criteria that incorporate a consideration of beam angles or beam spread shall be used for realistic evaluation of the discontinuity.
PRODU CTS WC-2 571
Longest Dimension of Area, in. (mm) [Notes (1), (2), and (3)]
U ltrason i c Exam i n ati on of Casti n g s
Ultrasonic examination shall be performed in accordance with Section V, Article 5, T-471.4. Each manufacturer shall certify that the procedure is in accordance with the following requirements and shall make the procedure available for approval upon request. 143
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
larger of the adjacent indications, shall be unacceptable if they cannot be encompassed in an area less than that of the Quality Level requirements stated in (1). WC- 2576
produce indications that are not relevant. Any indication in excess of the acceptance standards that is believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as a defect until it is reexamined to verify whether actual defects are present. Nonrelevant indications that would mask indications of defects are unacceptable. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Relevant indications are those that result from unacceptable mechanical discontinuities a n d h a ve a m a j o r d i m e n s i o n gre a te r th a n 1/1 6 i n . (1 .5 mm) . Linear indications are those whose length is more than 3 times the width. Rounded indications are those that are circular or elliptical with the length less than 3 times the width.
Li q u i d Pen etran t Exam i n ati on
(a) Castings shall be examined, if required, on all accessible surfaces by the liquid penetrant method in accordance with Section V of the Code. (b) Evaluation of Indication s. All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standards. Mechanical discontinuities intersecting the surface are indicated by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, localized surface discontinuities as may occur from machining marks, scale, or dents may produce indications that are not relevant. Any indication in excess of the acceptance standards believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as a defect until it is reexamined to verify whether actual defects are present. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of pigmentation that would mask indications of defects are unacceptable. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Relevant indications are those that result from mechanical discontinuities. Linear indications are those whose length is more than 3 times the width. Rounded indications are those that are circular or elliptical with the length less than 3 times the width. Indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) are considered relevant. (c) Acceptance Standards. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: 1 (1 ) a n y l i n e a r i n d i c a ti o n s gre a te r th a n /1 6 i n . 5 (1.5 mm) long for materials less than /8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for materials from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for materials 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater (2) ro unded indications with dimensions greater than 1/8 in . (3 m m) fo r thi ckn e s s e s l e s s th an 5/8 i n. (16 mm) and greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) for thicknesses 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and greater (3) four or more relevant indications in a line separated by 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge-to-edge 2 (4) ten or more relevant indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) taken in the most unfavorable orientation relative to the indications being evaluated WC- 2577
(c) Acceptance Standards. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: 1
(1 ) linear indications greater than /1 6 in. (1.5 mm) 5
long for materials less than /8 in. (16 mm) thick, greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) long for materials from 5/8 in. (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/16 in. (5 mm) long for materials 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater (2) rounded indications with dimensio ns greater th a n 1/8 i n . (3 m m ) l o n g fo r m a te ri a l s fro m 5/8 i n . (16 mm) thick to under 2 in. (50 mm) thick, and 3/1 6 in. (5 mm) long for materials 2 in. (50 mm) thick and greater (3) four or more relevant indications in a line separated by 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge (4) ten or more relevant indications in any 6 in.
2
2
(4 000 mm ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) taken in the most unfavorable orientation relative to the indications being evaluated
WC- 2580
EXAM I N ATI O N OF BO LTS, STU DS, AN D N U TS
WC- 2581
Req u i rem en ts
All bolting material shall be visually examined in accordance with WC-2582.
WC- 2582
ð 17Þ
Vi su al Exam i n ati on
The final surfaces of threads, shanks, and heads shall be visually examined for workmanship, finish, and appearance in acco rdance with the requirements o f AS TM F788 for bolting material and ASTM F812 for nuts. The visual examination personnel shall be trained and qualified in accordance with the Material Organization s Quality System Program or the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program. These examinations are not required to be performed either in accordance with procedures qualified to WC-5100 or by personnel qualified in accordance with WC-5500.
M ag n eti c Parti cle Exam i n ati on (for Du cti le Cast I ron )
(a) Castings of magnetic material shall be examined, if required, on all accessible surfaces by a magnetic particle method in accordance with Section V of the Code. (b) Evaluation of Indication s. All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standards. Mechanical discontinuities intersecting the surface are indicated by retention of the examination medium. All indications are not necessarily defects since certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may


144
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-2600
to provide assurance that the material is furnished in accordance with the material specification and with the applicable requirements of this Subsection. (c) For the purpose of this paragraph, small products are defined as given in (1) through (3) below: (1 ) p ipe, tube, pipe fittings, and flanges NPS 2 (DN 50) and less; (2) bolting materials, including studs, nuts, and bolts of 1 in. (25 mm) nominal diameter and less; (3) bars with a nominal cross sectional area of 1 in. 2 (650 mm2 ) and less.
M ATERI AL ORG AN I ZATI ON S ’ QU ALI TY SYSTEM PROG RAM S
WC-2610
DOCU M EN TATI ON AN D M AI N TEN AN CE OF QU ALI TY SYSTEM PROG RAM S
(a) Except as provided in (b) below, Material Organizations shall have a Quality System Program or an Identification and Verification Program, as applicable, which meets the requirements of WA-3800. (b) The requirements of NCA 3862 shall be met as req u i re d b y WC - 2 1 3 0 . T h e o th e r re q u i re m e n ts o f WA-3800 need not be used by Material Organizations for small products, as defined in (c) below, for brazing material, and for material which is allowed by this Subsection to be furnished with a Certificate of Compliance. For these products, the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program (Article WA-4000) shall include measures ‐

WC-2700
DI M EN SI ON AL STAN DARDS
Dimensions of standard items shall comply with the standards and specifications listed in Table WA-7100-1.

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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WC- 3000 DESI G N
WC-3100
The specified Design Mechanical Loads shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1(c). They shall be used in conjunction with the Design Pressure. WC-3 112 . 3
G EN ERAL DESI G N
WC- 3110
LOADI N G CRI TERI A
WC- 3111
Load i n g Con d i ti on s
The loadings considered in designing a containment as identified in the Design Specification shall include, but are not limited to, those in (a) through (g) below. (a) internal and external pressures (b) impact loads, either internal or external, that may be caused by operational drop events, nonmechanistic tip-over, missile impact, design-basis aircraft crash, earthquake-induced impact, or other dynamic events (c) weight of the containment and normal contents under operating or test conditions, including additional pressure due to static and dynamic head of liquids (d) superimposed loads such as other components, operating equipment, impact limiting devices, shielding, and linings (e) external environments such as wind loads, snow loads, vibrations, handling loads, and earthquake loads, where specified (f) reaction loads from attachments and supports (g) temperature effects caused by contents or the external environment WC- 3112
WC- 3 112 . 4
WC- 3113
Operati n g an d Test Con d i ti on s
Storage containments (WA-1110) are subject to operating and test conditions that are required to be considered in the design of the contaiment in order to satisfy applicable safety criteria. (b) The selection of operating and test conditions is beyond the scope of this Division. The Design Specification shall specify these conditions using appropriate guidance from safety criteria documents for storage containments and the requirements of regulatory and enforcement authorities having jurisdiction. (c) Each operating and test condition to which the containment may be subjected shall be classified in accordance with WA-2123, and Service Limits [WA-2123.4(b)] shall be designated in the Design Specification in such detail as will provide a complete basis for design in accordance with this Subsection. (d) When any loading for which Level A, C, or D Service Limits are specified in the Design Specification, they shall be evaluated in accordance with WA-2120 and in compliance with the applicable design and stress intensity limits of this Article. (a)
The Design Loadings shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1 and the following subparagraphs. The specified internal and external Design Pressures to be used in this Subsecti o n s h al l b e e s tab l i s h e d i n a cco rd an ce wi th WA-2123.1(a). D esi g n Pressu re.
The specified Design Temperature shall be established in accordance with WA-2123.1(b). It shall be used in conjunction with the Design Pressure. If necessary, the metal temperature shall be determined by computation using accepted heat transfer procedures or by measurement from equipment in service under equivalent operating conditions. In no case shall the temperature at the surface of the metal exceed the maximum temperature listed in the applicability column of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4, nor exceed the maximum temperature limitations specified elsewhere in this Subsection. WC- 3 11 2 . 2
D esi g n Allowab le Stress I n ten si ty Val-
Design stress intensity values for Section III, Class SC materials listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4 shall be used. The materials shall not be used at temperatures that exceed the temperature limit established in the stress tables. The stress intensity values in the tables may be interpolated for intermediate temperatures. As an additional control on permitted storage containment materials listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B, only the following materials shall be used: (a) materials whose P-numbers are listed in Table WC-4622.1-1, or (b) ductile cast iron castings per specifications SA-874 or SA/JIS G5504 of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 2A u es.
Desi g n Load i n g s
WC- 3 1 1 2 . 1
Desi g n M ech an ical Load s.
D e si g n Tem pe ratu re.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-3 12 0
SPECI AL CON SI DERATI O N S
WC-3 12 1
Corrosi on
compliance with these standards does not replace or eliminate the requirements for stress analysis when cal l e d fo r b y the de s i gn s ub arti cl e fo r a s p eci fi c containment.
Material subject to thinning by corrosion, erosion, mechanical abrasion, or other environmental effects shall have provision made in the Design Specification for these effects by indicating the increase in the thickness of the base metal over that determined by the design analysis (WC-3200). Other suitable methods of protection may be used. Material added or included for these purposes need not be of the same thickness for all areas of the containment if different rates of attack are expected for the various areas. WC-3 12 2
WC-3 133
Rules are given in this paragraph for determining the thickness under external pressure loading in spherical and cylindrical shells without stiffening rings. Charts for determining the stresses in shells and hemispherical heads are given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3. The symbols used in this paragraph are defined as follows: W C- 3 1 3 3 . 1
WC-3133. 2
Clad d i n g
WC- 3 12 2 . 2
WC-3 12 3
Stre sses.
Desi g n D i m en si on s.
Weld s Between Di ssi m i lar M etals
In satisfying the requirements of this subarticle, caution shall be exercised in construction involving dissimilar metals having different chemical compositions, mechanical properties, and coefficients of thermal expansion in order to avoid difficulties in service. WC-3 130
G EN ERAL DESI G N RU LES
The design shall be such that the rules of this Article are satisfied for all configurations and loadings using the stress intensity values of WC-3112.4 and including the use of standard products listed in Table WA-7100-1. WC-3 131
Desi g n Reports
The Certificate Holder shall provide a Design Report conforming to the requirements of WC-3211. WC-3 132
G e n e ral.
N om en clatu re.
A = factor determined from Section II, Part D, Subpart 3, Figure G and used to enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3. For the case of cylinders having D o /T values less than 10, see WC-3133.3(b). B = factor determined from the applicable chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material used in a shell at the design metal temperature, psi (MPa) D o = outside diameter of the cylindrical shell E = modulus of elasticity of material at Design Temperature, psi (MPa). For external pressure and axial compression design in accordance with this Article, the modulus of elasticity to be used shall be taken from the applicable materials chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3. (Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures.) The modulus of elasticity values shown in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for material groups may differ from those values listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TM for specific materials. Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 values shall be applied only to external pressure and axial compression design. L = the design length of a containment taken as the distance between head tangent lines plus one ‐ third of the depth of each head P = external Design Pressure, psi (MPa) (gage or absolute, as required) P a = allowable external pressure, psi (MPa) (gage or absolute, as required) R = inside radius of spherical shell S = the lesser of 1.5 times the stress intensity at design metal temperature from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B or 0.9 times the tabulated yield strength at design metal temperature from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1, psi (MPa) T = minimum required thickness of cylindrical shell or spherical shell Tn = nominal thickness used, less corrosion allowance, of a cylindrical shell
The rules of this Paragraph apply to the design of clad containments constructed of materials permitted in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4. E xce p t as p erm i tted b y WC-3214, no structural strength shall be attributed to the cladding. The dimensions given in (a) and (b) below shall be used in the design of the containment. (a) For containments subjected to internal pressure, the inside diameter shall be taken at the nominal inner face of the cladding. (b) For containments subjected to external pressure, the outside diameter shall be taken at the outer face of the base metal. WC-3122 . 1
Con tai n m en ts U n d er Extern al Pressu re
Di m en si on al Stan d ard s for Stan d ard Prod u cts
Dimensions of standards products shall comply with the s tan d ard s a n d s p e ci fi cati o n s l i s te d i n Tab l e WA-7100-1 when the standard or specification is referenced in the s p ecific des ign s ub article. H o wever, 147
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-3133.3 Cylindrical Shells. The thickness of cylinders under external pressure shall be determined by the procedure given in (a) or (b) below. (a) Cylinders Having D o / T Values ≥ 10 Step 1 . Assume a value for T and determine the ratios L / D o and D o / T . Step 2 . Enter Section II, Part D, Subpart 3, Figure G at the value of L / D o determined in Step 1. For values of L / D o greater than 5 0, enter the chart at a value of L / D o = 50. For values of L / D o less than 0.05, enter the chart at a value of L /D o of 0.05. Step 3. Move horizontally to the line for the value of D o / T determined in Step 1. Interpolation may be made for immediate values of D o /T. From this point of intersection move vertically downward to determine the value of factor A . Step 4. Using the value of A calculated in Step 3, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value of A falls to the right of the end of the material/temperature line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. For values of A falling to the left of the material/temperature line, see Step 7. Step 5. From the intersection obtained in Step 4, move horizontally to the right and read the value of B . Step 6. Using this value of B , calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P a using the following equation:
Step 2 . Using the value of B obtained in Step 1, calculate a value P a 1 using the following equation:
Step 3 . C alculate a value equation:
Pa2
us ing the fo llo wing
Step 4. The smaller of the values of P a 1 calculated in Step 2, or P a 2 calculated in Step 3 shall be used for the maximum allowable external pressure P a . Compare P a with P . If P a is smaller than P , select a larger value for T and repeat the design procedure until a value for P a is obtained that is equal to or greater than P .
WC-3133.4
Spherical Shells and Formed Heads.
(a) Spherical Shells. The minimum required thickness of
a spherical shell under external pressure shall be determined by the procedure given in Steps 1 through 6. Step 1 . Assume a value for T and calculate the value of factor A using the following equation:
Step 2 . Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value at A falls to the right of the end of the material/temperature line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. For values of A falling to the left of the material/temperature line, see Step 5. Step 3. From the intersection obtained in Step 2, move horizontally to the right and read the value of factor B . Step 4. Using the value of B obtained in Step 3, calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P a using the following equation:
Step 7. For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/temperature line, the value of P a can be calculated using the following equation:
Step 8. Compare P a with P . If P a is smaller than P , select a larger value for T and repeat the design procedure until a value of P a is obtained that is equal to or greater than P . (b) Cylinders Having D o / T Values < 10 Step 1 . Using the same procedure as given in (a) above, obtain the value of B . For values of D o /T less than 4, the value of factor A can be calculated using the following equation:
Step 5. For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/temperature line for the Design Temperature, the value o f P a can b e calculated us ing the following equation:
For values of A greater than 0.10, use a value of 0.10. 148
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Step 6. Compare P a obtained in Step 4 or Step 5 with P . If P a is smaller than P , select a larger value for T and repeat the design procedure until a value for P a is obtained that is equal to or greater than P . (b) The nomenclature defined below is used in the equations of (c) through (e) below. D Do h
K1 R
T
not be less than that determined by the same design procedure as is used for ellipsoidal heads given in (d) above, using the appropriate value for R .
WC-3133.6 Cylinders Under Axial Compression. The maximum allowable compressive stress to be used in the design of cylindrical shells subjected to loadings that produce longitudinal compressive stresses in the shell or wall shall be the lesser of the values given in (a) or (b) below: (a) the S m value for the applicable material at Design Temperature given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B; (b) the value of the B determined from the applicable chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 using the following definitions for the symbols on the charts:
= inside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head = outside diameter of the head skirt at the point under consideration = one-half of the length of the minor axis of the ellipsoidal head, or the inside depth of the ellipsoidal head measured from the tangent line, head bend line = a factor depending on the ellipsoidal head proportions, given in Table WC-3133.4-1 = for hemispherical heads, the inside radius in the corroded condition = for ellipsoidal heads, the equivalent inside spherical radius taken as K1 D o in the corroded condition = for torispherical heads, the inside radius of the cro wn p o rti o n o f th e h e ad i n th e co rro de d condition = minimum required thickness of head after forming, exclusive of corrosion allowance
R T
The value of B shall be determined from the applicable chart contained in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 as given in Steps 1 through 5. Step 1 . Using the selected values of T and R , calculate the value of factor A using the following equation:
(c) Hemispherical Heads. The required thickness of a hemispherical head having pressure on the convex side shall be determined in the same manner as outlined in (a) above for determining the thickness for a spherical shell. (d) Ellipsoidal Heads. The required thickness of an ellipsoidal head having pressure on the convex side, either seamless or of built‐ up construction with butt joints, shall not be less than that determined b y the fo llowing procedure. Step 1 . Assume a value for T and calculate the value of factor A using the following equation:
Step 2 . Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material under consideration. Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the Design Temperature. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. In cases where the value at A falls to the right of the end of the material/temperature line, assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. For values of A falling to the left of the material/temperature line, see Step 4. Step 3 . From the intersection obtained in Step 2, move horizontally to the right and read the value of factor B . This is the maximum allowable compressive stress for the values of T and R used in Step 1. Step 4. For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/temperature line, the value of B shall be calculated using the following equation:
Step 2 . Using the value of A calculated in Step 1, follow the same procedure as that given for spherical shells in (a)Step 2 through (a) Step 6. (e) Torispherical Heads. The required thickness of a torispherical head having pressure on the convex side, either seamless or of built‐ up construction with butt joints, shall
ð
17Þ
= inside radius of the cylindrical shell = selected thickness of the shell, exclusive of the corrosion allowance
Step 5. Compare the value of B determined in Step 3 or 4 with the computed longitudinal compressive stress in the cylindrical shell, using the selected values of T and R . If the value of B is smaller than the computed compressive stress, a greater value of T must be selected and the design procedure repeated until a value of B is obtained which is greater than the compressive stress computed for the loading on the cylindrical shell.
Table WC-3133.4-1 Values of Spherical Radius Factor, K 1 D /2 h 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 K1 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.57 0.50 GENERAL NOTE: Equivalent spherical radius = K1 D ; D /2 h = axis ratio; interpolation permitted for intermediate values.
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WC- 313 5
(c) For configurations where compressive stresses occur, the critical buckling stress shall be taken into account. The maximum allowable compressive stress to be used in the design of cylindrical shells subjected to loadings that produce longitudinal compressive stress in the shell shall be the smaller of the following values: (1 ) the S m value from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B (2) th e va l u e o f fa c to r B d e te r m i n e d fr o m WC-3133.6 (d) For the special case of external pressure, the rules of WC-3133 shall be met.
Attach m en ts
(a) Except as in (c) and (d) below, attachments and connecting welds within the jurisdictional boundary of the containment as defined in WC-1130 shall meet the stress limits of the containment. (b) The design of the containment shall include consideration of the interaction effects and loads transmitted through the attachment to and from the containment. Thermal stresses, stress concentrations, and restraint of the containment shall be considered. (c) Beyond 2 t from the outside surface of the containment shell, where t is the nominal thickness of the containment shell, the appropriate design rules of Division 1, Article NF‐ 3000 may be used as a substitute for the design rules of Article WC-3000 for portions of attachments that are in the containment support load path. (d) Nonstructural attachments shall meet the requirements of WC-4435.
A containment may be designed for and constructed of combinations of materials permitted in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4, provided the applicable rules are followed, including WC-3112.4, and the requirements in Section IX for welding dissimilar metals are met. WC-3211. 3
Materi al i n Com bi n ati on .
When a containment consists of more than one independent chamber, operating at the same or different pressures and temperatures, each chamber shall be designed and constructed to withstand the most severe condition of coincident pressure and temperature expected. WC-3211. 4
WC-32 00
DESI G N RU LES FOR CON TAI N M EN TS
ð 17Þ
WC- 3210
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
WC- 3211
Basi s for U se
WC-3211. 1
(a) This
Scope.
subarticle contains design rules for containments used for storage of spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive material. The design shall be such that stress intensities will not exceed the limits described in this subarticle and in WC-3700 using the S m values tabulated in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4. (b) A stress analysis of containment shall be performed considering all the loadings of WC-3111 and the Design Specification. This analysis shall be done in accordance with Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII 19 for all applicable stress categories. Alternatively, an experimental stress analysis may be performed in accordance with Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix II. (c) As an alternative, for energy-limited dynamic events for which Level D Service Limits have been established, the strain-based acceptance criteria of WC-3700 may be used rather than satisfying stress criteria as discussed above. (d) A Design Report shall be prepared by the Certificate Holder showing compliance with this subarticle. This Design Report shall meet the requirements of WA-3350 for a Design Report (Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix C). WC-3211. 2
(a) The
Mu lti ple Ch am ber Con tai n m en t.
WC- 3 2 1 1 . 5
M i n i m u m Th i ckn e ss o f Sh e ll o r H e ad .
The thickness after forming and without allowance for corrosion of any containment shell or head subject to pressure shall be not less than 1/4 in. (6 mm) for carbon and low alloy steels or 1/8 in. (3 mm) for stainless steel. The selected thickness of material shall be such that the forming, heat treatment, and other fabrication processes will not reduce the thickness of the material at any point below the minimum value required by these rules. WC-3211. 6
WC- 3214
Selecti on of M ateri al Th i ckn ess.
Clad d i n g
No structural strength shall be attributed to the cladding in satisfying WC-3217 primary stress limits. WC-3214. 1
Pri m ary Stresses.
In satisfying the secondary stress limits of WC-3217 and the fatigue requirements of WC-3219, the presence of cladding shall be considered with respect to both thermal analysis and stress analysis. The stresses in both materials shall be limited to the values that meet the requirements of both WC-3217 and WC-3219. However, when the cladding is of the integrally bonded type and the nominal thickness of the cladding is 10% or less of the total thickness of the containment, the presence of the cladding may be neglected. WC-3214. 2
Req u i rem en ts for Acceptabi li ty.
design shall be such that the requirements of WC-3100 and this subarticle are satisfied. In cases of conflict, the requirements of this subarticle shall govern. (b) The design shall be such that stress intensities do not exceed the limits given in WC-3217.
Secon d ary an d Peak Stresses.
I n s a ti s fyi n g WC-3216.3, the presence of cladding shall be included. WC-3214. 3
150
Be ari n g
Stresses.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-32 15
material, the allowable shear stresses for each material shall be used when evaluating the combined resistance to this type of failure. (3) When considering bearing stresses in pins and similar members, the S y value at temperature is applicable, except that a value of 1.5 S y may be used if no credit is given to bearing area within one pin diameter from a plate edge. (b) Pure Shear. The average primary shear stress across a section under Design Loadings in pure shear, for example, keys, shear rings, and screw threads, shall be limited to 0.6 S m . The maximum primary shear under Design Loadings, exclusive of stress concentration at the periphery of a solid circular section in torsion, shall be limited to 0.8 S m . (c) Progressive Distortion of Nonintegral Connections. Screwed ‐ on caps, screwed ‐ in plugs, shear ring closures, and breech lock closures are examples of nonintegral connections which are subject to failure by bell mouthing or other types of progressive deformation. If any combination of applied loads produces yielding, such joints are subject to ratcheting because the mating members may become loose at the end of each complete operating cycle and start the next cycle in a new relationship with each other, with or without manual manipulation. Additional distortion may occur in each cycle so that interlocking parts, such as threads, can eventually lose engagement. Therefore, primary plus secondary stress intensities (Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII, XIII-3420), which result in slippage between parts of a nonintegral connection in which disengagement could occur as a result of progressive distortion, shall be limited to the value S y given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1.
Desi g n Basi s
WC- 32 15 . 1
P re s s u re an d T e m p e rat u re R e lat i o n -
The design shall take into account the maximum differences in pressure, temperature, and loadings, which exist under the specified operating conditions, between the inside and outside of the containment at any point or between chambers of a multiple chamber containment. The design thickness for evaluating stresses due to pressure and other loadings shall not include any metal added as corrosion or erosion allowance. sh i ps.
WC-32 16
Desi g n Stress I n ten si ty Valu es
The design stress intensity values S m are given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4. Values for intermediate temperatures may be found by interpolation. These S m values form the basis for the various stress limits that are described in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII, and are used in determining the membrane stress intensity limits for the various load combinations given in Table WC-3217-1. WC-3216. 1
WC- 3 2 16 . 2
Stress Tables.
Co effi ci e n t o f Th e rm al E xp an si o n an d
Values of the coefficient of thermal expansion are in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TE and values of the moduli of elasticity are in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TM. M od u lu s of Elasti ci ty.
ð 17Þ
The deviations between (a), (b), and (c) below from the basic stress limits are pro vided to cover special co nditions or configurations. WC- 32 16 . 3
S p e ci al S t re s s L i m i t s .
(a) Bearing Loads
(1 ) The average bearing stress for resistance to crushing under the maximum design load shall be limited to the yield strength S y at temperature except that, when the distance to a free edge is greater than the distance over which the bearing load is applied, a stress of 1.5 S y at temperature is permitted. For clad surfaces, the yield strength of the base metal may be used if, when calculating the bearing stress, the bearing area is taken as the lesser of the actual contact or the area of the base metal supporting the contact surface. (2) When bearing loads are applied on parts having free edges, such as at a protruding ledge, the possibility of a shear failure shall be considered. The average shear stress shall be limited to 0.6 S m in the case of design load stress [Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII, XIII-1300(m)] and 0.5 S y in the case of design load stress plus secondary stress [Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII, XIII-1300(ab)] . For clad surfaces, if the configuration or thickness is such that a shear failure could occur entirely within the clad material, the allowable shear stress for the cladding shall be determined from the properties of the equivalent wrought material. If the configuration is such that a shear failure could occur across a path that is partially base metal and partially clad
WC-32 17
Desi g n Cri teri a
These design requirements provide specific rules for containments. Simplified criteria are included for determining whether analysis for cyclic operation is required. Stress analysis of the containment shall be performed using the most severe combination of loadings expected to occur simultaneously during design and operating conditions. Allowable stress intensities, k S m , for primary stresses shall be satisfied for all Service Limits. Table WC-3217-1 lists values of k that are appropriate for various load combinations. (a) The theory of failure used in this subarticle is the maximum shear stress theory. Stress intensity is defined as two times the maximum shear stress. (b) The average value of the general primary membrane stress intensity across the thickness of the section under consideration, P m , due to any combination of pressure and mechanical loadings expected to occur simultaneously, should not exceed the design stress intensity value kS m . (c) The local primary membrane stress intensity, P L due to any combination of pressure and mechanical loadings expected to occur simultaneously is limited to 151
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-3217. 3
ð 17Þ
Table WC- 3217-1 Stress I n ten si ty
k
Pb
Factors for Desi g n an d
Operati n g Load Com bi n ati on s
Service Limits [Note (1)]
Design Level A [Note (3)] Level C Level D
k [Note (2)]
1.0 1.0 1.2 [Note (4)]
PL
NOTES: (1) For Design Limits, use Design Pressure at design metal temperature; for Service Limits, use operating pressure at operating metal temperature. (2) The condition of structural instability or buckling must be considered. (3) See WC-3219 and Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII. (4) The stress limits of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XXVII shall be applied. As an alternative, the requirements of WC-3700 may be used to evaluate inelastic containment responses to energy-limited dynamic events.
ð 17Þ
Pm
Sm Sy
1.5 k S m . The distance over which the stress intensity exceeds 1.1 kS m shall not extend in the meridional direction more than , where R is the mean radius at the midsurface of the containment shell or head and t is the nominal thickness of the shell or head at the point under consideration. (d) The general or local primary membrane plus bending stress intensity (P m or P L ) + P b due to any combination of pressure and mechanical loadings expected to occur simultaneously, shall not exceed 1.5 kS m . The provisions of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII apply. Secondary stresses may exist in containments designed and fabricated in accordance with the rules of this subarticle. Secondary stresses shall be evaluated in accordance with the rules of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII. Secondary stresses need be evaluated only for Level A Service Limits. As described in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII, the peak stresses do not cause any noticeable distortion and are objectionable only as a possible source of a fatigue crack or a brittle fracture. The allowable value of peak stress intensity is dependent on the stress intensity range and on the number of times it is to be applied. If a fatigue analysis is required, peak stresses shall be evaluated in accordance with the fatigue analysis rules provided in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII. 19 WC- 32 17. 1
Secon d ary Stresses.
WC-3217. 2
Peak Stresses.
N om en clatu re.
= primary bending stress intensity, psi (MPa). This stress intensity is the component of the primary stress proportional to the distance from the centroid of the solid section. It excludes discontinuities and concentrations and is produced only by pressure and other mechanical loads. = local primary membrane stress intensity, psi (MPa). This stress intensity is derived from the average value across the solid section under consideration. It considers discontinuities but not concentrations. = general primary membrane stress intensity, psi (MPa). This stress intensity is derived from the average value across the solid section under consideration. It excludes discontinuities and concentrations and is produced only by pressure and other mechanical loads. = design stress intensity values given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4, psi (MPa) = yield strength values in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1, psi (MPa)
WC- 3218
U pper Li m i ts of Test Pressu re
The evaluation of pressure test loadings shall be in accordance with (a) through (d) below. (a) Test Pressure Limit. If the calculated pressure at any point in a containment including static head, exceeds the required test pressure defined in WC-6221 or WC-6321 by more than 6%, the resulting stresses shall be calculated using all the loadings that may exist during the test. The stress allowables for this situation are given in (b) and (c) below. (b) Hydrostatically Tested Con tain m en ts. The hydrostatic test pressure of a completed containment shall not exceed that value which results in the following stress intensity limits: (1 ) a calculated primary membrane stress intensity P m of 90% of the tabulated yield strength S y at test temperature as given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table Y-1 (2) a calculated primary membrane plus primary bending stress intensity P m + P b shall not exceed the applicable limits given in (-a) or (-b) below: (-a) P m + P b ≤ 1.35 S y for P m ≤ 0.67 S y (-b) P m + P b ≤ ( 2 . 1 5 S y − 1 . 2 P m ) fo r 0.67 S y < P m ≤ 0.90 S y where S y is the tabulated yield strength at test temperature. For other than rectangular sections, P m + P b shall not exceed a value of α times 0.90 S y , where the factor α is defined as the ratio of the load set producing a fully plastic section divided by the load set producing inital yielding in the extreme fibers of the section. 152
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(c) Pneumatically Tested Containments. The limits given in (b) above shall apply to pneumatically tested containments, except that the calculated membrane stress intensity shall be limited to 80% of the yield strength at the test temperature. For other than rectangular sections, P m + P b shall not exceed a value of α times 0.8 S y , where the factor α is defined in (b)(2) above. (d) Multichamber Containments. In case of multichamber containments, pressure may be applied simultan e o u s l y to th e ap p ro p ri ate ad j acen t cham b e r to maintain the stress intensity limits given in (b) and (c) above (WC-6600).
WC-32 19
the factor given in the following table, and by adding the resulting numbers. The factors are as follows: Metal Temperature Differential, °F (°C)
50 (28) or less 51 to 100 (29 to 56) 101 to 150 (57 to 83) 151 to 250 (84 to 139) 251 to 350 (140 to 194) 351 to 450 (195 to 250) Excess of 450 (250)
0 1 2 4 8 12 20
Fati g u e Evalu ati on
(For example: Consider a design subjected to metal temperature differentials for the following number of times:
If cyclic loadings are identified in the Design Specifications, the need for a fatigue analysis shall be determined in accordance with WC-3219.1. ð 17Þ
Factor
WC- 32 19 . 1
Δ T, °F (°C) 40 (22) 90 (50) 400 (220)
Ru le s to D e te rm i n e N e e d fo r F at i g u e
A fatigue analysis need not be made, provided all of Condition A (WC-3219.1.1) or all of Condition B (WC-3219.1.2) is met. If neither Condition A nor Condition B is met, a detailed fatigue analysis shall be made in accordance with the rules of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII for those parts which do not satisfy the conditions. The rules of Condition A or Condition B are applicable to all integral parts of the containment, including integrally reinforced type nozzles. An alys i s o f I n te g ral Parts o f Co n tai n m e n ts.
1,000 250 5
the effective number of changes in metal temperature is The number used as type (c) in performing the comparison with 1,000 is then 310. Temperature cycles caused by fluctuations in atmospheric conditions need not be considered. (d) for containments with welds between materials having different coefficients of expansion, is the number o f te m p e ra tu re c ycle s , whi ch caus e s th e val u e o f ( α 1 − α 2 ) Δ T to exceed 0.00034, where α 1 and α 2 are the mean coefficients of thermal expansion, 1/°F (1/°C) (Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Tables TE), and Δ T is the operating temperature range, °F (°C). This does not apply to cladding. Fatigue analysis is not mandatory when all of the conditions of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII, XIII-3510 are met.
Fatigue analysis is not mandatory for materials having a specified minimum tensile strength not exceeding 80.0 ksi (550 MPa) when the total of the expected number of cycles of types (a) plus (b) plus (c) plus (d) , defined below, does not exceed 1,000 cycles: WC- 32 19 . 1. 1
Cycles
Con d i ti on A.
(a) is the expected design number of full range pressure cycles; (b) is the expected number of operating pressure cycles
in which the range of pressure variation exceeds 20% of the Design Pressure. Cycles in which the pressure variation does not exceed 20% of the Design Pressure are not limited in number. Pressure cycles caused by fluctuations in atmospheric conditions need not be considered;
WC- 32 19 . 1. 2
(c) is the effective number of changes in metal tempera10 ture between any two adjacent points in the contain-
ment, including nozzles. The effective number of such changes is determined by multiplying the number of changes in metal temperature of a certain magnitude by
Con d i ti o n B.
WC-32 2 0
DESI G N CON SI DERATI ON
WC-32 24
Con tai n m en ts U n d er I n tern al Pressu re
For calculating the required area of reinforcement of openings, the minimum thickness of the containment vessel and parts shall be determined using the Design Pressure and the equations in the following paragraphs. In addition, the other Design Loadings shall be considered in establishing the value of F as defined below. WC- 3 2 24. 1
153
G e n e ral Re q u i rem e n ts.
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-3224.2 Nomenclature. The symbols used are defined below. Except for test conditions, dimensions used or calculated shall be in the corroded condition.
WC-3224.4
Minimum Thickness of Spherical Shells.
The minimum thickness of spherical shells shall be the greatest of the thicknesses determined by (a), (b), and (c) below. (a)
D = inside diameter of a head skirt or inside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head at the point under consideration measured perpendicular to the axis of revolution F = meridional membrane force in the shell wall at the point under consideration resulting from primary Design Loadings other than internal pressure, lb/ in. (N/mm) length of circumference. If this force is not uniform, the loading requiring the greatest shell thickness shall be used where the tensile load is positive. h = one ‐ half the length of the minor axis of an ellipsoidal head or the inside depth of an ellipsoidal head, measured from the tangent line k = stress intensity factor for design, Service Level A, and test load combination from Table WC-3217-1 L = inside spherical or crown radius of torispherical and hemispherical heads P = internal pressure at the top of the containment vessel plus any pressure due to the static head of the fluid, at any point under consideration, psi (MPa) R = inside radius of the shell under consideration, in. (mm). This radius is measured normal to the surface from the axis of revolution. r = inside knuckle radius of torispherical heads S = membrane stress intensity limit from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B multiplied by the stress intensity factor in Table WC-3217-1 = kS m psi (MPa) t = minimum thickness of shell
If P > 0.4S , the following equation may be used:
(b) If F is positive
(c) If F is negative, the condition of instability shall be considered. WC-3211.2(c) for cylinders may be used for spheres, provided biaxial compression does not exist. WC-3224.5
Minimum Thickness of Formed Heads.
The minimum thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal, torispherical, and hemispherical heads under pressure acting against the concave surface shall be determined by the appropriate rule or equation in the following subparagraphs. WC-3224. 6 Min i m u m Th i ckn ess of Ellipsoid al Heads 20, . 21 The minimum thickness of a 2:1 ellipsoidal
ð
17Þ
ð
17Þ
head shall be established using the procedures given in WC-3224.8 and the curve of Figure WC-3224.6-1, which is labeled “2:1 ellipsoidal head.” Ellipsoidal head designs which have D /2 h values different from 2 shall be analyzed as equivalent torispherical heads or according to Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix II, or Mandatory Appendix XIII. The cylindrical shell to which the head is attached shall be equal to or greater in thickness than the required head thickness for a distance, measured from the tangent line along the cylinder, of not less than . Transition joints to shells of thickness less than the required head thickness shall not be located within the minimum distance. Transition joints to shells of thickness greater than the required head thickness may be located within this minimum distance and shall be in accordance with WC-3260 and Figure WC-3261-1.
WC-3224. 3 Min im u m Th ickn ess of Cylin d rical Shells. The minimum thickness of cylindrical shells shall
be the greatest of the thicknesses determined by (a), (b), and (c) below. (a)
If P > 0.4S , the following equation must be used:
WC-3224.7 Minimum Thickness of Hemispherical Heads. For hemispherical heads, the thickness shall be
as required for spherical shells, WC-3224.4. The requirements for the transition to cylindrical shells of different thickness, given in WC-3260 and Figure WC-3261-1 shall be met.
where ln is the natural log. (b) If F is positive and exceeds 0.5 PR ,
WC-3224.8 Minimum Thickness of Torispherical Heads. 20 The minimum thickness of a torispherical head
having t / L ≥ 0.002 up to a t / L where P / S ≤ 0.08 (approximately t / L = 0.04 to 0.05) shall be established by using the curves in Figure WC-3224.6-1. Interpolation may be used for r / D values which fall within the range
(c) If F is negative, the condition of axial structural instability or buckling shall be considered separately [see WC-3211.2(c)]. 154
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-3224.6-1 Design Curves for Torispherical Heads and 2:1 Ellipsoidal Heads for Use With WC-3224.8 and WC-3224.6 0.1 0
0.05
r/D 0.1 7 (2:1 ellipsoidal head)
P/S
0.1 0 0.01
0.20
0.1 5
0.06
t h
L
0.005
r D/2 CL
0.001 0.002
0.005
0.01 t/L
155
For 2:1 ellipsoidal heads, use L ? 0.9 D to calculate t/L
0.02
0.03
0.04 0.05
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-3225.1 Nomenclature. The notations used are defined as follows:
of curves; however, no extrapolation of the curves is permitted. For designs where P /S > 0.08, which is above the upper limit of Figure WC-3224.6-1, the thickness shall be set by the following equation:
ð
17Þ
C = a factor depending upon the method of attachment
D = d = hG =
where t / L < 0.002, which is below the lower limit of Figure WC-3224.6-1, the head design must be analyzed according to Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix II, or Mandatory Appendix XIII. The cylindrical shell to which the head is attached shall be equal to or greater in thickness than the required head thickness for a distance, measured from the tangent line along the cylinder, . Transition joints to shells of thickof not less than ness less than the required head thickness shall not be located within this minimum distance. Transition joints to shells of thickness greater than the required head thickness may be located within this minimum distance and s hall b e in acco rdance with WC - 3 2 6 0 and Fi gure WC-3261-1. WC-3224.8.1 Crown and Knuckle Radii. In connection with the design procedures of WC-3224.8 and Figure WC-3224.6-1, the inside crown radius to which an unstayed head is formed shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the skirt of the head. The inside knuckle radius of a torispherical head shall not be less than 6% of the outside diameter of the skirt nor less than three times the head thickness. WC-3224.9 Loadings on Heads Other Than Pressure. Provision shall be made for other loadings given in WC-3111. For torispherical and ellipsoidal heads, the effect of other loadings must be determined in accordance with Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix II, or Mandatory Appendix XIII. For the spherical portion of heads, the effect of composite loading may be treated as in WC-3224.3 and WC-3224.4.
L = m = P = r = S = T= tf = tp =
of head, shell dimensions, and other items as listed i n Fi gure s WC - 3 2 2 5 - 1 thro u gh WC - 3 2 2 5 - 3 , dimensionless bolt circle diameter diameter gasket moment arm, equal to the radial distance from the centerline of the bolts to the line of the gasket reaction, (Figure WC-3225-2) distance from centerline of the head to shell weld to tangent line on formed heads, as indicated in Figure WC-3225-2 the ratio t r /t s , dimensionless Design Pressure, psi (MPa) inside corner radius on a head formed by flanging or forging design stress intensity S m from Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4, multiplied by the k factor tabulated in Table WC-3217-1, psi (MPa) minimum required thickness of flat head, cover, or flanges, exclusive of corrosion allowance actual thickness of the flange on a formed head, at the large end, exclusive of corrosion allowance the smallest dimension from the face of the head to the edge of the weld preparation required thickness of shell or nozzle for pressure actual thickness of shell or nozzle total bolt load
tr = ts = W= ð 17Þ WC-3225.2 Equations for Minimum Thickness. (a) The thickness of flat heads as shown in Figures
WC-3225-1 through WC-3225-3, shall be not less than that calculated by the following equation:
(b) The thickness of cover plates and blind flanges attached by bolts causing an edge moment as shown in Figure WC-3225-2 shall be not less than that calculated by the following equation:
WC-3225 Flat Heads and Covers The minimum thickness of unstayed flat heads, cover plates, and blind flanges shall conform to the requirements given in this Paragraph. Some acceptable types of flat heads and covers are shown in Figures WC-3225-1, WC-3225-2, and WC-3225-3. The dimensions are exclusive of extra metal added for corrosion allowance.
(c) The thicknesses determined in (a) and (b) above, address stress requirements. In some cases, greater thickness may be necessary if deflection would cause leakage of threaded or gasketed joints NOTE: In some cases, the initial bolt load required to seat the gasket is larger than the operating bolt load. The thickness should be checked for both the operating condition and the initial bolt load required to seat the gasket.
156
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-3225-1 Typical Flat Heads
e
ts
r C
r
ts
r
For unstayed flat heads: ? 0.33 but not less than 0.20, when is not less than 1 .5 s
ð
r
For unstayed flat heads: ? 0.33 but not less than 0.20, when is not less than 1 .5 is not less than s
m
C
t
e
r
For unstayed flat heads: ? 0.33 but not less than 0.20, when is not less than 1 .5 s
m
t
ts
r C
ts
m
r
t
Thickness of flat head
Thickness of flat head
(a)
(b)
(c)
tf tf
e
ts r
r
For unstayed flat heads: ? 0.1 7, when f is not less than 2 s, and is not less than 3 f
t t
ts
C
r
t
Thickness of flat head
For unstayed flat heads: ? 0.1 7, when: f is not less than 2 s is not less than 3 f is not less than f
Thickness of flat head
(d)
(e)
157
C t r e
t
t t
17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ð
17Þ
Figure WC-3225-2 Some Acceptable Types of Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers
GENERAL NOTE: All these illustrations are diagrammatic only. Other designs that meet the requirements of WC-3225.2 are acceptable.
158
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-3225-3 Attachment of Flat Heads to Containment Shell
tp
ts
ac cL
ts a
b a + b not less than 2 ts b + c not less than ts C = 0.33m but not
T
cL
T
ð 17Þ
c
ts
a
b a + b not less than 2 ts C = 0.33m but not
cL
b a + b but not less than 3 ts b + c not less than ts
T
less than 0.20
less than 0.20
(a)
(b)
(c)
b
c c
c
T
b
b
ts
T
ts
C = 0.33m but not
C = 0.33m but not less than 0.20
less than 0.20
(e)
(d)
cL
cL
c
c c
T
T C = 0.33m but not
C = 0.33m but not
ts
less than 0.20
less than 0.20
ts
(f)
GENERAL NOTE:
C min. = 0.7 t s
1
(g)
or /4 in. (6 mm) , whichever is less;
b
= the lesser of
159
ts
or
T/2 .
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC- 323 0
OPEN I N G S AN D REI N FORCEM EN T
WC- 323 1
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
(b) No two unreinforced openings shall have their centers closer to each other, measured on the inside of the containment wall, than 1 .5 times the sum of their diameters. (c) No unreinforced opening shall have its center closer than to the edge of a locally stressed area in the containment boundary. The total cross ‐ sectional area of reinforcement A , required in any given plane for a containment under interal pressure, shall not be less than:
(a) If the fatigue analysis exemption requirements of WC-3219.1 are met, no specific fatigue analysis is required for pressure loadings for locations in the vicinity of openings. (b) The stress limits of Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII may also be considered to be satisfied if, in the vicinity of an opening, the stress intensity resulting from external nozzle loads and thermal effects, including gross but not structural discontinuities, is shown by analysis to be less than 1.5 S m . (c) The provisions of (a) and (b) above are not intended to restrict the design to any specified section thicknesses or other design details provided the basic stress limits are satisfied. If it is shown by analysis that the stress requirements have been met, the rules of (d) through (g) are waived. (d) Openings shall be circular, elliptical, or of any other shape that results from the intersection of a circular or elliptical cylinder with a containment vessel of the shapes permitted by this Division. If fatigue analysis is not required, the restrictions on hole spacing in WC-3232.1 are applicable, unless there will be essentially no reaction loads at these locations. (e) All references to dimensions apply to the finished dimensions excluding material added as corrosion allowance. Rules regarding metal available for reinforcement are given in WC-3235. (f) Any type of opening permitted by these rules may be located in a welded joint. (g) Nozzles are limited to NPS 2 (DN 50) or smaller and shall be self‐ reinforcing.
WC- 3232
WC-3232. 2
Req u i red Area of Rei n forcem en t.
where d = finished diameter of a circular opening or finished dimension (chord length) of an opening on the plane being considered for elliptical and oblong openings in corroded condition F = a correction factor that compensates for the variation in pressure stresses on different planes with respect to the axis of containment vessel (a value of 1.00 shall be used for all configurations, except that Figure WC-3232.2-1 may be used for integrally reinforced openings in cylindrical shells t r = the thickness that meets the requirements of WC-3220 in the absence of the opening Not less than half the required material shall be on each side of the centerline. WC- 323 3
Req u i red Rei n forcem en t for Open i n g s i n Flat H ead s
Flat heads that have an opening with a diameter that does not exceed one ‐ half of the head diameter shall have a total cross ‐ sectional area of reinforcement A , not less than that given by the equation:
Rei n forcem en t Req u i rem en ts for Open i n g s i n Sh ells an d Form ed H ead s
WC-3232. 1
Open in g s N ot Req u i ri n g Rei n forcem en t.
The rules for openings not requiring reinforcement are given in (a) through (c) below, where R is the mean radius and t is the nominal thickness of the containment shell or head at the location of the opening: and locally stressed area means any area in the containment boundary where the primary local membrane stress exceeds 1.1 S m , but excluding those areas where such primary local membrane stress is due to an unreinforced opening. (a) A single opening has a diameter not exceeding , or if there are two or more openings within any , then the sum of the diameters circle of diameter, . of such unreinforced openings shall not exceed
where d = the diameter as defined in WC-3232.2 t r = the thickness that meets the requirements of WC-3225.2 and as defined in WC-3232.2 WC- 323 4
Li m i ts of Rei n forcem en t
The boundaries of the cross ‐ sectional in any plane normal to the containment wall and passing through the center of the opening within which metal shall be located in order to have value as reinforcement are designated as the limits of reinforcement for that plane and are given in the following subparagraphs.
160
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Fi g u re WC-3 232. 2 -1 Ch art for Determ i n i n g th e Valu e of
WC-32 35
F
Metal may be counted as contributing to the area of reinforcing called for in WC-3232, provided it lies within the limits of reinforcement specified in WC-3234, and shall be limited to material that meets the following requirements: (a) metal forming a part of the containment wall, which is in excess of that required by WC-3232 and WC-3233, and is exclusive of corrosion allowance; (b) weld metal that is fully continuous with the containment weld; (c) the mean coefficient of thermal expansion of metal to be included as reinforcement under (b) above shall be within 15 % of the value of the containment wall material; (d) metal not fully continuous with the shell, such as that in items attached by partial penetration welds, shall not be counted as reinforcement; (e) metal available for reinforcement shall not be considered as applying to more than one opening.
1 .00
0.95 0.90
0.85
Value of F
0.80 0.75
0.70 0.65
WC-32 36
0.55
0
60 70 80 1 0 20 30 40 50 Angle of Plane With Longitudinal Axis, deg
WC-3234. 1
Stren g th of Rei n forci n g M ateri al
Material used for reinforcement shall preferably be the same as that of the containment wall. If the material of the wall of the reinforcement has a lower design stress intensity value S m than that for the containment material, the amount of area provided by the reinforcement in satisfying WC-3232 or WC-3233 shall be taken as the actual area provided multiplied by the ratio of attachment wall protrusion or reinforcement design stress intensity value to the containment material design stress intensity value. No reduction in the reinforcing required may be taken for the increased strength of reinforcing material or for weld metal having higher design stress intensity values than that of the material containment wall. The strength of the material at the point under consideration shall be used in fatigue analyses.
0.60
0.50
M etal Avai lable for Rei n forcem en t
90
Li m i ts of Rei n forcem en t Alon g th e Con -
The limits of reinforcement, measured along the midsurface of the nominal wall thickness of the containment, shall meet the following: (a) 100% of the required reinforcement shall be within a distance on each side of the axis of the opening equal to the greater of the following: (1 ) the diameter of the finished opening in the corroded condition; (2) the radius of the finished opening in the corroded condition plus the sum of the thicknesses of the containment wall and the nozzle wall. (b) Two ‐ thirds of the required reinforcement shall be within a distance on each side of the axis of the opening equal to the greater of the following: , where R is the mean radius of shell (1 ) or head, t is the nominal containment wall thickness, and r is the radius of the finished opening in the corroded condition; (2) the radius of the finished opening in the corroded condition plus two ‐ thirds the sum of the thicknesses of the containment wall and the nozzle wall. tai n m e n t Wall.
WC-32 50
DESI G N O F WELDED CON STRU CTI ON
WC-32 51
Weld ed J oi n t Categ ori es
The term category defines the location of a joint in a containment vessel but not the type of joint. The categories are for use in specifying special requirements regarding j o int typ e and method o f examinatio n fo r certain welded joints. Since these special requirements, which are based on service, material, and thickness, do not apply to every welded joint, only those joints to which special requirements apply are included in the categories. The joints included in each category are designated as joints of Categories A, B, C, and D. Figure WC-3251-1 illustrates typical joint locations included in each category. Category A comprises longitudinal welded joints within the main shell or nozzles; any welded joint within a sphere within a formed or flat WC-3251. 1
161
Categ ory A.
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-3251-1 Welded Joint Locations Typical of Categories A, B, C, and D C
D A A B
A
C See WC-3262
A A
B
head, or within the side plates of a flat‐ sided containment; and circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main shell or to nozzles. WC-3251.2 Category B. Category B comprises circumferential welded joints within the main shell or nozzles, circumferential welded joints connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main shells or to nozzles.
D
WC-3252.3 Joints of Category C. All welded joints of Category C, except for final closure welds (WC-3262), shall meet the fabrication requirements of WC-4265 and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-52 3 0. Minimum dimensions of welds and throat thickness shall be as shown in Figure WC-4265-1 where (a) Figure WC-4265-1, sketches (a) and (b) (1) for forged flat heads and forged flanges with the weld preparation bevel angle not greater than 45 deg. Measured from the face:
WC-3251.3 Category C. Category C comprises welded joints connecting flanges to formed heads or flat heads, to main shell, and any welded joint connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat‐ sided vessel. WC-3 2 51. 4 Categ ory D. Category D comprises welded j oints connecting nozzles to main shells, to spheres, to heads, or to flat‐ sided containments.
WC-3252
A
A
b = t s /2 or T /4, whichever is less c = 0.7 t s or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less T, t s = nominal thickness of welded parts (2) for all other material forms and for forged flat heads, and forged flanges with the weld preparation bevel angle greater than 45 deg. Measured from the face:
b = t s or T /2, whichever is less c = 0.7 t s or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less T, t s = nominal thickness of welded parts (b) Figure WC-4265-1, sketches (c) and (d) c = 0.7 t s or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less T, t s = nominal thickness of welded parts (c) Figure WC-4265-1, sketch (e) a + b = not less than 2 t s b = not less than t s t p = not less than t s t s = actual thickness of shell (d) Hubs for butt welding to the adjacent shell, head, or
Permissible Types of Welded Joints
The design of the containment shall meet the requirements for each category of joint. Butt joints are full penetration joints between plates or other elements that lie approximately in the same plane. Figure WC-32 51-2 shows typical butt welds for each category joint. WC-3252.1 Joints of Category A. All welded joints of Category A as defined in WC-3251 shall meet the fabrication requirements of WC-4263 and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-5210. WC-3252.2 Joints of Category B. All welded joints of Category B as defined in WC-3251 shall meet the fabrication requirements of WC-4264 and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-52 20. When joints with opposing lips to form an integral backing strip or joints with backing strips not later removed are used, the suitability for cyclic service shall be analyzed by the method of WC-3 2 1 9 . 1 Co ndition B using a fatigue strength reduction factor of not less than 2.
other containment part, as in Figure WC-4265-3, shall not be machined from rolled plate. The component having the hub shall be forged in such a manner as to provide in the hub the full minimum tensile strength and elongation specified for the material, in a direction parallel to the axis of the vessel. Proof of this shall be furnished by a tension 162
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-3251-2 Typical Butt Joints
test specimen (subsize if necessary) taken in this direction and as close to the hub as is practical. In Figure WC-4265-3, the minimum dimensions are as follows: (1 ) sketch (a) , r not less than 1.5 t s (2) sketch (b) , r not less than 1.5 t s and e not less than ts
(3) sketch (c) , r not less than 1.5 t s (4) sketch (d) , t f not less than 2 t s and r
3 tf
(b) Full Pen etration Corn er-Welded Nozzles . Nozzles shall meet the fabrication requirements of WC-4266(b) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-5243. The minimum dimensions and geometrical requirements of Figure WC-4266(b)-1 shall be met, where r1 r2 t tc tn
not less than
(5) sketch (e) , t f not less than 2 t s , r not less than 3 t f, and e not less than t f WC-3252.4 Joints of Category D. All welded joints of Category D, as defined in WC-3251, shall be in accordance with the requirements of (a) through (e). (a) Butt-Welded Nozzles. Nozzles shall meet the fabrication requirements of WC-4266(a) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-5242. The minimum dimensions and geometrical requirements of Figure WC-4266(a)-1 shall be met, where
r1 r2 t tn
= = = =
= = = = =
1
/4t or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less /4 in. (6 mm) min. nominal thickness of part penetrated 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less nominal thickness of penetrating part 1
(c) Use o f D ep o sited Weld Meta l fo r Op en in g s a n d Nozzles.
(1 ) Nozzles shall meet the fabrication requirements of WC-4266(c) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-5244. (2) When the deposited weld metal is used as reinforcement, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the base metal, the weld metal, and the connection shall not differ b y mo re than 1 5 % of the lo west coefficient involved. (3) T h e m i n i m u m d i m e n s i o n s o f F i g u r e WC-4266(c)-1 shall be met, where
1
/4t or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less /4 in. (6 mm) min. nominal thickness of part penetrated nominal thickness of penetrating part 1
r1
163
= 1/4t or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is less
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
t tc tn
= nominal thickness of part penetrated = 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less = nominal thickness of penetrating part
(4) Type No. 1 full penetration joints shall be used when the openings are in shells 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) or more in thickness. (5) The welded joints shall be examined by the methods stipulated in WC-5240. (b) A ttach m en ts . Typical attachments are shown in Figure WC-4433 -2. The minimum dimensions in this figure are as follows:
The corners of the end of each connection extending less than beyond the inner surface of the part penetrated shall be rounded to a radius of one ‐ half the thickness t n of the connection or 3/4 in. (19 mm), whichever is smaller. (d) Fittings With Internal Threads. Internally threaded fittings shall be limited to NPS 2 (DN 50) . Internally threaded fittings shall be attached by means of full penetration groove welds meeting the fabrication requirements of WC-42 66(d) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-5245. The minimum dimensions and geometrical requirements of Figure WC-4266(d)-1 shall be met, where (4)
tc tn
where c = minimum thickness of weld metal from the root to the face of the weld t = thickness of attached member
= 0.7 t n or 1/4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less = nominal thickness of neck
(e) A ttach m en t of Nozzles Usin g Partial Pen etration Welds. Partial penetration welds shall meet the fabrica-
WC- 326 0
tion requirements of WC-4266(e) and shall be capable of being examined in accordance with WC-5245. They shall be used only for attachments such as instrumentation openings and inspection openings, which are subjected to essentially no external mechanical loadings and on which there will be no thermal stresses greater than those on the containment itself. Such attachments shall satisfy the requirements of WC-3231(g). WC- 3254
REQU I REM EN TS WC- 326 1
In general, a tapered transition section as shown in Figure WC-3261-1, shall be provided at joints of Categories A and B between sections that differ in thickness by more than one ‐ fourth the thickness of the thinner section. The transition section may be formed by any process that will provide a uniform taper. An ellipsoidal or hemispherical head that has a greater thickness than a cylinder of the same inside diameter may be machined to the outside diameter of the cylinder, provided the remaining thickness is at least as great as that required for a shell of the same diameter. A uniform taper is not required for flanged hubs. The adequacy of the transition shall be evaluated by stress analysis. Stress intensity limitations are given in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix XIII. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to flanged hubs.
Stru ctu ral Attach m en t Weld s
Weld i n g G rooves
The dimensions and shape of the edges to be joined shall be such as to permit complete fusion and complete j oint penetration, except as otherwise permitted in WC-3252.4 or WC-3262. WC- 3259
Categ ory A or B J oi n ts Between Secti on s of U n eq u al Th i ckn ess
Welds for structural attachments shall meet the requirements of WC-4432. WC- 3255
SPECI AL CON TAI N M EN T
Desi g n Req u i rem en ts for N ozzle Attach m en t Weld s an d Oth er Con n ecti on s
WC- 326 2
The minimum design requirements for nozzle attachment welds and other connections are set forth in (a) and (b) below. (a) Permitted Types of Nozzles and Other Connections. Nozzles and other connections may be any of the types for which rules are given in this subarticle, provided the requirements of (1) through (5) below are met. (1 ) Nozzles shall meet requirements regarding location. (2) The attachment weld shall meet the requirements of WC-3252.4. (3) The requirements of WC-3230 shall be met.
Categ ory C Fu ll an d Parti al Pen etrati on Closu re Weld s i n Con tai n m en ts
Welds in the end closures using a single cover plate [Figure WC-4265-3, sketch (a)] and made after the containment is loaded may be full or partial penetration and shall be examined in accordance with Table WC-3262-1 either by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. The allowable stress intensity values of Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A, 2B, and 4 shall be reduced by the stress reduction factor provided in Table WC-3262-1. The welds shall be tested in accordance with WC-6720. WC-3262. 1
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
For welds in the end closures using two cover plates [Figure WC-4265-3, sketch (b)] and made after the containment is loaded, the following apply: (a) The inner cover plate weld shall use a design stress reduction factor of 0.9. The root and final layers shall be examined by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method in accordance with Article WC-5000, and shall be tested in accordance with WC-6720. (b) The outer cover plate weld shall use the stress reduction factors of Table WC-3262-1 and shall be examined to the requirements of Table WC-3262-1. Vent and drain cover plate welds may be full penetration welds examined in accordance with WC-5250 partial penetration welds using the examination and stress reduction factors of Table WC-3262-1. For partial penetration closure welds, a fatigue strength reduction factor of not less than 4.0 shall be used when fatigue analysis is required. WC-3262. 2
Fi g u re WC-3 26 1-1 Categ ori es A an d B J oi n ts Between Secti on s of U n eq u al Th i ckn ess
WC-3262. 3
WC- 3262. 4
WC-3700
STRAI N -BASED ACCEPTAN CE CRI TERI A
The strain-based acceptance criteria are applicable only to the metallic portions of storage containments subject to energy-limited dynamic events. It is not the intent of this subarticle to permit significant regions or major portions of the containment to experience strains at or near the limits of these strain-based acceptance criteria without consideration of the overall component deformation. These strain-based acceptance criteria are established to address the regions of the containment that experience high strains due to the effects of direct impacts. Deformation limits, if any, provided in the Design Specification shall be satisfied. Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix FF provides the strain-based acceptance criteria.
GENERAL NOTE: Length of taper may include the width of the weld.
Table WC-3262 -1 Stress Red u cti on Factors an d Exam i n ati on s for Closu re Weld s
Examination Requirements [Note (1)]
Volumetric Examination Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle Examination: Root and each successive 1/4 in. (6 mm) of weld thickness and the final layer Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle Examination: Root, mid, and final layer [Note (2)]
Stress Reduction Factors
1.00 0.90
0.80
NOTES: (1) All examinations shall be performed and accepted to the requirements of Article WC-5000. (2) Mid layer is defined as approximately one-half of the maximum weld thickness.
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ARTI CLE WC-4000 FABRI CATI ON
WC-4100 WC- 4110
(b) the amount of material removed from the surface exceeds the lesser of 1/8 in. (3 mm) or 10% of the minimum required thickness of the part.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS I N TRODU CTI ON
Containments and parts shall be fabricated and installed in accordance with the rules of this Article and shall be manufactured from materials that meet the requirements of Article WC-2000. WC- 412 0
WC- 412 2
(a) Material for performing a containment function shall carry identification markings which will remain distinguishable until the containment is assembled. If the original identification markings are cut off or the material is divided, either the marks shall be transferred to the parts cut or a coded marking shall be used to ensure identification of each piece of material during subsequent fabrication. In either case, an as ‐ built sketch or a tabulation of materials shall be made identifying each piece of material with the Certified Material Test Report, when applicable, and the coded marking. For studs, bolts, and nuts it is permissible to identify the Certified Material Test Reports for material in each containment in lieu of identifying each piece of material with the Certified Material Test Report and the coded marking. Material supplied with a Certificate of Compliance and welding and brazing materials shall be identified and controlled so that they can be traced to each containment or else a control procedure shall be used that ensures that the specified materials are used. (b) Material from which the identification marking is lost shall be treated as nonconforming material until appropriate tests or other verifications are made and documented to assure material identification. Testing is required unless positive identification can be made by other documented evidence. The material may then be remarked upon establishing positive identification.
CERTI FI CATI ON OF M ATERI ALS AN D FABRI CATI ON BY CERTI FI CATE H OLDER
WC- 412 1
M ean s of Certi fi cati on
The Certificate Holder for an item shall certify, by application of the appropriate Certification Mark and completion of the appropriate Data Report in accordance with Article WA-8000, that the materials used comply with the requirements of Article WC-2000 and that the fabrication or installation complies with the requirements of this Article. ð 17Þ
WC- 412 1. 1
Certi fi cati o n of Treatm en ts, Tests, an d
If the Certificate Holder or Subcontractor performs treatments, tests, repairs, or examinations required by other paragraphs of this Article, the Certificate Holder shall certify that this requirement has been fulfilled (WA-3800 or WA-8410). Reports of all required treatments and of the results of all required tests, repairs, and examinations performed shall be available to the Inspector.
Exam i n ation s.
If during the fabrication or installation of the item the material is subjected to heat treatment that has not been covered by treatment of the test coupons (WC-2200) and that may reduce either tensile or impact properties below the required values, the tensile and impact tests shall be repeated by the Certificate Holder on test specimens taken from test coupons which have been taken and treated in accordance with the requirements of Article WC-2000. WC-4121. 2
WC-4121. 3
M ateri als I d en ti fi cati on
Repeti ti on of Ten si le or I m pact Tests.
WC- 41 2 2 . 1
M arki n g M at e ri als .
marked in accordance with WC-2150. WC- 412 3
Material shall be
Exam i n ati on s
Visual examination activities that are not referenced for examination by other specific Code paragraphs, and are performed solely to verify compliance with requirements of Article WC-4000, may be performed by the persons who perform or supervise the work. These visual examinations are not required to be performed by personnel and procedures qualified to WC-5100 and WC-5500, respectively, unless so specified.
Repeti ti on of Su rface Exam i n ation After
During the fabrication or installation of an item, if containment materials are machined, then the Certificate Holder shall reexamine the surface of the material in accordance with WC-2500 when: (a) the surface was required to be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with WC-2500; and M ach i n i n g .
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WC-4124
preheating the material, using preheat schedules such as suggested in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix D.
Ad d i ti on al Req u i rem en ts Wh en Strai n -Based Acceptan ce Cri teri a H ave Been I m plem en ted
In order to satisfy the strain-based acceptance criteria of WC-3700 regarding the locations of unique material heats used in containment fabrication, traceability of all unique material heats and their specific location(s) of use shall be established and documented in the final Design Report and the as-built Design Drawings. This requirement is only necessary when strain-based acceptance criteria have been employed in the design of the containment. WC-4125
WC-42 12
Any process may be used to hot or cold form or bend containment materials, including weld metal, provided the required dimensions are attained (see WC-4214 and WC-4220), and provided the impact properties of the materials, when required, are not reduced below the minimum specified values, or they are effectively restored by heat treatment following the forming operation. Hot forming is defined as forming with the material temperature higher than 100°F (55°C) below the lower transformation temperature of the material. When required, the process shall be qualified for impact properties as outlined in WC-4213.
Testi n g of Weld i n g an d Brazi n g M ateri als
All welding and brazing materials shall meet the requirements of WC-2400. ð 17Þ
WC-4130
WC-42 13
REPAI R OF M ATERI AL
When impact testing is required by the Design Specifications, a procedure qualification test shall be conducted using specimens taken from materials of the same specification, grade or class, heat treatment, and with similar impact properties, as required for the material in the component. These specimens shall be subjected to the equivalent forming or bending process and heat treatment as the material in the component. Applicable tests shall be conducted to determine that the required impact properties of WC-2300 are met after straining. Procedure qualification tests are not required for material listed in (a) through (f) below: (a) hot formed material, such as forgings, in which the hot forming is completed by the Material Organization prior to removal of the impact test specimens; (b) hot formed materials represented by test coupons required in either WC-2211 or WC-4121.2 that have been subjected to heat treatment representing the hot forming procedure and the heat treatments to be applied to the parts; (c) materials which do not require impacts in accordance with WC-2300; (d) materials which have a final strain less than 0.5%; (e) material where the final strain is less than that of a previously qualified procedure for that material; (f) material from which the impact testing required by WC-2300 is performed on each heat and lot, as applicable, after forming. The procedure qualification test shall be performed in the manner stipulated in (a) through (f) below. (a) The tests shall be performed on three different heats of material, both before straining and after straining and heat treatment, to establish the effects of the forming and subsequent heat treatment operations. W C- 42 1 3 . 1
FORM I N G , CU TTI N G , AN D ALI G N I N G
WC-42 10
CU TTI N G , FO RM I N G , AN D BEN DI N G
WC-42 11
Cu ttin g
Materials may be cut to shape and size by mechanical means, such as machining, shearing, chipping, or grinding, or by thermal cutting. W C - 42 1 1 . 1
Qu ali fi cati on of Form i n g Processes for I m pact Property Req u i rem en ts
Material originally accepted on delivery in which defects exceeding the limits of WC-2 500 are known or discovered during the process of fabrication is unacceptable. The material may be used, provided the condition is corrected in accordance with the requirements of WC-2500 for the applicable product form, except that: (a) the limitation on the depth of the weld repair does not apply; (b) the time of examination of the weld repairs to weld edge preparations shall be in accordance with WC-5130; (c) radiographic examination is not required for weld repairs to seal membrane material when the material thickness is 1/4 in. (6 mm) or less. (d) When the repair by welding provisions of WC-2539 are used within 1/2 in. (13 mm) on each side of the final closure welds, on canisters that are loaded with spent fuel or high-level radioactive material, progressive examination of each deposited weld layer by the magnetic particle m e th o d ( WC - 2 5 4 5 ) o r l i q u i d p e n e tra n t m e th o d (WC-2546), in addition to a final surface examination, may be substituted for the radiographic examination required by WC-2539.4. The thickness of each layer shall not exceed 1/4 in. (6 mm). WC-42 00
Form i n g an d Ben d i n g Processes
WC-4213. 2
P re h e a t i n g B e fo re T h e rm a l C u t t i n g .
When thermal cutting is performed to prepare weld joints or edges, to remove attachments or defective material, or for any other purpose, consideration shall be given to 167
E xe m p t i o n s .
Proced u re Qu ali fi cati on Test.
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Specimens shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of Article WC-2000 and shall be taken from the tension side of the strained material. (c) The percent strain shall be established by the following equations: (1 ) For cylinders
(2)
For spherical or dished surfaces
(3)
For pipe
WC-4213. 3
Acceptan ce Cri teri a for Form ed M ateri -
To be acceptable, the formed material used in the component shall have impact properties, before forming, sufficient to compensate for the maximum loss of impact properties due to the qualified forming procedure used.
al.
A new procedure qualification test is required when any of the changes in (a), (b), or (c) below are made. (a) The actual postweld heat treatment time at temperature is greater than previously qualified considering WC-2211. If the material is not postweld heat treated, the procedure must be qualified without postweld heat treatment. (b) The maximum calculated strain of the material exceeds the previously qualified strain by more than 0.5%. (c) Where preheat over 250°F (120°C) is used in the forming or bending operation but not followed by a subsequent postweld heat treatment. WC- 4213. 4
where R = nominal bending radius to the center line of the pipe R f = final radius to center line of shell R o = original radius (equal to infinity for a flat part) r = nominal radius of the pipe t = nominal thickness
WC- 42 14
Req u ali fi cati on .
M i n i m u m Th i ckn ess of Fabri cated M ateri al
If any fabrication operation reduces the thickness belo w the minimum required to s atis fy the rules o f WC-2124 and Article WC-3000, the material may be repaired in accordance with WC-4130.
(d) The procedure qualification shall simulate the maximum percent surface strain, employing a bending proces s similar to that used in the fab ricatio n o f the material or by direct tension on the specimen. (e) Sufficient C V test specimens shall be taken from each of the three heats of material to establish a transition curve showing both the upper and lower shelves. On each of the three heats, tests consisting of three impact specimens shall be conducted at a minimum of five different temperatures distributed throughout the transition region. The upper and lower shelves may be established by the use of one test specimen for each shelf. Depending on the product form, it may be necessary to plot the transition curves using both the lateral expansion and energy level data (WC-2300). In addition, drop weight tests shall be made when required by WC-2300. (f) Using the results of the impact test data from each of three heats, taken both before and after straining, determine either: (1 ) the maximum change in NDT temperature along with: (-a) the maximum change of lateral expansion and energy at the temperature under consideration; or (-b) the maximum change in temperature at the lateral expansion and energy levels under consideration; or (2) where lateral expansion is the acceptance criteria (WC-2300), either the maximum change in temperature or the maximum change in lateral expansion.
WC- 42 2 0
FORM I N G TOLERAN CES
WC- 42 2 1
Toleran ce for Con tai n m en t Sh ells
Cylindrical, conical, or spherical shells of a completed containment, except formed heads covered by WC-4222, shall meet the requirements of the following subparagraphs at all cross sections. WC-4221. 1
M axi m u m Di fferen ce i n Cross-Secti on al
The difference in inches (mm) between the maximum and minimum diameters at any cross ‐ section shall not exceed the smaller of
D i am eters.
(U.S. Customary Units)
(SI Units)
where D is the nominal inside diameter, in. (mm), at the cross section under consideration. The diameters may be measured on the inside or outside of the containment. If measured on the outside, the diameters shall be corrected for the plate thickness at the cross section under consideration (Figure WC-4221.1-1). When the cross section passes through an opening, the permissible difference in inside diameters given herein may be increased by 2% of the inside diameter of the opening. 168
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WC-4221.4 Tolerance Deviations for Containment Parts Fabricated From Pipe. Containment parts sub-
Figure WC-4221.1-1 Maximum Difference in Cross-Sectional Diameters
jected to either internal or external pressure and fabricated from pipe, meeting all other requirements of this Subsection, may have variations of diameter and deviations from circularity permitted by the specification for such pipe.
WC-4221.5 Localized Thin Areas. Localized thin areas are permitted if the adjacent areas surrounding each have sufficient thickness to provide the necessary reinforcement according to the rules for reinforcement in WC-3232.2.
WC-4222 WC-4221.2 Maximum Deviation From True Theoretical Form for External Pressure. Containments designed
Tolerances for Formed Vessel Heads
The tolerance for formed vessel heads shall be as set forth in the following subparagraphs.
for external pressure shall meet the tolerances given in (a) through (e) below. (a) The maximum plus o r minus deviatio n fro m the true circular form of cylinders or the theoretical form of other shapes, measured radially on the outside or inside of the containment, shall not exceed the maximum p ermis s ib le deviatio n o b tained fro m Figure WC-4221.2(a)-1. Measurements shall be made from a segmental circular template having the design inside or outside radius depending on where the measurements are taken and a chord length equal to twice the arc length obtai n e d fro m F i gu re WC - 4 2 2 1 . 2 (a ) - 2 . F o r F i gu re WC-4221.2(a)-1, the maximum permissible deviation e need not be less than 0.3 t . For Figure WC-4221.2(a)-2, the arc length need not be greater than 0.30 D o . Measurements shall not be taken on welds or other raised parts. (b) The value of t , in. (mm), at any cross section is the nominal plate thickness less corrosion allowance for sections of constant thickness and the nominal thickness of the thinnest plate less corrosion allowance for sections having plates of more than one thickness. (c) The value of L in Figures WC-42 2 1 .2 (a) -1 and WC-4221.2(a)-2 is determined by (1) and (2) below. (1 ) For cylinders, L is as given in WC-3133.2. (2) For spheres, L is one ‐ half of the outside diameter D o , in. (mm). (d) The dimensions of a completed containment may be brought within the requirements by any process which will not impair the strength of the material. (e) Sharp bends and flat spots shall not be permitted unless provision is made for them in the design. WC-4221.3 Deviations From Tolerances. Deviations fr o m th e to l e r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n ts s ti p u l a te d i n WC-4221.1 and WC-4221.2 are permitted, provided the drawings are modified and reconciled with the design calculations.
WC-4222.1 Maximum Difference in Cross-Sectional Diameters. The skirt or cylindrical end of a formed head
shall be circular to the extent that the difference in inches (mm) between the maximum and minimum diameters does not exceed the lesser of (U.S. Customary Units)
(SI Units)
where D is the nominal inside diameter, in. (mm), and shall match the cylindrical edge of the adjoining part within the alignment tolerance specified in WC-4232. WC-4222.2
Deviation From Specified Shape.
The inner surface of a torispherical or ellipsoidal head shall not deviate outside the specified shape by more than 1 1/4% of D , nor inside the specified shape by more than 5/8 % of D , where D is nominal inside diameter of the containment. Such deviations shall be measured perpendicular to the specified shape and shall not be abrupt. The knuckle radius shall not be less than specified. For 2:1 ellipsoidal heads, the knuckle radius may b e co n s i de re d to b e 1 7 % o f th e di am e te r o f th e containment. (b) Hemispherical heads and any spherical portion of a formed head shall meet the local tolerances for spheres as given in WC-4221.2, using L as the outside spherical radius in inches (mm) and D o as 2 times L . (c) Deviation measurements shall be taken on the surface of the base material and not on welds. (a)
169
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-4221.2(a)-1 Maximum Permissible Deviation e From a True Circular Form
170
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Fi g u re WC-422 1. 2 (a) -2
o
D
o 0 c ? . 07 5 D 0. o Ar c ? 085D 0. 1 o 0D Ar o c? 0. 1 Ar 25 c? D o 0. 1 Ar c ? 50D o 0. 1 Ar c ? 7 5D 0. 2 o 00 Ar D c? o 0. 2 50 Ar D c? 0. 3 o 00 D
o
90
D
o
Ar
0.6
c?
0. 0
0.4
Ar
Ar
c?
0. 0
65
55
D
o
o
D
45
0. 0
Ar
c?
o
D
D
40
0. 0
c?
Ar
c?
0. 0 c?
Ar
1 ,000
Ar
Ar
c?
0. 0
30
2,000
35
D
o
M axi m u m ARC Len g th for Determ i n i n g Plu s or M i n u s Devi ati on
Outside Diameter ? Thickness, Do /t
0. 3
800
Ar
c?
600 500 400 300 200
1 00 80 60 50 40 30 20
10 0.01
0.02
0.04 0.06
0.1 0
0.2
Design Length
WC-42 30
FI TTI N G AN D ALI G N I N G
WC-42 31
Fi tti n g an d Ali g n i n g M eth od s
1 .0
? Outside Diameter, L/Do
WC-42 32
2
3
4 5 6
8 10
20
Ali g n m en t Req u i rem en ts Wh en Com pon en ts Are Weld ed From Two Si d es
Parts that are to be j oined by welding may be fitted, aligned, and retained in position during the welding operation by the use of bars, j acks, clamps, tack welds, or temporary attachments.
(a) Alignment of sections which are welded from two sides shall be such that the maximum offset of the finished weld will not be greater than the applicable amount listed in Table WC-42 3 2 (a) -1 , where t is the nominal thickness of the thinner section at the joint. (b) J o ints in s p herical co ntainments , j o ints within heads and j oints between cylindrical shells and hemispherical heads shall meet the requirements in Table WC-4232(a)-1 for longitudinal joints.
WC- 42 3 1. 1 Tack Weld s. Tack welds used to secure alignment shall either be removed completely when they have served their purpose, or their stopping and starting ends shall be properly prepared by grinding or other suitable means so that they may be satisfactorily incorporated into the final weld. Tack welds shall be made by qualified welders using qualified welding procedures. When tack welds are to become part of the finished weld, they shall be visually examined and defective tack welds removed.
WC-4232. 1 Fai ri n g of Offsets. Any offset within the allowable tolerance provided above shall be faired to at least 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld or, if necessary, by adding additional weld metal beyond what would otherwise be the edge of the weld.
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WC- 4260
Table WC-42 32 (a) -1
CON TAI N M EN TS
M axi m u m Allowable Offset i n Fi n al Weld ed WC- 4262
J oi n ts
1
Up to /2 (13), incl. Over 1/2 to 3/4 (13 to 19) , incl. Over 3/4 to 1 1/2 (19 to 38) , incl. Over 1 1/2 to 2 (38 to 50), incl. Over 2 (50)
WC- 42 3 3
Longitudinal 1
1
1
1
3
1
/8 in. (3 mm)
1
Lesser of 1/16 t or 3 /8 in. (10 mm)
Lesser of 1/8 t or 3 /4 in. (19 mm)
/4t /8 in. (3 mm) /8 in. (3 mm)
The description of the joint types are as follows:
Circumferential
1
Descri pti on an d Li m i tati on s of J oi n t Types
Direction of Joints
Section Thickness, in. (mm)
REQU I REM EN TS FOR WELD J OI N TS I N
(a) Type No. 1 Butt Join ts. Type No. 1 butt j oints are those produced by double welding or by other means which produce the same quality of deposited weld metal on both inside and outside weld surfaces. Welds using backing strips which remain in place do not qualify as Type No. 1 butt j oints. Type No. 1 butt joints shall have complete joint penetration and full fusion and shall meet the requirements of WC-4424 and WC-4426.
/4t /4t /16 in. (5 mm) /8 t
(b) Type No. 2 Butt Join ts. Type No. 2 butt j oints are single-welded butt joints having backing strips which remain in place. WC-3252.2 gives stress concentration factors to be applied to Type No. 2 j oints when a fatigue analysis is required. When Type No. 2 butt joints are used, care shall be taken on aligning and separating the components to be joined so that there will be complete penetration and fusion at the bottom of the j oints for their full length. However, weld reinforcement need be supplied only on the side opposite the backing strip. The requirements of WC-4424 and WC-4426 shall be met.
Ali g n m en t Req u i rem en ts Wh en I n si d e Su rfaces Are I n accessi ble
(a) When the inside surfaces of items are inaccessible for welding or fairing in accordance with WC-4232, alignment of sections shall meet the requirements of (1) and (2) below. (1 ) See (-a) and (-b) below. (-a) Fo r circumferential j o ints the ins ide diameters shall match each other within 1/1 6 in. (1 .5 mm) When the items are aligned concentrically, a uniform mismatch of 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) all around the joint can result, as shown in Figure WC-4233-1 sketch (a). However, other variables not associated with the diameter of the item often result in alignments that are offset rather than concentric. In these cases, the maximum misalignment at any one point around the j oint shall not exceed 3/3 2 in. (2 .5 mm) , as shown in Figure WC-42 3 3 - 1 sketch (b) . S ho uld to lerances o n diameter, wall thicknes s , o ut ‐ of‐ roundness, etc., result in inside diameter variation which does not meet these limits, the inside diameters shall be counterbored, sized, or ground to produce a bore within these limits, provided a gradual change in thickness from the item to adj oining items is maintained. Any welding transition is acceptable provided the wall thickness in the transition region is not less than the minimum wall thickness of the component or item and sharp reentrant angles and abrupt changes in slope in the transition region are avoided. (-b) Offset of outside surfaces shall be faired to at least a 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld or, if necessary, by adding additional weld metal. (2) For longitudinal joints the misalignment of inside surfaces shall not exceed 3/3 2 in. (2.5 mm), and the offset of outside surfaces shall be faired to at least a 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld or, if necessary, by adding additional weld metal. (b) Single-welded j oints may meet the alignment requirements of (a) (1) and (a) (2 ) above in lieu of the requirements of WC-4232.
(c) Full Pen etration Corn er Join ts . Corner j oints are those connecting two members approximately at right angles to each other in the form of an L or T and shall be made with full penetration welds (WC-3 2 5 2 .3 ) . Type No. 1 corner-welded j oints have full penetration welds that penetrate through the thickness of the shell [Figure WC-42 65 -1 , sketches (a) and (b) ] . Type No. 2 cornerwelded joints have a full penetration weld that penetrates through the thickness of the head [Figure WC-42 65 -1 , sketches (c), (d), and (e)] . (d) Fillet Welded Joints. Fillet welded joints, permitted by the rules of this subarticle, are those of approximately triangular cross section, joining two surfaces at approximately right angles to each other and having a throat dimension at least 70% of the smaller thickness of the parts being joined but not less than 1/4 in. (6 mm).
WC- 4263
Categ ory A Weld J oi n ts
Category A weld joints shall be Type No. 1 butt joints.
WC- 4264
Categ ory B Weld J oi n ts
Category B weld joints shall be Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 butt joints. Backing strips shall be removed from Type No. 2 joints unless access conditions prevent their removal. Backing strips shall be continuous, and any splices shall be butt welded. Circumferential single-welded butt joints wi th o n e p l a te o ffs e t to fo r m a b a c ki n g s tr i p a r e prohibited. 172
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Fi g u re WC-42 33 -1 Bu tt Weld Ali g n m en t an d M i sm atch Toleran ces for U n eq u al I . D. an d O . D. Wh en I tem s Are Weld ed From On e Si d e an d Fai ri n g I s N ot Perform ed
1 /32
in. (0.8 mm) maximum uniform mismatch around joint
Centerline
Centerline
t t=
nominal thickness, in. (mm)
(a) Concentric Centerlines
3 /32
in. (2.5 mm) maximum at any one point around the joint
Centerline 1
Centerline 2
(b) Offset Centerlines
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ð
17Þ
elongation specified for the material in the direction parallel to the axis of the containment vessel. Proof of this shall be furnished by a tension test specimen (subsize, if necessary) taken in this direction and as close to the hubs as is practical. One test specimen may represent a group of forgings, provided they are of the same nominal dimensions, from the same heat material and the same heat treatment lot, and forged in the same manner. The minimum height of the hub shall be the lesser of 1 1/2 times the thickness of the containment part to which it is welded or 3/4 in. (19 mm), but need not be greater than 2 in. (50 mm). (2) Hubbed flanges shall not be machined from flat plate.
WC-4265 Category C Weld Joints Category C weld joints shall be as described in subparagraphs (a) through (d) below. (a) Full Penetration Butt Joints. Category C welds shall be Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 butt joints. (b) Full Penetration Corner Joints. Welds in full penetration corner joints shall be groove welds extending completely through at least one of the parts being joined and shall be fully fused to each part. Typical details for type No. 1 and No. 2 full penetration corner joints are shown in Figure WC-4265-1. (c) Partial Penetration Closure Joints. Partial penetration joints are acceptable for flat head closure welds (per WC-3 2 62 ) . Typical details are shown in Figure WC-4265-2.
WC-4266 Category D Weld Joints Category D and similar weld joints shall be welded using one of the details of (a) through (e) below. (a) Butt-Welded Attachments. Nozzles shall be attached by Type No. 1 butt welds through either the containment or the nozzle wall as shown in Figure WC-4266(a)-1.
(d) Flat Heads With Hubs (1 ) Hubs for butt welding
to the adjacent shell, head, o r o th e r co n tai n m e n t p arts , as s h o wn i n F i gu re WC-4265-3, for flat heads, shall not be machined from flat plate. The hubs shall be forged in such a manner as to provide in the hub the full minimum tensile strength and
Figure WC-4265-1 Acceptable Full Penetration Weld Details for Category C Joints
GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WC-3252.3.
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(e) Attach m en t of Nozzles Usin g Partial Pen etration Welds. Partial penetration welds are limited by the re-
Fi g u re WC- 4265-2
strictions of WC-3252.4(e). The weld size shall be such that the depth of penetration t w will be at least 1 1/4t n . Typical details are shown in Figure WC-4266(e)-1.
Typi cal Parti al Pen etrati on Weld Detai l for Categ ory C Flat H ead Closu re J oi n ts
WC-426 7
Types of Attach m en t Weld s
Structural attachments shall be attached to containments by continuous or intermittent welds.
WC-4300
(a) Single Closure Wel d Detail
WELDI N G QU ALI FI CATI ON S
WC-43 10
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
WC-43 11
Types of Processes Perm i tted
Only those welding processes which are capable of producing welds in accordance with the welding procedure qualification requirements of Section IX and this Subsection may be used for welding containments or attachments thereto. Any process used shall be such that the records required by WC-4320 can be prepared, except that records for stud welds shall be traceable to the welders and welding operators and not necessarily to each specific weld.
t ? shell thickn ess
Stud welding is acceptable only for nonstructural and temporary attachments (WC-443 5). Studs shall be limited to 1 in. (25 mm) maximum diameter for round studs and an equivalent cross ‐ sectional area for studs of other shapes when welding in the flat position and 3/4 in. (19 mm) diameter for all other welding positions. Postweld heat treatment shall comply with WC-4600, except that time at temperature need not exceed 1/2 hr regardless of base material thickness. Welding procedure and performance qualification shall comply with the requirements of Section IX. WC-4311. 1
t
( b ) Dou b le Closure Wel d Detail (b) Full Penetration Corner-Welded Attachments. Nozzles shall be attached by full penetration welds through the wall of the containment or nozzle as shown in Figure WC-4266(b)-1. The welds shall be groove welds extending completely through at least one of the parts being joined and shall be fully fused to each part. Backing strips shall be used with welds deposited from only one side or when complete joint penetration cannot be verified by visual inspection. Backing strips, when used, shall be removed after welding.
Stu d Weld in g Restri cti on s.
Capacitor discharge welding may be used for welding temporary attachments and permanent nonstructural attachments provided: (a) temporary attachments are removed in accordance with the provisions of WC-4435(b); (b) the energy output for permanent nonstructural attachments such as strain gages and thermocouples is limited to 125 W‐ sec and the minimum thickness of the material to which the attachment is made is greater than 0.09 in. (2 mm); and (c) a Welding Procedure Specification is prepared describing the capacitor discharge equipment, the combination of materials to be j oined, and the technique of application; qualification of the welding procedure is not required. WC-43 11. 2
(c) Use of Deposited Weld Metal for Openings and Nozzles. Weld metal may be deposited on the containment
or nozzle prior to making the full penetration weld as shown in Figure WC-4266(c)-1. (d) Fittings With Internal Threads. Internally threaded fittings shall be limited to NPS 2 (DN 50). They shall meet the requirements of WC-3252.4(d) and be attached by full p enetratio n gro o ve welds as illus trated in Figure WC-4266(d)-1 sketches (a), (b), and (c).
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-4265-3 Typical Flat Heads Te n sio n test specime n
ts
r
Te n sio n test specime n
e
ts
r
r
ts
r
Thickn ess of flat head
Thickn ess of flat head
( b)
(a)
(c) tf
Te n sio n test specime n
tf
ts e
ts
Thickn ess of flat head
Te n sio n test specime n
Thickn ess of flat head
( d)
(e)
GENERAL NOTE: For definition of nomenclature, see WC-3225.
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Figure WC-4266(a)-1 Nozzles Attached by Full Penetration Butt Welds tn
r2
30 deg min. 1/ 2
in. (1 3 mm) min. r2
tn tn
t
1
45 deg max. 30 deg max.
3 r2
t
r2
t
r2
t3
a1
r1
a2
t3
1 1 /2 t min (b)
A tn
+ t4 ? 0.2 t, but a1 + a2 ? 1 8.5 deg
(c)
3 / in. 4
tn
45 deg max.
r1
t4
r1
(a)
tn
(1 9 mm) R min. t
45 deg max.
r1
r2
r2
30 deg max.
1 8.5 deg max. r2 r2
t
te
r r2 2
r1
r1
30 deg max. A Maximum = 0.2 t
(d)
Backing strip, if used, shall be removed
t
3 / in. 4
Section A - A
(1 9 mm) R min. t
Sections perpendicular and parallel to the containment’s cylindrical axis
tn
r1
(e)
(c – 1 ) GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WC-3252.4(a) .
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Figure WC-4266(b)-1 Full Penetration Corner-Welded Attachments
GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WC-3252.4(b) .
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Fi g u re WC-426 6(c) -1 Deposi ted Weld M etal U sed as Rei n forcem en t of O pen i n g s for N ozzles
3 / in. 4
(1 9 mm) min.
tn
tn t
Step 2
Step 1
(a) 3 / in. 4
(1 9 mm) min.
tn
tn
t
Step 2
Step 1
(b) GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WC-3252.4(c) .
Fi g u re WC-426 6(d ) -1 Fi tti n g s Wi th I n tern al Th read s
Either method of attachment is satisfactory
tc
(a)
tc
tc
(b)
For N PS 2 (DN 50) and smaller GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WC-3252.4(d) .
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tc
(c)
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Fi g u re WC- 4266(e) -1 Parti al Pen etrati on Weld Con n ecti on s
tc
tw
tn
tc N ot less tha n 1 1 /4t n
tn
1
tw
tc
1/ 16
N ot less tha n 1 1 /4t n
1/ 16
i n . (1 .5 mm) recess
i n . (1 .5 mm) recess S ectio n 1 – 1
1
( b)
(a)
tn
tw t
r1
d (c) GENERAL NOTE: For definitions of nomenclature, see WC-3252.4(e) .
WC- 4320
WELDI N G QU ALI FI CATI ON S, RECORDS,
WC- 4322
AN D I DEN TI FYI N G STAM PS WC- 4321
M ai n ten an ce an d Certi fi cati on of Record s
The Certificate Holder shall maintain a record of his qualified welding procedures and of the welders and welding operators qualified by him, showing the date and results of tests and the identification mark assigned to each welder. These records shall be reviewed, verified, and certified by the Certificate Holder by signature or some other method of control in accordance with the Certificate Holder s Quality Assurance Program and shall be available to the Authorized Nuclear Inspector.
Req u i red Qu ali fi cati on s
(a) Each Certificate Holder is responsible for the welding done by his organization, and he shall establish the procedure and conduct the tests required by this Article and by Section IX in order to qualify both the welding procedures and the performance of welders and welding operators who apply these procedures. (b) Procedures, welders, and welding operators used to j oin permanent or temporary attachments to containments and to make permanent or temporary tack welds used in such welding shall also meet the qualification requirements of this Article. (c) When making procedure test plates for butt welds, consideration shall be given to the effect of angular, lateral, and end restraint on the weldment. This applies particularly to material and weld metal of 80.0 ksi (550 MPa) tensile strength or higher and heavy sections of both low and high tensile strength material. The addition of restraint during welding may result in cracking difficulties that otherwise might not occur.

WC- 432 2 . 1
I d e n t i fi cat i o n o f J o i n t s b y W e ld e r o r
Weld i n g Operator.
(a) Each welder or welding operator shall apply the identification mark assigned to him by the Certificate Holder on or adjacent to all permanent welded j oints or series of joints on which he welds. The marking shall be at intervals of 3 ft (1 m) or less and shall be done with either blunt nose continuous or blunt nose interrupted dot die stamps. As an alternative, the Certificate Holder shall keep a record of permanent welded j oints in each item and of the welders and welding operators used in making each of the joints.
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(b) When a multiple number of permanent structural attachment welds, nonstructural welds, fillet welds, socket welds, weld metal cladding, and hard surfacing welds are made on an item, the Certificate Holder need not identify the welder or welding operator who welded each individual joint, provided:
WC-43 34
Preparati on of Test Cou pon s an d Speci m en s
(a) Removal of test coupons from the test weld and the dimensions of specimens made from them shall conform to the requirements of Section IX, except that the removal of impact test coupons and the dimensions of impact test specimens shall be in accordance with (b) below. (b) Weld deposit of each process in a multiple process weld shall, where possible, be included in the impact test specimens. When each process cannot be included in the full size impact test specimen at the 1/4 t location required by this Section, additional full size specimens shall be obtained from locations in the test weld that will ensure that at least a portion of each process has been included in full size test specimens. As an alternative, additional test welds can be made with each process so that full size specimens can be tested for each process.
(1 ) the Certificate Holder maintains a system that will identify the welders or welding operators who made such welds on each item so that the Inspector can verify that the welders or welding operators were all properly qualified; (2) the welds in each category are all of the same type and configuration and are welded with the same Welding Procedure Specification. (c) Welder or welding operator identification is not required for tack welds.
WC-4334. 1
WC-43 2 3
Weld i n g Pri or to Qu ali fi cati on s
No welding shall be undertaken until after the welding procedures which are to be used have been qualified. Only welders and welding operators who are qualified in accordance with WC-4320 and Section IX shall be used.
WC-43 24
Tran sferri n g Qu ali fi cati on s
The welding procedure qualifications and performance qualification tests for welders and welding operators conducted by one Certificate Holder shall not qualify welding procedures, and shall not qualify welders or welding operators to weld for any other Certificate Holder, except as provided in Section IX.
WC-43 30
WC-4334. 2
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FO R
QU ALI FI CATI ON TESTS Con form an ce to Secti on I X Req u i rem en ts
All welding procedure qualification tests shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section IX as supplemented or modified by the requirements of this Article.
WC-43 33
Cou pon s
Re p re s e n ti n g
th e
H eat-
Where impact tests of the heat-affected zone are required by WC-433 5.2, specimens shall be taken from the welding procedure qualification test assemblies in accordance with (a) through (c) below. (a) If the qualification test material is in the form of a plate or a forging, the axis of the weld shall be oriented either parallel to or perpendicular to the principal direction of rolling or forging. (b) The heat-affected zone impact test specimens and testing methods shall conform to the requirements of WC-2321.2. The specimens shall be removed from a location as near as practical to a depth midway between the s urface and center thicknes s . The co up o ns fo r heataffected zone impact specimens shall be taken transverse to the axis of the weld and etched to define the heataffected zone. The notch of the Charpy V‐ notch specimen shall be cut approximately normal to the material surface in such a manner as to include as much heat-affected zone as possible in the resulting fracture. Where the material thickness permits, the axis of a specimen may be inclined Affected Zo n e.
WELDI N G PRO CEDU RE
WC-43 31
Cou pon s Represen ti n g th e Weld Depos-
Impact test specimens and testing methods shall conform to WC-2321. The impact specimen shall be located so that the longitudinal axis of the specimen is at least 1 /4 t and, where the thickness of the test assembly permits, not less than 3/8 in. (10 mm) from the weld surface of the test assembly. In addition, when the postweld heat treatment temperature exceeds the maximum temperature specified in WC-4620, and the test assembly is cooled at an accelerated rate, the longitudinal axis of the specimen shall be a minimum of t from the edge of the test assembly. The specimen shall be transverse to the longitudinal axis of the weld with the area of the notch located in the weld. The length of the notch of the Charpy V‐ notch specimen shall be normal to the surface of the weld. Where drop weight specimens are required, the tension surface of the specimen shall be oriented parallel to the surface of the test assembly. i ts.
H eat Treatm en t of Qu ali fi cati on Weld s for Ferri ti c M ateri als
Postweld heat treatment of procedure qualification welds shall conform to the applicable requirements of WC-4600 and Section IX. The postweld heat treatment time at temperature is to be at least 80% of the maximum time to be applied to the component weld material. The postweld heat treatment total time may be applied in one heating cycle. 181
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to allow the root of the notch to align parallel to the fusion line. When a grain refining heat treatment is not performed on welds made by the electroslag or electrogas welding process, the notch for the impact specimens shall be located in the grain coarsened region. (c) For the comparison of heat-affected zone values with base material values [ WC-43 3 5 .2 (b) ] , Charpy V‐ notch specimens shall be removed from the unaffected base material at approximately the same distance from the base material surface as the heat-affected zone specimens. The axis of the unaffected base material specimens shall be parallel to the axis of the heat-affected zone specimens, and the axis of the notch shall be normal to the surface of the base material. When required by WC-2330, drop weight specimens shall be removed from a depth as near as practical to midway between the surface and center thickness of the unaffected base material and shall b e tes ted in accordance with the requirements o f WC-2321. WC- 433 5
WC-4335. 2
welding procedure qualification test assembly are required whenever the thickness of the weld exceeds 5 /8 in. (16 mm) and either of the base materials require impact testing in accordance with the rules of WC-2310. Exemption of base materials by WC-2311(a) (7) does no t ap p l y to the welding p ro cedure qualificatio n heat‐ affected zone or unaffected base material for such materials. The only exceptions to the requirements are the following: (1) the qualification for welds in P ‐ Nos. 1 and 3 materials that are postweld heat treated and are made by any process other than electroslag, electrogas, or thermit; (2) the qualification for weld deposit cladding or hardfacing on any base material. (3) that portion of the heat‐ affected zone associated with GTAW root deposits with a maximum of two layers or 3/16 in. (5 mm) thickness, whichever is less. (b) Charpy V‐ notch testing shall be performed as specified in (1) through (6). (1) Charpy V‐ notch test specimens representing both the heat‐ affected zone and the unaffected base material shall be tested. The unaffected base material shall be tested at a temperature equal to or below the LST. (2) The Charpy V‐ notch tests of the unaffected base material shall meet the applicable requirements of Table WC-2332.1-1 or Table WC-2332.1-2, as applicable, or additional testing shall be performed at higher temperatures until either of the above requirements are met. (3) The heat‐ affected zone specimens shall be tested at the test temperature determined in (2). The average applicable toughness values of the heat‐ affected zone specimens shall equal or exceed the average applicable toughness values of the unaffected base material specimens, or the adjustment given in (4) through (6) shall be made. Alternatively, another test coupon may be welded and tested. (4) Additional Charpy V‐ notch tests shall be performed on either the heat‐ affected zone or the unaffected base material, or both, at temperatures where the applicable toughness values of all three specimens tested is not less than that specified in (2). The applicable average toughness values for each test meeting this requirement shall be plotted on an applicable toughness value versus temperature graph. The difference in temperature T H A Z and T U B M where the heat‐ affected zone and the unaffected base material applicable average toughness values are the same and not less than that specified in (2) shall be used to determine the adjustment temperature T A D J where:
I m pact Test Req u i rem en ts
When materials are required to be impact tested per WC - 2 3 0 0 , i m p a c t te s ts o f th e we l d m e ta l a n d heat-affected zone shall be performed in accordance with the following subparagraphs. The weld procedure qualification impact test specimens shall be prepared and tested in accordance with the applicable requirements of WC-2332.1 and WC-4334. Retests in accordance with the provisions of WC-2350 are permitted. WC-4335. 1
I m pact Tests of H eat-Affected Zon e.
(a) Charpy V‐ notch tests of the heat‐ affected zone of the
I m pact Tests of Weld M etal.
(a) Impact tests of the weld metal shall be required for
welding procedure qualification tests for production weld joints exceeding 5/8 in. (16 mm) in thickness when the weld will be made on the surface or will penetrate the base material that requires impact testing in accordance with WC-2310. In addition, such testing of the weld metal is required for the welding procedure qualification tests for any weld repair to base material that requires impact testing in accordance with WC-2310, regardless of the depth of the repair. (b) The impact test requirements and acceptance standards for welding procedure qualification weld metal shall be the same as specified in WC-2330 for the base material to be welded or repaired. Where two materials are to be joined by welding and have different fracture toughness requirements, the test requirements and acceptance standards of either material may be used for the weld metal. (c) A Welding Procedure Specification qualified to the impact testing requirements of Subsection WB, NB, NC, or NE may be accepted as an alternative to the Welding Procedure Specification impact testing requirements of this Subsection.
If T A D J ≤ 0, then TA D J = 0.
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(5) As an alternative to (4), if the applicable toughness values of the heat‐ affected zone specimens is no less than the values specified in Table WC-2332.1-1 or Table WC-2 3 3 2 .1 -2 , as applicable, and the average of the heat-affected zone specimens is not less than 7 ft-lb (10 J) or 5 mils (0.13 mm) below the average applicable toughness values of the unaffected base material, T A D J may be taken as 15°F (− 8°C). (6) As a second alternative to (4), if the applicable toughness values of the heat‐ affected zone specimens a r e n o l e s s th a n th e va l u e s s p e c i fi e d i n T a b l e WC-2332.1-1 or Table WC-2332.1-2, as applicable, the difference between the average applicable toughness values of the heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material shall be calculated and used as described in (c)(3). (c) At least one of the following methods shall be used to compensate for the heat‐ affected zone toughness decrease due to the welding procedure. (1 ) The LST specified in the Design Specification for all of the material to be welded in production welding procedure specifications (WPS) supported by this procedure qualification record (PQR) shall be increased by the adjustment temperature T A D J . (2) The specified testing temperature for the production material may be reduced by T A D J . (3) The materials to be welded may be welded using the WPS provided they exhibit toughness values that are no less than the minimum required toughness values required by WC-2300 plus the difference in the average toughness values established in (b)(6). (d) The Charpy V ‐ notch testing results shall be recorded on the PQR and any offsetting T A D J or increased toughness requirements on the production material on which welding is to be performed shall be noted on the PQR and WPS. More than one compensation method may be used on a par basis. (e) A WPS qualified to the impact testing requirements of Subsection WB, NB, NC, or NE may be accepted as an alternative to the WPS impact testing requirements of this Subsection. WC-43 36
WC-4400
RU LES G OVERN I N G M AKI N G , EXAM I N I N G , AN D REPAI RI N G WELDS
WC-4410
PRECAU TI O N S TO BE TAKEN BEFORE WELDI N G
WC-4411
I d en ti fi cati on , Storag e, an d H an d li n g of Weld i n g M ateri als
Each Certificate Holder is responsible for control of the welding electrodes and other materials that are used in th e fa b r i c a ti o n a n d i n s ta l l a ti o n o f c o m p o n e n ts (WC-4120). Suitable identification, storage, and handling of electrodes, flux, and other welding materials shall be maintained. Precautions shall be taken to minimize absorption of moisture by electrodes and flux. WC-4412
Clean li n ess an d Protecti on of Weld i n g Su rfaces
The method used to prepare the base metal shall leave the weld preparation with reasonably smooth surfaces. The surfaces for welding shall be free of scale, rust, oil, grease, and other deleterious material. The work shall be protected from deleterious contamination and from rain, snow, and wind during welding. Welding shall not be performed on wet surfaces. WC-442 0
RU LES FOR M AKI N G WELDED J OI N TS
WC-442 1
Backi n g Ri n g s
Backing rings that remain in place may be used. The materials for backing rings shall be compatible with the base metal, but spacer pins shall not be incorporated into the weld. WC-442 3
Dou ble-Weld ed J oi n ts, Si n g le-Weld ed J oi n ts, an d Peen i n g
Before applying weld metal on the second side to be welded, the root of full penetration double ‐ welded joints shall be prepared by suitable methods such as chipping, grinding, or thermal gouging, except for those processes of welding by which proper fusion and penetrations are otherwise obtained and demonstrated to be satisfactory by welding procedure qualifications. WC- 442 3 . 1
Qu ali fi cati on Req u i rem en ts for Bu i lt-U p Weld Deposi ts
Built‐ up weld deposits for base metal reinforcement shall be qualified in accordance with the requirements of WC-4331 to WC-4335, inclusive.
D ou ble- Weld ed J oi n ts.
Where singlewelded joints are used, particular care shall be taken in aligning and separating the items to be joined so that there will be complete penetration and fusion at the bottom of the joint for its full length. WC- 442 3 . 2
S i n g le - W e ld e d J o i n t s .
Controlled peening may be performed to minimize distortion. Peening shall not be used on the internal layer (root) of the weld metal nor on the final layers unless the weld is postweld heat treated. WC-4423. 3
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Peen i n g .
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC- 4424
dimension by not more than 1/1 6 in. (1.5 mm) , provided that the total undersize portion of the weld does not exceed 10% of the length of the weld. Individual undersize weld portions shall not exceed 2 in. (50 mm) in length. I n m aki n g s o cke t we l d s , a gap a s s h o wn i n F i gu re WC-442 7-1 shall be provided prior to welding. The gap need not be present nor be verified after welding. For sleeve type joints without internal shoulder, the gap shall be between the butting ends of the pipe or tube. (b) Socket welds smaller than those specified in Figure WC-442 7-1 may be used provided the requirements of Article WC-3000 are met.
Su rfaces of Weld s
As ‐ welded surfaces are permitted. However, the surface of welds shall be sufficiently free from coarse ripples, grooves, overlaps, abrupt ridges, and valleys to meet the requirements of (a) through (e) below. (a) The surface condition of the finished weld shall be suitable for the proper interpretation of radiographic and other required nondestructive examination of the weld. In those cases where there is a question regarding the surface condition on the interpretation of a radiographic film, the film shall be compared to the actual weld s u r fa c e fo r i n te r p r e ta ti o n a n d d e te r m i n a ti o n o f acceptability. (b) Reinforcements are permitted in accordance with WC-4426.1. 1 (c) Undercuts shall not exceed /3 2 in. (0.8 mm) and shall not encroach on the required section thickness. (d) Concavity on the root side of a single-welded circumferential butt weld is permitted when the resulting thickness of the weld meets the requirements of Article WC-3000. (e) If the surface of the weld requires grinding to meet the above criteria, care shall be taken to avoid reducing the weld or base material below the required thickness. WC- 442 5
WC- 442 8
Where seal welding of threaded pipe j oints is performed, the exposed threads shall be either removed entirely or covered with weld metal. WC- 4430
WELDI N G OF ATTACH M EN TS
WC- 4431
M ateri als for Attach m en ts
Structural attachments that are not part of the containment shall be of the materials that meet the requirements of WC-2190. Structural attachments that are part of the containment shall meet the requirements of WC-2120.
Weld i n g I tem s of Di fferen t Di am eters WC- 4432
When items of different diameters are welded together, there shall be a gradual transition between the two surfaces. The slope of the transition shall be such that the length – offset ratio shall not be less than 3:1, unless greater slopes are shown to be acceptable by analysis for vessels designed to WC-3 2 00. The length of the transition may include the weld. WC- 4426
WC- 4433
WC- 4434
Nominal Thickness, in. (mm)
Maximum Reinforcement, in. (mm) 3
/32 1 /8 5 /32 7 /32 1 /4 5 /16
Stru ctu ral Attach m en ts
Structural attachments shall conform reasonably to the curvature of the surface to which they are to be attached and shall be attached by full penetration, fillet, or partial penetration continuous or intermittent welds. Figures WC-4433-1 and WC-4433-2 illustrate some of the typical details for attaching structural attachments to a component using full penetration welds.
Rei n forcem en t of Weld s
Up to 1 (25), incl. Over 1 to 2 (25 to 50), incl. Over 2 to 3 (50 to 75), incl. Over 3 to 4 (75 to 100) , incl. Over 4 to 5 (100 to 125), incl. Over 5 (125)
Weld i n g of Stru ctu ral Attach m en ts
The rules of WC-4321 governing welding qualifications shall apply to the welding of structural attachments to containment material.
WC- 4426. 1 Weld Rei n forcem en t. The surface of the reinforcement of all butt-welded joints may be flush with the b as e material o r may have unifo rm cro wns . The height of reinforcement on each face of the weld shall not exceed the thicknesses in the following tabulation:
WC- 442 7
Seal Weld s of Th read ed J oi n ts
Weld i n g of I n tern al Stru ctu ral Su pports to Clad Con tai n m en ts
Internal structural supports on clad containments shall be welded to the base metal and not to the cladding except for weld overlay cladding.
(2.5) (3) (4) (5.5) (6) (8)
WC- 4435
Weld i n g of N on stru ctu ral an d Tem porary Attach m en ts an d Th ei r Rem oval
(a) Nonstructural attachments welded to the containment need not comply with Article WC-2 000 and may be welded with continuous or intermittent fillet or partial penetration welds, provided the requirements of (1 ) through (4) below are met. (1 ) The welding procedure and the welders have been qualified in accordance with WC-4321.
Sh ape an d Si ze of Fi llet Weld s
(a) Fillet welds may vary from convex to concave. Except as permitted in (b) below, the shape and size of the weld shall be in accordance with the requirements of Figure WC-4427-1. A fillet weld in any single continuo us we l d m ay b e l es s than the s p eci fi e d fi l le t wel d 184
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-4427-1 Fillet and Socket Weld Details and Dimensions Theoretical throat
Theoretical throat
Surface of vertical member
Surface of vertical member Convex fillet weld
Concave fillet weld
Surface of horizontal member
Size of weld
Size of weld (a) Equal Leg Fillet Weld [Note (1 )]
Theoretical throat Surface of vertical member
Theoretical throat Surface of vertical member
Concave fillet weld
Convex fillet weld Surface of horizontal member (b) Unequal Leg Fillet Weld [Note (2)] x, x,
min.
Cx
min. tn
tn
nominal pipe wall thickness
1/ 16
in. (1 .5 mm) approx. before welding
Cx
1/ 16
in. (1 .5 mm) approx. before welding
(c-1 ) Socket Welding Flange [Note (3)]
(c-2) Socket Welding Fittings [Note (4)]
(c) Minimum Welding Dimensions for Slip-On and Socket Welding Flanges and Socket Welding Fittings NOTES: (1) The size of an equal leg fillet weld is the leg length of the largest right isosceles triangle. Theoretical throat = 0.7 × size of weld. (2) The size of an unequal leg fillet weld is the shorter leg length of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. (3) x , min. = 1.4 t n or the thickness of the hub, whichever is smaller, but not less than 1/8 in. (3 mm) (4) C x , min. = 1.09 t n where t n = nominal pipe wall thickness
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Figure WC-4433-1 Typical Types of Attachment Welds Dimension not sufficient for weld from inside A
A
A
A
Section A-A Section A-A 1 / in. (3 mm), max. 1 / in. (3 mm), max. 8 8
(a) Attachment of Lugs, Shoes, Pipe Saddles, and Brackets
A Section A-A
A 1/ 8
in. (3 mm), max.
(b) Attachment of Trunnions
1/ 8
in. (3 mm), max.
(c) Attachment of Rings GENERAL NOTE: The welds may be partial penetration or fillet welds.
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Fi g u re WC-443 3-2 Typi cal Attach m en ts
GENERAL NOTES: (a) a ≥ t /4; b ≥ t /2; c ≥ t t = thickness of attached member c = minimum thickness of weld metal from the root to the face of the weld (b) All welds continuous. (2) The material is identified and is compatible with the material to which it is attached. (3) The welding material is identified and is compatible with the materials joined. (4) The welds are postweld heat treated when required by WC-4620. (b) Removal of nonstructural attachments, when temporary, shall be accomplished as follows: (1 ) The immediate area around the temporary attachment is marked in a suitable manner so that after removal the area can be identified until after it has been examined in accordance with (3) below. (2) The temporary attachment is completely removed in accordance with the procedures of WC-4211. (3) After the temporary attachment has been removed, the marked area is examined by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method in accordance with the requirements of WC-5120 and meets the acceptance s tandards o f WC - 5 3 40 o r WC - 5 3 5 0 , whichever is applicable. (4) As an alternative to (a)(4) above, postweld heat treatment may be deferred until after removal of the attachment.
WC-4450
REPAI R OF WELD M ETAL DEFECTS
WC-4451
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
Defects in weld metal detected by the examinations required by Article WC-5 000 or by the tests of Article WC-6000 shall be eliminated and repaired when necessary or the indication reduced to an acceptable limit.
WC-4452
Eli m i n ati on of Su rface Defects
Weld metal surface defects may be removed by grinding or machining and need not be repaired by welding, provided the requirements of (a), (b), and (c) below are met. (a) The remaining thickness of the section is not reduced below that required by Article WC-3000. (b) The depression, after defect elimination, is blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. (c) The area is examined by a magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with WC-5100 after b l en di ng and me ets the accep tance s tan dards o f WC-5300 to ensure that the defect has been removed or the indication reduced to an acceptable limit. Defects detected by visual or volumetric method and located on an interior surface need only be reexamined by the method which initially detected the defect when the interior surface is inaccessible for surface examination. 187
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WC- 4453
Req u i rem en ts for M aki n g Repai rs of
WC-4500
BRAZI N G
Weld s
Excavations in weld metal, when repaired by welding, s h a l l m e e t th e r e q u i r e m e n ts o f th e fo l l o w i n g subparagraphs.
WC- 4 4 5 3 . 2
WC- 4511
Wh ere Brazi n g M ay Be U sed
D e fe c t R e m o v a l .
WC- 4512
Re q u i re m e n ts fo r We ld i n g M ate ri als ,
The weld repair shall be made using welding materials, welders, and welding procedures qualified in acco rdance with WC - 41 2 5 and WC-4300. After repair the surface shall be blended uniformly into the surrounding surface. WC-4453. 3
Blen d i n g of Repai red Areas.
WC-4453. 4
Exam i n ati on of Repai r Weld s.
Brazi n g M ateri al
Where brazing is permitted, the brazing filler material and fluxes shall conform to the rules covering identification in WC-2150 and to the requirements of (a) , (b) , and (c) below. (a) The filler material used in brazing shall be a nonferrous metal or alloy with a solidus temperature above 800°F (425°C) and at least 500°F (280°C) above the highest temperature of the joint in service. (b) The filler material shall melt and flow freely by capillary action within the desired temperature range, and in conjunction with a suitable flux or controlled atmosphere the filler material shall wet and adhere to the surfaces to be joined. (c) Fluxes that are fluid and chemically active at the brazing temperature shall be used, when necessary, to prevent oxidation of the filler metal and the surfaces to be j oined, and to promote free flowing of the filler material.
Proced u res, an d Weld ers.
(a) The examination of a weld repair shall be repeated as required for the original weld, except that it need only be reexamined by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method when the unacceptable indication was originally detected by the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method and when the repair cavity does not exceed the following: (1 ) 1/3 t for t ≤ 3/4 in. (19 mm) (2) 1/4 in. (6 mm) for 3/4 in. (19 mm) < t ≤ 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) (3) the lesser of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% t for t > 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) where t equals the thickness of the weld. (b) When repairs to welds joining P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 materials require examination by radiography as required in (a) above, but construction assembly prevents meaningful radiographic examination, ultrasonic examination may be substituted, provided that: (1 ) the weld has been previously radiographed and met the applicable acceptance standards; (2) the ultrasonic examination is performed using a procedure in accordance with Section V, Article 4 to the acceptance standards of WC-5330; (3) the substitution is limited to Category A and B welds in containments and similar type welds in other items. The absence of suitable radiographic equipment is not justification for the substitution.
WC- 452 0
BRAZI N G QU ALI FI CATI ON REQU I REM EN TS
WC- 452 1
Brazi n g Proced u re an d Perform an ce Qu ali fi cati on
Qualification of the brazing procedure to be used and of the performance of brazers and brazing operators is required and shall comply with the requirements of Section IX, except as noted below. WC- 452 3
Reh eated J oi n ts
In addition to the requirements of Section IX, the brazing procedure shall be set up as a new procedure specification and shall be completely requalified when the construction of the brazed components includes reheating of any portion of the completed brazed joint to a temperature that is within 300°F (1 70°C) of the solidus temperature of the filler metal. WC- 4524
M axi m u m Tem peratu re Li m i ts
The Design Temperature shall not exceed the upper temp erature s ho wn in the third co lum n o f Tab le WC-4524-1. For Design Temperatures below the temp e r a tu r e s h o wn i n th e s e c o n d c o l u m n o f T a b l e WC-4524-1, no further testing beyond that required by Section IX is required. For Design Temperatures in the range shown in the third column of Table WC-4524-1, tests in addition to those required by Section IX are required. These tests shall be considered a part of the procedure qualification. For such Design Temperatures, two
The area shall be heat treated in accordance with WC-4620. WC-4453. 5
RU LES FO R BRAZI N G
Brazing is permitted for nonstructural attachments only.
Defects may be removed by mechanical means or by thermal gouging processes. The area prepared for repair shall be examined by a liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method in accordance with WC-5100 and meet the acceptance standards of WC-5340 or WC-5350. This examination is not required where defect elimination removes the full thickness of the weld and where the backside of the weld joint is not accessible for removal of examination materials. WC- 4453 . 1
WC- 4510
H eat Treatm en t of Repai red Areas.
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tension tests on production type joints are required, one at the Design Temperature and one at 1.05 T [where T is the Design Temperature in °F (°C) ] . Neither of these production ‐ type joints shall fail in the braze metal. WC-4530
WC-4612
Preh eati n g M eth od s
Preheat for welding or thermal cutting, when employed, may be applied by any method which does not harm the base material or any weld metal already applied or which does not introduce deleterious material into the welding area which is harmful to the weld.
FI TTI N G AN D ALI G N I N G OF PARTS TO BE BRAZED
Parts to be joined by brazing shall be fitted, and retained in position during the brazing operation within the tolerances specified in the brazing procedure specification. Brazed joints shall be assembled in a sequence which will permit the maximum number of joints to be visually examined on both sides of the joint after brazing. WC-4540
WC-4613
Consideration must be given to the limitations of interpass temperatures for quenched and tempered materials to avoid detrimental effects on the mechanical properties.
EXAM I N ATI O N OF BRAZED J OI N TS
H EAT TREATM EN T
WC-4610
WELDI N G PREH EAT REQU I REM EN TS
WC-4611
Wh en Preh eat I s N ecessary
WC-462 0
PO STWELD H EAT TREATM EN T
WC-462 1
H eati n g an d Cooli n g M eth od s
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) may be accomplished by any suitable methods of heating and cooling, provided the required heating and cooling rates, metal temperature, metal temperature uniformity, and temperature control are maintained.
The completed brazed joints shall be visually examined on all accessible surfaces in accordance with WC-5275. WC-4600
I n terpass Tem peratu re
WC-462 2
PWH T Ti m e an d Tem peratu re Req u i rem en ts
The need for and temperature of preheat are dependent on a number of factors, such as the chemical analysis, degree of restraint of the parts being joined, elevated temperature, physical properties, and material thicknesses. Some practices used for preheating are given in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix D as a general guide for the materials listed by P ‐ Number of Section IX. It is cautioned that the preheating suggested in Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix D does not necessarily ensure satisfactory completion of the welded joint and that the preheating requirements for individual materials within the P ‐ Number listing may be more or less restrictive. The welding procedure specification for the material being welded shall specify the minimum preheating requirements under the welding procedure qualification requirements of Section IX.
Except as otherwise permitted in WC-4622.7, all welds, including repair welds, shall be postweld heat treated. During postweld heat treatment, the metal temperature shall be maintained within the temperature ranges for the minimum holding time specified in Table WC-4622.1-1 except as otherwise permitted in WC-4622.4(c). P ‐ Number groups in Table WC-4622.1-1 are in accordance with Section IX, QW‐ 420. Except as provided in WC-4624.3, PWHT shall be performed in temperature ‐ surveyed and ‐ calibrated furnaces, or PWHT shall be performed with thermocouples in contact with the material or attached to blocks in contact with the material. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this WC-4622. 1
G en eral Req u i rem en ts.
Table WC-4524-1 M axi m u m Desi g n Tem peratu res for Brazi n g Fi ller M etal, °F (°C)
Temperature Below Which Section IX Tests Only Are Required
Temperature Range Requiring Section IX Tests and Additional Tests
BCuP BAg BCuZn
300 (150) 400 (205) 400 (205)
300 – 350 (150 – 175) 400 – 500 (205 – 260) 400 – 500 (205 – 260)
BCu BAISi BNi
400 (205) 300 (150) 800 (425)
400 – 650 (205 – 345) 300 – 350 (150 – 175)
Filler Metal Classification

GENERAL NOTE: Temperatures are based on AWS recommendations.
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ð 17Þ
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(c) Alternatively, when it is impractical to postweld heat treat at the temperature range specified in Table WC-462 2 .1-1, it is permissible to perform the postweld heat treatment of certain materials at lower temperatures fo r lo nger perio ds o f time in acco rdance with Tab le WC-4622.4(c)-1 and (1) , (2), and (3) below. (1 ) Except for P ‐ No. 1 materials, when welds in the materials listed in Table WC-4622.4(c) -1 are to be postweld heat treated at the lower minimum temperatures, the impact test specimens for the welding procedure qualification required by WC-43 00 shall be made using the same minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding time. Welding procedures, qualified at the temperature range and minimum holding time specified in Table WC-4622.1-1 and at the lower temperature and increas e d mi ni mum ho ldi ng ti me p e rmi tted b y Tab l e WC-462 2 .4(c) -1 , are also qualified for any temperature in between. When such an in ‐ between temperature is used, the minimum holding time shall be interpolated from Table WC-462 2 .1 -1 and the alternative requirements from Table WC-4622.4(c)-1. (2) Except for P ‐ No. 1 materials, when welds in the materials listed in Table WC-4622.4(c) -1 are to be postweld heat treated at these lower minimum temperatures, the welding material certification required by WC-2 400 shall be made using the same minimum temperature and increased minimum holding time. Welding material certified at the temperature range and minimum holding time specified in Table WC-462 2 .1 -1 and at the lower minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding time permitted by Table WC-462 2.4(c) -1 are also certified for any temperature in between. (3) B as e m ate ri al s ce rti fi e d i n acco rdan ce wi th WC-2 2 00 may be postweld heat treated at these lower minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding
time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens. In addition, the requirements of the following subparagraphs shall apply.
WC-4622.2 Time –Temperature Recordings. Timetemperature recordings of all postweld heat treatments shall be made available for review by the Inspector. Identification on the time – temperature recording shall be to the weld, part, or component. A summary of the time – temperature recording may be provided for permanent records in accordance with WA-4134. WC-462 2 . 3 Defi n i ti on of N om i n al Th i ckn ess G o v e rn i n g P W H T . N o m i n a l t h i c k n e s s i n T a b l e
WC-4622.7(b)-1 is the thickness of the weld, the containment material for structural attachment welds or the thinner of the containment materials being joined, whichever is least. It is not intended that nominal thickness include material provided for forming allowance, thinning, or mill overrun when the excess material does not exceed 1 /8 in. (3 mm). For fillet welds the nominal thickness is the throat thickness, and for partial penetration and material repair welds the nominal thickness is the depth of the weld groove or preparation.
WC-4622.4
Holding Times at Temperature.
(a) The holding time at temperature as specified in Table WC-4622.1-1 shall be based on the nominal thickness of the weld. The holding time need not be continuous. It may be an accumulation of the times of multiple postweld heat‐ treat cycles. (b) Holding time at temperature in excess of the minimum requirements of Table WC-4622 .1-1 may be used, provided that specimens so heat treated are tested in accordance with WC-2200, WC-2400, and WC-4300.
Table WC-4622.1-1 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Welds
P ‐ No. (Sec. IX, QW-420)
1, 3
Holding Temperature Range, °F (°C) [Note (1)] 1,100 – 1,250 (595 – 675)
P ‐ Nos. 8, 10H Gr. 1, 34, 42, 43, 45 and hard surfacing on P ‐ No. 1 base metal whose reported carbon content is not more than 0.30%
Minimum Holding Time at Temperature for Weld Thickness (Nominal) 1
/2 in. (13 mm) or less
30 min
Over 1/2 in. to 2 in. (13 mm to 50 mm)
1 hr/in. (2 min/mm)
Over 2 in. to 5 in. (50 mm to 125 mm) 2 hr plus 15 min each additional inch (2 h plus 0.5 min/mm) over 2 in. (50 mm)
PWHT neither required nor prohibited
GENERAL NOTE: Exemptions to the mandatory requirements of this Table are defined in WC-4622.7. NOTE: (1) All temperatures are metal temperatures.
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Over 5 in. (125 mm) 2 hr plus 15 min each additional inch (2 h plus 0.5 min/mm) over 2 in. (50 mm)
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Table WC-4622.7(b)-1 need not be given a postweld heat treatment if the requirements of (a) are met for partial penetration and (b) are met for full penetration welds. (a) The partial penetration welds are made with A‐ No. 8 or non ‐ air‐ hardening nickel – chromium – iron weld metal after: (1 ) the ferritic materials to be joined are buttered or b u i l du p wi th A ‐ N o . 8 o r n o n ‐ ai r ‐ harde n i n g n i cke l – chromium – iron weld metal having a minimum thickness of 1/4 in. (6 mm); and (2) the heat-affected zones of the buttered or buildup ferritic materials are postweld heat treated in accordance with WC-4620, without the PWHT exemptions being applied, prior to making the final welds. (b) The full penetration welds are made with A‐ No. 1 or A‐ No. 2 weld metal, provided that: (1 ) the containment is built up or buttered in the area of the attachment with A‐ No. 1 or A‐ No. 2 metal having a minimum thickness of 1/4 in. (6 mm); (2) the A‐ No. 1 or A‐ No. 2 weld metal buildup or butte ri ng i s p o s twe l d he at tre ate d i n acco rdance wi th WC-462 0 for P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials without the PWHT exemptions being applied; (3) the welds do not penetrate through the containment thickness; (4) weld metal with A ‐ No. 1 or A ‐ No. 2 analysis is used to j oin the nozzle of P ‐ No. 1 material to the weld buildup or buttering; (5) the nominal thickness of the weld joining the nozzle to the containment does not exceed 1 1/2 in. (38 mm), and the maximum reported carbon content of the nozzle connection does not exceed 0.30%; (6) a 2 00°F (95°C) minimum preheat is maintained during welding whenever the nominal thickness of the weld exceeds: 1 (-a) 1 /4 in. (32 mm) and the maximum reported carbon content of the material of the nozzle is 0.30% or less; or 3 (-b) /4 in. (1 9 mm) and the maximum reported carbon content of material of the nozzle connection exceeds 0.30%.
Table WC-4622.4(c)-1 Alternative Holding Temperatures and Times Material P ‐ Numbers 1, 3 1, 3
Alternative Minimum Holding Temperatures, °F (°C)
Alternative Minimum Holding Times
1,050 (565) 1,000 (540)
2 hr/in. (4 min/mm) thick 4 hr/in. (8 min/mm) thick
GENERAL NOTE: All other requirements of WC-4622 shall apply.
times without recertification. Postweld heat treatment at these lower minimum temperatures and increased minimum holding times may also be the tempering operation, provided a higher tempering temperature is not required by the material specification.
WC-4622.5 PWHT Requirements When Different P-Number Materials Are Joined. When containment ma-
terials of two different P ‐ Number groups are j oined by welding, the applicable postweld heat treatment shall be that specified in Table WC-4622.1-1 for the material requiring the higher PWHT temperature range.
WC-4622.6 PWHT Requirements for Noncontainment Parts. When parts not performing a containment function are welded to contaiment materials, the postweld heat treatment temperature range of the containment materials shall control.
WC-4622.7 Exemptions to Mandatory Requirements. Postweld heat treatment in accordance with this subarticle is not required for (a) through (g) below: (a) nonferrous materials; (b) welds exempted in Table WC-4622.7(b)-1; (c) welds subj ected to temperatures above the PWHT temperature range specified in Table WC-4622.1-1, provided the Welding Procedure Specification is qualified in accordance with Section IX and the base material and the deposited weld material have been heat treated at the higher temperature; (d) welds connecting nozzles to containments provided the requirements in WC-4622.8 are met;
WC-4622.9 Weld Repair to Containments. Limited weld repairs to containments of P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 materials and A‐ No. 1, A‐ No. 2, A‐ No. 10, or A‐ No. 11 weld fille r me tal (S e cti o n I X, Tab l e QW- 4 42 ) may b e m ade without PWHT or after the final PWHT, provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met: (a) Examination of Area to Be Repaired. Before a repair is made, the area shall be examined by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with WC-5100 and shall meet the acceptance standards of WC-5340 or WC-5350, as appropriate. (b) Maximum Extent of Repairs. A repair shall not exceed 1 0 in. 2 (6 500 mm 2 ) in surface area and shall not be greater in depth than 50% of the base metal or weld thickness or 1/2 in. (13 mm), whichever is less.
(e) weld repairs to P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials in containments, provided the requirements of WC-462 2 .9 or WC-4622.10 are met; (f) weld repairs to cladding after final postweld heat treatment provided the requirements of WC-462 2 .1 1 are met; (g) weld repairs to dissimilar metal welds after final postweld heat treatment provided the requirements of WC-4622.12 are met.
WC-4622.8 Requirements for Exempting PWHT of Nozzles to Containment Welds. Welds connecting nozzles of P ‐ No. 1 materials to containments of P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials that are not exempted from PWHT in
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Table WC-4622.7(b)-1 Exemptions to Mandatory PWHT P ‐ No. (Section IX, QW‐ 420)
Nominal Thickness, in. (mm) (WC-4622.3)
Type of Weld [Note (1)]
All welds, where the materials being joined are 1 1/4 (32) and less 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) and less Over 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 (32 to 38)
1
3
/4 (19) or less 3
1
Over /4 to 1 /2 (19 to 38) All welds in material over 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) 1 Gr. 1 or Gr. 2
Max. Reported Carbon, % [Note (2)] 0.30 and less 0.30 and less

Over 0.30
/4 (19) or less …

200 (95)
Over 0.30
3
Cladding or repair of cladding [Note (3) ] with A‐ No. 8 or F ‐ No. 43 filler metal in base material of: 1 1/2 in. (38 mm) or less
Min. Preheat Required, °F (°C)
200 (95) …
0.30
200 (95) 100 (38)
Over 1 1/2 in. to 3 in. (38 mm to 75 mm)

0.30
200 (95) [Note (4) ]
Over 3 in. (75 mm)

0.30
250 (120) [Note (5)]
3
For containment repair without required PWHT, see WC-4622.9 or WC-4622.10
3 except Gr. 3
All welds, except repair welds in containments, 5/8 (16) or less provided weld procedure qualification is made using equal or greater thickness base material than production weld [Note (6)] Attachment welds joining containment to noncontainment material

1
/2 (13) or less

350 (175)
0.25 or less
200 (95)
0.25 or less
200 (95)
GENERAL NOTE: The exemptions noted in this Table do not apply to electron beam welds in ferritic materials over 1/8 in. (3 mm) in thickness. NOTES: (1) Where the thickness of material is identified in the column Type of Weld, it is the thickness of the base material at the welded joint. (2) Carbon level of the pressure-retaining materials being joined. (3) The maximum resulting hardness of the heat-affected zone, in the procedure qualification test plate shall not exceed 35 Rc. (4) Intermediate postweld soak at not less than 200°F (95°C) for 2 hr minimum. (5) Intermediate postweld soak at not less than 300°F (150°C) for 2 hr minimum. (6) Weld Procedure Qualification coupon need not exceed 1.5 in. (38 mm) in thickness.
may be made without PWHT or after the final PWHT, provided it is impossible or impractical to postweld heat treat the area after repair, and provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met:
(c) Repair Welding Procedure (1 ) The repairs shall be made using one or more pro-
cedures and welders qualified in accordance with Section IX and the requirements of this Article using the shielded metal ‐ arc process and low hydrogen covered electrodes. 5 (2) The largest electrode diameter shall be /3 2 in. (4 mm) , and the bead width shall not exceed four times the electrode diameter. (3) The repair weld shall be made with a minimum of two layers of weld metal. The last layer shall be limited or ground off so that the weld surface does not extend above the base metal a greater distance than that allowed for reinforcement of butt welds. (4) A preheat and interpass temperature of 3 00°F (150°C) minimum shall be used. (d) Examination of Repair Welds. Following the repair and when the area has reached ambient temperature, the area shall again be examined by magnetic particle methods and accepted in accordance with (a) above.
WC-4622.10
(a) Examination of Area to Be Repaired. Before repair, the area shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with Article WC-5000. (b) Maximum Extent ofRepair. The maximum area of an individual repair based on the finished surface shall be 100 in. 2 (65 000 mm 2 ) and the depth of repair shall not be greater than one ‐ third of the base material thickness. (c) Repair Welding Procedure . The welding procedure shall be in accordance with Section IX and this Subsection and shall include the requirements of (1 ) through (8) below. (1 ) The area to be repaired shall be suitably prepared for welding in accordance with a written procedure. (2) The weld metal shall be deposited by the manual shielded metal arc process using low hydrogen type electrode. The maximum bead width shall be four times the electrode core diameter.
Temper Bead Technique. Limited weld
repairs to P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 material, and A‐ Nos. 1, 2, 1 0, or 1 1 weld filler metal (Section IX, Table QW-442 ) ,
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(3) Welding electrodes shall meet the requirements fo r s u p p l e m e n ta l d e s i g n a to r s “ R ” i n d i c a ti n g a moisture ‐ resistant coating and “ H4 ” indicating that they are low in diffusible hydrogen as defined in the applicable specifications in Section II, Part C. Welding electrodes shall also be supplied in unopened hermetically sealed containers. (4) After a hermetically sealed container is opened, the electrodes shall be stored in holding ovens at 225°F to 350°F (105°C to 175°C). When electrodes are removed from elevated storage, they may be exposed to the atmosphere for a maximum of 8 hr. (5) Electrodes, which are exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr, shall be discarded or baked to remove any absorbed moisture for the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer. After baking and before the electrodes are allowed to cool below 225°F (105°C), they shall be transferred immediately into holding ovens at 225°F to 350°F (105°C to 175°C). When the once ‐ baked electrodes are removed from elevated storage, they may be exposed to the atmosphere for an additional 8 hr after which they shall be discarded. (6) The weld area plus a band around the repair area of at least 1 1/2 times the containment thickness or 5 in. (125 mm), whichever is less, shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350°F (175°C) during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450°F (230°C). Thermocouples and recording instruments shall be used to monitor the process temperatures. Their removal shall be in accordance with WC-4435(b). 3 (7) The cavity shall be buttered, using a /3 2 in. (2 . 5 mm) diameter e lectro de as s ho wn i n Figure WC-4622.10(c)(7)-1. The weld bead crown surface shall be removed by grinding or machining before depositing the second layer [see Figure WC-4622.10(c)(7)-1, Step 2 ] . The second layer shall be deposited with a 1/8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers shall be d e p o s i te d w i th a w e l d i n g e l e c tr o d e n o l a r g e r than 5/3 2 in. (4 mm) diameter. Bead deposition shall b e p e r fo r m e d i n a m a n n e r s h o w n i n F i g u r e WC-4622.10(c)(7)-1, Step 3. The completed weld shall have at least one layer of weld reinforcement deposited and then this reinforcement shall be removed by mechancial means, making the finished surface of the repair substantially flush with the surface of the vessel surrounding the repair [Figure WC-4622.10(c)(7)-2] . The technique described in this paragraph shall be performed in the procedure qualification test. (8) The weld area shall be maintained at a temperature of 450°F to 550°F (230°C to 290°C) for a minimum period of 2 hr after completion of the weld repair in P ‐ No. 1 materials. For P ‐ No. 3 materials, the holding time shall be a minimum of 4 hr. (d) Examination of Repair Welds. The second (temper bead) layer shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. The completed weld shall have the weld reinforcement, including the final layer,
removed substantially flush with the surface prior to performing the required nondestructive examination. The nondestructive examination shall be performed after the completed weld has been at ambient temperature for a minimum period of 48 hr to detect the presence of possible delayed cracking of the weldment. The nondestructive examination of the repair welded and preheated region shall be in accordance with WC-4453.4. In addition, all repairs shall be ultrasonically examined. All nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with Article WC-5000. (e) Documentation of Weld Repairs. Documentation of weld repairs shall be in accordance with WC-4130, exclusive of the size requirements. (f) Welding Procedure Qualification Test Plate. The test assembly materials for the welding procedure qualification shall be of the same P ‐ Number and Group Number, including a postweld heat treatment that is at least equivalent to the time and temperature applied to the materials being repaired. The depth of cavity in the test assembly shall be a minimum of one ‐ half the depth of actual repair, but not less than 1 in. (25 mm). The test assembly thickness shall be a minimum of twice the depth of cavity in the test assembly. The test assembly shall be large enough to permit removal of the required test specimens. In order to simulate the restraint that the weld metal will experience in the repair section of the component, the test assembly dimensions surrounding the cavity shall be equal to the test assembly thickness, but not less than 6 in. (150 mm). The qualification test plate shall be prepared in accordance with Figure WC-4622.10(f)-1. (g) This test assembly may be used to qualify procedures for weld buildup repairs of pressure-retaining materials. In this case, the depth of the cavity shall not be less than the thickness of the weld buildup or 1 in. (25 mm), whichever is greater, and the area of the weld buildup to be applied or 54 in. 2 (35 000 mm 2 ), whichever is less. (h) In all cases, the test assembly and cavity shall be of sufficient size to permit removal of the required test specimens. (i) Performance Qualifications. If the repair weld is to be performed where physical obstructions impair the welder’ s ability to perform, the welder shall also demonstrate the ability to deposit sound weld metal in the positions required, using the same parameters and simulated physical obstructions as are involved in the repair.
WC-4622.11 Repair Welds to Cladding After Final Postweld Heat Treatment. Nonpostweld heat-treated weld repairs may be made to P ‐ No. 8 or P ‐ No. 43 cladding of P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 material after final PWHT, provided it is impossible or impractical to postweld heat treat the area after repair, and provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met: (a) Maximum Extent of Repair. This procedure may be used with the base material exposed to a depth not greater than 1/4 in. (6 mm) or 1 0% of the base material 193
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WC-4622.10(c)(7)-1 Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement
Step 1 : Butter cavity with one layer of weld metal using 3 / in. (2.5 mm) diameter coated electrode. 32
Step 2: Remove the weld bead crown of the first layer of grinding.
Reinforcement weld Temper bead layer
Step 3: The second layer shall be deposited with a 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers shall be deposited with welding electrodes no larger than 5 /32 in. (4 mm) maximum diameter. Bead deposition shall be performed in the manner as shown. Particular care shall be taken in the application of the temper bead reinforcement weld at the tie-in points as well as its removal to ensure that the heat-affected zone of the base metal and the deposited weld metal is tempered and the resulting surface is substantially flush.
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(5) The weld area plus a band around the clad repair of 1 1/2 times the component thickness or 5 in. (125 mm), whichever is less, shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350°F (175°C) during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450°F (230°C). Thermocouples and recording instruments shall be used to monitor the process temperatures. Their removal shall be in accordance with WC-4435. (6) All areas of the base material on which weld metal is to be deposited shall be covered with a single layer of weld deposit using 3/32 in. (2.5 mm) diameter electrode, followed by a minimum of one layer of weld deposit using 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers may be deposited with electrode no larger than 5/32 in. (4 mm). The weld bead crown surface of the first layer shall be removed by grinding. (7) After completion of welding, the weld area shall be maintained at a temperature of 45 0°F to 5 5 0 °F (230°C to 290°C) for a period of 2 hr for P No. 1 material and 4 hr for P No. 3 material. (c) Exam in ation of Repair Welds. The weld repair as well as the preheated band shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method. All nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with Article WC-5000. (d) Documentation of Weld Repairs. Documentation of weld repairs shall be in accordance with WC-4130, exclusive of the size requirements.
Figure WC-4622.10(c)(7)-2 Temper Bead Reinforcement
NOTE: (1) Apply temper bead reinforcement weld metal to a level above the surface and then remove it substantially flush to the surface as required by WC-4622.10(c)(7).
thickness, whichever is less, nor to an individual area greater than 100 in. 2 (65 000 mm 2 ). Areas with greater base material exposure depth shall be repaired in accordance with WC-4622.10 to within this limit before implementing the cladding repair. (b) Repair Welding Procedure . The welding procedure shall be in accordance with Section IX and this Article, and shall include the requirements of (1) through (7) below. (1 ) The repairs shall be made using A No. 8 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-442) for P No. 8 cladding or F No. 43 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-432) for either P No. 8 or P No. 43 cladding. (2) The manual shielded metal arc process shall be used for welding with a bead width not to exceed four times the electrode core diameter. (3) All covered electrodes used for qualification test and repair welding shall be from unopened, hermetically sealed packages or heated ovens maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes withdrawn from hermetically sealed containers or ovens for longer than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (4) During the repair, the electrodes may be maintained in heated ovens in the repair area. The oven temperature shall be maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded.






(e) Welding Procedure Qualification Test Plate

(1 ) The test assembly material for the welding procedure qualification test shall be of the same P Number and Group Number, including a postweld heat treatment that is at least equivalent to the time and temperature of that applied to the material being repaired. If the repair involves two different P Number or Group Number materials, the test assembly shall duplicate the combination. (2) The test assembly base material shall be at least 12 in. (3 00 mm) by 12 in. (3 00 mm) , 2 in. (5 0 mm) min. thickness, with a clad surface area of at least 8 in. (200 mm) by 8 in. (200 mm), in the area from which the bend test specimens will be removed. (3) The qualification test plate assembly shall be prepared and tested in accordance with the requirements of Section IX. The guided bend test acceptance standards described in Section IX for cladding shall also be applicable to the HAZ of the base material. (f) Performance Qualifications. If the repair weld is to be performed where physical obstructions impair the welder s ability to perform, the welder shall also demonstrate the ability to deposit sound weld metal in the positions required, using the same parameters and simulated physical obstructions as are involved in the repair. ‐


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Figure WC-4622.10(f)-1 Qualification Test Plate Discard Side bend
specimen
Reduced section
specimen
Side bend
specimen
Plan view
Charpy
V – Notch (HAZ)
Charpy
V – Notch (HAZ)
Charpy
V – Notch (HAZ)
Side bend
specimen
Reduced section
specimen
Side bend
specimen Charpy V – Notch (HAZ) 1 /8 in. 1 /32 in. (3 mm
Fusion line
Elevation view
3 /8 in. (1 0 mm)
30 deg (max.)
1 /2 in. (1 3 mm)
min.
Weld metal
Heat-affected zone
196
0.8 mm)
WC-4622.1 0(f)
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-4622.12 Temper Bead Weld Repair to Dissimilar Metal Welds or Buttering. Whenever PWHT is impractical or impossible, limited weld repairs to dissimilar metal welds of P ‐ No. 1 and P ‐ No. 3 material or weld filler metal A‐ No. 8 (Section IX, Table QW-442) or F‐ No. 43 (Section IX, Table QW-432) may be made without PWHT or after the final PWHT provided the requirements of the following subparagraphs are met: (a) Examination of Area to Be Repaired. Before repair, the area shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method in accordance with Article WC-5000. (b) Maxim um Exten t of Repair. Repairs made to this paragraph are limited to those along the fusion line of a nonferritic weld to ferritic base material where 1/8 in. (3 mm) or less of nonferritic weld deposit exists above the original fusion line after defect removal. If the defect penetrates into the ferritic base material, repair of the base material may be performed in accordance with WC-4622.12 provided the depth of repair in the base material does not exceed 3/8 in. (10 mm). The repairs to a completed joint shall not exceed one ‐ half the joint thickness. The surface of the completed repair shall not exceed 100 in. 2 (65 000 mm 2 ). (c) Repair Welding Procedure . The welding procedure and welder qualification shall meet all of the requirements of Section IX and the additional requirements of this Article. In addition, the Welding Procedure Specification shall include the following requirements: (1 ) The area to be repaired shall be suitably prepared for welding in accordance with the written procedure to be used for the repair. (2) The weld metal shall be deposited by the shielded metal arc welding process (SMAW) using A‐ No. 8 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-442) for P ‐ No. 8 to P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 weld joints or F ‐ No. 43 weld metal (Section IX, Table QW-43 2 ) for either P ‐ No. 8 or P ‐ No. 43 to P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 weld joints. The maximum bead width shall be four times the electrode core diameter. (3) All covered electrodes used for qualification test and repair welding shall be from unopened, hermetically sealed packages or heated ovens maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes withdrawn from hermetically sealed containers or ovens for longer than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (4) During the repair, the electrode may be maintained in heated ovens in the repair area. The oven temperature shall be maintained between 225°F (105°C) and 350°F (175°C). Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr shall be discarded, or baked once at the time and temperature recommended by the electrode
manufacturer and placed immediately back into the holding ovens. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for more than 8 hr after once being baked shall be discarded. (5) The weld area plus a band around the weld repair of 1 1/2 times the component thickness or 5 in. (125 mm), whichever is less, shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350°F (175°C) during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450°F (230°C). Thermocouples and recording instruments shall be used to monitor the metal temperature during welding. Their removal shall be in accordance with WC-4435. (6) All areas of the ferritic base material, exposed or not, on which weld metal is to be deposited, shall be covered with a single layer of weld deposit using 3/3 2 in. (2.5 mm) diameter electrode. The weld bead crown surface shall be removed by grinding before depositing the second layer. The second layer shall be deposited with 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layers may be deposited with 5/32 in. (4 mm)maximum diameter electrode. The techniques described in this paragraph shall be duplicated in the procedure qualification. [see Figure WC-4622.12(c)(6)-1]. 3 (7) After at least /1 6 in. (5 mm) of weld metal has been deposited, the preheated area as defined in (5) ab o ve s hal l b e mai ntained in the range o f 45 0 ° F to 550°F (230°C to 290°C) for 4 hr as a minimum. (8) Subsequent to the above heat treatment, the balance of the welding may be performed at a minimum preheat temperature of 100°F (38°C) and at a maximum interpass temperature of 350°F (175°C). (d) Examination of Repair Areas (1 ) After the heat treatment specified
in (c)(7) above has been completed, the repaired area shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method. (2) The repaired area and the preheated band as defined in (c)(5) above shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method after the completed weld has been at ambient temperature for a minimum of 48 hr. The repaired region shall be examined by the radiographic method and, if practical, by the ultrasonic method. (3) For repairs to partial penetration welds, the radiographic and ultrasonic examinations specified in (2) above need not be performed, if meaningful results cannot be obtained. For these cases, liquid penetrant examination only shall be performed. For weld repair depths approximately 3/16 in. (5 mm), liquid penetrant examination shall be performed at the time specified in (2) above. For weld repair depths greater than 3/1 6 in. (5 mm), liquid penetrant examination shall be performed after approximately 3/16 in. (5 mm) thickness has been deposited and the post heat specified in (c)(7) above has been completed. Additional incremental deposit thicknesses shall be liquid penetrant examined in accordance with WC-5245. The final weld surface shall be liquid penetrant examined at the time specified in (2) above. (4) All nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with Article WC-5000. 197
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Figure WC-4622.12(c)(6)-1 Temper Bead Weld Repair and Weld Temper Bead Reinforcement of Dissimilar Metal Welds or Buttering 3 /8 in. (1 0 mm) maximum axial depth into the original base material for
repair to WC-4622.1 2. Greater depths shall be repaired to WC-4622.9 to the 3 /8 in. (1 0 mm) level before implementing the WC-4622.1 2 repair.
1 /2 T max.
depth
Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Step 1 : Prepare cavity and determine axial depth into ferritic base material.
Step 2: Butter cavity with one layer of weld metal using 3 /32 in. (2.5 mm) diameter coated electrode. Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Step 3: Remove the weld bead crown of the first layer by grinding. Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Reinforcement weld Temper bead layer
Nonferritic base material
Ferritic base material
Step 4: The second layer shall be deposited with a 1 /8 in. (3 mm) diameter electrode. Subsequent layer shall be deposited with welding electrodes no larger than 5 /32 in. (4 mm) diameter. Bead deposition shall be performed in the manner as shown. Particular care shall be taken in the application of the temper bead reinforcement weld at the tie-in point with the ferritic material as well as its removal to ensure that the base metal and the deposited weld metal are tempered and the resulting surface is substantially flush.
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(e) Documentation of Weld Repairs. Documentation of weld repairs shall be in accordance with WC-4130, exclusive of the size requirements. (f) Welding Procedure Qualification Test Plate. The test assembly materials for the welding procedure qualification shall be of the same P Number and Group Number, including a postweld heat treatment that is at least equivalent to the time and temperature applied to the materials being repaired. The depth of cavity in the test assembly shall be a minimum of one half the depth of actual repair but not less than 1 in. (25 mm). The test assembly thickness shall be a minimum of twice the depth of cavity in the test assembly. The test assembly shall be large enough to permit removal of the required test specimens. In order to simulate the restraint that the weld metal will experience in the repaired section of the containment, the test assembly dimensions surrounding the cavity shall be equal to the test assembly thickness, but not less than 6 in. (150 mm). The qualification test plate shall be prepared in accordance with Figure WC-4622.10(f)-1. (g) Performance Qualifications. If the repair weld is to be performed where physical constructions impair the welder s ability to perform, the welder shall also demonstrate the ability to deposit sound weld metal in the positions required, using the same parameters and simulated physical obstructions as are involved in the repair.
item outside the furnace shall be shielded so that the temperature gradient is not harmful. The cross section where the item projects from the furnace shall not intersect a nozzle or other structural discontinuity. Welds may be locally postweld heat treated when it is not practical to heat treat the entire item. Local postweld heat treatment shall consist of heating a circumferential band around the item at temperatures within the ranges specified in this subarticle. The minimum width of the controlled band at each side of the weld, on the face of the greatest weld width, shall be the thickness of the weld or 2 in. (50 mm), whichever is less. The temperature of the item from the edge of the controlled band outward shall be gradually diminished so as to avoid harmful thermal gradients. This procedure may also be used for postweld heat treatment after repairs. W C - 4 6 24 . 3


The item may be heated internally by any appropriate means and with adequate indicating and recording temperature devices to aid in the control and maintenance of a uniform distribution of temperature in the item. Previous to this operation, the item should be fully enclosed with insulating material. W C - 4 6 24 . 4

WC-46 30 WC-462 3
PWH T H eati n g an d Cooli n g Rate
The holding temperature, the time at temperature, the heating rate, and the cooling rate need not conform to the requirements of this Article for heat treatments other than the final postweld heat treatment.
WC-4700
M eth od s of Postweld H eat Treatm en t
The postweld heat treatment shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of one of the following subparagraphs. Heating the component or item in a closed furnace in one heat is the preferred procedure and should be used whenever practical. The furnace atmosphere shall be controlled so as to avoid excessive oxidation, and direct impingement of flame on the item is prohibited. W C - 4 6 24 . 2
Fu rn ace H eati n g

F u rn a c e H e a t i n g
H EAT TREATM EN T OF WELDS OTH ER
TREATM EN T
Above 800°F (425°C), the rate of heating and cooling in any hourly interval shall not exceed 400°F (220°C) divided by the maximum thickness in inches (millimeters) of the material being heat treated, but shall not exceed 400°F (220°C) and need not be less than 100°F (56°C) in any hourly interval. During the heating and cooling period there shall not be a greater variation in temperature than 250°F (140°C) within any 15 ft (4.5 m) interval of weld length.
WC- 4624. 1
H e ati n g C o m p o n e n ts I n te rn ally.
TH AN TH E FI N AL POSTWELD H EAT
Req u i rem en ts
WC-4624
L o cal H e at i n g .
M ECH AN I CAL J OI N TS
WC-4710
BO LTI N G AN D TH READI N G
WC-4711
Th read En g ag em en t
The threads of all bolts or studs shall be engaged in accordance with the design.
O n e H eat.

WC-4712
Th read Lu bri can ts
Any lubricant or compound used in threaded joints shall be suitable for the service conditions and shall not react unfavorably with either the service fluid or any component material in the system.
M o re T h a n O n e
The component or item may be heated in more than one heat in a furnace, provided the furnace atmosphere control requirements of WC-4624.1 apply and that overlap of the heated sections of the item is at least 5 ft (1.5 m). When this procedure is used, the portion of the H eat.
WC-4713
Rem oval of Th read Lu bri can ts
All threading lubricants or compounds shall be removed from surfaces which are to be seal welded. 199
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WC- 472 0
design principles applicable to the type of gasket used. All flanged j oints shall be made up with relatively uniform bolt stress.
BOLTI N G FLAN G ED J OI N TS
In bolting gasketed flanged joints, the contact faces of the flanges shall bear uniformly on the gasket and the gasket shall be properly compressed in accordance with the
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ARTI CLE WC-5 000 EXAM I N ATI ON
WC-5100
WC-5113
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FOR
WC-5110
PROCEDU RES, QU ALI FI CATI ON S, AN D EVALU ATI ON
WC-5111
G en eral Req u i rem en ts WC-512 0
Nondestructive examinations shall be conducted in accordance with the examination methods of Section V, except as they may be modified by the requirements of this Article. Radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Section V, Article 2, except that fluorescent screens are not permitted for film radiography, the geometric unsharpness shall not exceed the limits of Section V, Article 2, T-274.2, and the image quality indicators (IQIs) of Table WC-5111-1 shall be used in lieu of those shown in Section V, Article 2, Table T-276. The requirements for the retention of electronic and digital radiographic images are the same as that for radiographic film. Ultrasonic examination shall be in accordance with Section V, Article 4; magnetic particle examination shall be in accordance with Section V, Article 7; and liquid penetrant examination shall be in accordance with Section V, Article 6. The examinations required by this Article, or by reference to this Article, shall be performed by personnel who have been qualified as required by this Article. The results of the examinations shall be evaluated in accordance with the acceptance standards of this Article.
WC-5112
Post-Exam i n ati on Clean i n g
Following any nondestructive examination in which examination materials are applied to the piece, the piece shall be thoroughly cleaned in accordance with applicable material or procedure specifications.
EXAM I N ATI ON
TI M E OF EXAM I N ATI ON OF WELDS AN D WELD M ETAL CLADDI N G
Acceptance examinations of welds and weld metal cladding required by WC-5200 shall be performed at the times stipulated in (a) through (g) below during fabrication and installation. (a) Radiographic examination of welds shall be performed after an intermediate 1 2 or final postweld heat treatment, when required, except radiographic examination of welds in containments fabricated of P ‐ No. 1 or P ‐ No. 3 materials may be performed prior to an intermediate or final postweld heat treatment, provided the welds are ultrasonically examined after an intermediate or final postweld heat treatment. The ultrasonic examination and acceptance standards shall be in accordance with this Article. (b) Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examinations of welds shall be performed after any required postweld heat treatment, except that welds in P ‐ No. 1 material may be examined either before or after postweld heat treatment. The magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of welds at progressive stages of welding, as required in WC-5245, may be performed before PWHT. (c) All dissimilar metal weld joints, such as in austenitic or high nickel to ferritic material, or using austenitic or high nickel alloy filler metal to join ferritic materials which penetrate the wall, shall be examined after final postweld heat treatment. (d) The magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of weld surfaces that are to be covered with weld metal cladding shall be performed before the weld metal cladding is deposited. The magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination of weld surfaces that are not accessible after a postweld heat treatment shall be performed prior to the operation which caused this inaccessibility. These examinations may be performed before PWHT. (e) Weld metal cladding shall be examined after either an intermediate 12 or final postweld heat treatment, except the examination of weld metal cladding on P ‐ Nos. 1 and 3 materials may be performed before or after the intermediate 12 or final postweld heat treatment.
N on d estru cti ve Exam i n ati on Proced u res
All nondestructive examinations required by this Article shall be performed in accordance with detailed written procedures which have been proven by actual demonstration to the satisfaction of the Inspector. The procedures shall comply with the appropriate Article of Section V for the particular examination method. The digitization of radiographic film and radioscopic images shall meet the requirements of Section V, Article 2, Mandatory Appendix III, “ Digital Image Acquisition, Display, and Storage for Radiography and Radioscopy.” Written procedures and records of demonstration of procedure capability and personnel qualification shall be made available to the Inspector on request. At least one copy of the procedure shall be readily available to all applicable nondestructive examination personnel for reference and use. 201
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Table WC-5111-1 Th i ckn ess, I QI Desi g n ati on s, Essen ti al H oles, an d Wi re Di am eters
U.S. Customary Units Single Wall Material Thickness Range, in. Up to 0.25 incl. Over 1/4– 3/8 Over 3/8 – 1/2 Over 1/2 – 5/8 Over 5/8 – 3/4 Over 3/4– 1 Over Over Over Over Over Over
1 – 1 1/4 1 1/4– 1 1/2 1 1/2 – 2 2 – 2 1/2 2 1/2 – 3 3 –4
Over Over Over Over Over Over
4–6 6 –8 8 – 10 10 – 12 12 – 16 16 – 20
IQI(s)
— Hole or Wire Type [Note (1)]
Source Side Essential Hole
Radiograph Side
Designation
Hole Size
Required Wire Diameter IQI
Designation
Hole Size
5 7 10 12 15 20
0.040 0.040 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.040
4 4 4 4 4 2
T T T T T T
0.006 0.006 0.010 0.013 0.016 0.016
5 7 10 12 12 17
0.040 0.040 0.040 0.050 0.050 0.035
4 4 4 4 4 2
T T T T T T
0.006 0.006 0.010 0.013 0.013 0.013
25 30 35 40 45 50
0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.090 0.100
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.020 0.025 0.032 0.040 0.040 0.050
17 20 25 30 35 40
0.035 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.013 0.016 0.020 0.025 0.032 0.040
60 80 100 120 160 200
0.120 0.160 0.200 0.240 0.320 0.400
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.063 0.100 0.126 0.160 0.250 0.320
45 50 60 80 100 120
0.090 0.100 0.120 0.160 0.200 0.240
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.040 0.050 0.063 0.100 0.126 0.160

Essential Hole
Required Wire Diameter IQI

SI Units Single Wall Material Thickness Range, mm
IQI(s)
— Hole or Wire Type [Note (1)]
Source Side Essential Hole
Radiograph Side
Designation
Hole Size
Required Wire Diameter IQI
Designation
Hole Size
Up to 6 incl. Over 6 – 10 Over 10 – 13 Over 13 – 16 Over 16 – 19 Over 19 – 25
5 7 10 12 15 20
1.02 1.02 1.02 1.27 1.52 1.02
4 4 4 4 4 2
T T T T T T
0.15 0.15 0.25 0.33 0.41 0.41
5 7 10 12 12 17
1.02 1.02 1.02 1.27 1.27 0.89
4 4 4 4 4 2
T T T T T T
0.15 0.15 0.25 0.33 0.33 0.33
Over Over Over Over Over Over
25 – 32 32 – 38 38 – 50 50 – 64 64 – 75 75 – 100
25 30 35 40 45 50
1.27 1.52 1.78 2.03 2.29 2.54
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.51 0.64 0.81 1.02 1.02 1.27
17 20 25 30 35 40
0.89 1.02 1.27 1.52 1.78 2.03
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
0.33 0.41 0.51 0.64 0.81 1.02
Over Over Over Over Over Over
100 – 150 150 – 200 200 – 250 250 – 300 300 – 400 400 – 500
60 80 100 120 160 200
3.05 4.06 5.08 6.10 8.13 10.16
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
1.60 2.54 3.20 4.06 6.35 8.13
45 50 60 80 100 120
2.29 2.54 3.05 4.06 5.08 6.10
2 2 2 2 2 2
T T T T T T
1.02 1.27 1.60 2.54 3.20 4.06

Essential Hole
Required Wire Diameter IQI

NOTE: (1) Hole (plaque) type IQIs may be used on flat plates and on objects with geometries such that the IQI hole image is not distorted.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(f) All of the joints in austenitic stainless steel and nonferrous material shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method after an intermediate or final postweld heat treatment, if any, is performed. (g) Ultrasonic examination of electroslag welds in ferritic materials shall be performed after a grain refining heat treatment, when performed, or after final postweld heat treatment. WC-5130
WC-52 00
WELDS WC-52 10
CATEG ORY A LON G I TU DI N AL WELDED J OI N TS
Category A longitudinal welded joints shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. WC-52 2 0
EXAM I N ATI ON OF WELD EDG E
CATEG ORY B CI RCU M FEREN TI AL WELDED J OI N TS
PREPARATI O N SU RFACES
Category B welded j oints shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method.
All full penetration weld edge preparation surfaces for joint Categories A, B, C, D, and similar joints in material 2 in. (50 mm) or more in thickness shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. Indications shall be evaluated in accordance with the acceptance standards of (a), (b), and (c) below. (a) Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1/1 6 in. (1 .5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Laminar‐ type imperfections are acceptable without repair if they do not exceed 1 in. (25 mm) in length. The extent of all laminar‐ type imperfections exceeding 1 in. (25 mm) in length shall be determined by ultrasonic examination. Imperfections exceeding 1 in. (25 mm) in length shall be repaired by welding to a depth of 3/8 in. (10 mm) or the depth of the imperfection, whichever is less, unless the ultrasonic examination reveals that additional depth of repair is required to meet the ultrasonic examination requirement for the product form. (c) Indications of nonlaminar imperfections of (1 ) through (3) below are unacceptable: (1 ) any linear indications greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm) long; (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm); (3) four or more indications, in a line separated by 1 /16 in. (1.5 mm) or less, edge to edge. (d) Weld repairs made to weld edge preparations for Category A, B, C, D, or similar type welds shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method before the surfaces become inaccessible. The examination may b e p erfo rmed b efo re o r after p o s twel d heat treatment. WC-5140
REQU I RED EXAM I N ATI ON OF
WC-52 3 0
CATEG ORY C WELDED J OI N TS
WC-52 3 1
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
Except for welds that meet the requirements o f WC-3262 all Category C welded joints shall meet the following requirements: (a) Category C Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 full penetration butt-welded joints shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. (b) Category C Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 full penetration corner-welded joints shall be ultrasonically or radiographically examined and either liquid penetrant or magnetic particle examined. (c) Category C Type No. 2 full penetration cornerwelded joints similar to Figure WC-4265-1 sketches (c), (d), and (f) also require the fusion zone and the parent metal beneath the attachment surface to be ultrasonically examined after welding to verify freedom from lack of fusion and laminar defects. (d) Category C partial penetration and fillet welded joints shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method on all accessible surfaces. WC-5240
CATEG ORY D WELDED J O I N TS
WC-5241
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
All Category D welded joints shall be examined as stated in the following paragraphs. WC-5242
Fu ll Pen etrati on Bu tt- Weld ed N ozzles
Nozzles attached by full penetration butt-welded joints as shown in Figure WC-4266(a)-1 shall be examined by the radiographic and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method.
EXAM I N ATI ON OF ADJ ACEN T BASE M ATERI AL
When performing the surface examinations of weld joint Categories A, B, C, and D as required by WC-5200, the external and accessible internal weld surfaces and adjacent base material for at least 1/2 in. (13 mm) on each side of the weld shall be included in the examination. Acceptance standards for the weld shall be as stated in this Article, while the acceptance standards for base material shall be as stated in WC-2500.
WC-5243
Corn er-Weld ed N ozzles
Full penetration corner-welded nozzles in containments as shown in Figure WC-4266(b)-1 shall be examined b y either the ultras o nic o r the radio grap hic method, and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method. If radiographed, the weld fusion zone and 203
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
the parent metal beneath the attachment surface for details shown in Figure WC-42 66(b) -1 sketches (c) , (d) , (d- 1 ) , (e) , and (g) an d b e ne ath the wel d s u rface i n sketches (a) and (b) shall be ultrasonically examined after welding to assure freedom from lack of fusion and laminar defects.
WC- 5244
WC- 5262
Stru ctu ral Attach m en t Weld ed J oi n ts
Structural attachment welded joints made to containment material shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method.
Weld M etal Bu i ld u p at O pen i n g s for
WC- 52 70
SPECI AL WELDS AN D BRAZED J OI N TS
WC- 52 72
Weld M etal Clad d i n g
N ozzles
Weld metal cladding shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method.
When weld metal b uildup is made to a s urface as shown in Step 1 of Figure WC-4266(c)-1, the weld metal buildup and the parent metal beneath the weld metal buildup shall be ultrasonically examined. The parent material beneath the weld metal buildup shall be ultrasonically examined to detect laminar defects after weld metal buildup. Nozzles may then be attached by a full penetration weld as shown in Step 2 of Figure WC-4266(c)-1. The full penetration butt-welded joint shall be examined by either the ultrasonic or radiographic method, and either the liquid penetrant or magnetic particle method and the weld metal buildup shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or liquid-penetrant method.
WC- 5245
WC- 52 73
Hard surfacing weld metal shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method in accordance with WC-2546, and the acceptance standards applicable to materials less than 5 /8 in. (16 mm) thick shall apply.
WC- 52 75
Brazed J oi n ts
Flux and flux residue shall be removed from all surfaces prior to examination. Joints shall be visually examined on all accessible surfaces to determine whether there has been adequate flow of brazing metal through the j oint. Optical aids may be employed for indirect visual examination of joints which cannot be directly examined.
Oth er Weld ed J oi n ts
O the r we l de d j o i nts , as s ho wn i n Fi gure s WC-4266(d)-1 and WC-4266(e)-1 , shall be examined progressively using either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant methods. The increments of examination shall be the lesser of one ‐ half of the maximum welded joint dimension measured parallel to the center line of the connection or 1/2 in. (1 3 mm) . The surface of the finished welded joint shall also be examined by either method.
WC- 52 50
H ard Su rfaci n g
WC- 52 77
Electron Beam Weld s
In addition to the requirements for the type of weld being examined, all complete penetration welds made by the electron beam welding process shall be ultrasonically examined.
EXAM I N ATI ON OF CON TAI N M EN T CLOSU RE WELDS
Containment closure welds meeting the requirements of WC-3 2 62 shall be examined in accordance with (a) below:
WC- 52 79
Except for those closure welds addressed in WC-5250, when the joint detail, or environmental conditions (e.g., background radiation), does not permit radiographic examinatio n to b e p erfo rmed in acco rdance with this Article, ultrasonic examination plus liquid penetrant or magnetic particle examination of the completed weld may be substituted for the radiographic examination. The absence of suitable radiographic equipment shall not be justification for such substitution. The substitution of ultrasonic examination can be made, provided the examination is performed using a detailed written procedure which has been proven by actual demonstration to the satisfaction of the Inspector as capable of detecting an d l o cati n g d e fe cts d e s cri b e d i n th i s Arti cl e . T h e nondestructive examination shall be in accordance with WC - 5 1 1 0 a n d m e e t th e a c c e p ta n c e s ta n d a r d s o f WC-5300.
(a) Full and partial penetration welds shall be exami ned in acco rdan ce wi th the re qui re me nts o f Tab le WC-3 2 62 -1 . Acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with WC-5340 or WC-5350.
WC- 5260
FI LLET, PARTI AL PEN ETRATI ON , SOCKET, AN D ATTACH M EN T WELDED J OI N TS
WC- 5261
Speci al Excepti on s
Fi llet, Parti al Pen etrati on , an d Socket Weld ed J oi n ts
Fillet and partial penetration welded joints, except for nonstructural attachments and socket welds shall be examined b y the magnetic particle o r liquid penetrant method. 204
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC-5300 WC-532 0
(b) Indications characterized as cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length.
ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS RADI OG RAPH I C ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and characterized as imperfections are unacceptable under the following conditions: (a) any indication characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; (b) any indication characterized as incomplete penetration or incomplete fusion, except that such indications in welds between P ‐ 8 metals that were made using GTAW or SMAW in which the deposit analysis is A‐ 8 or A‐ 9 are acceptable provided they do not exceed the length in (c) . (c) any other elongated indication which has a length greater than: 1 3 (1 ) /4 in. (6 mm) for t up to /4 in. (19 mm), inclusive 1 3 1 (2) /3 t for t from /4 in. to 2 /4 in. (19 mm to 57 mm), inclusive 3 1 (3) /4 in. (19 mm) for t over 2 /4 in. (57 mm)
M AG N ETI C PARTI CLE ACCEPTAN CE
WC-5341
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s
STAN DARDS
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are revealed by the retention of the examination medium. All indications are no t necessarily defects, however, since certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce similar indications which are not relevant. (b) Any indication that is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined by the same or other nondestructive examination methods to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. After an indication has been verified to b e no nrel evant, i t is no t n eces s ary to re inve s tigate repetitive nonrelevant indications of the same type. Nonr e l e va n t i n d i c a ti o n s th a t wo u l d m a s k d e fe c ts a re unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are indications which result from imperfections. Linear indications are indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than three times the width.
where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld; (d) internal root weld conditions are acceptable when the density change or image brightness difference as indicated in the radiograph is not abrupt; elongated indicati o n s o n th e ra d i o gra p h a t e i th e r e d ge o f s u c h co nditio ns s hall b e unaccep tab le, as p ro vided in (c) above; (e) any group of aligned indications having an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t , unless the minimum distance between successive indications exceeds 6 L , in which case the aggregate length is unlimited, L being the length of the largest indication; (f) rounded indications in excess of that shown as acceptable in Section III Appendices, Mandatory Appendix VI. WC-5330
WC-5340
WC-5342
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following indications are unacceptable: (1 ) any cracks and linear indications; (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm); (3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; 2 (4) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
U LTRASO N I C ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
All imperfections which produce a response greater than 2 0% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the operator can determine the shape, identity, and location of all such imperfections and evaluate them in terms of the acceptance standards given in (a) and (b) below. (a) Imperfections are unacceptable if the indications exceed the reference level amplitude and have lengths exceeding: 1 3 (1 ) /4 in. (6 mm) for t up to /4 in. (19 mm), inclusive 1 3 1 (2) /3 t for t from /4 in. to 2 /4 in. (19 mm to 57 mm), inclusive 3 1 (3) /4 in. (19 mm) for t over 2 /4 in. (57 mm)
WC-5350
LI QU I D PEN ETRAN T ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS
WC-5351
Evalu ati on of I n d i cati on s
(a) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface are revealed by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, localized s urface dis continuities, such as may occur fro m machining marks, surface conditions, or an incomplete bond between base metal and cladding, may produce similar indications which are nonrelevant.
where t is the thickness of the weld being examined; if a weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. 205
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
(b) Any indication which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas o f p i gm e n ta ti o n wh i c h wo u l d m a s k d e fe c ts a re unacceptable. (c) Relevant indications are indications which result from imperfections. Linear indications are indications in which the length is more than 3 times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length equal to or less than 3 times the width.
WC- 53 52
WC-5500
CERTI FI CATI ON OF N ON DESTRU CTI VE EXAM I N ATI ON PERSON N EL WC- 5510
Acceptan ce Stan d ard s
WC- 552 0
WC- 552 1
Qu ali fi cati on Proced u re
(a) Personnel performing nondestructive examinations shall be qualified in accordance with the recommended guidelines of SNT TC 1A. 13, 14 The ACCP Level II and III provisions for qualification and certification and the ASNT administered Level II certification provision for qualification and certification of NDE Personnel shall not be used for Section III. The Employer s 15 written practice, required by paragraph 5 of SNT TC 1A, shall identify the requirements relative to the recommended guidelines. The recommended guidelines of SNT TC 1A shall be considered as minimum requirements, except as modified in (1) through (5) below. (1 ) Qualification of Level III nondestructive examination personnel shall be by examination. (-a) The basic and method examinations, paragraphs 8.8.1 and 8.8.2 of SNT TC 1A, may be prepared and administered by Employer, 15 ASNT, or an outside agency. (-b) The specific examination, paragraph 8.8.3 of SNT TC 1A, shall be prepared and administered by the Employer or an outside agency. The Employer or outside agency administering the specific examination shall identify the minimum grade requirement in the written program when the basic and method examinations have been administered by ASNT, which issues grades on a pass/fail basis. In this case, the minimum grade for the specific examination may not be less than 80%. (2) The written practice identified in paragraph 5 of SNT TC 1A and the procedures used for examination of personnel shall be referenced in the Employer s Quality Program. (3) The number of hours of training and experience for nondestructive examination personnel who perform only one operation of a nondestructive examination method that consists of more than one operation, or perform nondestructive examination of limited scope, may ‐





VI SU AL ACCEPTAN CE STAN DARDS

Braze metal shall give evidence of having flowed uniformly through a joint by the appearance of an uninterrupted, narrow visible line of brazing alloy at the end of the joint.
FI N AL EXAM I N ATI ON OF CON TAI N M EN TS
WC- 5410
PERSON N EL QU ALI FI CATI ON , CERTI FI CATI ON , AN D VERI FI CATI ON
FOR BRAZED J OI N TS
WC-5400
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
Organizations performing Code required nondestructive examinations shall use personnel competent and knowledgeable to the degree specified by WC-5 52 0. When these services are subcontracted by the Certificate Holder or Quality System Certificate Holder, he shall verify the qualification of personnel to the requirements of WC-5520. All nondestructive examinations required by this Subsection shall be performed by and the results evaluated by qualified nondestructive examination personnel.
(a) Only imperfections producing indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) shall be considered relevant imperfections. (b) Imperfections producing the following indications are unacceptable: (1 ) any cracks or linear indications; (2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm); (3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) or less edge to edge; (4) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 in. 2 (4 000 mm 2 ) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
WC- 53 60
QU ALI FI CATI ON S AN D
EXAM I N ATI ON AFTER PRESSU RE TEST
After the hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure test of a containment, all weld joints and heat-affected zones of Categories A, B, C, and D, used to join ferritic material and repair welds in ferritic material that exceed in depth either 3/8 in. (10 mm) or 10% of the section thickness, whichever is less, shall be examined when physically accessible by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method.







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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
be less than that recommended in Table 6.3.1 A of SNT TC 1A. The time of training and experience shall be described in the written practice, and any limitations or restrictions placed on the certification shall be described in the written practice and on the certificate. The minimum classroom training times for visual examination personnel identified in Table 6.3.1 A of SNTTC-1A for Level II certification may be reduced from 16 hr to 8 hr. (4) For the near-vision acuity examination, the Jaeger Number 1 letters shall be used in lieu of the Jaeger Number 2 letters specified in paragraph 8.2.1 of SNT TC 1A. The use of equivalent type and size letters is permitted. (5) An NDE Level I individual shall be qualified to properly perform specific setups, specific calibrations, specific NDE, and specific evaluations for acceptance or rejection determinations according to written instructions, and to record results. The NDE Level I individual shall receive the necessary instruction and supervision from a certified NDE Level II or Level III individual. A Level I individual may independently accept the results of nondestructive examinations when the specific acceptance criteria are defined in the written instructions. (b) For nondestructive examination methods not covered by SNT TC 1A documents, personnel shall be qualified to comparable levels of competency by subjection to comparable examinations on the particular method involved. (c) The emphasis shall be on the individual s ability to perform the nondestructive examination in accordance wi th th e a p p l i ca b l e p ro c e d u r e fo r th e i n te n d e d application. (d) For nondestructive examination methods that consist of more than one operation or type, it is permissible to use personnel qualified to perform one or more
operations. As an example, one person may be used who is qualified to conduct radiographic examination and another may be used who is qualified to interpret and evaluate the radiographic film.




WC-5522 Certification of Personnel (a) The Employer retains responsibility for the adequacy of the program and is responsible for certification o f Levels I , I I , and I I I nondestructive examination personnel. (b) When ASNT is the outside agency administering t h e L e v e l I I I b a s i c a n d m e th o d e x a m i n a t i o n s [WC-5521(a)(1)(-a)], the Employer may use a letter from ASNT as evidence on which to base the certification. (c) When an outside agency is the examining agent for Level III qualification of the Employer s personnel, the examination results shall be included with the Employer s record.



WC-5523 Verification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel Certification The Certificate Holder has the responsibility to verify the qualification and certification of nondestructive examination personnel employed by Material Organizations and qualified by them in accordance with WA-3820 and subcontractors who provide nondestructive examination services to them.


WC-5530 RECORDS Personnel qualification records identified in paragraph 9.4 of SNT TC 1A shall be retained by the Employer. ‐
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WC-6 000 TESTI N G
WC-6100 WC- 6110
(a) nondestructive examinations, if required by the material specification, can be performed subsequent to the containment test; (b) the material can be repaired by welding in accordance with the rules of WC-4130. (c) postweld heat treatment, when required after repairs, can be performed in accordance with WC-4620.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS SCOPE
(a) This Article contains the testing requirements for storage containments constructed in accordance with this Subsection. (b) The terms test and testing as used in this Article include hydrostatic testing (WC-6200), pneumatic testing (WC-6300), and leak testing (WC-6700). WC- 6120
WC- 6124
An additional amount of material, not to exceed 10% of the wall thickness or 3/8 in. (10 mm), whichever is less, is permitted on the completed item after testing where critical dimensions and tolerances is required.
TESTI N G OF CON TAI N M EN TS
Except for closure welds meeting the requirements of WC-3262 all storage containments shall be hydrostatically (WC-6200), or pneumatically (WC-6300) pressure tested, except as permitted by WC-6710. Closure welds made after containments are loaded and meeting the requirements of WC-3262 shall be tested as required by WC-6720. WC- 6121
A pneumatic test in accordance with WC-6300 may be substituted for the hydrostatic test when permitted by the Design Specification. A pneumatic test at a pressure not to exceed 25% of the Design Pressure may be applied, prior to either a hydrostatic or a pneumatic test, as a means of locating leaks. P n e u m at i c Te s t L i m i t at i o n s .
WC- 6 1 2 1 . 2
P re cau ti o n s to B e E m p lo ye d i n Pn e u -
WC- 6130
PREPARATI ON FOR TESTI N G
WC- 6131
Exposu re of J oi n ts
All joints, including welded joints, shall be left uninsulated and exposed for examination during the test.
Pn eu m ati c Testi n g
WC- 612 1. 1
WC- 6132
WC- 6133
Compressed gaseous fluid is hazardous when used as a testing medium. Therefore, it is recommended that special precautions for protection of personnel be taken when a gaseous fluid under pressure is used as a test medium.
Expansion joints shall be provided with temporary restraints, if required, for the additional pressure load under test. WC- 6134
Wi tn essi n g of Tests
Equipment that is not to be subjected to the pressure test shall be either disconnected from the containment or isolated during the test by a blind flange or similar means. Valves may be used if the valves with their closures are suitable for the proposed test pressure.
Completed containments shall have all the testing required by this Article completed prior to initial service. The containment test may be used in lieu of any pressure test required by the material specification for material used in the containment provided Con tai n m en ts.
WC- 6123. 2
M ateri al Pressu re Test.
I solati on of Eq u i pm en t N ot Su bj ected to Testi n g
Ti m e of Testi n g
WC-612 3. 1
Restrai n t or I solati on of Expan si on J oi n ts
All testing required by this Article shall be performed in the presence of the Inspector. WC- 6123
Ad d i ti on of Tem porary Su pports
Containments designed to contain vapor or gas may be provided with additional temporary supports, if necessary, to support the weight of the test liquid when hydrostatic testing is performed.
m ati c Te sti n g .
WC- 6122
M ach i n i n g After Testi n g
WC- 6135
Treatm en t of Flan g ed J oi n ts Con tai n i n g Blan ks
Flanged joints at which blanks are inserted to isolate other equipment during the test need not be retested. 208
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WC-6136
WC-62 24
Precau ti on s Ag ai n st Test M ed i u m
Following the application of the hydrostatic test pressure for the required time (WC-6223), all joints, connections, and regions of high stress, such as regions around openings and thickness transition sections, shall be examined for leakage. This examination shall be made at a pressure equal to the greater of the Design Pressure or three ‐ fourths of the test pressure and it shall be witnessed by the Inspector. Leakage of temporary gaskets and seals, installed for the purpose of conducting the hydrostatic test and which will be replaced later, may be permitted unless the leakage exceeds the capacity to maintain test pressure for the required amount of time. Other leaks, such as those from permanent seals, seats, and gasketed joints in containments, may be permitted when specifically allowed by the Design Specification. Leakage from temporary seals or leakage permitted by the Design Specification shall be directed away from the surface of the containment to avoid masking leaks from other joints.
If a test is to be maintained for a period of time and the test medium in the system is subject to thermal expansion, precautions shall be taken to avoid excessive pressure. WC-6137
Ch eck of Test Eq u i pm en t Before Applyi n g Pressu re
The test equipment shall be examined before pressure is applied to ensure that it is tight and that all low pressure filling lines and other items that should not be subjected to the test have been disconnected or isolated.
WC-6200
H YDROSTATI C TESTS
WC-62 10
H YDROSTATI C TEST PROCEDU RE
WC-62 11
Ven ti n g Du ri n g Fi ll Operati on
The containment in which the test is to be conducted shall be vented during the filling operation to minimize air pocketing. WC-62 12
WC-6300
PN EU M ATI C TESTS
WC-6 310
PN EU M ATI C TESTI N G PROCEDU RES
WC-6 311
G en eral Req u i rem en ts
Test M ed i u m an d Test Tem peratu re
(a) Water
or an alternative liquid, as permitted by the Design Specification, shall be used for the hydrostatic test. (b) It is recommended that the test be made at a temperature that will minimize the possibility of brittle fracture (Section III Appendices, Nonmandatory Appendix G). The test pressure shall not be applied until the containment and the pressurizing fluid are at approximately the same temperature. WC-62 20
Exam i n ati on for Leakag e After Appli cati on of Pressu re
Expan si on
When a pneumatic test is performed, it shall be cond u cte d i n a c c o rd a n c e wi th th e re q u i re m e n ts o f WC-6100 and this Article. WC-6 312
Test M ed i u m an d Test Tem peratu re
(a) T h e ga s u s e d a s th e te s t m e d i u m s h a l l b e nonflammable. (b) Testing temperature shall be in accordance with WC-6212(b).
H YDROSTATI C TEST PRESSU RE REQU I REM EN TS
WC-62 21
WC-6 313
M i n i m u m H yd rostati c Test Pressu re
The pressure in the system shall gradually be increased to not more than one ‐ half of the test pressure, after which the pressure shall be increased in steps of approximately one ‐ tenth of the test pressure until the required test pressure has been reached.
The containment shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than 1.25 times Design Pressure. WC-62 22
M axi m u m Perm i ssi ble Test Pressu re
The stress limits specified in WC-3218 shall be used in determining the maximum permissible test pressure. In multichamber containments, pressure may be simultaneously applied to the appropriate adjacent chamber to satisfy these stress limits. WC-62 23
Proced u re for Applyi n g Pressu re
WC-6 320
PN EU M ATI C TEST PRESSU RE REQU I REM EN TS
WC-6 321
M i n i m u m Req u i red Pn eu m ati c Test Pressu re
The containment shall be pneumatically tested at not less than 1.25 times Design Pressure.
H yd rostati c Test Pressu re H old i n g Ti m e
The hydrostatic test pressure shall be maintained a minimum of 10 minutes prior to initiation of the examination for leakage required by WC-6224.
WC-6 322
M axi m u m Perm i ssi ble Test Pressu re
The maximum test pressure shall be limited as defined in WC-6222. 209
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WC- 632 3
Test Pressu re H old i n g Ti m e
WC- 662 0
The test pressure of WC-6321 shall be maintained for a minimum total time of 10 minutes.
PRESSU RE TESTI N G O F COM BI N ATI ON U N I TS
WC- 662 1
Pressu re Ch am bers Desi g n ed to Operate I n d epen d en tly
WC- 6324
Exam i n ati on for Leakag e After
Pressure chambers of combination units that have been designed to operate independently shall be tested as separate containments; that is, each chamber shall be tested without pressure in the adjacent chamber.
Appli cati on of Pressu re
Following the application of pressure for the time specified in WC-6323, the test pressure shall be reduced to a value equal to the greater of the Design Pressure or three ‐ fourths of the test pressure and held for a sufficient time to permit examination as defined in accordance with WC-6224. WC-6400
WC- 662 2
M axi m u m Di fferen ti al Pressu re
(a) When chambers of combination units have their common elements designed for the maximum differential pressure and the differential pressure is less than the higher of the Design Pressure of the adjacent chambers, the common elements shall be subjected to a test pressure of at least 1 1/4 times the maximum differential pressure. (b) Following the test of the common elements, as required by (a) above and their inspection, the adjacent chambers shall be tested. Care must be taken to limit the differential pressure between the chambers to the pressure used when testing the common elements.
TEST G AG ES
WC- 6410 WC- 6411
Types of G ag es to Be U sed an d Th ei r Locati on
Test gages used in testing shall be indicating pressure gages and shall be connected directly to the item being tested. If the indicating gage is not readily visible to the operator controlling the test, an additional indicating gage shall be provided where it will be visible to the operator for the duration of the test. WC- 6412
Ran g e of I n d i cati n g G ag es
(a) Analog type indicating gages used in testing shall be graduated over a range not less than 1 1/2 times nor more than 4 times the test pressure. (b) Digital type gages may be used without range restriction provided the combined error due to calibration and readability does not exceed 1% of the test pressure. WC- 6413
WC-6700 WC- 6710
Cali brati on of Pressu re Test G ag es
SPECI AL TEST PRESSU RE SI TU ATI ON S
WC- 6610
LEAK TESTI N G H ELI U M LEAK TESTI N G
(a) Helium leak testing of containment welds, other than closure welds of WC-3262, may be substituted for pressure testing if the primary membrane stress due to a hydrostatic (WC-6200) or pneumatic (WC-6300) test does not exceed the smaller of the one-third of the minimum specified minimum yield strength or one-fifth of the minimum specified tensile strength of the containment material and when specified in the Design Specification. (b) Helium leak testing shall be conducted in accordance with Section V, Article 10, and ANSI N14.5, Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment. 16 Personnel performing leak testing shall be qualified in accordance with Article WC-5000. (c) The allowable volumetric leakage rate shall be defined in the Design Specification. An acceptable method to determine the maximum, permissible volumetric leakage rate can be found in ANSI N14.5. (d) If a single leak-rate test is conducted, the conversion methods in ANSI N14.5 shall be used to determine if the leakage rates specified in the Design Specification have been met.
All test gages shall be calibrated against a standard dead weight tester or a calibrated master gage. The test gages shall be calibrated before each test or series of tests. A series of tests is that group of tests using the same pressure test gage or gages which is conducted at the same site within a period not exceeding 2 weeks. WC-6600
Com m on Elem en ts Desi g n ed for a
CON TAI N M EN TS DESI G N ED FO R EXTERN AL PRESSU RE
Containments designed for external pressure only shall be subjected to an internal test pressure at 1.25 times the Design External Pressure. The pressure shall be under proper control so that the required test pressure is never exceeded by more than 6%.
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WC-672 0
(c) The allowable volumetric leakage rate shall be defined in the Design Specification. An acceptable method to determine the maximum, permissible volumetric leakage rate can be found in ANSI N14.5. (d) If a single leak-rate test is conducted, the conversion methods in ANSI N14.5 shall be used to determine if the leakage rates specified in the Design Specification have been met.
CON TAI N M EN T CLO SU RES
(a) Closure welds identified in the Design Specification as meeting the requirements of WC-3262, and mechanical closures and seals shall be helium leak tested. (b) Helium leak testing shall be conducted in accordance with Section V, Article 10, and ANSI N14.5. Personnel performing helium leak-rate testing shall be qualified in accordance with Article WC-5000.
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ARTI CLE WC-8000 N AM EPLATES, STAM PI N G WI TH CERTI FI CATI ON M ARK, AN D REPORTS
WC-8100
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS
The requirements for nameplates, stamping with the Certification Mark, and reports are contained in Article WA-8000.
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SU BSECTI ON WD CLASS I SS I N TERN AL SU PPORT STRU CTU RES
ARTI CLE WD-1000 I N TRODU CTI ON
WD-1100
WD-112 0
SCOPE AN D G EN ERAL
I N TERN AL SU PPORT STRU CTU RES
REQU I REM EN TS WD-1110
LI M I TS O F RU LES FOR CLASS I SS
(a) Subsection WD does not contain rules to cover all details of construction of internal support structures. Where complete details are not provided in this Subsection, it is intended that the N3 Certificate Holder, subject to review by the Inspector (Article WA-5000), shall provide the details of construction that will be consistent with the rules provided in this Subsection. (b) Items that facilitate containment operations (e.g., vent and drain tubes, neutron moderator materials, and shielding) are not included as part of the internal support structure unless they are relied on to supplement the structural integrity of the internal support structure.
SCOPE
(a) Subsection WD contains rules for the material, design, fabrication, examination, marking, stamping, and preparation of reports by the Certificate Holder for Class ISS internal support structures for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive material. These internal support structures 22 are for use in transportation (Class TC) or storage (Class SC) containments. (b) The rules of Subsection WD cover the requirements for strength integrity of items, the failure or excessive deformation of which would cause loss of geometric configu ra ti o n o f th e co n tai n m e n t co n te n ts . G e o m e tri c configuration is defined as maintaining geometry of the contents as required by the Design Specification to maintain the relative physical location of the contents (e.g., criticality control and/or damage from physical contact). Acceptable deformations shall be defined by the Design Specification. Deformations may be demonstrated to be acceptable by the use of analytical methods or testing. The rules address load stresses but do not address deterioration that may occur in service as a result of corrosion, erosion, radiation effects, or instability of internal support structure material. These shall be addressed in the Design Specification by requiring appropriate prevention or mitigation measures to be included in the design (WA-1130). (c) Th e rul e s o f S u b s e cti o n WD do n o t addres s pressure-retaining or containment boundary components. (d) The rules of Subsection WD do not apply to internal structures of containment systems where geometric configuration is not required unless required by the Design Specification.
WD-113 0
BOU N DARI ES OF J U RI SDI CTI O N
WD-113 1
Bou n d ari es Between th e I n tern al Su pport Stru ctu re an d Con tai n m en t
The jurisdictional boundary between the internal support structure and containment shall be as defined in (a) through (d) below. (a) The jurisdictional boundary between an internal support structure and the containment shall be the inner surface of the containment. (b) The first connecting weld of an internal support structure to the containment shall be considered part of the containment unless the weld is more than 2 t from the boundary of the containment, where t is the nominal thickness of the containment material. (c) Beyond the first connecting weld to the containment, or beyond 2 t from the boundary of the containment, the attachment or other welds shall be considered part of the internal support structure, unless otherwise specified in the Design Specification. (d) Mechanical fasteners used to connect an internal support structure to the containment shall meet the requirements of the containment. The effects of holes into the containment material shall be addressed by the appropriate containment rules. 213
ð 17Þ
ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
Figure WD-1131-1 is provided as an aid in defining the b o undary and co ns tructi o n re qui re m en ts o f thi s Subsection. WD-1132
WD- 1132. 1
Attach m en ts.
(a) An attachment is
an element in contact with or connected to the inside or outside surface of the internal support structure. (b) Attachments may have either a structural or nonstructural function. (1 ) Attachments with a structural function (structural attachments) (-a) perform a geometry control function (-b) are in the internal support structure load path (-c) may be permanent or temporary (2) Nonstructural attachments include items such as nameplates, insulation supports, drain tubes, locating lugs, and lifting lugs that are not in the structural load path during operations involving spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive material.
Bou n d ari es Between th e I n tern al Su pport Stru ctu re an d N on stru ctu ral I tem s
The jurisdictional boundary between the internal support structure and nonstructural items (e.g., criticality poisons, vent and drain piping) shall be as defined in (a) and (b) below. (a) Welds used to connect a nonstructural item to the internal support structure shall be considered part of the internal support structure. (b) Mechanical fasteners used to connect a nonstructural item to the internal support structure shall be considered part of the internal support structure.
Fi g u re WD- 1131-1 J u ri sd i cti on al Bou n d ary Between th e I n tern al Su pport Stru ctu re an d th e Con tai n m en t
2 1
5
2t 86 6
5
4 8
6
7
86 9
1
Jurisdictional boundary (heavy line).
2
Containment shall conform to Subsection WB or WC requirements as appropriate.
3
Boundary of the containment.
4
Weld buildup shall conform to Subsection WB or WC requirements as appropriate.
5
At or within 2 t from the boundary of the containment, the first connecting weld shall conform to Subsection WB or WC requirements as appropriate.
6
Beyond 2 t from the boundary of the containment or beyond the first connecting weld, the attachment or weld shall conform to Subsection WD requirements.
7
Attachment connection shall conform to Subsection WD requirements.
8
At or within 2 t from the boundary of the containment, the interaction effects of the attachment shall conform to Subsection WB or WC requirements as appropriate.
9
Drilled or threaded holes through the boundary of the containment and into the containment shall conform to Subsection WB or WC requirements as appropriate.
3
6
GENERAL NOTES: (a) The sketch is intended to show jurisdictional concepts and should not be considered as recommended configurations. (b) If the attachment is an internal structure [WD-1110(d)], material, design, and connections, as appropriate, are outside Code jurisdiction except when the N3 Certificate Holder stipulates in the Design Specification that it shall conform to Subsection WD.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
ARTI CLE WD- 2000 M ATERI AL
WD-2 100
comply with the applicable requirements of this Article. The requirements of this Article do not apply to materials used as backing rings or backing strips in welded joints.
G EN ERAL REQU I REM EN TS FOR M ATERI AL
WD-2 110
SCOPE OF PRI N CI PAL TERM S EM PLOYED
WD-2 12 2
The term material as used in this Subsection is defined in NCA-1220. The term Material Organization is defined in Article NCA-9000. (b) The requirements of this Article make reference to the term thickness. For the purpose intended, the following definitions of nominal thickness apply: (1 ) plate: the thickness is the dimension of the short transverse direction (2) forgings: the thickness is the dimension defined as follows: (-a) hollow forgings: the nominal thickness is measured between the inside and outside surfaces (radial thickness) (-b) disk forgings (axial length less than the outside diameter): the nominal thickness is the axial length (-c) flat ring forgings (axial length less than the radial thickness): for axial length ≤ 2 in. (50 mm), the axial length is the nominal thickness; for axial length >2 in. (50 mm), the radial thickness is the nominal thickness (-d) rectangular solid forgings: the least rectangular dimension is the nominal thickness WD-2 12 0
Special requirements stipulated in this Article shall apply in lieu of the requirements of the material specification wherever the special requirements conflict with the material specification requirements (NCA-4256). Where the special requirements include an examination, test, o r treatment that is also required by the material specification, the examination, test, or treatment need be performed only once. Required nondestructive examinations shall be performed as specified for each product form in WD-2500. Any examination, repair, test, or treatment required by the material specification or this Article may be performed by the Material Organization or the Certificate Holder as provided in WD-4121.1. Any hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure test required by a material specification need not be performed. (a) The stress rupture test of SA-453 and SA-638 for Grade 660 (UNS S66286) is not required for design temperatures of 800°F (427°C) and below. WD-2 124
Si ze Ran g es
Material outside the limits of size, weight, or thickness given in any specification in Section II may be used if the material is in compliance with the other requirements of the specification and no size limitation is given in the rules for construction. In those specifications in which chemical composition, mechanical properties, or both are indicated to vary with size or thickness, any material outside the specification range shall be required to conform to the composition and mechanical properties shown for the nearest specified range (NCA-4256).
M ATERI AL FOR I N TERN AL SU PPORT STRU CTU RES
WD-2 12 1
Speci al Req u i rem en ts Con fli cti n g Wi th Perm i tted M ateri al Speci fi cati on s
(a)
Perm i tted M ateri al Speci fi cati on s
(a) Internal support structural material, and material welded thereto, and bolting materials, with the exception of welding material (WD-2400), hard surfacing material (Section IX, QW-251.4), or cladding, which is 10% or less of the thickness of the base material (WD-3122), shall conform to the requirements of the specifications for material given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Tables 2A and 2B, including all applicable notes in the table, and to all of the special requirements of this Article that apply to the product form in which the material is used. (b) The Certificate Holder shall certify that the material used for the internal support structures shall not adversely affect the integrity of the applicable containment. (c) Welding material used in manufacture of items shall comply with an SFA Specification in Section II, Part C, except as otherwise permitted in Section IX, and shall also
WD-2 128
Bolti n g M ateri al
(a) Material for bolts and studs shall conform to the requirements of one of the specifications listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. Material for nuts shall conform to SA-194 or to the requirements of one of the specifications for nuts or bolting listed in Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 4. (b) The use of washers is optional. When used, they shall be made of wrought material with mechanical properties compatible with the nuts with which they are to be employed.
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ASME BPVC.III.3-2017
WD-2 13 0
or by calibrated pyrometric instruments. Heat treating shall be performed under furnace loading conditions such that the heat treatment is in accordance with the material specification and the rules of this Subsection.
CERTI FI CATI ON OF M ATERI AL
All material used in the construction or installation of internal support structures shall be certified as required in NCA-3862 and NCA-3861. Certified Material Test Reports are required for internal support material except as provided by NCA-3861. A Certificate of Compliance may be provided in lieu of Certified Material Test Reports for all other material. Copies of all Certified Material Test Reports and Certificates of Compliance applicable to material used in an internal support structure shall be furnished with the material. WD-2 140
WD-2 19 0
Material used for temporary attachments need not comply with Article WD-2000 and may be welded to the internal support structure provided the requirements of WD-4430 are met.
WELDI N G M ATERI AL
For the requirements governing the material to be used for welding, see WD-2400. WD-2 150
WD-22 00
SPECI M EN S FOR FERRI TI C STEEL
M ATERI AL I DEN TI FI CATI ON WD-2 2 10 WD-2 2 11
Test Cou pon H eat Treatm en t for
Where ferritic steel material is subjected to heat treatment during construction, the material used for the tensile and impact test specimens shall be heat treated in the same manner as the internal support structures, except that test coupons and specimens for P-No. 1 Groups Nos. 1 and 2 material with a nominal thickness of 2 in. (50 mm) or less are not required to be so heat treated. The Certificate Holder shall provide the Material Organization with the temperature and heating and cooling rates to be used. In the case of postweld heat treatment, the total time at temperature or temperatures for the test material shall be at least 80% of the total time at temperature or temperatures during actual postweld heat treatment of the material and the total time at temperature or temperatures for the test material, coupon, or specimen may be performed in a single cycle. Any postweld heat treatment time, which is anticipated to be applied to the material or item after it is completed, shall be specified in the Design Specification. The Certificate Holder shall include this time in the total time at temperature specified to be applied to the test specimens.
DETERI ORATI ON O F M ATERI AL I N
Consideration of deterioration of material caused by service is generally outside the scope of this Subsection. It is the responsibility of the Owner to select material suitable for the conditions stated in the Design Specifications (WA-3351), with specific attention being given to the effects of service conditions upon the properties of the material. H EAT TREATM EN T TO EN H AN CE I M PACT PROPERTI ES
Carbon steels, low alloy steels, and high alloy chromium (Series 4XX) steels may be heat treated by quenching and tempering to enhance their impact properties. Postweld heat treatment of the component at a temperature of not less than 1,100°F (595°C) may be considered to be the tempering phase of the heat treatment. WD-2 180
H EAT TREATM EN T REQU I REM EN TS
Ferri ti c M ateri al
SERVI CE
WD-2 170
M ATERI AL TEST COU PON S AN D
M ATERI AL
The identification